Introduction to Sustainable Fashion and Sewing - Module 2 - Seams and Hems | Eva Dragoeva | Skillshare

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Introduction to Sustainable Fashion and Sewing - Module 2 - Seams and Hems

teacher avatar Eva Dragoeva, Fashion Designer

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      What is a seam?


    • 3.

      What is a seam allowance and how to add it to a pattern?


    • 4.

      How to position our fabric before sewing seams?


    • 5.

      Lets stitch a seam!


    • 6.

      Plain seam - next steps


    • 7.

      Overlocked seam variations


    • 8.

      Pinked seams


    • 9.

      Folded and stitched seam


    • 10.

      Topstitched seams


    • 11.

      Flat fell seam


    • 12.

      French seam


    • 13.

      Bias bound seam


    • 14.

      What is a hem?


    • 15.

      What is a hem allowance?


    • 16.

      Overlocked hem


    • 17.

      Turned and stitched hem


    • 18.

      Taped hem


    • 19.

      Final thoughts and homework


    • 20.

      Module 2 Bonus - curved seams


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About This Class

This is Module 2 of my beginner fashion and sewing course for sustainable fashion enthusiasts. In this module we are taking a deep dive into seam and hem construction. This includes a variety of plain seams and how to finish them as well as a few sturdier and more fancy seam variations.

We will be also looking at hem finishes. This is a module packed with information and practical tips and creating samples is very much encouraged. To help you with this - you can download a printable template for sample making although you can use rectangular pieces of fabric instead. You can also download my  evaluation sheets for seam and hem sample making and reflection, so you can build on the skills you have learnt so far.

Meet Your Teacher

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Eva Dragoeva

Fashion Designer

Level: Beginner

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1. Introduction: Hey, welcome to week two, module two. Seats. This week we're really delving into it and we're going to start creating hands-on samples. And it's going to be a lot of work this week where you're going to learn a lot too. I will show you different kinds of seams enhance and you will learn how to finish things. It side the government. Why this is important to apply depending on welcome and you're working with, why is this strong same, what is the weak C? And we'll start looking at our own clothes and seeing what we can find in sight. Without further ado, let's delve into it. 2. What is a seam?: So what is the same? Esteem is the section where two pieces of fabric as stitch together, we actually go and look for young clubs. You will find that insight. They might look different way. You've got seams. You might have different kinds of decorative effects on the inside usually, but sometimes on the outside to talk about this interface major template and look like a little tune eight because it's really good to visualize. We'll be doing. But you're welcome to use just rectangular pieces they going to be working with. In order to do so if you don't have a printer, it's completely up to you. So go ahead and cut out the pieces. 3. What is a seam allowance and how to add it to a pattern?: The first thing we need to do is add something called seam allowance. Seam allowance is an extra that we add to the piece, gum and fees in order to stitch it to another piece. Let's take the template that you have just cuts out. You have got a piece for the right side, on the left side, EPUB to stitch these pieces just as you will find the UI taking fabric they shouldn't be taking. And then the bit on the top where the neck line is or will become smaller. Because we are taking fabric that should actually be part of the government, not part two the same. In order to avoid that, you need to add extra on both pieces. Away you stage, you actually stage of what is now the edge of the pattern. Then nothing gets taken in extra. And you've got enough to work with. Depending on how much you add. Seam allowance is an extension which can be 1.51 centimeters, sometimes even just half centimeter. What I'd advise that you do for most of the scenes that we are working with today is to use 1.5 sent to me to seem allowance. The reason being is because you'll have more to work with. You can use assigned to me to eat. I'm just giving you this as a guideline because we're working with straight lines today. Bigger seam allowances, fine. But later MME start working with the smallest seam allowance, the better. You also need to get into the habit of adding grain lines because they will show you how you're supposed to cut your pattern pieces. Because stitching. 4. How to position our fabric before sewing seams?: First we're going to work with a plain see. A play scene is a scene that you could see it most of your clothes perhaps. And I'll show you the different kinds of crazy there are to start with. Once we have added a seam allowance, we can then cut out pieces out in public including the seam allowance. Then place the pieces of right sides together where they is from your template or just two rectangular pieces. It's completely up to you and then you want to base it on machine working plate. Now, you can use, if you want to, if you're a complete beginner than Pence would be very helpful to you. I don't use pens are ways when it's small sections of it because I'm able to navigate the machine correctly. But please do use pens API filled with things too slippery because you could take the pins out as he go. Now what you want to do is have a look at the plate of the machine. So on the right of the needle, inevitably, you will see that you get a little markings on the actual page. They have got numbers with them. So it's very likely depending on where in the world. But if you're saying UK, it's likely that the nonbasic 101520, etc. So that is the number of millimeters that the line with the number next to it is away from the needle. So if it says ten and then it means that it's ten millimeters away from the needle or one centimeter. Basically, if it says 15, that's 15 millimeters away from the Naval Hospital me to skip, you are watching from somewhere else and then you may be working in inches. But the same rule applies. The markedly have the line they had with a number that corresponds to it is the distance between the needle and the actual market. You want to do is to place your pieces they have pinned onto the plate where the original edge of the pattern, which is where will be stitching is it went to utilise. And you may have not my office, but if you have added 1.5 centimeters seam allowance, then the edge of your pieces will line up with the line that says 15. Or if your machine has marked that in millimeters and if you have used a centimeter, then you want to line up the edge of your pieces with the line that has ten on it for ten millimeters. And then you will have the actual stitching line. Weight should be right underneath the needle. 5. Lets stitch a seam!: And lift, go ahead and stitch. Our first save. What you want to do at the beginning is to use a reverse but backstage for a couple of stitches, if you know. What kind of a length of stitch to use, I advise a medium between 2.553 on your machine. It will be usually between 05 certain mediums between that I use around three depending on what you want to do after you have gone backwards. Within the burst stitch is let go. A good home your pieces and keeps stitching forward. Just a normal stitch and take your pins out as you go. If you have got pins at the end of the stitch, you want to also backstitch again a couple of stitches. Now the reason we do this is because if we don't use the backwards stitches in the beginning and at the end. If we don't reverse stitch, what happens is that you can very easily unraveled. We see me have just stitch together because there's nothing to hold it. The backstitch holds things together and place. So it's very, very important. What you want to do after you finish is to just trim your thread at the beginning and the end of stitch. The next thing that we're going to do, which is one of the most important things they want to do, is to go to your iron and gold, place your pieces with the wrong side up the most. The right side is the side you could see on the wrong side is your request just to clarify and press the seam open. You can do that with your fingers but, and then use the AI and, and just give a little prayer. So don't earn about, just press more creative and use your steam and maybe give it a little on-off done. And then what you find is that you have really nice crisp finish on the right side, on the inside as well. 6. Plain seam - next steps: Now we have a really professional and looking, placing on the right side, but on the wrong side. Seam allowances not looking so good, they need to replenish. And depending on the finished website, you will have different kinds of seams. And I will show you now what kind of plain seams there are and how you can go about finishing those voyages. 7. Overlocked seam variations: Something that you can do is if you have an OEM of outcome, you could simply overlook each individual seam allowance and then press flat again. And that's basically you're seeing turn. When you're blocking, you want to have everything that you don't want overlooked. The left of the overlap occur whilst the way they are overlapping should be on the right, everything right. Of the needle. Please. Don't make that mistake to have things they don't want to open up in cutoff. On the right. Now, you could have two different variations of the same using an oval locker dies a double overload seeing which is more just done. But you could also have a single overload scene, which is where you pinch the two allowances together and you just overlook them together. So the Tuesday, one of them is the right of the angel and the rest of the material is on the left. And then they get all locked together. You then press them to one side. Then that's a single overlapped, the same. If you look at your governments home, you will find that most of them will probably have either single or double overlooked finish. This is because overlooked finishes a very cheap and very fast way of producing clothes. This is why I love retail. Use it, but it's not the strongest. I'd be wary of using this too much. It's also not great, seem to have for close them made from fabrics that friend locked. So that's something to bear in mind. When you finish all blocked scene, whether it's single or double booked. See, what do you want to do is to do something about the tail. You'll find that you've got tails of all the locking on either side. Now you could just snip those off if those two sides of the CMA going into Anansi, for example, if you have staged a side same down and you know that the top on the side CME is going to be stitch just sleep. Then the bottom is going to finish it in my hand. So stitch down, then you can cut off the tails because the ad the same low will secure them native. Something else we might refer to do is to keep things strong and durable. If you grab a needle with a big eye, then you could guide each tail through that, the needle on the underside of the overlapping along the seam allowance. And then you can trim DX says a couple of centimeters then even if it's just a sad to me to me. Because in a way that's a bit like doing a back stitch on, going back from yourself and doing things in place. Nothing more unravel whilst if you just cut things and creating samples and we just have things, nothing will get cured. Then what will happen is over time, things my unraveled is overlapping is not very strong. Kind of just something to bear in mind. 8. Pinked seams: Now there is a chance that you might not have an overlooked. Most people don't actually own and overlook. What you might want to consider is an options. Something that you can do if you have thinking shares those things that edge is that dress may confuse. Usually, just trim the excess frame bit of the seam allowance for the theme without him get kind of steel denied the exact button. It's not ideal for materials. They're afraid too much, which can be helpful for most materials. This is a very much a dressmakers worth finishing days. It's not the most high-end wage finish things. And again, it's not particularly strong wedge finish things. It's a quick fix. And if you have these shares may be helpful to you to use on some materials. But again, I suggest, see what are the options that you have and see what your project is about as file In this guy actually be helpful if you're washing something by two log for example, each want a much more stronger finish. If you are making out to wear jackets, coats, trousers as well. Something that's gonna have a law where particular places you want to go for a image that is strong. 9. Folded and stitched seam: If you don't have the tools for the seams we have covered. You can also consider another one which is by folding the seam allowance part that is Raul under, tucking it under towards the actual same on both sides and pressing. Then you could secure that by stitching that folded edge down on both sides. So this is a good option if you don't have an OEM loca, if you don't have panicking as exact shears. And it is also strong because even if you have a material that phrase a lot, the stitching they have on phones, it's going to make sure that that bit that is quite frankly not going to unraveled. So that's why it's quite good. 10. Topstitched seams: We have covered the plain seams and we're going to go for yet another variation of those. And that is top stitch narration. So what is the next stage is the detail of decorative stitching that's visible on the outside of the gum. And sometimes they can be used just as bad, but sometimes they can also have a function. A function can be keeping the seam allowance stitch to the rest of the material. Let's take for example, one of the scenes we have created, whether you have chosen to go for an overlooked pink to finish or folded and stitched manage we could do is actually in the seam allowances to the government and then stitch down on either side equal amounts from GE actual seat. You get that depending on what plain seam you've gone for, you could pin the seam allowances on either side of the seam line and then stitch I the side, catching them equal amounts away from the actual scene. If you are using the phone dude and stitched method with a plain seam, instead of stitching and down in the bonds, you can just tuck and fold the raw edge of the seam allowance and then pin this seam allowance to the rest of the government and then use the top stitching itself to keep things in place and secure that ROI age, trapping it in between the seam allowance and the rest of the gums with that top stitch stitch seems couldn't be double stitch or they could be single-stage. So if you have created a double pane same, you can use this method. Or if you have created a single plain seam, for example, single overlook scene, I'll single folded and stitched. Then we could do is a stitch down that one side. So you'd only have top stitching visible on one side on late, this could be decorative. For example, if you have a single top stitch seam on the shoulders, then you could tab the top stitching either of the front on the back and you'll be the same on the right and the left side of the government. But it will be a nice detail. So something to bear in mind. As you can see, they already different ways to work with just a plain seam because there's so many options. But what if we go from the Mach bands he sees. 11. Flat fell seam: We have covered played saying, but how about seems a little bit more interesting and I told bit more fancy and more hij to. I've got three fantasy themes for you. And they are used more rarely because they take little bit longer to create. But the finishes bed is stronger and weaker, close last longer without further ado. Let's delve into it. The first one we're going to explore as the flat panel C Flash Fill scene is a very strong siem and also decorative. Could find it in classic genes, usually node inside leg. Modern genes from cheap high street shops are not really always using this kind of same. They're a bit quicker and cheaper, remained not as strong, but this scene is guaranteed to make it worse. Not on this turned out, but also to last time we need to do is again cut out your template with 1.5 said to seam allowance. And ideally, this time when we are painting two pieces together, imagine that we want to stitch them wrong sides together. For the plate scene where we're stitching things are right sides together. This time I'm going to be stitching things alongside together. This makes no sense. I'm sure too a lot of you but bear with me. There isn't a reason why we're doing this. We're going to do exactly the same thing that we did before on the phone sites together where we secure ring that beginning stage and we end at the stage with a reverse stitch in-between, just stitching as normal with a medium and they stitch the two inch and a half centimeters. Once we've done this, again, we're going to go to the iron and press things open. And this time it will come bit strange because the seam allowances will be on the outside. But then the next thing that you do is where it gets exciting. You're going to take your fabric scissors and you going to choose one of the seam allowances to cut off, to trim, trim into a few millimeters. Now, depending on what you choose, the same ODE be either left or right. Black failed in terms of sample that doesn't really match. But when it comes to clubs, and if you use this same for decorative purposes, for example, on either side of a tall, then you need to make sure that one of them, the ride seam allowances sprint and from the other, the left seam allowances. For now, I want to trim on one of our seam allowances to approximately three millimeters, then fall to the seam allowance that had not been trained on it and press it down with the eye. Then what you want to do is check the raw edge under like we did earlier with the term does ditch thing. You just hold and tuck and then press the iron. Then you will see that it's now starting to look a very neat on the right side. You can use pins or what is a good thing to use is some threat to temporarily tech things in phase because things a lot this same dealt required before precisions. I do advise you if you can spend it, if you have the time to spare, to actually do the attacking because it's always the long run going to save me more time. And the reason why I'm saying that is because if you do the same where you use pens and things slip a bit, then it won't look that good. If it doesn't look that good, you need to do the same again and then again and again. Each attack him. Nice, There's a better chance that things would work out better. Time round you still I need to do a couple of times, but I think overall, you need to do it less times to achieve a better finish UP, do the tapping. So that's up to you, but I chose to attack it. Then what you want to do is go back to your side machine and then you want to place it so the needle is about a millimeter or less? Yes, that's correct. A millimeter or so away from the fault gauge. That's why it's slightly more by Linda. I know you can do it. They came back stitch at the beginning and then if you wanted to be more pretty, you want to use along the stitch because longer stitch on the right side always looks virtuous and could use on four centimeters. However, that means that it will go faster as well Because notice it acquired quicker movement as the machine jumps forward. So what advises if you don't feel too confident creating this in the first place, start with the shortest stage and then build in future towards longer stitch. When creating this composting. Three millimeters is perfectly fine. You could do witness if you want to read the face what your level is. In Europe, we use our machine. Once we have stitched down the folded edge all the way and backstage at the end, I want to trim all sides. Final press. And you will see that same sort of folded to one side, which is what I meant when I said it is very decorative. It looks really nice. And because we've got all the stitching or stitching in the beginning and then we secured it with not stitch, it is stronger finish. And if you were using it for fabrics, that prior knowledge, then you'll find that Craig is encased into that boat. Thanks should stay in place for a long time. So it's very good to independence. It's also a good thing to use if you're using thicker materials such as Dana him. And that's one of the reasons why these calls. Once you trim one of the allowances, you eliminate in bulk. And eliminating bulk when it comes to materials is a really good thing. So that's one of the reasons why you might want to use this kind of look at your loans and see where else you could find the same. Is it on your genes already? Kind of juicy? Have them reading plan to depend whether that seems down, but how to look. It would also be on some spores jackets as well. Good luck. 12. French seam: The next thing is a French theme. A French seam can be very best towel seen. It is normally used on lightweight materials. Formal dress is made from Shem, Cheerios and very loudly. And the French seam is a very neat see on the inside, but also is very strong. So I use it for Law of other things, actually personally, but as a guideline, it is best inserted or lightweight. And Joe's going to work with our 1.5 send to me to seem on them. There's the twist step where you want to do is to start with, again, place your pieces. Whether you're using the template or whether you are using just rectangle pieces, raise them to get them wrong sides together again, so very similar to the flat falsey. You want to praise them together from all sides. And the men place and then go to your sewing machine. And instead of stitching at a 1.5 centimeters, you're only going to stitch once. Even though we have got 1.5 sent to me to seem allowance was going to stand by stitching up in one sentence. This will make sense. If you can go and do that. And again, use reverse stitch, the beginning of the interview stage and use the median stitch between Jim and to meet stitches. Once you have done that again, go to the eye and prints things out. But I think you could probably see at this point a trend forming with the pressing things open a lot. The reality is that that's what makes things look really professional and prints a nice even though we don't want to all the I in fibers because they can move and stretch. Pressing when you create a seam is very, very important. So always nice uses steam. So now that we have Press things again, what's happening is that we have got our seam allowances on the outside. So again, it makes no sense. This time, what we're going to do is instead of trimming want schema nouns, we're going to trim both. And we're going to trim up to three millimeters. So going into that, when you have trim bugs, seam allowances to three millimeters, you can then follow the rest of the material. It's now right sides together. You shouldn't have any pockets being created by the first seem that you've made. You should be nice and flat because he prays to open first-time round. And now they followed in one side over the other, right sides together. That edge. The you're just creating nap should be nice and flat, pressing down with the eye and in place. Now what we want to do is stitch five millimeters from that old today edge. You want to use your adverse to, to the beginning and the end of the government or the normal stage in between. In fact, for this, you want to probably even go smaller. So 2.5 to three sent to me to stitches as good. The material, the smaller the stitches. So it's a good idea to get used to doing that branch season, mostly used on in a materials. Once you have stayed the same, you will end up with a really neat bid on inside. And the right side should go just like a regular same. You want to go to Deanne again and press the C from the inside, press it down so it's nice and flat. And you will find its needs and inside, on the outside, it's also very strong. So you using fabric will trace a lot. The same is very good encasing all the beds now praying inside because we've got two lines, two chain securing. 13. Bias bound seam: All right, Final Fantasy saying that we're going to explore today is the lies about what you want to have for this one is bias tape, which you can buy from any haberdashery. And it's a very cheap, but it's probably about something like 30 P per meter. And you only need a little bit. You don't need a whole meter either. You just need to twice the length of the scene that you'd be create stitch, I'll play C. So as we did in the beginning, right sides together, stitch it and press it open. So now we have a plain seam like we did in the beginning. But this time we're going to do is we're going to apply somehow more advanced technique. If you've cut to pieces by state the length of the scene, it doesn't actually matter how wide your teeth. It's just one of those things that comes in all sorts of widths and colors and sometimes even patterns. It's really pretty used on the inside of things like lasers and jackets, trousers To line, to use the bucket bytes. It's just very versatile thing because it's coach on the bus and you can remember from last week, things catch on the bus. Stretchy or he can be used on curved seams as well. So you can bear that in mind for one of the next weeks, but for this week, but this week we're going to use it just, just to learn how to create our bodies, the bound state. And we're going to do is after you've recorded the two pieces of bias binding, you going to take one piece and you go to one of the pages. You comes with two edges pulled it normally, you're just going to involve water ages and you're going to line up that unfolded age would exhibit one, your allowances. Then you go and just tap painting before this kind of scene, when I apply a bias binding, I like to pinch going to words the same like I have shown here. And what I do is that I take the pins out as I go. What we're going to do after we've painted all the way down. So we're just working with one side by an hour. You're going to go to machine and then you go into the crease of the fold from the bias by day right underneath the needle. And this is where you will be stitching on that ditch that you have on hold. You go into secure at the beginning, at the end as usual, just use a medium stitch. Once things and stitched in place, you can go back to your iron. And then what you want to do is fold the rest of the binding over the bit they just stitched. From there. You want to then took the remainder of the bias binding under seam allowance, you encasing the row agent the seam allowance using a bias binding. Now the two different ways that you could do is depending on how wide your bias binding you can either keep it unfolded, just fold it, encasing the seam allowances on row age. Then press or you could unfold the remainder first and then took the whole thing and you'll have actually more to work with underneath. Then on the top, both ways are fine because as we mentioned last week, when you work and when you cut, It's only advise there is no praying that it's not like as usual, the binding is now going to just unravel and pray so I wouldn't worry about that. That's your way. You could do either of those things. I will show you what it looks like with item. And what you're going to do is then I pin or tacking, going to go to the machine and you go into stage approximately a millimeter away from the edge of the bias binding on top, just like I have shown here. This will catch the bottom of the bias binding underneath the seam allowance. So if you have unfolded that age, then you will have more to work with. You definitely catch it with you haven't imposed in my ability to be more friendly because you'll have less to work with underneath mine, a bit more failure to catch it. So if you just starting with survey, I suggest the palms, the whole thing. Do that version because it will be easier for you to do that if you're feeling more advanced or in-between, perhaps you want to explore that. They use a longest stage when you're stitching, it brings down. So machine Googlebot faster and keep it as straight line. You could even have the underneath part of the bias binding. Phone did still. So you could aim to make sure you catch him either way. Interior denies him to all the oranges in case. So EPR work in wet material which phrasing? It's a really good finished to use yada thing. It's not if you lie using this or closely you created your eyes too. I will be very beautiful engine inside, especially if you choose binding that is contrasting. Binding, that is perhaps printing and property pattern. So I've just covered that really compliments the rest talk with that. It's completely up to you, but it's fun to work with binding. Once you get past the objects, I understand that you wouldn't need to do this a few times. It's one of those things that could give but frustrating if it doesn't work a couple of times, but don't be discouraged because it does take practice and that's something you have committed to learn. And it's good to know these things because once you know this things, it can recognize how your clothes are made. You can start and standing your clones better. And also you will know how to work with the seams if you know how they created, you know how to work with them. You know how to also undo. 14. What is a hem?: Now that we have covered some seams, I'm going to also show you a few hands and just joke my hands for the actual wet. Whereas the hand, the hand is the edge of the bottom of your government. And that's usually unfinished in different ways. I'm going to show you a few different ways finishing hands, but they had no way down at waste finish hands. Again, as your knowledge grows, you will learn more and more types and you can use the knowledge that you have gained today to build on if I've create your own finishes and nights, most exciting part. 15. What is a hem allowance?: We've had seam allowances that we added to our Comm uses to stitch seems to get them. Now if we add extra to a ham in order to finish it, for example, if we have a pattern piece for us, we'll have a hand and then we'll have some extra under the hand. The hammer loans, which we will rate it finish in a variety of ways. And make sure it's tucked up inside of the Galton's eugenic. That's our Hamiltonians. Now him allowance in terms of how big it is, how wide it is. Again, a varies just like seam allowance does. Different factors. I suggest using magenta want to choose send to me H's, go ham on LMS pre-op sound. You can cut a rectangular piece to work with the hands. You could also use the samples you've already created. Work on my hands if you like. 16. Overlocked hem: The first thing we're going to do now that we have got pieces cut is if he had gotten out blocker, you could create an overlooked him. And that is a very common kind of finish. You could see it on trousers these days, on some cuts, on some jackets, haven't blazers button outlined. What you want to do is simply finish the ROI age of the extension that you have added as a hammer balance using diol blocker, then going to your iron and then faulting alongside the actual headlines are well original Ham was it all of that extension will then be coded to the wrong side of our sample and pressed down. Now, what you want to do once you've done that is to go ahead and then stitch down. And it depends, It's completely up to waste too cheap though. This is why when decorative thing so you can stitch quite close to the hand itself if you have quite a bit pamela to work with, because stage further up, it's completely up to you. You may wish to use along the stitch because as we mentioned before, it's a bit like jobs, digital seams, where you want to have a longer stage if you want it to be prettier and more decorative. Could use perhaps formidable inches, depending on how confident. You don't. Just an idea. 17. Turned and stitched hem: We don't have enough locker. You can use a double folded and stitch tank. It's a type of Hamza you can find on your clothes. I'm sure a lot of good for us and that is very widely use tamp. It is a steady hand and it comes in different widths. Whatever amount of him allowance you have added to the existing him, go to the eye and folks over him allowance to the wrong side using the hand as a guideline as to which bones oppress black when I took the edge under it could even touch the actual him and press again. Then go to the machine and just stitch down again. It depends how far you want to stitch from the hand itself. We need to make sure that you catch the foam due to bid on the unsigned. Now, with this dish ham variations, if you are working with quite thin material, you want to do is to reflect on the amount of homologs, Example materials. You want small hammer allowance and you won't know because if you have a wider followed in mind, drag the government down. Suddenly the way if you are working with quite thick material, extra Hammer lungs is fine. But when you folding that age, when you tucking it in, we want to do is to only took you in a bit, not the whole thing. Most of the actual him phones beyond the two layers and then the tempt burgeon beyond the five millimeters in. That's where you've been stitching things down. It's important to think about Bokeh. It's important to think about the kinds of uteruses. This is recovered materials last week because in each town stranding or materials and composites. Well, in terms of materials and materials in terms of seems incompatible with the hands that allow hens can be used for all when you need to adjust according to what you work in. You are most probably working cotton, real samples. So I suggest you use a couple of centimeters ham allowance. And then when you taking into account one centimeter onstage down five millimeters or just omega? Not work quite well, just as a guideline. 18. Taped hem: Another thing you can do in terms of hands is to use tape to finish a hand. So-called take Tims. And you could see them on trousers, especially the bulk of trousers on men's trousers. Not exclusively. We want to do is just take tape and no, it doesn't have to be unbiased state unless it working woman. Normal tape is fine for straight lines to monitor CO2, the wet on the sample and your ham allowance. And then stitch the right sides together. Two edge that ham allowance. How do we do this? We'll place the tape, the agent, the tape with the edge of the hammer loans to the right side of the hammer cones. That was stitch a few millimeters then that might finish a week Peleus Magento time. While you do this, secure the beginning of June for the backs ditch us. We have been doing with seems again. And then go to the eye in that time you've seen you've just created already using seems. Press it flat and then there allowance alongside with them along the line of the guidelines I attribute with the other hands. Press. Now the T's acting as a natural extension. And it has also tidy The Voyage of the ham allowance which is now underneath. And all you need to do is to stitch down the tape to the rest of the gum. If you have used a lot of him allowance and then added tape, you're stitching will be really high up. If you've used a little bit pamela per centimeter in 122 of these, then you've added the link to that, then it won't be quite as high in each Rachel raised to June 13 to the government on to that prompt, the right side of the governments, make sure you outside and in time tried to prepare the inside as well. So these are the three types that I want you to show you done by one shape because they are useful, but they're also used quite a lot. And again, if you wanted to add anything to a hand or to shorten something and then use a hammer. You could use either one of these. It will be fine. 19. Final thoughts and homework: I just wanted to also mention quickly in terms of closely you already have 18 want to work in future when you're close to do some transformations. Knowing the seams that we have coverage today is important. Because we now know the structure of how things are put together. We know how to unpick things. You're unpicking is your friend when it comes to transformations. And if you look at your clubs, have a look, save what you, if you had a pile of clothes that you, you might want to work with to transform. Scenes happened, can see what kind of seems and actually have. John says add that most of these things will be all blocked and you can easily unpick seems that I adopt overlooked because I used to do it's just something. Ross this stitching in the beginning. The single, all the loved ones in a bit more tricky because you're blocking, even though it's easy to unravel once it's damaged. When it comes to unpicking, it's a little bit annoying. Chow is where you can do is if you just unplug a stage every inch or so, abuse centimeters or south, then it should be easy to unravel with, HM. If you are trying to pick a flat felled seam, you know that one side will have less than one ounce and ethylene me to thinking and bonds how you would go about making sure nothing gets damaged and how this won't be visible. And if I'm picking a French seam, then you need to think about how you won't have a lot to work with in terms of seam allowance. Because of course we've trimmed part of it so you don't really have millimeters him alarms on average. I mean, it depends on the gum they have is you have got teams that advise bound again, it'll be easier to think because you only need jumping the same and leave the binding where it is. That's quite straightforward. So knowing these things already makes things easier when it comes to planning or what you can do to gamma later when you are at a more advanced stage. But the basics and lagging these things and then funds, it's important you practicing these and trying to understand how they work and it's embedded loop is this important because it gives you that understanding that design thinking for the future. What I love you to do this week is to print out your semen ham evaluation sheet and record your progress. So print a sheet per sample of a type of scene. Do as many samples as you like reach sitting, I suggest just tagged by creating one sample. Then evaluating what's gone wrong and what you struggled wet. Then the ones they struggle with the most do again. They're the ones that you need to work on. Stat, building your folder where your samples to refer back to and to see your progress. Because once you do thrive to make rare two samples and seeing the progress from waves tattooed to you now is a great achievement. I looked forward to seeing you at the next session until the next module. Stay creative. 20. Module 2 Bonus - curved seams: Here is your bonus for this week. It will be something that might challenge a little bit, but it will also help you with next week's module if you decide to go correct. So far, you have been doing straight seems just straight lines and you have learned a lot in this module. However, I wanted to quickly touch upon scenes and in particular, inward and outward curves and how to stitch these. And there's a reason why you have inward and outward curves. So let's start with inward curves. If you have a sightseeing some way, for example, one of the top, your body is on the sides, right? So we're not boxes were not unless you want to have them boxes silhouette, which of course you can. If you want to tag something more, you have to curve a little bit. And we'll be doing this more and more in the weeks to come. So why not start early and have a go at stitching it to a, you don't actually have templates for this. I suggest just two pieces similar to what I have done here. Did it by, I actually did both pieces exactly the same. And they have an inner curve. What you want to do then is go to your machine and take a seam allowance the centimeters fine, 1.5 fine too. It's not too extreme. And then start sewing, maneuvering along the curve we want to do is as straight seam. You need to use the guides to line up the ROI age of your material and just making sure that that's always the same place. Don't necessarily need to look at the needle. We want to do is to pay attention to that curved edge and where it is. We always ask them in the same place, you need to just move a little bit. You may be able to make this a little bit easier. It is slightly stretch the material into a more or less straight line. And that will enable you to just keep going straight. But actually at the engine will have a curve C, like I have done here. You want to press the same open little by little, because you won't be able to start once you have done that. The next thing we're going to do, and I'll quickly show you is to create an algebra. Now why would you want to create and now you want to create out to, because if you want something more three-dimensional, again, our bodies are not boxes. They have curves like this is an algebra. Here. Grinder, malicious path, the hips out. And entirely my goal for completely three-dimensional shapes coming out of our usual silhouette. And that would require you to do as well. So I thought I'd show you again. It's not that different really. Again, have shaped like I have done here just by eye with an hour to cut two pieces exactly the same. Make sure they have a seam allowance decided. So a centimeter is fine. You could do one-hot want. At this point. I would make sure again that you pay attention to the Lloyd and Diablo two, that it lines up with the guide, depending on what seam allowance chosen on your own machine late and just work slowly and navigate. You probably want to use a smallest stage at this point. So you'd go slower because sponsors to treat less jumps from each stitch. So it's a good idea to do this if you've not feeling confident. I hope you have enjoyed this bonus for this module. See you next time.