Photography Fundamentals: Creating Powerful Photos with Compositional Techniques | KC Nwakalor | Skillshare

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Photography Fundamentals: Creating Powerful Photos with Compositional Techniques

teacher avatar KC Nwakalor, Documentary Photographer & Producer

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Class Overview


    • 3.

      Choosing the right Lens


    • 4.

      Exploring the Scene or Subject


    • 5.

      Rule of Thirds


    • 6.



    • 7.

      Point of View


    • 8.



    • 9.



    • 10.



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About This Class

In this class, Documentary Photographer and Photojournalist, KC Nwakalor breaks down the various compositional techniques you can apply in order to have a better outcome in your photographs.

Composition refers to the placement and relationship of elements within a picture. The arrangement of elements in a scene, the angle they are shot at, the height we shoot from, and the distance the photo is taken from, can completely change the final outcome of the photograph. The composition can ultimately determine the difference between a good and a bad picture.

As a professional photographer with over 5 years of working experience, photographing stories for numerous international publications and organizations, KC teaches you the various compositional techniques he utilizes in his own practice that enables him to capture meaningful photographs.

In this class, you will learn:

  • Choosing the Right Lens: How various lenses interpret the same scene differently.
  • Exploring the Subject or Scene: Finding the perfect angle, distance, height to take the shot.
  • The Rule of Thirds: A classic compositional technique! Place your subject along the intersections to create a strong image.
  • Balance: Spread out the visual weight of your elements.
  • Point of View: Give your viewers a new perspective.
  • Simplicity: A minimalist approach to capture beauty.
  • Lines: Learn and utilize the five types of lines.

This class is ideal for beginner level photographers.

Do well to check out my class on "Telling Stories in Photos: A guide to Creating Photo Story".

Meet Your Teacher

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KC Nwakalor

Documentary Photographer & Producer

Top Teacher

KC Nwakalor is a Documentary Photographer, Producer & Educator based between Manchester, UK and Abuja, Nigeria. He has worked extensively across West Africa, and through his work, he humanizes real socioeconomic, health and environmental issues within Africa and the African diaspora.

He has been commissioned by notable International publications and Organizations like The New York Times, Bloomberg, The Financial Times, CNN, Le Monde, USAID, UNICEF, World Food Programme (WFP), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), Adobe, Seplat Energy, OSIWA, OXFAM, Global Citizen, NPR, Rest of World, Open Government Partnership, Sightsavers, Mines Advisory Group (MAG), International Rescue Committee (IRC), Amnesty International, ... See full profile

Level: Beginner

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1. Introduction: Have you ever wondered what makes a good, or bad picture? Could it be the quality of the equipment? Could it be the photo editing software? While there are so many things that could affect the outcome of your pictures, one factor is definitely within your control as the photographer, and that is composition. Composition is one of those components in photography that could actually determine the difference between a good and a bad picture. My name is KC Nwakalor. I'm a documentary photographer based in Abuja, Nigeria, but I work extensively across West Africa. Through my work, I try to humanize real issues within the continent. Most of these issues are socioeconomic, environmental, or health issues. In this class, I'm going to be talking about various proven compositional techniques that could ultimately improve the outcome in your photographs. You might ask, what does composition really mean? Composition is simply the placement and arrangement or relationship of elements within your picture. So where you take the picture from, what angle, what distance, could ultimately impact the outcome of your pictures. Images are captured within a very limiting rectangular frame. There might be a lot going on in the scene, but what you capture and what you choose to include in that scene in that frame is the only thing that your viewers get to see. Armed with the right compositional techniques, you are able to produce pictures that could communicate with your viewers in a way that it's very, very clear for them to understand what's going on in the picture. Remember, these rules are no cast on stone. You can break them. You can creatively break them. But you cannot really break a rule you do not know. If you do that, you will come off as an unskilled photographer that is basically doing trial and error. But with the right skills, understanding these compositional techniques, you can creatively break these rules and bring out very interesting outcome. So do you want, better pictures, pictures that clearly communicates with your viewers? Or probably you attended my other class and you want to learn more about my techniques, then this is the right class for you. Dive right in and let's get started. 2. Class Overview: In this class, I'm going to be teaching five proven compositional techniques that could ultimately improve your work. In a welcome post's picture, the main subject is very clear and apparent. You could easily look at the picture and understand what's going on. Where am I supposed to look at? You probably have seen pictures and you're wondering what's going on here? What am I supposed to be looking at? What's the subject? What are they trying to communicate with me? This is a classical example of a failed composition, a bad composition. At the end of this class, you should be able to make better decisions on how to compose your images. To get the best value, I really indulge you to follow the class project. The class project is very simple. I would require you to go out and use the compositional techniques that are discussed in this class to produce at least three images and upload them so that I can have a look and give you feedback. Remember, practice makes perfect. You can't get better by just listening. You need to go out and shoot. I want you to push yourself. I want you to work the scene. I want you to do what you haven't done before to get the best outcome possible from your pictures. For this class, you'll also need camera. You could use a DSLR or a smartphone. Whatever you have that can take decent images, that's fine. You'll also need a photo editing software like Lightroom or Snapseed on your mobile phone. I'm super excited to go on this journey with you. So come on, let's jump right in and get this started. 3. Choosing the right Lens: The camera and eye might be very similar, but in so many ways, they're different. One of these ways is how you are able to change lenses in cameras, especially in DSLRs, where you have different lenses. On this class, we are going to be talking about how each lens processes your images and how to use each of them for various types of photography. There's always a very difficult decision to make. When do I like variety of lenses? You have to know what lens you need for the type of photography you do. Lenses are grouped broadly into two groups. This is based on the ability to zoom; which is the fixed and prime lenses, and zoom lenses. Fixed or prime lenses are lenses that are not capable of zooming, they basically have one focal lens. If you want to zoom, you would literally have to move close, move far away from the scene, to be able to zoom. Zoom lenses, as the name implies, are capable of zooming, and they have a range of focal lens. You'd see something as 18-55, whatever, but they are capable of you zooming in and out. Lenses are also divided based on their focal length range and their use. This brings us to the definition of focal length. Focal length is basically the distance between the middle of the lens and the focus. Basically, it's usually measured in millimeters. I'm sure you probably have seen on your camera lens, when they wrote 50 millimeter, that's basically the focal length. Based on focal length, lenses are grouped basically into five. This is the fisheye lenses, the wide angle lenses, the standard lenses, the telephoto lenses, and macro lens. Fisheye lenses are basically lenses that have a focal lens within the range of 4-14 millimeters. As the name implies, the pictures that are produced from a fisheye lens looks like the vision of the fish, is a bit distorted on the edges, and they are usually used for abstract photography or arts photography. Then you have the wide angle lens. Wide angle lenses have a focal lens of 15 millimeters to around 35 millimeters. They are standard used for architectural photography, environmental photography, and sometimes environmental portraits. The next type of lens we have are the standard lenses, which is basically very similar to the human eye. It ranges from 36 millimeters to around 85 millimeters. These are the typical lenses that photojournalists would use, documentary photography, street photography, portraits, because they are very similar to the way we see. It's more appropriate for this type of photography. Then the next type of lens is the telephoto lenses. These are lenses that have a focal lens that is 85 millimeters and above. They are very heavy. The very longer ones can be very heavy. I'm sure you've seen people in football field or sports area that use this type of lenses. It's used more for sports, wildlife, because they can't really get close to the scene, or to the action, so they have to mount their camera a bit far and then zoom in. Macro lenses are optically modified to magnify little or miniature objects or animals. They have a focal range of like 35-200 millimeters, and is often used in advertising, commercial photography, and sometimes abstract. What lens you use depends hugely on the type of photography you do and the type of outcome you are trying to achieve from your photography. Like in my own practice, I use mostly wide angle lenses and standard lenses. Now, usually, when I'm on assignments, I usually work with 28 millimeter for my wide angle shots because I like to capture wide angle, but with people in the picture, and 28 gives me just that. For my portraits, I use 50 millimeters. What I can use totally depends on what I'm photographing. If I'm photographing like protests, most of the time, I have to be really close to the action. But if for any reason, I cannot be close to the action, then I will have to use a telephoto lens, which I hardly use. I prefer to use prime lenses and I like to get close to the action. For photographers that are starting off, I strongly recommend prime lenses because it forces you to move around. Starting off in photography, we could get lazy. You could just want to sit in one corner and take the picture, but whereas, you can actually move around and get better results. Prime lenses forces you to move. It forces you move to the right, to the left, to get closer, further away. This activity helps brew your photograph and you get better outcome. I strongly recommend prime lenses for photographers starting off. Ideally, 35 or 50 millimeters is perfectly fine if you're starting off photography. In this class, we'll discuss the various types of lenses based on the ability to zoom, which are the prime lenses and the zoom lenses, and the various types of lenses based on their focal length range and use. These are the fisheye lenses, the wide angle lenses, standard lenses, telephoto lens, and macro lenses. I'm sure with the right knowledge, I'm very confident that you know what type of lens you need for the type of photography you're doing, and the type of work you're trying to capture. I need you to go out now, utilize whatever lens you have access to, and capture pictures, and tell me what difference you see. I want to see you capturing images using various lenses and seeing what the outcome is like, based on what you have access to. Join me in the next class as we talk about how to explore the scene and the subject before you get the perfect shot. See you. 4. Exploring the Scene or Subject: On this lesson, we are going to be discussing exploring the subject or scene. Most people that are not trained as photographers could probably see something that catches their attention, and they pull out their camera and point at it. What if I told you that maybe going to the left or going to the right or going to the back will give you better outcome in your pictures? That's the essence of exploring the scene. We're going to be discussing how you can move around and get the best possible outcome from whatever subject you're capturing and whatever scene you're working at. When I walk into a scene, I usually explore the scene. I usually look around, move around, and try to know what the best vantage point or the best angle to take my picture from would be. When I want to process a scene, I usually consider three things. The first is the light source. I consider the light source because I do not work with external lights or artificial lighting when I'm working in my photography. I utilize the ambient lights, the light that is available in the scene. When I get to the scene, the first thing I analyze is, where is the light coming from? Where is the window? Where is the bulb? Whatever place it is, I have to put that into consideration when I'm framing my picture. Once I've sorted out the light source, I already know, I have to face in this direction, which is basically me backing the light source because I want the light to be hitting the face or the object I'm photographing. After the light source, the next thing I consider, is the background. I want to be sure that the background is adding to the context of my pictures. Because for me, every single element in my frame has to be contributing in some way. It has to be adding context or value to the picture, so I need to consider the background. For instance, if I'm taking a picture of a medical doctor in a hospital, it doesn't make sense to photograph the person without maybe a stethoscope showing or a medical calendar, whatever thing that could give contexts as to who that person is, that communicates better to who he is, I usually want to include that in my background. After I've figured out the light source, I start looking around what is in the back? What is the background of that picture? How do I frame it to be able to communicate well with my viewers? The third thing I look at is the space, because I'm tall, I have to consider how high the ceiling is, so that I don't raise my hand and it hits my camera. I also have to consider my walk path because I've been in situations where I go to one corner and people start coming into the room and I can't move around anymore. That's really terrible because it makes you not to be mobile as a photographer. You basically end up having most of your pictures from just one corner of the room. I really consider the space and how I can navigate. I already plan, I will be in this corner and once I'm done getting pictures from this corner I can move to the next corner. This is basically you understanding what would be the pathway? Where would people be walking on? Where would people sit? How do I move around without interrupting was going on? Once I get these thing sorted, then I'm happy to start shooting. When I start shooting, I start exploring various angles, various positions. This is what we're going to talk about in subsequent lessons. Ideally, when I'm taking pictures, I want to get a variety of shot. The type of story I'm working on, who I'm photographing, could ultimately determine the type of pictures or the type of angles I shoot from. For instance, shooting from a high angle, which is basically you looking down, could translate to the viewers that this person is vulnerable, this person is powerless, this person is weak, this person is in need. This is what you see more common in NGO photography or charity based photography, where they're trying to raise money for people, for children, for vulnerable people and you tend to see the photographers taking pictures from a high position. It switches the power dynamics where you get the feel that this person is weak, this person is vulnerable, and this person needs help. Another angle you can shoot from is from a low angle, which is basically you looking up in your pictures. The subject in that picture starts looking or feeling like powerful, proud, confident, strong. You would see people in positions of power photographed in this manner. This is people like presidents and staff could also be photographed. Sports personalities are also photographed in this manner. There are so many angles you could take your pictures from, but it's important for you to understand how it impacts the picture, how people would process and understand the picture when they look at it. Simply put, taking from a high angle translates into vulnerability, weak, poor, vulnerable. But shooting from a low angle upwards, translates into power, strength, confidence, all these good stuff. Understanding the type of story I'm working on would definitely make me know the type of pictures I want to capture. You have to understand how these angles come to play and make sure that you are using it to communicate the way you want to communicate. On this lesson, we've discussed the way to explore your scene, considering your light source, your background, and the space that you're working in so that you're able to move around. We've also considered the impact of shooting from a low angle, from a high angle, whatever it is, they all have consequences. You as a photographer, needs to be aware of these consequences and how people process them. I want you to take a picture of someone from a high position and also take a picture of that same person from a low position and tell me how you feel about each picture. You'll get what I mean when you do that. See you on the next lesson as we delve into the compositional techniques that I'm going to discuss on this class. Come on, let's go. 5. Rule of Thirds: In this lesson, we are going to be discussing an interesting compositional technique called, Rule of Third. Rule of third is based on the concept that a picture frame is basically divided into nine A4 parts by two horizontal lines and two vertical lines. Basically, the concept is saying that rather than placing your subject in the middle of the frame, you make a better composition by placing them on any of the lines or their intersection points. This is pretty much standard and simple. You would have seen this same play out in your standard CV presentation, on news, where you see the newscaster going to one side of the frame. For some reasons, pictures come up better when rule of third is followed. For some cameras, there are functions or settings where you can put the grid lines active on your viewfinder, or on the LCD screen. You have to look at your camera manual to know how it's done. But it's very helpful if you can now mentally visualize this grid lines and place your subjects in those intersection points or within those lines. By now, I'm sure you understand how rule of third works and how you can apply it to your photography, moving forward. I want you to go out and take a picture of a subject and place it in the middle. Also try to apply the compositional technique called rule of third in the picture, and look up both and tell me what's the outcome is and which one you prefer. While rule of third might be very simple, it could ultimately improve the outcome of your pictures. Apply it in your work and see the outcome. Jump right into the next lesson and we discuss yet another interesting compositional technique. 6. Balance: On this lesson, we're going to talk about balance, which is a very interesting compositional technique. It builds on the concept that every single element in your photograph has a visual weight. Unlike the very physical weights you can see, this weight is visual. An example is when you look at a picture and you see that your eye spends more time on one part of that frame. It means that the picture is not balanced. So with balance, you have to bear it in mind that various things have higher visual weight, so you have to spread out the weight in the frame in such a way that the viewers can look at every aspect of the picture rather than just getting stuck in one corner of that picture. Visual weights can be as a result of light, could be as a result of shadows in the picture, it could be as a result of tones, it could be as a result of colors. Whatever it is, there are so many things that could have more weight than the other in your photograph. But as a photographer, it's your duty to understand and process the various visual weights in your picture to be able to spread out these weights in a frame, in a way that is balanced and people can enjoy and have a full experience of your picture. For instance, light areas have less visual weight than dark areas. Color red is very, very heavy as a color compared to its counterparts like yellow or green. So you have to bear this in mind because with the more visual weight thrown to one part of the picture, people, viewers will spend more time looking at that corner. As such, you're depriving them of every other aspect of your picture that might be interesting to look at, but they wouldn't see it because the visual weight tilts to one side. The type of balance you can experience in photographs are broadly divided into two, and this is symmetrical balance and asymmetrical balance. Symmetrical balance, as the name implies, is basically a photograph or compositional technique where both sides of the frame is identical or very similar. This is also called the formal balance. This could be implied or real implied is when you use shadows to create identical elements and it looks similar. Real is when both sides are just the same stuff. Asymmetrical balance is different from symmetrical balance in the sense that both sides of the frame does not need to be identical. This could be basically using different elements but have similar visual weight to balance aspects of your picture. The classical example is when people photograph things and put them in the foreground and use another element to balance it out in the background. It's important to bear in mind that every single element to your picture has a specific visual weight. All the action doesn't go to one corner of your picture so that your viewers can have a full experience of all the elements within that frame, as opposed to them just looking at one corner and getting stuck in that corner. Now, I believe you understand what balance is and how you can achieve it in your photographs. Considering the various types of balance, which is symmetrical balance and asymmetrical balance, how you can achieve it using implied or real identical aspects of the frame, or asymmetrical balance in the sense that you use objects that have similar visual weight and spread it out in your frame. Usually placing one in the foreground and the other in the background. So that in the end, your viewers will have a full experience of your photograph, as opposed to them getting stuck in just one corner of your photo. So go out and take a picture bearing in mind the visual weights of the elements in your picture, and try to spread it out in a way that you achieve some form of balance. Remember, the easiest way to know that your picture is out of balance is when you end up looking and getting stuck in just one corner of that picture. With that being said, jump to the next lesson as we discuss another interesting compositional technique. 7. Point of View: On this lesson, we're going to discuss yet another compositional technique which is called point of view. Point of view is basically taking pictures from an angle that your viewers would ideally not look from. What that means is, you give your viewers an experience of looking at things from the perspective that they wouldn't look at it before. Just the mere fact that this is not what your viewers are used to gives them that feel. It automatically makes it a good picture. For instance, this is used when you photograph children, when you photograph animals. Ideally, people would want to take pictures from their position. If you're taking a picture of a dog or a cat, rather than taking picture of that animal from your position, you come down to their eye level to take the picture. It gives a totally new experience to your viewers. Because they are seeing things they haven't seen before. The ways to explore various points of views is by getting down low or climbing up a tree or up a ladder, whatever. But looking at things from a vantage point that you would hardly look at it from ideally, it gives your viewers an interesting perspective and immersive feeling of what's going on in your picture. Is a totally new visual experience for your viewers. Another way to use points of view is by exploring various angles, but also by shooting true objects. You could literally shoot through a table to capture someone. It gives a sneak peek into what it feels like to stay in that position to look at that person. Maybe that's where the cat looks from, maybe that's where the dog looks from. It's always important if you're trying to explore point of view, to look at the various angles you can take the picture from. Well, the sole idea behind it is capturing the picture in a way that people would hardly see that stuff. People would hardly perceive what's going on from. Whatever angle you choose to photograph people, as I already mentioned earlier, you have to also understand the power dynamics. Remember if you are shooting from a high angle down to people, they look vulnerable, they look weak, they look like they are in need. You have to be really careful about that. If you're shooting people from a low position to a high angle, you give them the feel that they are strong, they're bigger, they're powerful. You have to also understand how it plays out. Basically, point of view gives your viewers a new experience. Explore the scene and know various points of view you can shoot from. On this lesson, we've already discussed various points of views and how you can use it to give your viewers an immersive experience of your pictures. By going down low, climbing up, getting to one side, shooting through objects, you can explore various points of views to give your viewers an interesting feel when they look at your pictures. I want you to go out and try various points of views. Go download to photograph an animal, a lizard, a cat, whatever. Shoot from the eye level or probably from a low angle. Whatever it is, shoot in a way that human beings ideally would not see things from and tell me what the outcome is. Join me in the next lesson as we discuss another interesting compositional technique. Come on, let's go. 8. Simplicity: Sometimes you just want to give your viewers an interesting visual experience. You're not trying to change the world. You're not trying to capture everything going on. You just want to capture beauty, and you want your viewers to have a feel of it, a good visual experience. That's where the compositional technique simplicity comes in. Simplicity simply means you taking pictures in a very simple way. In a very minimal way, very similar to minimalism. Basically, your aim as the photographer is not to communicate the whole world. You're not trying to change the world. You just want your viewers to have a good visual experience. This is the type of compositional techniques that abstract photographers, still life photographers, and art photographers utilize in their photography. Sometimes even nature photographers. They just want you to feel the peace in the picture. They just want you to look at the picture and just enjoy it. When simplicity is the aim in the composition of that picture, you could easily tell because there is less distraction going on. There are fewer elements in the picture, so you just look and enjoy the picture. Could be as simple as the boat on the pond or on the river. Could be as simple as a flower. Simplicity is all about giving a good visual experience for your viewers. Having learned about simplicity and how it plays out and gives your viewers an interesting experience, I want you to go out and shoot and just capture something in a very simple way. Don't try to do too much. Just utilizing all the compositional techniques, but the aim is basically keeping it very simple and minimal. Jump into the next lesson as we discuss yet another compositional technique. Come on, let's go. 9. Lines: On this lesson, we are going to talk about another interesting compositional technique, lines. Almost basically everything is made up of line. The earlier you start understanding and seeing things based on the lines that make them up the better outcomes you can have in your photograph. We're going to talk about how you can utilize lines in your composition and how you can use them to your advantage to make your pictures become better and have a better outcome. Lines in photography are broadly divided into five categories. This is the vertical lines, the horizontal lines, the diagonal lines, leading lines, implied lines and a host of others. Vertical lines gives a feel of growth, of confidence, of strength. When you're taking pictures and you have maybe your subjects leaning to a vertical line or a wall or a tree, it makes it feel like they're supported. That's how it communicates to your viewers. You can utilize this to communicate what you want in your photographs. Horizontal lines give a feel of stability. When people lie down, usually almost everything that we lie down on or we stay on are usually horizontal lines. It gives a feel of stability. It doesn't feel like you can fall over. When you incorporate this in your pictures, your viewers could get that feel of stability from the picture. Diagonal lines are also another interesting lines because they create this sense of tension or energy in your pictures. As opposed to vertical and horizontal lines that are pretty much stable and feel solid, diagonal lines feel a bit like there is tension, there is conflict, which you can utilize in your photos as well. One thing you also have to recognize when you're utilizing lines in your pictures is you have to make the lines straight, unless it's intentional you want to make it diagonal or wherever. But in most cases, you have to make sure that your lines are straight. If it's not straight, the pictures feels off. Because in real life, houses are built in a straight way, trees are straight. If you do not make sure that you frame your pictures in a way that you retain that straight feel of your lines it will come off unless it's intentional. Another type of lines are the implied lines. These are lines that come off in nature, but they are not necessarily real lines. For example, people standing in a queue, it looks like a line. Skyscrapers lined up on the streets, rows of trees. These things form a line. You have to keep observing and noticing how these lines are formed in nature for you to be able to utilize it in your photographs. Another interesting ways to use lines is leading lines. Leading lines basically serve as lines that you can utilize to lead your viewers to the main subject. Basically, you're framing or composing your pictures in a way that your subject is in a pathway of the line, the natural lines in your frame where it feels like the line is leading them to that subject. As a photographer, over the years I've trained myself to see lines. When I walk into a scene, when I want to take a picture, I'm observing all the lines and how they play out. I try to utilize that to be able to make the best possible decision composition-wise for my photographs. Now, that you've learned about various types of lines and how you can use it to make your pictures better; understanding how human beings process and understand vertical lines, horizontal lines, diagonal lines, leading, and implied lines I'm sure you're set up to understand and utilize these lines in your photographs to have better outcome. Go out and take pictures, observing how lines play out in your environments, in your backyard, on your streets. Take pictures and utilize some of the concepts that we've talked about here. I'm sure that when you are more aware of these lines and how they play out, you're on your way to make way better pictures than you ever did. Thank you. 10. Conclusion: Congratulations. I'm super excited you got to the last part of this class. I'm sure you've learned new things that can improve your photographs. A quick recap on all the things we talked about in this class. We talked about how to choose the right lens. Remember, if you do not make a good decision with the lens you choose, you won't have a better outcome. We also talked about how to explore the scene and the subject. It's very key key that you do not just take pictures from where you are, but you move around and see how the light plays out, how the background is, how the space is and put all these things together to have better outcomes in your photographs. We also talked about various compositional techniques, and I'm sure that if you inculcate all these things you've learned in your photographs, in your work, you will become way better than you were when you met me. It's been a very interesting journey with you, and I hope that aids was worth every single second of your time. I'm looking forward to see your class project, which is basically you uploading three pictures, utilizing any of the compositional techniques that have been discussed in this class, and uploading it because we can't get better until we start doing stuff. I would like to see your class project, upload it and you'll get feedback from me. Remember, the rules in this class are meant to be broken. Now that you understand the rules and you understand how it works, you can creatively break them, but let it be intentional. That's the difference between a professional photographer and a hobbyist photographer. Always remember that these rules are not cast on stone, you can creatively break them but I strongly recommend that you understand the rules before you start breaking them so that you don't come off as an unskilled photographer. Now that you understand all these rules, you are free to break them in a way that it works but remember, the essence of taking pictures is to be able to communicate with your viewers. Utilize all you know about various compositional techniques that we've discussed to be able to bring the best outcome in your pictures and give your viewers a once in a lifetime experience. In a short time, I'll also be releasing a new class on advanced compositional techniques. Look out for it so that we can learn more compositional techniques that can ultimately improve our photography. Welcome to a new phase in your photography. I wish you the very best until we meet again. Thank you.