Learn How to Learn Anything Based on Science: Effective Study Techniques and Beating Procrastination | (UnJaded) Jade Bowler | Skillshare

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Learn How to Learn Anything Based on Science: Effective Study Techniques and Beating Procrastination

teacher avatar (UnJaded) Jade Bowler, #1 Best-Selling Author and StudyTuber

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Why Should You Learn How to Learn?


    • 3.

      Chapter 1: The 3 Stages of Studying


    • 4.

      Why Rote Memorisation Isn't a Waste of Time


    • 5.

      What Makes a Good Learning Technique? SAAD


    • 6.

      SAAD: Spaced Repetition


    • 7.

      SAAD: Active Recall


    • 8.

      SAAD: Associations


    • 9.

      SAAD: Desirable Difficulty


    • 10.

      SAAD: Summary and Examples


    • 11.

      Chapter 2: Example Study Techniques: Flashcards


    • 12.

      Self-Explanation and Teaching


    • 13.

      Blurting and Active Recall


    • 14.

      Past Papers and Testing


    • 15.

      How to Beat Procrastination


    • 16.

      Chapter 3: Motivation


    • 17.

      Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation


    • 18.

      Why Aren't You Motivated?


    • 19.

      How to Cultivate a Growth Mindset


    • 20.

      What Motivates YOU to Study and Why?


    • 21.

      You Made It! Closing Moment


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About This Class

Whether you’re a student studying for exams, or a passionate lifelong learner studying for fun, this class is a deep dive into evidence-based methods for how to learn based on the science of learning. Because we should study smarter, not harder!

As a student who graduated a degree in Cognitive Science with a specialism in learning theory, Jade is passionate about teaching  others what makes an effective study technique based on the literature, and digging into how we can stay motivated and beat procrastination!

Chapter 1:

The foundation of this course will teach you:

  • why learning how to study is important for effective time management and stress reduction
  • why rote learning is unpopular, but actually crucial!
  • essential criteria that you can always use to ask yourself if a study method is effective or not based on the science of learning (SAAD!).

This chapter is an important pre-requisite to understanding why the example study techniques in Chapter 2 are so effective.

Chapter 2:

After learning what makes an effective study technique, this chapter will provide you with 5 examples of the best techniques to learn anything you desire.

  • Flashcards: how do we make them and use them most effectively?
  • Self-Explanation and Teaching: how can forcing ourselves to explain concepts aloud be beneficial for learning?
  • Blurting: are you using one of the most underused, but life-changing techniques?
  • Past Papers: if you're studying for exams, you need to use this technique.
  • Pomodoro Technique: how to beat procrastination using effective time management and chunking

Chapter 3:

Once you’ve learned what makes an effective study technique and 5 of the best examples, we’ll dig into the science behind motivation, goal-setting and beating procrastination. This chapter is essential for anyone with long-term learning goals and figuring out your why.

  • How to develop a growth mindset
  • How to identify your sources of motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic)
  • How to diagnose why you might not be motivated right now

You’ll be creating:

  • A robust compilation of journal prompts to diagnose your current learning methods
  • A clear roadmap for your own long-term motivation and success
  • Detailed study resources for your subject of choices, such as flashcards and blurting

You will upload this compilation as a project for your own accountability and to inspire other students!

Jade recommends watching the course over a dedicated period of time to fully digest each chapter. Rewatch episodes as necessary and make sure to complete all course activities to ensure you’re making the most out of it.

You’ve got this!

You can follow Jade’s other work here:

Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/unjadedjade/?hl=en

YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC4-uObu-mfafJyxxZFEwbvQ

TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@unjadedjade

Buy her #1 best-selling study book: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Only-Study-Guide-Youll-Ever/dp/1788704193/ref=cm_cr_arp_d_product_top?ie=UTF8

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

(UnJaded) Jade Bowler

#1 Best-Selling Author and StudyTuber


Hi everyone!

I'm Jade, author of #1 best-selling book "The Only Study Guide You'll Ever Need" and creator of the online platforms 'UnJaded Jade' (1.5M subscribers) where I've shared my tips and advice for productivity, studying and reducing stress as a student.

I graduated a first-class degree in Cognitive Science with a specialism in learning theory and I love helping other people learn how to learn! This led me to my love of teaching and inspiring students to live a healthier, happier and more productive life.

If you'd like to keep up to date with my projects, please do follow my Skillshare profile and other social media platforms.

And if you have any idea for classes that you'd find useful, definitely drop me a line and I'll see how I can help ;)... See full profile

Level: Beginner

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1. Introduction: As students, we spend thousands of hours of our lives studying for exams. But somehow we're never actually taught how to study. We're expected to just kind of figure it out even though there's a whole body of research which shows that some methods are just better than others. Hi everyone, My name is Jade Bowler and I'm here to teach you how to study based on the science of learning. I'm a final year undergraduate student studying cognitive science and I wrote the number one best selling book in education, the only study guide you'll ever need. I started a Youtube channel back in 2017 after getting all stars in my GCCs and A levels, because I really just wanted to help other students improve their study methods. I'm a bit of a nerd when it comes to this stuff, and I have poured through hundreds of different academic papers all about how to learn. I'm the oldest child and my parents didn't go to university. So these are all the tips that I wish someone had taught me, and today I'm here to teach you. Today we're going to learn how to study smarter not harder. This course is divided into three chapters. First, what makes a good study technique? How can I ensure that every time I'm studying it's actually effective? I'm going to introduce you to the life changing evidence based framework of sad or AD. Secondly, we're going to look at how do I use the most effective study techniques? We'll dig into five of the most important study techniques and I'll teach you how to practically apply them to any work. And finally, motivation. There is no point learning how to learn if you can't even sustain your motivation to continue, we'll learn why we might not be motivated, what to do about it, and how to sustain our motivation over the long term. By the end of this class, you should be equipped with a multitude of methods to help you in whatever you're studying at any point of your life. So if you're ready, let's do it. Grab a pen, some paper, anything to take notes on, and I hope you find this valuable. 2. Why Should You Learn How to Learn?: Why should you bother learning how to learn when you already have so much content to memorize, so much to do? You clicked on this course for a reason. And firstly, I just want to persuade you why this is a good choice. Three reasons why it's so important to learn how to learn. Firstly, to save you time and reduce stress, there's this amazing quote from Abraham Lincoln which says, give me 6 hours to chop down a tree and I will spend the first 4 hours sharpening the at this course is sharpening the at spending time now, learning how to study will make chopping down those exams so much easier in the future and just reduce a lot of stress. Secondly, we actually have a lot of biases. We think we're using our time effectively. We think our studying is amazing when in reality it's kind of a waste of time. For example, in a study conducted by Cornell and Sun, they asked all of their subjects to learn this list of words. They were given a choice. Subjects could either choose to restudy the same words by looking at them over and over again, or they could choose to be tested. Most people chose to just restudy and look at them again and again, when in reality, the people who chose testing were far better. At the end of the study, the researchers asked the students which technique they thought would be more effective. And almost all the students said restudying this echoes the conclusions of so many studies, which show that the techniques we think will work aren't often the ones which are more effective. Again, another study was conducted where students were given the choice of passive learning methods like highlighting and rereading, or using active testing methods. Students overwhelmingly chose the passive techniques, which just shows we can't trust ourselves. We think we're doing the work, we think we're doing something effective and it might not actually be working for us. So this is why it's really important to take the time to actually learn how we learn. And thirdly, to give you the best chances to get the grades that you are capable of achieving. So get the notepad ready, get the phone on airplane mode. Let's get into it. 3. Chapter 1: The 3 Stages of Studying: Hello and welcome to chapter one. So doing well in an exam requires three main stages of studying. Today, we're going to talk about these three stages. Discuss why they're important, and use them as a framework to shape the whole rest of the course. To learn anything ready for an exam, the process is understand, learn, and then apply. First, we need to understand the content. There's no point in trying to apply a fact in a test if you literally don't even really understand it. You need to ask questions like why and how to conceptually get why something is the way that it is. In this stage, you might watch videos, you might speak to your teacher, speak to classmates until you start to get it. Secondly, you need to learn how many times have you been reading your textbook and you're looking at some information and you're nodding your head and you're like, yeah, this makes sense. But the next day, when someone asks you a question about what's in that textbook, you realize that you don't actually remember any of it. That's because you understood it, but you didn't learn it. This stage can also be thought of as memorization consolidation. And it's so important to do this before moving into an exam or test situation. Most people skip from understanding in class to then going into an exam without this really crucial studying bit in the middle. And so this is where we're going to focus most of our time in this course. And finally, once you've understood the content, you've learned it, it's in your head, then you can start to apply it to a test scenario. You can try more difficult questions. You can try past papers. You can even use your knowledge to create new questions and problems. So here's a little example. Imagine you're trying to learn the process of respiration in biology. First, you need to understand that process. What is respiration? Why does it happen? Why does it need to happen? Secondly, you need to learn it. You need to get it in your head, and you need to keep it there. The idea of respiration made sense to you in the classroom. But now what are you going to do? This is where our study techniques starts to come in. Now that you know what respiration is, you can go, you can try your test questions, you can apply it in the exam, and that is the process of studying. It is worth noticing that in recent literature, this has been shown not to just be a hierarchy, but to have some overlap. For example, you can actually help yourself understand something through starting to memorize it equally. You can help yourself learn something by doing testing. But generally, when you're thinking about your studying, it is useful to remember these stages just to make sure that you're actually covering them all. In the next few videos, let's dive a little bit into how we do this middle part. How do we learn? How do we remember stuff? Let's get into it. 4. Why Rote Memorisation Isn't a Waste of Time: Maybe you're so frustrated with school because you feel like a robot having to memorize all this information. Why would I need to memorize this equation if I'll always have Google or Chat GPT in the future, Even Einstein said imagination is more important than knowledge. But in this mini episode, I want to challenge that in the book, why don't students like school Willingham actually looks into why rote memorization and learning is so essential to everything else. And why is that? Because knowledge is a prerequisite imagination. You can only imagine as far as your knowledge allows. How can you dream of space without knowing that space exists? How can you imagine a certain life for yourself without the knowledge and representation that it's even possible? Memorization is necessary for skills like analysis, synthesis, critical thinking. All of our reasoning and problem solving is intimately intertwined with facts that are stored in our memory. So I hope you can see that this is a useful skill for your whole life. It is not just for that exam. Before we move on, can you remember the three stages of studying that we talked about in the last episode? Maybe just take a second. You can cause this video. What were those three stages? Amazing. So just to refresh, we have understanding the content, we have the learning, and we have the application and all of this memorization stuff. All of it and how essential it is, comes under this learning phase. So let's learn how to learn. 5. What Makes a Good Learning Technique? SAAD: We know we need to learn and memorize content. But what makes a good study technique? How do we know for sure that whatever we're doing is effective and will help us slay the exam after reading so many papers on this topic. I boiled it down to four questions. You can always ask yourself to determine whether it's effective or not. Today, we're turning our depressing, sad revision techniques into sad techniques. Ad S stands for space, repetition A is for active recall, the other A is associations, and D is desirable. Difficulty. Get your notebook ready. The exercises are beginning from now. 6. SAAD: Spaced Repetition: So how do we turn sad, useless study techniques into effective sad techniques? The first question is S spaced repetition. You know, when you have these random bursts of inspiration. Where suddenly you want to study for 10 hours a day, and then you don't study for another two weeks and suddenly forget literally everything you learn on that first day. To study smarter, not harder, we need to turn to science in cognitive psychology. There's this famous guy called Herman Ebbing House. Some call him the father of memory because he was one of the first people to make big advances about human retention. He would sit in a room alone and force himself to memorize thousands of nonsense words and measure his ability to recall them over time. As I said, he was a cool guy with a lot of free time. But he discovered something revolutionary called the forgetting curve. This paved the way for how we think about human memory. As you can see, your memory starts strong, you revise a concept, you understand it, it's there in your brain. You've got it 100% memory. But your memory decays exponentially over just seven days of not revising it. You probably can't recall the concept anymore, honestly. This is so sad. I remember like having my days feeling like a revision queen. I'm like, you know what, I'm gonna put 10 hours in of studying at the library, but I wouldn't have the system in place to keep going over the same information. So after about a week, I would go back to that knowledge and it would literally be out of my head. And when that happens, you feel like you're studying is for nothing. You feel like you're wasting your time. So how can you use your knowledge of this human memory curve to stop that from happening? Thankfully, there is a solution. Welcome to space repetition. The idea is that you review the same information again multiple times at regular intervals. Here is our new curve. After you first learn the information, you review it again the next day. Because every time you review this information, you're resetting your memory back up to 100% The idea is you're catching your memory just as you're about to forget it when you've gone over it after one day, you know you can wait two days until you then go over it again. Then after you've revised it, you can wait four days after. And the idea is slowly over time, it gets harder to forget this information because you keep resetting your memory back to 100% And this is the beauty of space repetition. The more you review something, the more time you can then leave before reviewing it again. Eventually the information is so in your long term memory that you can review it once a month, once every six months, even a year. And this is how we really build up that long term memory ready for an exam. So the secret is not cramming 10 hours on a random day. It's not even about working harder at all, it's about working less. But at strategic intervals. I promise you that reviewing concepts for just 5 minutes a day or every few days with this space repetition curve is the secret to good grades. The exercise that I would love you to do for today's video is to take a look at the spreadsheet linked in the resources section. In this spreadsheet, you can put all your topics in. You can write down everything that you need to study when you need to get it studied by. And this will help you make sure that you're going over the same information at these regular intervals. So take five to 10 minutes, download the spreadsheet, put your topics in, and then make sure you upload it as a resource on here, just so that we can all get inspired by your timetable. 7. SAAD: Active Recall: Before we jump in, my question to you is, can you find Tajikistan on this map? How about now? Can you still find Tajikistan? We're bumping it up a little bit. Can you find Tajikistan now? Now find Tajikistan yourself. The likelihood is in the first few images, you probably didn't pay that much attention to where Tajikistan is unless you're really good at geography and you already have a great knowledge of where this country is. You probably nodded your head and felt like you learned it because it made sense. It was labeled right there and easy. And this is what we do when we look at a textbook or when we highlight text, we have the illusion that the information is going in our heads. This is called passive learning. It's easy, it feels good, but it's also very ineffective. We're expecting the knowledge to just enter our heads without much effort. But normally, when you take away those cues, you realize you didn't know the information quite as well as you thought you did. The second step to turning our sad, miserable, useless techniques into our sad techniques is active recall. Active recall is any study technique where you produce the information without it being in front of you. It's active because you are actively pulling this information out of your brain. You are forcing yourself to see what you know. A little neuro science lesson. So in the brain, the way that we learn to store knowledge is through a process called the long term potentiation. The idea is that when you're learning something, you are building connections between all the neurons in your brain. Every time you ask yourself to think this thought or go over this knowledge, again, you are making the same neurons fire. The more they fire, the more connections are built between them so that it's actually even easier for them to fire again in the future. Literally, the more you make yourself think about something, the easier it is to think about it next time. There's this amazing metaphor which says that your brain is like an open field. Initially, it's kind of hard to tread your way through any path on this field because there's just all this tall grass. But eventually as you start to walk the same path again and again, you're treading down this grass and you're making it an easier path to walk. Your brain is the same. The more you force the same neurons to fire again, the easier it is to make them fire in the same pathway the next time. So if a revision technique is hard, if it's making you think, if it's making you pull out this knowledge, then you are strengthening these neurons needed to access this information. You're making it even easier to access next time. But what is an active versus a passive revision technique? I'm going to go through some of the common study techniques. And every time I want you to pause the video and ask yourself, is this active or passive, and why highlighting the textbook? This technique is passive because you're not having to actively pull information from your brain. All the information is just given to you asking yourself questions from flashcards. This is active because you're using a prompt to help you generate the answer from your brain. What about copying notes from class? This is passive because you're not really thinking, you might be listening to the teacher, but you're just being given information and you're mindlessly copying rereading diagrams. This is generally passive because it doesn't require you to pull information from your brain unless it's a graph where you have to fill in the blanks explaining the concept to a friend. This is definitely an active technique because you're relying on your existing knowledge and understanding to explain it to your friend. And you might even have to tailor your explanation based on that knowledge level. This is a great way to study and we're going to look into it a bit more later. A comprehensive 58 page meta analysis investigating the efficacy of different study techniques concluded that these passive methods, like highlighting, rereading, are all low utility methods. This means you can still use them, but it's really important to be aware that they're not the most effective and that you shouldn't be putting all your study time into these techniques. Hopefully, you're starting to see the distinction between a passive learning technique and active learning technique. And also starting to reflect on your own study methods and maybe how you can improve them. Today's exercise is for you to do a bit of self reflection. Spend just 10 minutes looking back at all the study methods you've used recently. Have you been rereading, have you been using flashcards? Have you not really had a strategy at all which is okay, Take the time to write out a list of every technique that you think you've used to learn something recently. Go through and mark them with passive or active with a highlighter. And then step back and look at your list. Are most of your study techniques passive or active? This is incredibly useful to understand where you're at right now And also to look back, hopefully, at the end of the course and realize how much you've improved. Make sure to upload your list to help inspire others. Ideally, you want to be using as many active techniques as possible, even if they feel hard, they're just more effective as hard as they are. Techniques which are taking information out of your brain rather than cramming it in are always preferable. 8. SAAD: Associations: Imagine you're at a party, your friend introduces someone new, You smile at them, you nod and you get ready for the make or break question. What is your name? You're mentally cursing yourself because as soon as you ask this, you've entered into this invisible contract to try and remember their name. But you're horrible at remembering names. Charlotte, they say, you can already feel yourself mentally repeating this in your head. Charlotte. Charlotte. Charlotte, Charlott, Charlotte. It's Charlotte. This person's name is Charlotte. How hard can it be to remember the name Charlotte? But before you know it, you're enjoying yourself. You're swayed into the crowds. You're enjoying your night. You're not engaging in your mental relay anymore. You're getting to know other people. But then the party ends and you bump into her again, and you realize for the life of you, you literally cannot remember her name. Was it Catherine? Oh, Claire or Chantelle or Lou. You realize that you have absolutely no idea and you know what the solution is. Welcome to the second. In sad revision techniques, associations. So in your brain information doesn't sit in isolation. You don't have a section of your brain which is reserved for historical dates, a section of your brain reserved to maths, equations, or a bunch of nerves labeled over here with inorganic chemistry. Instead, everything you've ever learned is intertwined in one ingenious mess of knowledge. Some people think that learning knowledge, which is distinctly different from what you've already looked at, will save you from getting confused, when in reality the most powerful thing you can do is to connect this new knowledge to what you already know to make associations between them. So let's reverse to the party. When the girl at the party reveals her name to you, You have maybe 3 seconds in your mind to try and associate her name to something that you do know. Do you know any Charlotte? Is there a famous person that you know called Charlotte? Does Charlotte make you think of your neighbor? Of your dog? What does Charlotte mean to you? Whatever it is, make a conscious association. Spend that tiny moment really thinking about the fact that this person looks like your neighbor Charlotte. Or think to yourself, oh yeah, this name really suits her. You're creating a rich retrieval cue through connecting something new, like a new person, a new name to something that you do already know. If you do this, then at the end of the party when you come back to this person, yes, the name might not come to you instantly. But suddenly maybe you're thinking how their hair color is a little bit different to your neighbor, your neighbor Charlotte. And very retrieval cue you chose. It would just help jumpstart your memory to get that name. The association was a success. So what does this little party tangent show you? It shows you that memory requires a base. You can't expect to learn a brand new concept without some kind of foundation to support it. Foundational material is actually the backbone of any new content because it helps you have a mental organizational structure in your brain. But it is also worth noting that the association you choose matters. You don't want to suddenly call that person the name of your dog because you thought that they had similar looking hair. Just like you don't want to be in an exam thinking about Shrek. If you were really trying to think about evolution, make sure you spent some time trying to make the best links possible between existing classes, notes in your textbook, and really help enrich your base every time you learn new knowledge. The best way you can do this every single day at school is that when you're learning new knowledge, scribble down in your book what this reminds you of. Does today's topic connect with something you've already learned? Does it remind you of a class that you had like a year ago? I try and do this at university all the time thinking about other courses. This relates to other classes, something that I remember my teacher saying, and this really helps put something new in the context of everything else that you already know. Today's exercise is to do this for a piece of homework or study material that you have. Rather than directly learning it or directly completing the activity, take some time to scribble all around the paper things that this reminds you of. Make some links between this topic and other topics that you've learned. Have you seen a documentary on a similar topic or had a conversation recently that relates to this? Good luck making your associations. And remember to upload your resource as soon as you finish it. So just to recap, our miserable little revision is starting to look a bit more spaced, a little bit more active and associated. Right, we're getting there, in the next episode we'll look at the final letter of the sad revision technique framework. 9. SAAD: Desirable Difficulty: We all know the feeling of opening an exam paper and realizing that we know the answers to nothing equally. We all know what it feels like when we fully understand a topic. And going over it kind of feels like a waste of time because you know it. And what is so much harder is to find a sweet spot in the middle. To take on topics that are challenging and that force us to learn while not overwhelming us. And forcing us to crack the final part of the sad framework to test whether your study techniques are effective or not is desirable. Difficulty. It's about doing activities which are hard enough that they challenge you, but not so hard that you break. Picture your studies like this elastic band, the way to study smarter, not harder to always have the elastic band stretched as much as possible. If you're always doing something too easy, the elastic band is kind of weak. You're wasting your time to relax. It's not getting anywhere but stretch it too much. Skip the learned phase. Go straight to the apply phase and it snaps. So you've got to look for the sweet spot, the desirable difficulty. We don't want any burnout. When I was doing my level exams, I absolutely hated organic chemistry. I hated it because I found it so hard. I was the most professional procrastinator that you can imagine. I would convince myself that I needed to revise biology more, which was a lie. Or I'd say that I'd always get round to studying the harder topics later. So it would be closer to the exam, You know, more effective siler, that time would never come Desirable. Difficulty is about self awareness. It's a check in moment with yourself whenever you're studying to ask how am I actually finding this? If it's too easy, amazing, dare yourself to try the harder stuff. Maybe you're ready to move from the understanding phase of learning to applying it. Or if you're trying that past paper and it's so bloody hard, then take a step back. Maybe you're not ready for it yet, ask a friend for help. Watch a video to help you understand. Go ask your teacher. But just notice that that was not desirably difficult. It was just too difficult. The point is to just spend your revision time as effectively as possible. And that means tailoring it to the level that you're at. Today's exercise is a journaling activity, and you can find the questions linked in the resources for the course. I want you to get honest with yourself about your study habits. Do you tend to avoid subjects which are hard? If so, why do you only tend to study the subjects which you find easy or enjoy? And if so, why? How does it make you feel when you have to study something really challenging? How does it make you feel when you don't understand something? Do you keep going at it or do you just want to stop? How can you come up with strategies to seek help when you're in that really challenged phase, such as asking friends for help or speaking to your teachers. I know it's so easy to just listen to these questions and not actually take the time to do the journaling exercise. But I promise you this is just so helpful to understand your own study habits and become more aware of what you tend to do when things get hard. This will help you stay in that zone of desirable difficulty. So there we have it. Here are four questions you can ask yourself every single time you're studying. Are we doing miserable revision or are we doing sad revision that is spaced, that is active, that is associated to your foundational knowledge, and that is desirably difficult? 10. SAAD: Summary and Examples: Guys, you made it. You now know the basics of what makes the study technique effective, or not based on the science of learning. Before you watch the rest of the video, stop for a second and ask yourself, can you remember what S A AD stands for? Hopefully you can remember them all. But if not, here they are. Again, you've got space repetition. You've got active recall, association and desirable difficulty. Before we jump into the next section, where we're going to dig into some amazing example study techniques. First, we're going to look at an example student. And look at their study plan. And basically ask ourselves, is this sad? Is it fulfilling all of these four elements that make a study technique effective or not? Give it a lesson, and see if he's working smarter or just harder. Hi everyone, My name is Gabriel, and today I'm going to walk you through and how I'm studying for my history M. So I have a lot of historical dates to learn for my SXM, and it feels a little bit overwhelming to remember all these different facts. So I decided to make it easier for myself, start early, and also break it down so it's easier to remember all the different dates and events. My main strategy is to make flash cards. I have a question on one side and the answer on the other. For example, this one says, when did World War Two end? And if I turn around, it has a date, September 2, 1945. I'm going to use them to test myself until I've realized that I've actually learned. And don't need to keep repeating the questions. I'm feeling super motivated today, so I want to study the entire day, but I know that's not the most productive way. So instead of just studying the entire day, I'm going to study for a little bit. But use the rest of my motivation to actually make a timetable for how my study is going to go for the next weeks. How I'm going to go about this is that I'm going to schedule time on my calendar to go over the deck with all my flash card questions. I know that unfortunately, I'm not going to be motivated all the time. And that's normal, right? So I'm going to plan ahead and help future Gabriel in how to properly study. So I'm slotting all these different times so I don't have to count on my motivation. I can also count on my planning and go over my deck. I know that studying a little bit consistently is better than trying to do everything I want. So I study my flash card today. I'm going to spend 15 minutes doing them tomorrow. I'll do it again in four days a week. And then in two weeks, hopefully in two weeks, I have learned the important facts and dates and I'll start writing practice exams. I'll try to link it all together using the prompt and tied together all the information that I've learned. And that's my study plan for my history exam. 11. Chapter 2: Example Study Techniques: Flashcards: Hello everyone. Welcome back and welcome to chapter two. You made it. In this section, we're looking at the real study techniques that you can apply from today onwards to improve your study life. But before we get into it, can you remember the three stages of studying from chapter one? Just pause this video for a second. Remember them to yourself, so we have understanding, we have remembering or learning. And then applying today's study technique gets at this middle part of remembering. We're going to be learning how to use flash cards before we jump in. What was the name of the four letter acronym we used to evaluate whether study techniques are effective or not? Today we're not only going to look at what flash cards are, but also why they are. Definitely a sad revision technique. So what are flash cards? Flash cards are small little note cards. They can be physical or digital, and they're used to help you memorize content. One side of the flash card has a question or a prompt, and the other side has the answer. It's as simple as that. For example, if I wanted to learn what are the three types of ATP synthesis reactions, then I could write this on the one side of the flash cards. Maybe even draw myself little things to visualize and help give me a cue. I can answer that question to myself in my head and then turn it around and I've got the answer there. So how do you make flash cards? Flash cards are super easy to make and there are two main ways you can do it. Firstly, you have physical flash cards. This is an opportunity for my guilty pleasure, stationary shopping. You get to go to the shop and buy yourself these cute pocket sized cards. Or if you can't find any in the shop, you can make them with paper or card. You can just cut them into little rectangles. And then you take your class notes or your mark scheme or your textbook, and you summarize just the essential information onto these cards. The more effort you put into forming the questions, the more your brain is working and the more effective your revision will be. Or the second way is you can make digital flash cards. There are so many amazing apps nowadays, but I really like Thanke or Quizlet the same as with your physical flash cards. You write down questions or things that you want to test yourself on. But the beauty of digital platforms is they'll often have space repetition built into it. The platform will track whether you get a question right or wrong, and then time when it should show you it again based on space repetition. So if you get something wrong, it knows, okay, cool. I've got to show her this question again maybe tomorrow or as soon as possible to get her memory back up to 100% But if you keep getting the question right, then you don't need to review it for maybe a week or two weeks. So using these tools is really effective to make sure you're reviewing the information at the crucial moments of your forgetting, but the real tea. So flashcards are one of the most commonly used, but commonly abused, study techniques possible. I remember the first few years that I used them, I would just copy up my class notes. Like my pretty class notes, I would just spend time writing them again on my flash cards. Flash cards shouldn't be an opportunity just to write up notes that you already have, because this becomes passive learning. Instead, flash cards should be three things. Short, meaningful, and connected. Short as in short. Short as in a few words, maximum on a flash card, as in no long sentences. No big explanations. Not something that you could just get in your textbook. Otherwise you might as well just go reread your notes. Secondly, flashcards are all about active engagement. There should be an opportunity for you to fill in the blanks or ask yourself a question, but just really be trying to drag information from your brain. And thirdly, they should be connected so you can use diagrams from previous classes. You can make links to pass information. And especially if you're drawing yourself these pictures and diagrams. It should make it more engaging to both make my flashcards shorter and to involve more of these active filling in the blanks. I adopted a flash card language made of various intuitive symbols. Doing something like this is a great way to force your brain to say aloud what the symbols mean. And generally increases the active recall element. For example, rather than saying increases, you can draw an arrow up. Rather than saying decreases, you can draw an arrow down bigger than, less than you have these symbols. And I stole this thing from maths. Where when you say therefore you do these three dots in a triangle shape, you can literally come up with whatever you want to, to have your own flash card language. But the more effort you're putting into personalizing it, the more effective it will be. So why are flash cards so effective? Let's look at the sad framework. So firstly, space repetition. Flash cards are one of the easiest ways to review information at set intervals over time. And especially if you're using one of the digital platforms like Anke or Quizlet. Then it'll actually let you know when you should be going over it. Again, active recall why are flash cards so much better than passively rereading your notes or going over the textbook? It's because you're actively having to answer questions and drag that information from your brain association. Especially when you're asking yourself questions which link topics or make associations between past classes. Then you're really leveraging this idea of building on your foundational knowledge and desirable difficulty. Generally, with flash cards you have to actively think. You have to be answering questions. You have to be forcing yourself to remember these answers, which can be quite hard. And a lot of the time, this is a desirably difficult technique. The questions should be challenging enough that you really have to think in order to complete them. But accessible enough so that you can actually get them done before advancing to the next video. Your exercise for today is to try and turn the points from today's video into flash cards. What questions can you ask yourself to summarize the main points from today? You have to ask yourself, what do you want to remember? How can you use the fewest words possible on your flashcards? Can you set up an anche or a quizlet account? How can you practice creating flash card language to simplify everything as much as possible? Be sure to upload some photos of your flashcards or a link to your flash card deck to help out other students. See for the next technique, self explanation. 12. Self-Explanation and Teaching: If you've ever found yourself talking to yourself, then this one is for you, my friends. Maybe you're not just crazy, you're actually smart. So self explanation or teaching a friend is basically where you explain a topic to prove that you understand it. Be able to take a topic and summarize all the steps in between is such a good way to realize. If you actually understand it, you so quickly realize the gaps in your knowledge, especially if a friend is asking you questions or pointing out these gaps. So how do you do it? Self explanation is mainly a verbal activity. One easy way to do this every day is after reading a page in your textbook or after finishing a lesson. Just take 5 minutes to explain out loud what you just learned. You can even record yourself so that you can play it back and notice if there were any gaps. You can correct yourself when necessary. This process is brutal because it forces you to summarize just the key information you have to ask yourself, clarifying questions to make sure that you understand it enough, but it is one of the quickest ways to work out what you actually know and then improve on what you don't. For example, if I was learning how to make effective flash cards, maybe I could explain to myself what I learned from the previous episode. I could take a few minutes and just talk to myself in my room being like, okay, yeah, flash cards are this thing. I have a piece of paper on one side, I'm writing myself a question. On the other side, I'm writing down the answer, and I'm making sure that it's sure it's meaningful, it's connected. And if I can't really explain how to make a flash card, then maybe I can go back and I can rewatch the video. As for teaching others, this is as simple as it sounds. Find a friend, or a family member, or even your dog and just try and teach them whatever concept you've been learning. The beauty of this compared to just self explanation is that the other person might ask clarifying questions. For example, your classmate may have very different existing knowledge to your six year old sister. And being able to break down the core of the subject for different audiences really proves that you understand it. So how can you practically implement this in your day to day study life? Firstly, anytime you read a new resource, a new bit of the textbook, you go over your notes, Just stop for a second and try and re, explain it back to yourself. And if you're struggling to put it into words, then it probably means you don't really know it yet. That means you can go back over it. You can ask questions, you can rewatch the video, doing whatever you can until you can flawlessly say it out loud. And secondly, just tell your parents and your friends what kind of things you're learning. Force yourself to explain what you did at school that day. It might sound really overkill. It might sound kind of boring. But I promise you these things, like making them part of your habits, your routine, will help you with your learning before we move on, it's so important to keep coming back to this sad framework. To really just compound. Why are these techniques effective or not? Take a moment, pause the video, and go back to that framework and just have a think. Why might self explanation or teaching be a beneficial technique? We've got space repetition. This activity can be easily repeated again and again. For example, I could explain the same concept for myself the day that I've learnt it in two days, four days after a week after. I can explain the same concept to my dog in another week. Why not? This is an amazing example of active recall because you're really having to pull it out your brain without cues as you're explaining, You'll probably be building on a lot of existing knowledge or even making links to the knowledge of the other person. This will really strengthen the concept via all the connections. And finally, the ability to explain a topic to all sorts of people. Whether it's your friend or a parent that makes this a desirably difficult task. You can always challenge yourself more with someone who has less prior knowledge. When was the last time you assumed you knew something? And the second someone asked you to explain it, you realized that you didn't really know it at all. Hopefully, now you can see the value of self explanation. I dare you to end this video and before you do anything else, to stop for a second and explain it back to yourself. To explain the key ideas. And just ask why is this valuable to my study process? See you in the next episode. 13. Blurting and Active Recall: Welcome to blurting, which is my personal favorite study technique, to not only test my understanding, but also to help me remember new content. So if you thought that blurting was your bestie entering the room and revealing some hot gossip, then I'm afraid you're wrong. Blurting is a study technique which mainly uses the second in sad revision techniques which is active recall. The idea is that rather than stuffing your head full of as much information as possible, you are actively trying to take that information out of your brain and put it on paper. And that helps you remember it more. So how do you do it As you take a topic that you're trying to learn, such as to one available biology, you write down a few prompts of many topics that you need to remember. These can be questions or subheadings, processes, or diagram. You then take a blank piece of paper and you use your prompts to write down as much as you can remember from the topic as possible. All from memory. Every diagram, every process, every argument, even book quotes. If you're studying English literature, the prompts are there to help guide your thinking. But most of the knowledge should be pulled from your brain. Without too much help, you can go into as much detail as possible and literally just write and write and write for a few minutes until you cannot remember anything else that's relevant. When you've blurted out as much knowledge as possible, get out your class notes or your textbook again and cross compare what did you get right, what did you get wrong? You can use a highlighter to go through and make a note of what you got wrong. And then you can use all of these highlighted points to make new flashcards. Or you can even make a study plan to spend more time going over these points in the space of just a few minutes. You've not only tested your whole knowledge on the subject, but you also know exactly which areas you need to focus on more. This is why blurting is just one of my favorite techniques. It is so time effective. Spending literally just 10 minutes, blurting is so much more effective than passively highlighting for 10 hours. So why is it effective? Again, take a moment, pause the video, and really question yourself using this sad framework. Why does blurting work? Space repetition? Just like with self explanation and teaching, you can easily do blurting at regular intervals to make sure you're getting your memory back up to 100% Active recall is the foundation of this technique, no answers are given to you, so you have to actively take that information out of your brain. When blurting, you're often making associations between that topic or that chapter, and that's helping you better understand it. And honestly blurting is not easy. It takes so much. However, because it's so difficult, it is so effective. It's such a good way to work smarter or harder. For today's activity, look at all the subjects that you want to improve the knowledge of. Maybe you have an end of chapter test coming up. Maybe you know that your knowledge of this chapter isn't that good. Spend 5 minutes creating clear prompts for that subject. Then spend 10 minutes blurting. Use these cues to write down as much as you can from that topic that you can remember. And then go through and see the gaps in your knowledge. Upload your blurt here as evidence and inspire others to go find the gaps in their knowledge. 14. Past Papers and Testing: What the best way to learn about exam format is to steal the exam papers just to do past exam questions. This study technique is so over, you don't even really think of it as a study technique, right, Like oh, doing past paper questions. But it's so useful, it is the best way to practice the apply stage of studying. After you've understood the content, you've memorized it, you should be applying it to questions, because that's what's going to happen in your exam. To use this study technique, you can go on websites like your exam board and download your past papers, such as the QA, a level biology paper from 2022. You can print the paper or do the questions from your device, but in order to do the past papers most effectively, I recommend doing a few things. So to be using past papers as natural study technique, I recommend breaking down the process into before you do the question, during the questions, after, before you start the question, pay attention to the action word that they're asking of you. You can annotate the past paper. So are they asking you to compare, to analyze, to describe, or explain? Start noticing how these action words affect what the examiner is looking for. And then before you answer the question, take the time to write down in the margins any topic that you think might be relevant to the question. This is especially useful when the question is trying to hide what it's asking. For example, I remember they used to do this all the time in biology, it would be a question about some new enzyme you've never heard before with a super long name. But they weren't actually asking you about enzymes, they were asking you protein. And there's like a whole chapter in a level biology about protein, just making that extra effort before you fall into the trap of looking more broadly at all the topics you know and thinking, okay, what actually might apply here? For example, if it's an English literature question about a certain character, then really questioning what other themes are relevant to this character might also be helpful. Now we've taken the time to get familiar with the question. We kind of get what they want from us. We know the topics we should apply. We've looked at the action word, We've thought about what kind of answer that might need. Now it's time to get into the habit of an exam mindset. I really recommend timing yourself to get into the habit of working under pressure. Do your best not to look at your notes or to get out too many other resources so that you're actually testing your real knowledge. The idea is to make the most similar conditions to how you would be in an exam and now after you've answered the questions. This stage to me is one of the defining features of students who do really well in exams versus those that don't. Is taking the time to go through that mark scheme, to really question why you got things wrong and then do something about it. Why was it you lost marks? Was it an issue with how you worded your answer? Did you just not know the content well enough or were you actually not specific and detailed enough? All of these are so okay, right. Like it's so fine to lose marks and especially when you're just studying in your room doing questions, if anything, it's better to lose marks now so that you can know how to improve the later. Take the time to write down next to every single question that you got wrong, why it went wrong. And then tally it up at the end. Look for patterns in your general paper. Do you generally lose marks because you don't understand the content enough? Or do you lose marks because you're not specific enough to what the mark scheme needs? Whatever predominant pattern there is, you can take a different course of action to remedy it. For example, one of my teachers at school actually made us do this for every single paper. I found this that she's so tedious. I hated doing it so much. But it was through this process that I realized there were some mini topics I just did not understand at all. And I think if I hadn't taken the time to go back through that paper, I never would have realized that. I then set up these meetings with my teacher once a week where I would just go through topics that I didn't understand, that I kept losing marks on. And that really increased my confidence when I went into those exams. Because I knew that all these questions I got wrong in the past, I eventually have worked through and gotten right in the end. So take the time. Do your past papers, but treat them as a study technique. Don't just do the question really think. How can I make this process the most effective for me? Once again, pause this video and have a think. Why is this an effective technique based off of the sad framework space repetition? You can easily do this at repeated intervals. And especially with papers, you can actually do the same paper at different points across the year, especially questions you got wrong, like keep doing them until eventually you get them right. Hopefully you're not using your notes, which really means you have to engage your memory and use active recall. You're making constant links between the given question and your past knowledge. So this is a great way to use association. And finally, past papers can be hard, but they can also be the perfect level of desirable difficulty that you need at this stage of your learning process. 15. How to Beat Procrastination: So what if you know how to study, you know what you need to do. But somehow every single time you bring yourself to do the work, you just find something better to do. You find yourself replying to e mails. Or suddenly you feel the need to check in on your friend, Or suddenly you're just finding 1 million other tasks which are now more important than studying. In this episode, we're talking about the evil genius, that is procrastination. Sometimes starting work is the hardest part. Here are five practical tips to beat procrastination and Ashley get studying. Number one, leave out all your study resources ready to use before you go to bed. Whichever space that you normally use to study, just try and tidy it away. And leave out whichever resources you need to get started the next day. Leave out just the essentials like textbooks or flashcards, and try and tidy away anything which could be a distraction, like a video game controller or your phone. Suddenly you've reduced a lot of friction. Your work set up is exactly how you need it, and it's a lot harder to say no when it's laid out in front of you. Secondly, welcome to the Pomadori Technique. This literally saves my life on a daily basis at university. This is one of the best known productivity techniques. All you have to do is commit to studying for 25 minutes, not a whole day of studying, Not an hour, just 25 minutes. You set yourself a timer for 25 minutes. And you commit to just doing one task with full focus. So whether that is going over a flash card deck or going over your class notes, all you have to do is do it for 25 minutes. After that, you get a five minute break guaranteed. And the beauty of this technique is that often the hardest part is just starting most of the time. Once you've gotten to that 25 minute mark, it's not that hard to keep going. If you find yourself constantly procrastinating, try dividing your time up into these 25 minute intervals and keep giving yourself breaks will make to keep going. Number three, create a schedule for your time. I can't emphasize enough how absolutely life changing this is. Sometimes when you give yourself too much freedom in a day, you don't really know what to do with your time. It can feel so stressful and so overwhelming when you know that you have a lot of things that you need to do and you don't really know how to fit them in. But whether it's on your Google calendar, or in a journal, or in a notebook, write down a time to time plan of what you'll do when and try and make it as specific as possible to, rather than just study geography, write which topic, which question, which revision method you'll use. How will you study it? Where will you study it? Suddenly when 11:00 A.M. rolls around, you actually know exactly what you're doing and all that choice fatigue is gone none before accountability partners choose someone who ideally you like, but don't get fully distracted by ideally, even choose someone who you respect and maybe seek approval of and then study with them. I was avoiding writing my university dissertation for so long and I had this crisis moment and I was like, Jade, you are just procrastinating. You actually need to get this done. And so what I did was I went down, I scrolled through the list of people in my class and I was like, who can I choose to be my accountability partner? Who can I commit to studying with that's gonna help me get this done? I chose a classmate who I don't know super well, but who I really respect. And now once a week, we go and study for about 4 hours, purely on our dissertations. And I just dread coming to these sessions if I haven't completed anything, because I really respect his opinion of me. And this has changed my life in terms of staying accountable to my goals. If you're heavily influenced by the opinions of others, then you can hack that and actually use it as a tool to beat propascination and finally set yourself mini deadlines. Some people are only motivated by external sources, which is amazing. That's fine. Especially a lot of my neurodivergent friends, they literally will only be motivated by that deadline and do it when they have to do it. If you're someone who normally crams for an exam, how can you create that same sense of urgency before the exam itself? Set yourself these mini deadlines and get people to hold you accountable to them. For example, every time that you have an end of chapter test at school, treat it like something that matters. Study hard for it. Do your best. Breaking down these big, scary exam deadlines into much smaller mini deadlines makes it so much more manageable. So if you're watching this video today and you know that you need to get some schoolwork done, then this is your invitation to go get it done. The more you practice the study skills in this course, including beating procrastination, the easier it will get. But at the start, when it's really hard, you just have to choose to do it. 16. Chapter 3: Motivation: Well hey guys, and welcome back. And you made it to the final chapter of the course. I'm honestly so proud of you. You're smashing it. And now we're getting into the nitty gritty stuff of motivation. Damn it, is one thing to know how to study, it is another thing to want to study. We all know that feeling of having an exam in a week and knowing that we should be studying, and yet feeling absolutely zero motivation to do anything other than watch Youtube videos. In this mini chapter, we're going to talk about that essential bridge between you and getting the grades that you want. Motivation and how are we going to do this? First, we're going to break down motivation into the two types, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Secondly, we're going to look at some of the main reasons why you might not be motivated according to research. And then we're going to work out what motivates you to study. And maybe consider how we can create systems and habits in your life to help you sustain that motivation even when it starts to fade. Seeing as you're watching this and you got to this point of the course, I have a pretty good feeling that you're more motivated than the average person. So I think it's a good sign. 17. Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation: Extrinsic motivation is attached to an external goal or a reward outside of ourselves. For example, I want to get good grades because I want to get into Oxford University, even though they actually rejected me. But it's fine. We move, I want to get good grades because I want to make my parents happy. No matter what you're looking at a reward outside yourself. And you're really motivated to complete this task in order to get that. However, intrinsic motivation comes from this internal desire to do the work itself. You love the process, You actually like studying this thing to you. Studying this subject might be inherently interesting. For example, some sources of intrinsic motivation may include, I want to spend time studying because I genuinely love learning about this. I want to study hard things because I love the feeling of challenging myself and proving to myself that I'm capable of doing these things. I want to go study because I actually really enjoy putting on my low fi playlist and just sitting there with my beats and my herbal tea. And generally, this intrinsic motivation is what we're striving for. We want to like the process. It's proven to be a better motivator in the long run. To help you get to your goals, we're going to have a look at a student's motivations to study. And I would love you to think to yourself. Try and categorize his motivations into intrinsic or extrinsic motivations. Okay, I want to study my data science model really well, because I want to get a well paid job in software engineering. I want you to study psychology really well because I love learning about my relationship with my friends. I want to study geography because it's so much fun just listening to my teacher. I want to study entrepreneurship. So my parents will be proud of me for being successful. Oh my God, you smash that. Okay, So now that you're more clear on the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, it's time to apply it to yourself. What motivates you and what kind of motivation is it? For today's exercise, write down ten things that motivate you to study. I know ten might sound like a lot, but I promise you really getting clear on why you're studying certain subjects, why you want to get to these goals. It's super helpful to keep you going in these moments where it might get challenging. Are you striving to be a Dr. in the future? Can you identify a topic within this subject that you genuinely enjoy? Once you've written down this list of ten things that motivates you, try and categorize them into intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation. And if you notice that most of your sources of motivation are extrinsic, can you maybe question how you can enjoy the process of studying more? Maybe you can create a ritual out of it, like always having a certain drink. Maybe you can try studying with friends or in a new setting. Hopefully, this whole process makes you more self aware about why you're trying so hard. 18. Why Aren't You Motivated?: Can I ask you a question? What do you think is the biggest predictor of whether a student will do well in a subject or not? Based on all this cognitive science research, what is the linchpin of student success? Self belief? Can you believe students self concepts about their attainment in a subject are the most important predictor of academic success, even more than existing achievement. In all these incredible theories of motivation, the absolute core of it is whether or not you think that you will be successful. The underlying feature of success is students self concept, which is informed by self belief. Which basically means we want to work hard when we perceive ourselves as capable. We want to work hard when we care less about failure. We want to work hard when we think we can do well. So why are we sometimes unmotivated? All of the motivation literature points to these main three reasons as to why you might be unmotivated to study. The first is our fear of failure. This is called failure avoidance. I swear there is nothing scarier in this world than trying really hard at something and then failing. It can often feel like that failure is indicative of our self worth and our abilities. It's so much easier not to try. When we don't try, we kind of give ourselves this excuse. Oh yeah, of course I didn't do well on result day because I just didn't really try that hard. It kind of lets us off the hook and makes us believe that if we had tried harder, then maybe we would have done better. So maybe if you're really unmotivated to learn, I dare you to ask yourself, are you just scared of failing? Are you not trying because you're terrified? That caring about school will make failure hurt even more. The second reason we often feel unmotivated is something called learned helplessness. It's when we don't want to engage in tasks because we believe that our effort is futile. Like no matter what we do, failure is imminent. You literally believe that the outcomes are beyond your control. That no matter how hard you study, no matter how hard you try, the outcome will be the same. We'll dig more into this mindset in the next episode. But generally, if you believe that you're just naturally not good at something, then you'll try less. Do you think it's futile? The first step to moving beyond learned helplessness is to become aware of your beliefs. The beauty of this is that you can then start to write down things like, I am in control of my education. It is up to me to improve. I can improve, I am capable of improving. And thirdly, conformity, our social life and our friends really affect how we work. There's so much research into the power of social environments to motivate us or to prevent us from trying. When I was at school around year nine, I had a group of friends who really weren't that interested in studying or doing well at school. They generally preferred to spend class chatting or like not really focusing, catching up about the weekend, whatever. And obviously, they were amazing people and I don't blame them. But I realized that I generally started to study less. I just paid less attention in class. I really wanted to be like them. So I thought it was cooler to try less, to care less about school. Over time, I realized that that's not really what I wanted. My values and beliefs with regards to studying were being changed by my friends values and beliefs. If that resonates with you as a reason why you might generally be unmotivated about school, then I invite you to just question your social environments. I invite you to question what you want to achieve and why. And maybe you have a think about how the people in your life play into that and how they help it, or maybe hinder it. And finally, one of the main reasons you might be unmotivated that all the literature doesn't talk about is circumstances. I really think this needs to be talked about. More mental health hardship, navigating your social life with friends, relationships with stress. There are family. Things happening, like being a young person can be so exhausting. Whether you need to earn money to support your family, whether you're trying to work out what you want to do with your life. There are 1 million other pressures beyond just school. Sometimes school just doesn't feel like a priority and that's okay. It's important to recognize that you might be juggling a lot and to be proud of yourself no matter how you're approaching school. Sounds like you. I just want to remind you that you can always reach out to your school for things like extenuating circumstances or extra support if you need. Sometimes being unmotivated is really justified. Now that we've looked at some of the suggested reasons why you might not be motivated to study, it's time to reflect on yourself, for today's exercise, really question why you might not be motivated. Does it fit into any of these reasons? Is it for other reasons? How can you both have empathy with yourself and perhaps try and find new sources of motivation to keep you going? Feel free to upload your reflections if you think it could be helpful for other students who are in a similar situation. 19. How to Cultivate a Growth Mindset: So apparently, the most important factor to becoming motivated is self belief. But maybe that sucks to here. If you actually don't believe that you're good enough, maybe you've felt yourself giving up on a question because you're just naturally not a maths person. Maybe you've looked at a science question and before you even try it, you're like, yeah, I would just never get that. So rather than putting in more work, you just blissfully decide not to try. Welcome to the fixed versus growth mindset. Revolutionary theory was popularized by Carol Dweck in her book Mindset. A Fixed mindset is when you believe that your abilities are fixed, you believe that some people are just naturally good at science, and if you aren't, you just might as well not even bother. A fixed mindset is a recipe for this low self belief. Of course, you just don't think you're going to do as well if you believe that you have no chance For a while. I had a really fixed mindset about maths. I just thought I wasn't a math person. I would say it all the time. It would be silly things like I'd go out to a restaurant and I'd get the bill, and I'd be like, well, obviously I'm using the calculator because my brain just doesn't work for these kind of things. Even though if I really wanted to and put, I probably could have done that maths. Whenever a problem came up in daily life, I would just give it to someone else. But because of this, I just wouldn't work as hard at maths because I felt like it was hopeless. I was literally choosing not to improve because I felt like I couldn't. What I want this course to move you towards is something called a growth mindset. This is the idea that everyone's competencies are flexible. Anyone can be good at anything. I know it's hard to believe. Like Einstein said, it's not that I'm so smart. It's just that I stay with problems longer. The most powerful insight to take away from growth mindset is the word. Yet I am not good at this yet. I don't understand this yet. I haven't achieved what I want to yet. But I can, and I will, if I want to. Using the word yet changes your mistakes from a part of your identity to just something that you can work on and improve it, changes it to something active and within your control. For today's exercise, I'd love you to write down some of these fixed beliefs you might have. Have you ever noticed yourself saying something like, I'm just not naturally good at this? Or wow, this person is just such a wordy person. Write down as many of these occasions as you can and then consciously write down five phrases which combat it. Write down phrases using the word yet so things like, I don't understand flashbold memory yet, I don't really find maths that easy yet. Taking the time to do this on a regular basis is such a good way to start moving a fixed mindset to more of a growth mindset. And why is this important? Little review question. What is the biggest factor underlying motivation? The biggest factor underlying motivation is self belief. The more self belief you have, the more growth mindset you have, the more likely you are to succeed. 20. What Motivates YOU to Study and Why?: Wow guys, you did such a deep dive of motivation. We've looked at some types of motivation, we've looked at reasons why you might not be motivated. And finally, it's time to really interrogate what gets you out of bed to study. Why'd you care? Why are you trying? There's so much evidence to suggest that writing down your motivations, writing down your goals, makes them so much more likely to come true. So for today's episode, I want you to get clear on your why. Why do you see yourself in the future? How does studying and grades play into that future? How can studying hard now help you get there? One of my biggest goals as a teenager was to become a vet. I would spend literally all my holidays and free time volunteering in animal rescues, in kennels, in cateries, in stables. I even volunteered at London Zoo for two months, but I knew that becoming a vet required quite high grades. I knew that I would have to study subjects which classically are difficult, like chemistry, math, biology. But what I did was I made myself a vision board on my wall of everything to do with being a vet. I wrote motivational quotes, I would affirm these to my every day I got little post at notes and wrote things like I am capable of getting the grades, I need to become a vet. This really helped work on my self belief to increase my motivation, especially because I came from a family where my parents didn't go to university. If you don't necessarily have this representation, then you have to be part of working on your self belief and therefore increasing your motivation for your goals. So today's activity is to make yourself a vision board. Include whatever motivates you most, whether that is a career goal, you, when you're looking really happy, you when you felt less stressed because you were on top of your work and didn't have to cram, Whatever is something that you will look at and it'll help make you feel good about the process of studying. Put it there. Put it somewhere where you can see it every day. Some of the affirmations that I would repeat to myself when I was doing my GCSEs were things like, I am worthy of being successful and happy. I am capable of achieving whatever I want to. I am so grateful for my education and all the opportunities presented to me. I am capable of becoming a vet. I am capable of completing my exams and not getting too stressed. I used to write these on posted notes and put them around my room. So if that helps you, I highly recommend doing that too. If you make a pretty vision board, please upload it. I would let you die to see some of your dreams on your walls or posted notes. Just please upload them. I'm so sure it's gonna help us all stay motivated. 21. You Made It! Closing Moment: Wow, can you believe you made it to this point? I just need to take a moment to congratulate you for your dedication to your own learning and growth. If you've been paying attention the whole time, completing the exercises, showing up as you have been, you should be feeling a little bit more confident in your study journey. Studying takes practice, it takes effort. And honestly, it might be worth returning to parts of this course. If you ever feel like you need to refresh your knowledge, make sure to upload as many of your resources as possible to help motivate and inspire other students on their study journey. You are an inspiration and I'm gladly proud of you for making it this far. I just want to say that no matter what grade you get, no matter what the future holds, you are in love. Your grades don't define who you are. Your work ethic and your self belief does keep being your proactive, wonderful self. The kind of person who makes it to the end of this course, and I'm so sure it'll work out for you. You've got this. Good luck with it all. For more advice, check out my book, the only study guide you'll ever need, and my Youtube channel. And Jade of Jade, you've got this guys. Bye.