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Cyber Security : Go From Zero to Hero

teacher avatar We Secure, Cyber Security Training

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Lecture 1 - Introduction to Computer Networking


    • 2.

      Lecture 2 - Definition and Characteristics


    • 3.

      Lecture 3 - Types Of Network Topology


    • 4.

      Lecture 4 - History And Applications Of Networking


    • 5.

      Lecture 5 - Protocols And Standards


    • 6.

      Lecture 6 - The OSI Reference Model


    • 7.

      Lecture 7 - The TCP/IP Protocol Suite


    • 8.

      Lecture 8 - Addressing In Computer Networks


    • 9.

      Lecture 9 - What is an IP Address?


    • 10.

      Lecture 10 - Classes of IP Address


    • 11.

      Lecture 11 - Class A to Class E


    • 12.

      Lecture 13 - Address Resolution Protocol


    • 13.

      Lecture 14 - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol


    • 14.

      Lecture 15 - Internet Control Message Protocol


    • 15.

      Lecture 16 - RIP OSPF BGP


    • 16.

      Lecture 17 - File Transfer Protocol


    • 17.

      Lecture 18 - Domain Name System


    • 18.

      Lecture 19 - Sockets


    • 19.

      Lecture 20 - HyperText Transfer Protocol


    • 20.

      Lecture 21 - HyperText Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer


    • 21.

      Lecture 22 - Conclusion of Networking


    • 22.

      Lecture 23 - Definition of Security


    • 23.

      Lecture 24 - History of Cyber Security


    • 24.

      Lecture 25 - Career insights


    • 25.

      Lecture 26 - Why Should You Go For Cyber Security


    • 26.

      Lecture 27 - Conclusion


    • 27.

      Lecture 28 Introduction


    • 28.

      Lecture 29 Definition of Computer Security


    • 29.

      Lecture 30 Types of Computer Security


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About This Class

The field of technology is growing exponentially with the IT sector flourishing every day. Amidst such growth of the industry and increased concern for privacy, the demand for security is rising. Cybersecurity has become an everyday struggle for many businesses. Recent trends and statistics reveal that there is a huge increase in hacked and breached data from very common sources at workplaces. So go for this course to get a better understanding of cyber security!

Most of the people are often confused when they are asked - “WHAT IS CYBER SECURITY?” The most common reply is - “UM, HACKING. ” Well, hacking is part of cyber security but it doesn’t mean that hacking is the synonym of cyber security. Many courses out there only teach how to use the tool but the reasoning that goes behind its selection is not taught. Also, the main focus of these courses is on hacking but it is not the only domain in cyber security. Other major domains are Incident Response Management, Blue team, Security Audits, IT Security Management, Security laws and many more.

Well University of Maryland, United States, says,

Hackers attack every 39 seconds, on average 2,244 times a day.

So are you sure that your data is well protected from these hackers? Have you even configured your network to control your privacy? Do you know how hackers can access your devices without your knowledge?? Well, don’t worry! We are here to answer these questions. There must be many questions in your mind regarding this course. We will surely address all once you enroll for this course, but for the time being, we’ll focus on the following questions:


Let’s face it. We live in a digital world. Our work lives, personal lives, and finances have all begun gravitating toward the world of the internet, mobile computing, and electronic media. Unfortunately, this widespread phenomenon makes us more vulnerable than ever to malicious attacks, invasions of privacy, fraud, and other such frightening cases. This is why cyber security is such a vital part of a secure and well-ordered digital world. Cybersecurity keeps us safe from hackers, cyber criminals, and other agents of fraud.

But let me ask you a question,


"This course is very useful for learning the basics of cyber security. I was not familiar with the terms at first but after opting for learning something new I learned new terms. The instructors are very helpful and they make us understand the concepts in ease and the explanation provided by them is very quick to grasp. So thank you for sharing this amazing course." ~ Madhura Risbud

Here are some facts that would blow up your mind!

1. According to Varonis, Worldwide spending on cyber security is forecasted to reach  $133.7 billion in 2022.

2. Data breaches exposed 4.1 billion records in the first half of 2019.

3. Symantec says, the top malicious email attachment types are .doc and .dot which makes up 37%, the next highest is .exe at 19.5%

These are not just facts but they are warnings! Everyone who is accessing a device should be aware of their security and that is why we have designed this course. Okay, here comes the next question.


The perfect answer to this question would be - Have a look at our curriculum. Cyber Security - Beginner to Expert is the first part of our CYBER SECURITY SPECIALIZATION. In this course, we have covered from the basics of the computer to networking right up to overview of advanced concepts such as cryptography, security auditing, incident management. Yes, we have started right from the definition of a Computer Network.

Bonus Material -We have also included interesting practicals !!

In the second section, we dive into cyber security. We discuss right from the history of cyber security to different trending terminologies. We have specially designed the curriculum to make sure even a novice student can understand the concepts. The course will help you develop critical thinking needed to pursue a career in Cyber security. You will also get to know about organizations and resources which provide assistance and framework in this field. We recommend you to watch our introductory video where we have discussed the entire syllabus :) Have a look at the few features of our course.

Handpicked curriculum, specially designed for all levels of learners.

Get your questions answered within 48 hours.

Regular updates made to the curriculum.

Different aspects of Cyber security explored.

Practicals with explanation included.

Understand how cryptography works in real life.

Real-life examples such as firewalls, antivirus, cyber-attacks are also discussed and much more.


This course is not intended for a specific group of people. Anyone who wants to learn about cyber security can enroll for this course. If you already know a few concepts, you can always revisit the ideas and clear. We have covered statistics along with technical topics. In short, this is a perfect course for you if you want to kick start your career in cyber security!


Once you move ahead in this course, you will get a clear idea about what cyber security is. We have assembled this course in a way that you will enjoy and learn along the way.

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Cyber Security Training

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1. Lecture 1 - Introduction to Computer Networking: hello and welcome to the course for the middle's off cybersecurity, part oven. In this entire course, we are going to cover seven sections, starting with the first section that is the basics of comprehended. Working this section endures will important concepts of competent working around with essential practical, starting with the standard definition of competent booking? Then comes the history and applications off networking for the goals and standards, the two important models that is the same model and the TCP Abby Martin. Then comes addressing and more design I P address, Then all the very important sockets. Everything other protocols will be covered in this section. The five Trump Supporter going and the domain name systems, one of the key elements of networking and last scdp and extra DPS. Well, concentrate be focused. Have your attention on details. Make notes on Ask US doubts if you have any, See you in the first video 2. Lecture 2 - Definition and Characteristics: from this lecture, we're going to begin the first section off course, which is the basics of networking. Throughout this section, you will learn various networking principles that working types, devices, protocols, standards, etcetera, see if they're already familiar with what isn't working. You can skip this video and move on to brush up the next parts of networking. But if you don't do not know what networking is, please do not worry. We are going to cover right from the basics of network, So let us start exploring the field off computer networks. So what is it? Working? Networking is changing the way we do business and the baby live business decisions have to be made ever more quickly. And the decision makers require immediate access to information by wait for a week for a report from Germany arrived by made when it could appear in the mailbox and most instantaneously through computer networks. Or why write a letter to your friend, whereas you could just easy type a message and senator what's up, which could obviously get delivered within a fraction off seconds. Businesses as well of people rely on computer networks and Internet looks, but before we ask how quickly we can. We need to know how networks prayed and what type of technologies are available and which in design Best feels, which set off needs development off the person. Computer Brought about tremendous changes for businesses, science and education. Technological advances are making it possible for communication links to carry more and fast signals. This section addresses food, major issues off networking that is, the networks, the Internet, protocols and standards. First, we're going to give a broader definition of networking. Then you're going to define what types of networking that is, for example, ah, Heidi on Richard D. Talk and level. And then the Internet is discussed as a good example of Internet work and finally, the addressed different types of protocols so that doesn't define what is. The job network is a sort of devices connected by communication links, nor can be a computer or printer or any other device which is capable of sending or receiving data generator of our other nodes on the network. Well, we defined network must be able to meet a certain number of criteria. Most important of these is performance, reliability and security. These three as suspects, the fight on the talk. So to be specific with computer technology network is a connection off two or more computers that are linked to each other in order to carry out tasks just printings, sharing data, exchange of electronic media, transferring files, coping and piecing or whatever normal to computers do. So if we try to co relate networking, either date, real life can see that a group of friends sharing ideas between the members of the group or discussing radius issues is also network. Right, you mean? I mean, you give knowledge, you share ideas with your friends that can be considered as a human network. So a network is basically defined by one factor, and that is transform information from one point to another point or sharing off knowledge from 1% 1 other person. So now there to see the characteristics off a computer network, the first Borden Galatis tick off any network is sharing off resources. Yes, it is the fundamental use off a network. We can usually share resources between two PC's, then create and store fire and booby sees access those files from different computers. Yes, networking makes it easier for a computer to access a file from the remote location. Another supposed let's say there's a computer in San Francisco and now you want to access off five inches in China. Easy. You do it with the help off servers and clients, which we're going to see in the next models. Then we can connect input output devices such as printers, mouse keyboard. Yes, they're also part of a computer network. Then networks. I loves us to share databases on different servers. The websites with you. Oh, access. Like if you are single e commerce website, all the data base is not store on. One PC gets stored remotely on different servers, so it becomes easy. The excessive it and also NATO reduces the cost consumption. As I gave the example of e commerce. Now, if you want to store the entire database that one single place, it becomes a tedious task. Also, these dangerous because if one so we're gets damage, the advertised lost. That is why database store are different servers. So we have seen the characteristics of computer that'll. Then we have also defined what is a computer network. The next lecture, we would see different types of network apologies that I used in day to day practice. See you at the next lecture 3. Lecture 3 - Types Of Network Topology: So in this lesson, we're going to see the networked apologies that are currently being used in practice. So what is the network Topology on? Network topology is an interconnection off various computers in a specific way, which includes a connection between two computers using data cables. Also, we can define It is an arrangement of network which comprises of nodes and reconnecting lines, my A sender and receiver. So let us now see the different types of apologies. 1st 1 is the messed apology in Mr Apology. Every device is connected to another device. Where? Particular channel. So in the picture you can see, then every PC is connected to every another busy so foreign for this PC. This is gonna take to this This this one and this one. I will make use off point intial. So see this PC is connected. Forced this PC this specie I'm so he couldn't draw a line between the species, but it is connected. So suppose if there are any devices connected with each other in a measured apology than the total number of able that we really need is an minus one. Now, what are the advantages off Mr Apology messed apologies robust. Then, in such kind of topology, fall is easily diagnosed. For example, if this PC feels and this piece is working, you cannot send the data between these two pc's. But this PC contend data to this PC this piece and this piece is which means there's a problem in this PC, which is very easy to detect, then the data's level because their ties transferred among the devices through dedicated channels or links, and also employees by privacy and security. Since every technology has disadvantages attached to it that Mr Apology has also 2 to 3 D servant ages, which installation and configuration is difficult because here you need to correct every PC to another. You know, machines. So a lot of fighting and maintenance is required. Another, since you've since very quietly providing maintenance is also high on. Hence it is suitable for less number of devices. For example, if you want to connect when the distinctive devices in network will have to connect 1234 wires inducted, so next we're going to see star topology in star topology. All the devices are connected to a single help through cable, so you can see this is hope and peace. Four. He sees a connected to a single help. This hub is the central node and all other norther connected to the center, nor the Hopkin passive in nature, that is it is not intelligent. Intelligent help such as broadcasting us is for example, the specie wants to say hello. I am PC A. In this information passes through this happened this heart cannot see word information a sending and therefore this up broadcasts the message toe all the PC's and now supposed e wants to send information to see So it is sensitive. Dedicated will see only the information is received by sea and desert a couple hits. So now if though, if this PC sends Hello, I am a But it is indented to send for C and the information get CRB builds in the why don't recognize it information and hence to discard that active has the repeaters in that which means this is an active up. It will know that the information is intended for C and hence it will send information only . So this PC So what are they had our tees off start apology If an devices are connected to each other in star topology than the number of cables required to connect them is. Then you can see here four devices are connected to the central happened, therefore, number of wires and 123 and four each. Do us a question. We want food that is to connect the hub and problems is if the concentrator now suppose there are cases in which hop fields that if this if this help feels all the devices are feet, it feels so. You know, you this have feels you cannot transfer information from this PC to PC because the part off information is via help. You can directly transfer from peace even to B C four. Next apology is ring topology. So in this topology formed the ring. You can see the dresses are connected in the form of free and it is a connecting the devices. But it's exactly to neighbouring devices. For example, this PC has told us that this and this now in a ring topology that is our station which is one as a monitor station with savage, takes all the responsibility to perform the operations, transmit the data station, has to hold the token. After the transmission is done, the token is to be released for other stations to use. Now suppose this PC wants to transfer information to this PC, but the token is here. So this PC has to wait till the token comes from the this path to this this PC. So now when p. C e. We can assume that it is, it's about 15 0 it's Bob. Specie has a token, so he holds the token. It tells other computers that weight. I am going to transfer information with this computer. And when he finishes transferring the information, he passes under token to the next computer. In this way ring topology, folks. So you know you can guess what is the bizarre, disavowed page of dissident. Apology is the communication is very slow. You have to fade for the token to come. And suppose if this computer this PC feels specie, you know, has some problems with it, then you cannot pass the token from this computer to this computer, the token parts of lead in the direction. It's not buyer addiction, so this is the main disadvantage off, hurting distinct apology. But around ages, you know, additional stations in between, Removal is quite easy. If you feel you add a new device, you can just add between these two pieces, there is no need to affect all other PC's. The next apology is the bus topology. In this topology, you're a bus topology. If it shared backbone cable, these notes are connected to the chancellor. Drop plans so you can see this is the main cable on. All of the PC's are connected to the red lines have shown bust apologies. And that work type in which every computer and network device is connected to a single cable, transmits the data from one into another in single direction. No bidirectional feature is in bus topology. Example. If you want to transmit the data from this PC to the species, you have to transfer information where this this is the pot again. The date I sent to all other devices on the device, which is intended for the detail, recognizes that it and the last one is the hybrid apology. As you can see, hybrid apologies, a combination off all the apologies that we have seen. For example, this is a central hub. This is the central place off hybrid apology. This is a star topology since his bus topology. And this is ring topology. Mr. Apology is basically a connection off toward more apologies which are described above on. And this is a scalable topology which can be expanded easily. It is a level one, but at the same time, it is costly on because, you know, uh, do you want to your your also using ring topology as well as help as well as a You know, Busto. So that is all for today's elector. So now, till now we saw define what is that working we define why we need networking. The advantages of networking characters accepted working and also the types off apologies that are seen in the practice. So now we will see in the next letter, and in the next lecture, we will learn about the history of that working very. It actually started 4. Lecture 4 - History And Applications Of Networking: in this video, I'm wound to cover the history and the applications of competent it. Working in today's hepatic world almost any new devices born smart enough to connect easily with the global network. This is possible because of the core of this world with infrastructure lights. But because Internet, which is a set of shared communications standards, procedures and former it's called Protocols, the foundation was laid by the ARPANET. It was established by the United States Department of Defense. Our parents in full stands for the advances, says Projects Agency Network. Was the experimental come for the network that was the forerunner off the Internet? It's initial purpose was building competence. It research institutions over different lines. Our planet was the first wired area Packer Switching Network with distributor control on the first network to implement a TCP Protocol sued, which which is operated at the transport layer the TCP. Every morning, the first network was laid between University of California Los Angels Understand for Research Institute, and then it expanded for in lies of the New York and Washington, and there were covering the entire United States. The next comes the Internet that the Internet was going by Wynton Self Jurgen the Lull and called Sunshine Off Stanford University described this network off networks. Our planet expanded to connect duty with those universities off. The US advocating or defense later works. The concept of networking got a boost when University College of London and the Roller Down Network, nor be connected to the Arpanet and the network of networks was formed. The next comes tended then that is a native of protocol. It just to virtually access to computer into proper two way collaborator communication channel between two machines it for those that use the command transmission protocol. It is the PCB protocol. Through Tenet, US can log on as a regular user with the privileges there granted the specific applications in the data Under computer here, the concept of Internet service provider was introduced, which is the main back, both networking in today's world. Next comes the Www you might have heard of Www right from my childhood general definition for a layman can with www seen in in the Ural in 1980 timber, ominously based in Swiss illing invented the void where there remember this name can be asking many interviews. Void Word is a global information medium, which users can access where computers connected to the Internet. The turn is often mistaken. Used a synonym for the Indian itself and often called the Internet. But the is a service that operates over the Internet. Just as email www is a complex web of websites and reporters connected through the hypertext hypertext is a word or a group of words linking to another webpage are the same or different website. When I have predicts this clip, another webpage opens. Now, I would like to show you the flow chart off entire medical history in 1957 up when it was formed. After sufficient research in 1969 our planet become function. 1970 happened. What's going to be beings? The BB and supported by notebooks. 1970 Do email was developed and symbol after it came into use. 1974. The Internet, Good coined and telnet was approved in 1982. Do the PCB standard for the Global adopted 1983 the domain name system DNS. What's farm 1986 And SF Neck was a program, but the United States of America to enhance student student to do research. Incompetent Looking later, fees in 19 91st with blows over the next two scored dollar out of eight steaming or during who doesn't do and doesn't fall where Coupon zero were bought Legally. Date. The void is full of networks, and hence there comes a new of cybersecurity. The applications are comprehended looking The Whip, which we used in our day to day life. Email at Gmail, Yahoo or Hotmail. Fire transfer Simpler Downloading or uploading files from the Internet is the you is the mean application of competent working cloud computing. Cloud computing is the on demand delivery off the resources or the intent with pay edge ago pricing? Instead of buying, going and maintaining physical data centers and servers, you can access technology services, such as on putting power stories and databases on a as needed basis from the cloud provider . The great corporations can be termed list. Amazon lip service is all the mindless a zoo. Some standalone applications can be real life examples. Incompetent booking Simply consider your your musical laboratory, but your professors BCS patient at the slumber BC on all spirits using the BCS station is the client PC 5. Lecture 5 - Protocols And Standards: In this video, you will learn how to describe protocols and standards. First, we will define protocols which is a synonymous with rules. And then we discuss about strength standards which agreed upon rules. You might have heard of the word protocol in computer networks. Communication off cause between entities in different systems on entity is anything which is capable off sending and receiving information. However, two entities cannot simply send data to each other and aspecto understood for communication to occur, entities must agree upon a protocol. For example, if you weren't writer made to your boss audio head our director you you can't just right. Hey, what subdued? How are you? Right. There is a center procedure to write it. If you write that, he'll probably fire you. So there is a specific way off writing and imagery of boss and the way is bound by specific rules which is known as a protocol. So you need to follow that protocol in order to communicate with your boss. So protocol is a state off rules that govern data communications protocol defines what is communicated and how it is communicated. Invented. This communicated the three key elements of a protocol US in tax semantics on time sort of this index the terms in tax free force with a structure off for Mac off the data, meaning the order in which they represented, for example, a simple protocol might expect the 1st 8 bits of leader to be the address of the sender, the next 64 bigs off the message and last eight nude statues of the receiver. So this is basically list in tax off form, in which your Paschal message, for example, of a rival aerating and e mails index of the email can be, you know, the sender receiver in the subject and then the main body. And finally, the last one you like that is this index no semantics. The work Symantec's reversed the meaning off each section of bits. How is a particular pattern to be interpreted and what actions to be taken based on that interpretation, for example, doesn't address identify the root need to be taken for the final destination off? The message in the last one is timing the term timing reposed to two characteristics when the data should be sent and how fast the details will be sent. Suppose it for senator produces or data are 100. MVP's Onda Center is trying to transfer 100 MBPs of data to the receiver. But at the end of the receiver, if the receivers called PC or computer is accepting only at one MBPs positive and then the rest of the data might get lost. So all these three parameters need to define first for a protocol, for example, for your life. Example. If you're replying toe mean given by your boss, you can't just send to me at midnight like it went three It right. There's a specific time in that you have to communicate with your boss. So these are the three key elements for no, we'll see what isn't messed enders standard that essential in creating and maintaining an open and competitive market. Gootman manufacturers and in and guarantee national and international interoperability off data and telecommunications technology and processes. This is a huge large sentence. Let me repeat it. Once again. Standards are essential in creating and maintaining an open and competitive market improvement manufacturers, so it is basically means which helps in the competitive marketing off different procedures and processes. So do tech communications standards fall into two major categories. De facto meaning by which fact or bad convention on the 2nd 1 is de jure, meaning by law regulation de facto standards that have not been approved by organized party but have been adopted as a standards to widespread use on minors. Defector standards These standards are often established originally by manufacturers who seek to define the functionality off a new product. Arctic Apology Do your standards have been legislated about an officially recognized body, which means these standards are laid by some authorized six dignity? Some institutions have prepared the standard and then give the standards for widespread use . Now let us look at some different organizations which are internationally known for this tenders. While many organizations are dedicated to the establishment of tenders detected, telecommunications in North America rely primarily on these standards. The International Organization for Standardization, that is I s school, the eyes all summer international body whose membership is drawn mainly from the standards creation committees of various governments throughout the world. You may see some where exercise also different. Now, what is mean by that? I was a certified not these organizations that has led some standards and protocols that are being followed by the particle in Vector and hence this institution, that is I S O certifies those products. The next one is American National Standards Institute, ANSI. Despite its name, the American National Standards Institute is a completely private, nonprofit corporation, not affiliated toe any off the US government's. However all and see activities are undertaken with the velvet off the United States and citizens occupying primary importance next one, which is common to all the ingenious around his eye. Tripoli that his Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, is the largest professional engineering society in the world. International in scope. It aims to advance theory, creativity and correct quality in the fields off electrical engineering, Tektronix and Radio, as well as in all the director branches of engineering. As one of its goals. The I Tripoli was sees the development and adoption off international standards for computing and communications, and the last one is Elektronik Industries Association. It is also aligned with Nancy. So now in the next lecture, the doc about the course I'm wanted what is always side what I'd its features, its layers etcetera will be discussed in the next lecture 6. Lecture 6 - The OSI Reference Model: in this video, I'm going to cover the OS Immortal open system Interconnection model Always side the seven , the model used to visualize comfort the networks. The always Sam order is often viewed as complicated, and many fear having to learn the model. However, the Ice and Martin is an extremely useful tool for development and problem solving. Each of the seven less goes up in increments off one as it let get schools are to the human user. The application. There is school just to the person when the physical layer is very native, receives and transmits raw data in plain English was a provides a standard for different computer systems to be able to communicate with each other. Seven years of always Ahmadullah the physically detailing, glee connected Brooklier Transport Layer Station, their presentation layer and application that do this station there in the presentation there are extra in the same order as with respect to the TCP every morning. This is how you send the A Mrs Girlfriend. I would like to demonstrate with an example. Firstly, you want to communicate the number system knew the physical connection to this cable school , asks the physical layer, even though you're connected physically, you need to address yourself this map data link Layer Mac is a physical address for your liver's basically Internet. WiFi, etcetera. Now you have a Mac and a physical connection. All you need is logical address. That is I p. The native. A clear No. You have a book set up off network with physical links and addresses. But how do we communicate? All you need is a protocol. It's transfers their data from your system to another that is the TCP or UDP transport layer. There should be an intermediate nodal, which manages the setting up, taking down off the association between two communicating in points that this cold connection that is done by the session there. The data flows in network will be in the form of ones and zeros, so there should be noted, which translates the ones and zeros toe plain text that is the human readable format and, if necessary, compression and decompression. This has been by the presentation there. Finally, what you see in a monitor on mobile is the final application and the result of the combination of all these protocols. This can be done by the application the http and https. The 1st 3 layers are responsibility of the network and next four layers of the responsibility of the coast. The layers of the always somebody first comes the physical. The physical layer is literally the physical hardware that makes up the net for this layer . Has several measure functions. Be finding physical specifications, defining protocols, defining transmission more, that is, Half duplex and full duplex defined the networks Topology Harbor, such as the physical components off the Eighth Planet Gables in blue. Put just some examples of the physical there. This is also the layer where the data gets converted into Orbit Street, which is a string off months and zeros. General incompetence system one stands for true and zero stands for faults. Next comes to do. Definitely the day telling clear is very similar to the network there except the data. Winkler fascinators data transfer between two devices on the same network, they're telling Claire is weird. Switches operate and Probursa reliable ing between two directly connected knows data. Link Layer is also responsible for detecting possibly fixing any packet errors that my form on physical Next comes the nerd uglier. The native accolade is responsible for fascinating data transfer between two different networks. If the two devices communicating on the same network network layer is unnecessary. The network plan also finds the best physical part for the data to reach its destination. This is known as a routing. This is where your appeared this comes from. Drought is responsible for sending backers of information up into the Internet and then receiving them. These packets, religion and disposition, is determined by the I peered this off you out the next transport live. The transport layer is responsible for end to end communication between two devices as FC showing the truck driller two devices Transport Layer is responsible for the largest ixil decision. The transport layer would be responsible for determining what and how much information is transferred within the operating system and the Web cell next decision there. This is the layer responsible for opening and closing communication within the two devices . The session there is responsible for creating and mentoring sessions within the operating system. On the presentation, Lee and the other third party machines, for example, when the users browsing the indebted they're interacting with the application there, the application there is interacting with the presentation. Their decision there allows the operating system to interact with the Web server. Yeah, this is This is more complex than decision. The inches Their decision stays open long enough. Transfer all the data being exchanged and then promptly causes decision In orderto Albert resting of resources, the six layers the presentation day, this latest family response of the preparing data so that it can use but application. Their presentation layer is also responsible. Translation. Encryption on placing off compression of greater the presentation there is where the operating system lies. This operative system would have Windows are any UNIX based operating system one of the many applications, but the human using index with the application they described about the application there interacts with the presentation there their devices communicating over an encrypted connection. But its ambition layer responsible for adding the encryption on the same lesson as was recording the inclusion receivers in so that it can present application with uncompleted three divided later. This is the most important wind of the president descended the application there. Application there is very used to impress data and data is output to the user. Softer applications like Web browsers and email clients. We learned application live, initiate communications, but it should be married year that the Clarence after applications are not the part of the application there that that the application there is responsible for the protocols and data manipulation at the soft. It relies on the present meaningful data to the user clams after it's a specific application that instructs installed on your computer that can be used to communicate with some other piece of the software. Well, Network says his Internet world order. Microsoft O Clock on Your Dick Start with soft reclined and India Web browser. A software cleanse an example of the application. There is an Internet browser on if he proclaimed, or even Microsoft word. Everyone. This was a mortal was the more the brakes and complex world of networking into single model . What's a model is basically generate model that is including a whole off things or somewhat is very extinguishment. It's all the layers I'm wearing. Extinguishment, separated supports, connection oriented in connection. This service is more secure and adaptable, but the 2nd 1 is always immortal. Basically, it is a tear article mortar, but does not guarantee efficient conversion inadequate solution for practical network implementation can always appeared The TCP a portable toilet, namely wondered, This is the main this animal digital door over someone, the last guy working button. 7. Lecture 7 - The TCP/IP Protocol Suite: in this lecture we talk about the CPP protocols suit that is transmission control protocol and in rent protocol suit. So what is D c? Baby morning? The TCK people called suit was developed prior to the words I model. Therefore, the layers in the TCP models protocols do not exactly match losing those I murdered in the last lecture you saw what is on the same order and also got an idea about what are the leaders of was awarded the original P C baby protocols who was defined as having four lives host to network Internet transport and application. However, when the CPI I because compared toa also as you can see in this light, you can see that the host to network there is equally violent. Do you? The network is sorry the host to network layer the music federal combination off the physical and detail English we can see commonly this host tuna totaling clear is also is a combination of physical and detailing clear in the same order the intellect Leary is equivalent to the network Leo and the application layer is the is in analogous with three layers of those I'm Well, that is the sessions were at the presentation there and application here. So if you combine these three layers, then this combined earlier is one of the application NTC paper Moral. So what? This, like Joseph E. Assume other TC papers to his Miracle five years and this physical there detailing Clear Network Clear Transport earlier on the application, do you see Babies? A hierarchy protocol made with interactive models, each off which provided specific functionality. However, the more lives are not necessarily in interdependent, whereas the way Samora specifies which functions belong to each of its layers. The layers of TCP UDP protocol suit contented relatively independent protocols that can be mixed and matched depending upon the news of the system. The Tom Harkin means that each up a little protocol is supported by one or more lower particles. For example, if you want some processing off the transporter here, all the particles below the transport layer. Most polls of coordinate with the transport layer protocols in order to successfully be past the data from transport layer to the application at the physical layer, and it'll at the physical and Datalink lier. But the sea burial does not mention any of the protocols you can see here that are different particles mentioned at different layers. So let's see about Negro clear at the network. Clear or more accurately, the Internet. Cavalier PC papers support the inter networking protocols that his I p that is Internet Protocol Intern uses four supporting particles. Which means I, people call is supported by these forgettable. Which of these four protocols here addresses revolution protocol are Yet we that is, reverse off addresses, resolution protocol, the Internet control message protocol and then i GMP. Then then comes I be Protocol, the inter networking Protocol. It's the transmission mechanism used by the TCP protocols. It is an unreliable and connection this protocol best Fort Delivery service. So what? This connection is perfectly basically. There are two types of portables. Connection less protocols and connection oriented protocols in connection within the protocols. Before the data transmission actually begins, the part between sender and the receiver should be fixed, and that data ground follows the same but which is fixed. But what is a collection? Let's protocol in connection disputable. The path is not fixed, the data is sent and it can travel the way it wants. Depending upon the networks are consensus, and then it reaches the destination. When advantage of connection oriented protocol is that delivery off the packet is guaranteed because of PATH is guaranteed in connection that's protocol. You don't know whether the packet will reach their destination or not. I peed transports data in packets called Data Grams and each of which is transported separately. The diagrams can travel along different rubs and can arise out of sequence or be duplicated . He does not keep track off the roads and has no facility for a pre ordering data Grams once they arrive er destination. So in connection less protocol, the packets are sent at different parts. So even if the packets arrive at their destination, they're not in our fashion but in connection oriented protocol, the back it's arrived as their scent, so the first packet is sent from the source. It arrives in the order. The first package reaches the first at the destination that is right. Correctional in their protocol is more often preferred. Then, when the user wants to ensure the delivery of the bracket, the next isn't that transport cleared in transport. Clear. You can see this three protocols is that this Casey baby protocol You levy protocol and STT people to call you deep ap Uli P I. P s a host rose protocol meaning that it can deliver a packet from one physical and ever so another physical device. UDP and TCP are transported level protocols responsible for delivery off a message from a process toe. Another process a new transport protocol. S s CTP has been devised to meet the news off some new applications in the last one is application their protocol the application layering PCP I p is equivalent with a combination off session presentation and the application layers of the western border. As I previously said, many protocols are defined in this Leo. We will cover the these put all these protocols in the upcoming lectures where each protocol deliberate describe indeed it along with its uses and advantages. So in the next lecture will top about addressing what is addressing. We're other types of addresses. But before moving ahead, let us describe few differences between always I'm or the ANC TCP every morning. Here are a few differences between always i ntc baby more it the CBOE beauty first transmission control protocol and boys are supposed to open system interconnection, which is the basic difference. The C p A P has four layers, whereas always I have seven years d c babies more level. And whereas oversight is less of a level, the sea paper does not have any strict boundaries. Whereas who else has a strict boundaries? TCP IP uses both session on the presentation layer in application there itself There s quiza has thes two different leaders. Do you see paper? Different protocols and then mortal When it's all the same word was developed first and then protocols were applied D c maybe more than that were clear only provides connection less services, whereas were some ordered provides collection list as villas collection would inter services. So these are some, you know, basic differences between Western border and the CPLP morning But now it is mostly people. People prefer to see Perry world because of its widely usages. So I hope you get comfortable with all these ideas. And if you're not sure you can always review the lessons. Therefore in the next lecture will see what does it mean? Bag dressing 8. Lecture 8 - Addressing In Computer Networks: so in this video will be describing the types of addresses and discussing their uses. So let us begin the types of addressing incompetent toe. There are four types of addresses which are physical addressed. Logical address porter dressed and specific. Idris. Now let us see what physical address means in that walking of physical address refers toe either a memory location identified in the form off a binary number or a medical access country that is empty. See Address, which is also known as Mac Address. Physical address is also known as a Binali address or aerial address. In order to communicate or transfer the data from one computer to another computer, we need some address. For example, see if if you want to go to your friend's house, you need the address off your friend's house, right? You can't just directly go on walking randomly on the street looking for searching for a friend's house. You have a particular address video in the same. The computers also have addresses for in order to carry out communication between them in computer network, various types off addresses are introduced. Each works at her differently. Media access control that is Mac addresses the physical address, which works at a data link layer. Now, at this point, do not get confused. It is the physical address, which works at data link layer. Many times, students tend to get confused that physical addresses associated with physically. But to be honest, no addresses is associated with the physical layer. Addresses start from the next clear, which is a detail in Clear Mac. Addresses are unique for Pete bits hard, hard over a number off a computer, which is embedded into network card known at the network interface card. And I see during the time off manufacturing Mac addresses. Also Mona's physical address off a network device in I Tripoli eijiro standard now higher to police Sanders we have seen in the previous lectures and off standards and protocols. So in Agra police standard data link layer is divided into two sub layers. The 1st 1 is a logical link Control Sabliere, and the 2nd 1 is Media access control. Sub leader. You're not going to go into deep between these two less, but you just have to remember it. Matt Address is used by Media Access Control. Maxa, Blair off Datalink cleared Mac addresses a worldwide unique since millions off networked devices exist and mean to uniquely identify each address. Mac addresses a 12 digit exert. A similar number. Know that it is 48 bits, binary number and the World digit Heck Serviceable number, which is mostly represented by a colon exam. Exert decimal notation. The 1st 6 digits save for In the examples, you can see three C five a and B four. These are the 1st 6 digits off exactly. Symbol number identifies the manufacturer called as organizationally unique. Identify. Oh, you I, I reported Registration Authority Committee assigns these Mac prefix esports registered renders. For example, the some O. U I off known manufacturers like Google, Google's or You are is three C five a before then Cisco's or or Your Eyes CC for six d six . Nor that these three digits are. These three numbers are fixed for all the devices off Google. The right most six digits represent the networking toughest control and I see which is assigned by the manufacturer. As discussed above, McAdoo is represented as the coolant exit decimal notation. But you know this is just a convention. It's not complicity to use a colon exam decimal, he turned cable uses us expired. That is, 48 bit physical address and, most importantly, size and format may very depending upon the network. The next type address is logical address. Logical addresses are necessary for universal communications to the independent. Off underlying physical networks. Physical addresses are not adequate In an Internet work environment where different networks can have different address formats, Universal addressing system is needed in which East each host can be identified uniquely, regardless of the underlying physical work. The logical addresses are designed for this purpose. Only a logical address in the Internet is currently a 32 bit address that can be uniquely defined. Ah, host connected to the Internet, no to publicly addressed on visible hosts on the Internet can have the same idea rest. Which means that do I be Addresses are unique. For example, say if we are living in Washington, D. C's or street number three E. But your friend, who's who does not live in your house cannot have the same address, has your house right? These two addresses need to be unique, so the question is, if you already have Mac addresses, why do we need a logical address. The physical address is the local address. Often it is used by the detailing, clear to deliver data from one note to another, nor within the same network. So the mean important point is Mac addressed is used in the same network. What if I want to transfer information from India, toe the United States now my computer and my friend Bob's computer, not in the same that work. So obviously I need address that would guide me to Bob Specie. The logical address defined the sender and receiver at the network clear and is used to deliver messages across multiple networks. The interesting thing is that your computer can have several addresses at the same time. Right foot example. Off course. You're used to having a several logical addresses. Bring messages toe one physical address right, for example, your mailing address, telephone number, home email address, then what's have number? All other messages bring to you when you're in your own house and you can consider the address of the house as a Mac address. They all are used for different types of messages. Different networks, so to speak. Mac addresses don't travel beyond Arado but I beer. This is due. So there are a couple of basic steps that most devices will dock take to determine how to handle the details. The device looks at the Destination I p address and compares it with its own I P address and subject mask toe. Determine with diabetes. Local removed. Considered example. If I want to send a message to Bob, who is situated in Washington, D. C. My out of it will compare whether Bob's I Bob's I P addresses in mind talk it addresses local. The system queries its therapy table for that i beast Makary Snow is a R p table that is address resolution protocol in Air P Table. There are two columns I be addressed and corresponding. Mac address. So if my route does air, P Table finds the I B address off Bob's BC that it will also have Bob's, McAdoo's and this It will become easier for my Roberto directly send the package took off specie, but if the eye is removed, it requires its air P table for the deferred gateways Mac address. So now is now in this concern, Ari. Oh, Bob isn't United States, so it is not a local. So what my Iberia's does? What my router does is basically it sends a broadcast message toe all other neighboring routers, and eventually all these neighboring routers send other broadcasting messages. Still, it reaches the Bobs Bob's of BC, Then if there is no entry in the airport table, then it sends a hardware broadcast requesting the Mac address from the owner of Type B. So finally, Bob Specie will get my requests, saying that Hey, Bob, I'm in mesrata. I need your Mac, Earnest, since I do not find any quit in my Air B table, a little barbs PC does ocasion my I'll send you my Mac address. So along with So when Bob receives that request, BOP sends its own. My address to my routing table, and hence my route was therapy. Table now has Bob's Mac address. In this way. Routers update their Air Pete evils. Once the Mac address of Next Hope is deter mined, the device sends the back it to the Mac address. Now, these steps that repeated at every hop on the way to the final destination appeal the final it out with the mind that I be arrest is local. This means the Rato's air P table or broadcast has Mac address map to it that I beat, so it does not need to keep love thinking. So in the next time, I want to send a message to Bob in Washington, D. C. My around you can easily identify because for the in the first Police, when Myra because the herpes table didn't consist Bob's Mac address can now is if you don't mind Bob's Mac address, the next type of address, we're going to see his board address. The I B and the physical addresses are necessary for quantity of digital level from a source to the destination. However, arrival at the destination host is not the final objective of data communications on the Internet assistant that since nothing but a detail from one computer to another computer is not complete. Today, computers are devices that can run multiple processes. At the same time, the end objective off Internet communication is a process communicating with another process. For example, computer E can communicate with computer see using tenant the same time computer it communicates with computer, be using FTP protocol for these processes to receive data simultaneously, we need a method to label the different processes. In other words, they need addresses. And these adverse is Armanis poor Douglass's. So we need a method label different processes Port address in D C P. A P moral is off 16 bits. So now, to make things pretty clear, let us consider really let example off a port address. Suppose there is a delivery packet. There is a delivery boy who wants to deliver Come back at your house. So now the Mac address would be the house address off your there you are living right. So the delivery boy searches the Mac address and dip. Let's see the delivery boys around here and he hasn't told like the address so that it sold her delivery boy can matches the I P. Address and comes to your house and find your house. But he correctly No, the packet is supposed to be delivered at your house. But if you are the recipient off the packet, the delivery boy cannot just keep the packet or sell your house and go. It has to ensure that the packet is reached to you and not be a mother or your father or your system. Therefore, what addresses unneeded? Suppose my computer wants to communicate to Bob for file transfers. It can just simply go and give the information a telnet port. It has to give that information to file transfer protocol Port that is port number 22 or 21 right? Therefore, port addresses are used in practice. So in the next lesson in or in the next lecture probably will see what exactly an I P addresses on and see briefly vitamin E I P addresses in real practice on how I P addresses play an important role. 9. Lecture 9 - What is an IP Address?: in this video. I'm going little about the I peerless. So what is exactly an I P address? I have the number in the entire address. Whatever you call it, it's a link to the world. None very. Most of the billions of company users don't know either. And tell you the truth, that's perfectly all right, because even though it's your passport to the Internet, you never have to think about it. Here's a pocket definition that you can use of someone else. It's a little guidance for your computer, so the Internet knows where to send your emails, data and pictures. That looks, you ve I love the girls. In fact, 90 year wasn't the people on the competence right now. Don't know what an eye Paris human looks like on Internet protocol. Address. The I P Address is a numerical label assigned to ease device. Example. Computer printer By dissipating the compliment work that uses the Internet protocol for communication. I hear theirselves two principle functions Horst or network interface identification and location. Addressing the designers of the Internet protocol defined and I paired. This is a touchy too great number. Remember this a 32 bit number. I appear dresses are usually written and despaired in human readable traditions such as 1 99 point when it even point wanted to do. Going to forget 901 99.1 it even when I wanted to do point to 50. These two I produces can be off to competence in a competent, liberating every website like Disney Amazon Apple has unique. I paired this, but it goes where it's name instead. Disney dot com amazon dot com Operator call, but we're but without I p addresses, you couldn't connect them, and they can share information to do. There are two types of our purchases. Diaper beautiful and I previous six. The government times I P addresses, known as the I P before I PV for uses 30 do binary bits to make a string unique, and I be before I. This is expressed by full number separated by dots the total number of HPV for addresses in just from 0.0 point 0.0 toe to 55 to 55 or 55 to 55. Because there are approximately four point Caribbean possible I P addresses. Well, this may seem like a large number, it is no longer enough to call all the devices connected to the Internet around the world. Therefore, many devices no use IBV six Andras, for example, When you visit netflix dot com and you have the brother, the system automatically translate is the domain name. Www dot netflix dot com. Guy Paris Once they're 71 2175 that 1 92 The next comes. Here's an IBD for address. 1 72 1 16 or 2 54 Request. Here. The 32 bit iPad address is distributed into four blocks off aid with speech, but it's ready to deliver before is it. Will the next come to the I. P V six? I pity for supports a magazine off approximately 4 20 unique I produces. As I mentioned earlier, I previous six supports Interior maximum. The number that will never know like that is infinity. I'd be very sexy, this one indeed, buying tributes to make a single unique address on the network on IBV six address consists off. Aid groups off four exert a single disease. If group consists of four zeros, the notation can be shocked and using coal and replace zeros Upper obviously die pent up in Greece. Excited this more secure than I PV for. I've shown I previous six address on the screen. You can have Look at it next. I'm going to go over my purse woofing in this video. But the I d spoofing is not the part of networking is the part of cybersecurity. But I'm covering this. So what does I be sporting? In technical terms? I piss. Poor thing is the creation of infinite particle package which have modified source address in orderto eat the hide the identity of the sender or to impersonate other calm, persistent or both. I p spoofing is a beckoning often used by hackers to launch distributed denial of service, DDOs attacks and the man in the middle attacks. I mean, arrogated devices are surrounding infrastructures. The gold off the leaders attack is toe over them a target with traffic while hiding the identity of the militias Source. Preventing mitigation efforts using every spoofed address can give the Attackers the ability toe avoid being discovered driven delegated devices from alerting about attacks bypassed security scripts, devices and services at attempted media. DDOS attacks black listing. I purchase is known to be the source of malicious traffic. Five words can do dysfunction. Every machine had this all night beardless. However, Attackers may enter into a network they use Poof I Paris on impersonate that they're coming from under the system rather than their own system in simple language, the speed of one stools I peered this our identity and then used to intern another network , for example, the source machines I paired. This is 1.1 point 1.1. I need to access some particular Web several and native A. However, if accessing the server, it changed its I peered. That's Lexi to want to point to point to, because the Web server recognizes this i p address for a legitimate traffic in the last two access itself. However, in reality, the sources I paired this, which is 1.1 point 1.1. I can say it's a kind of forging as well. Most of the fireballs have and explosives and this moving feature, which can be a never to block this kind of spoofed traffic. Consider another example, someone send your message and change the telephone number. Their fathers Hyson, I knew some money transport transferred all the fighters into my nuclear card X x x about is like spoofing address. Someone send you a back it, but not using his real i p address. And you would think it comes from your father. 10. Lecture 10 - Classes of IP Address: in this lecture, we are going to study the different losses off I p fee for eggless in the last lecture you started working exactly. And I fearless and the two types of I P addresses namely be virgin four and I p Virgin six . So let us begin with the five classes off I PV. For actresses, I p address is an address having information about how to lead a specific host, especially outside the land. There is a local area network, and I p addresses a 32 bit unique address having an address. Piece off tourists 2 32 bits. So it is a long I p address. Generally, there are two notations in which an I P address is written daughter decimals and eggs artisanal. So you can see here this is Dr Dismal 1 26.2 55 point of the defiant point with before some point that that are that need to meet Notre about Dr Decimal notation are the value off any segment is between 0 to 2 55 Since these are four objects on, each update has eight bags, so the maximum value is 2 56 That means 0 to 55 value. There are no zeros preceding the value in any segment. For example, since the maximum value is 1 26 this is examples. In the maximal is 1 26 And if you want to write 54.1 55.55 point before cannot write 0 54 that is wrong. So let us begin with the class for the dressing. The 32 bit I p Agnes is divided into five sub classes. These are class A, class B, classy glass D and classy. You can see there are four updates one ocrates eight bits, that is bite one. Therefore, this is a four bite I P address are 32 bit I p address each off this classes has a valid dreamed of I P addresses Class D and class E reserved for multi cast on experimental purposes. The Order of Bigs in the first octet. The mind the class off I P address now and I p address is broadly divided into two types. Network I D and host Heidi. The class off I peer vest is used to determine in the bigs useful that work I d and host I D. On the number of total networks and each host possible in that particular plus. So depending upon the network, I d. The number off hosts and then a more off networks are deter mined in the particular range. No, that I P addresses are globally managed by Internet Assigned numbers authority that is I A and A and regional Internet history. That is our i r. While finding the total number of host I P addresses to I P addresses are not counted and that therefore decreased from the voter count because the first I'd be address off any network is the network number, whereas last I P address is reserved for broadcast I. P. This is an important point. For example, in class, if the maximum value is 2 56 that means there are 26 number of I P addresses available to I P address need to be subtracted because those are reserved for special purposes. In the next Lecter, we will see in depth water Class A, Class B, classy Class B and class. CLP addresses 11. Lecture 11 - Class A to Class E: In this lecture, we will see the Class eight and remaining classes off LP address, I fear, is belonging to Class A, assigned to the networks that contain a large number of hosts. So, as you can see, the network I D is eight bits, and the host idee is 30 to minus eight. That it's 20 forbids the higher order bit. The first opera in Class A, which is this big, is always said to zero. Therefore, the available bits in the network I. D R. Seven that meaning seven bits in the first update are therefore used to determine the network idea. The 24 bits off the host Heidi are used to determine the host in any network. The default submit mosque for Class A is 2 55 point X point x Mondex. Therefore, Glass E has to raise to seven network ideas, which is equivalent to 128. And host ideas is stories too plentiful minus two. Now this minds to we learn in the last lecture that I'd be a first and the last I p address is always desert as special purpose I p address. Therefore, there are total 167 million off i p addresses available. Daughter I'm sorry, 16 million i p addresses available for class Our penises belonging to Class A Ranges from one dot exe dot x 2126 dot exe dot eggs dot exe. The next class is Class B. I. P. Addresses Belonging to class be assigned to the networks that ranges from medium sized to large size network. The network I D is 16 bits long, and the host Heidi is therefore 30 to minus 16. That is 16 blocks long. Higher order books of the first object in Class B. I always set to 10 Therefore, the total number of available bakes for network idee is these six books, plus these exhibits, that is 14 bits. Therefore, the remaining 14 birds that is we have seen right now are used to determine the network idea. On 16 bits are used to return mine. Any host in the network in the default stubborn It mosque for Class B is to 55.2 55 point X , dark extra. The use of the subject mask is we're going to see in the upcoming lectures. Therefore, the total network ideas in Class B histories to 14 and total host ideas are to raise to 16 miners to tightest. 65,534 i p addresses belonging to class B ranges from 1 28.0 dot exe. Dark x 2191 1 to 55.2 55 point x point x The next class is the Class I P addresses belonging to a Class C. But as assigned to small note small size networks, the network idee is 24 big slung, and the host is a big slum. From now, you can see that classy is mostly used for small hosts in a network, since the total host available are only 2 54 in a particular network, but the number of network available are to 21. The higher order bits off first optic in classy is always set 110 and therefore print even breaks are used to determine the network idea. The defaults off the mosque for Class T is to $55 to $55 to 55 dark X i p addresses belonging to Class T ranges from 1 92 0.0 dot exe to two point Italy darts to $55 to $55. X The fourth class this class D I p addresses belonging to Class D R Resort for my disgusting. The higher order bits for the first optic off I P addresses belonging to Class D are always said to triple 10 and therefore 30 to minus four. That is, 28 bits are used to remind the network I'd glass D does not possess any submit mask. I'll be addresses belonging to class deep Ranges from 24.0 point 0.0 2 to 39.2 55.2 55.2 55 Last class off last Will I be addressing is glass now? I p Addresses belonging to a Class E are reserved for experimental and research purposes. I P addresses off class E ranges from 2 40.0 point 02 to 55.2 55.25 point 2 54 The distinguishable factor from all other classes is the 1st 4 bigs. That is the higher order books of the first opted in class D always said to one, As you can see, 111 and one, we can see the range of special appearances are the first rains that is 1 69.2 54.0 point 01 £69 to 54.0 on 16 is always deserved for local link addresses in the next range is sick for look back addresses, and the last one is sick for communication within the current network. Now there are certain rules for assigning the host. I host I, Liza, usually used to identify a host within the network. For example, you can be your host. I am a horse, my friend can be course Arco instructor Years can be host. Didn't any network the host? I really must be unique for that network, that is no pool host ideas can be seen within the same network. Host Heidi, in which all bets are set to zero, cannot be assigned because this host Heidi is used with a present. The network i d off the i p address host Heidi, in which all bits are said to one cannot be assigned because these host Heidi is reserved as a broadcast address to send packets all the host present in that particular network, which will be seeing in upcoming air People pick on Now hosts that are located on the same physical network identified by Network I. D. As all the hosts on the same physical network is assigned the same network, the network idea is assigned based on the following rules. The network idea cannot start with 1 27 because 1 27 belongs to class a address and is reserved for internal loop back functions. We can see 1 27 This is ER for internal loop back actresses. All bags off Network I D are set to one are reserved for use as an I P broadcast addresses and therefore cannot be used, which we have discussed earlier. And last one is all big stuff Network I. D. Sector zero are used to be known a specific host on the local network and not routed at dead and therefore aren't used. Now this is the somebody off the class will be addressing that we have seen enough so you can see the leading books for Class A zero for Class B's ones. Here you go on adding 11 of the most significant bit before the number of notebooks at 8 16 24 on This is the starting. It is not this starting address and descending. It just are always deserved for special purpose. You can see that 16 million I p addresses are available to rob the blue, but number of people have been increasing day by day and then a more about appearances are also getting required. The number off requirements is increasing day by day. Therefore, to tackle this problem, we are going to see that our table addresses, which is used by AARP in upcoming lectures. So if you're not clear about classes off campus, you can always re revisit these lectures and get used to them. 12. Lecture 13 - Address Resolution Protocol: in this lecture, we will be seeing the next protocol. It is a are be at rest resolution protocol. Now most of the computer programs or applications use I p address to send or receive messages. However, the actual communication happens over the physical. It is that is the Mac address. So our mission is to get the destination Mac address, which helps in communicating with other services. This is where AARP comes into picture. Explain. Insanity is to translate idea At this physical address here, people breaks at the net below the network. Leo, the acronym for Air B, as I mentioned earlier, stands for address resolution protocol, which is one of the most important for the cause of the network layer in the US I'm worried . No, that happy finds the hardware address, also known as the Mac address off a host from its known I P address. Not just look at how a happy books imagine our device wants to communicate with the other device over the Internet. No, what he does in broadcasts a packer toe. Other devices off the source network. The device is often that work. Feel the header off the data from the link earlier and the protocol data unit that it's PD you called frame and transfers the packet to the network. Three. That is to to the network layer that is layer three off those I am ordered where the network idea of the packet is validated with their destination. I peed network I d of the packet, and if it is equal than it, respond to the source. We did the Mac address. The Obama process continues until the second last minute of a device in the path to reach the destination where it gets validated and air fee in tone corresponds with their destination. Mac interests the most important terms associated with air p R Air P Cash, AARP, cash time out. AARP request You are the response reply. And cases which are important as long as you need to understand you are being kept, are falling. Not this one supposed to send. There is a host, and he wants to send a packet to another host on the same network. Then simply use Air P to find another host Maga jizz kids to suppose the same. That is a host and he wants to send a packet to another host on another network. So what will send but that the center looks at it. Sounding table. Find the I P address off the next hope that its route for this destination and then use air P to find the routers. Physical address. Now this process gets continue. Bill the physical address. Other destination hostess funded them. It's find up not least three. The center is a photo, and I received a data Graham, this time for a host on another network. Now, without checks, it's 13 table. Find the greatness of the next daughter. With this, ER, be able to find the next stop was 50 gelatinous and last guest case for the sender is a route that has received a data Graham, this time for host in the same little that I would use this, 60 had to be able to find the hosts physical interest. No, that therapy can also be used for I p. Overland Technologies Just know conjuring fibre distributed, trained to face and in the portable. Basically, a repeat translates 32 bit i p address to 48 bit physical actors and vice versa for rights for the area is used, which is reversed Address resolution protocol, which is which books has exactly opposite off here 13. Lecture 14 - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol : Now let us have a look. B c people recalled. Nanami Coast configuration protocol is an application layer protocol which is used to provide the submit mosque without address, DNS Address and Wenda class identify de etc. P is used for dynamically conferring the host on the network. I just work stations, will and person computers. The exit is mainly used to provide information. What I p address acts of net mosques, basically D etc. P is based on a client's of immortal and based on discovery, Off request and Acknowledgement B A T report number for server is 67. On Back for the climb is 68. It is a client server protocol which uses UDP Services. I P Address is assigned from a pool off addresses de etc. P. The client and the server exchange mainly for the SCP messages in order to make a connection. Also called as D, who are a processes. Discover off requests acknowledgement process so these messages are given as below de etc. Pit discover message. This is the first message generator in the communication process. You can see you. This is the first message which is generated in the communication process between silver and McCline. This message is generated by the client in order to discover if there is immediate CP server present in the network or not, this message is broadcaster toe all devices present in our network to finally it city. So basically discover as you can see from the damage, is just used to discover that the etc Pizarro the next is D etc. Offer message the Soviet respond to host in this message specifying the unleashed I P address and other TCP configuration information. This message is for custody by the soul. If there are more than one B etc. P sir was president in the network. Then the client host will accept the force from the it city off a message it receives. Also, a server i d is specified in the packet in order to identify the so the next needs D etc. Pretty quest message. When a client receives an offer message, it responds by broadcasting or the its simple request message. Miss Klein will produce a gratitude air p in order to find there is any other host to present in the network with the same i p address. If there is no reply by the other host. Then there is no host with the same peace be configuration in the network and the message is broadcaster Kosovo showing the acceptance of I p address a client i d is also added in this message. Finally last is DTP acknowledgement. In response to the request message received, the server will make an entry that specified climb idee and behind the I p address off With least time now, the client will have the i p address provided by the soul. There are also other messages which you did not need to study for this course, indeed it. But I'll just mention those messages. Those are D etc. Negative acknowledgment message. The itsy bit deadline. I'm sorry. It's a bit decline, be it sippy release date. Sippy inform. No, no, that all the messages communi cast also by DSP really agent if the server is president. Different Notable. There are a few advantages that is widely used. The SCB The STV basically helps in centralized management of appearances. It is this adding new glances network, then the use of I P addresses in reducing the total number by Paris's that are required. Now we have seen the last 16 million i p addresses. But if than a moral people a greater than 16 million which obviously is the car India then in such cases DTP and yet we are used and the attribute protocol gives them. They took administrator a matter to configure the network from a centralized area. With the help of the SCP, Easy handling of new easy users and reuse of my peers can be achieved. So what you have learned from the NCP is that d etc P is mainly used for you reuse Ishan off I p addresses in the next lecture will see what is mean by ICMP that is Internet control message protocol. 14. Lecture 15 - Internet Control Message Protocol: in this lecture, really seeing the next protocol, that is ICMP protocol. What I see and be Internet control. Message protocol is a transportable protocol with the C P I. P, which communicates information about network connectivity issues back to the source of the compromise transmission. Since I people, since I P does not have an in build mechanism for sending other, it completely depends upon a theme P. So you can see that I simply is a kind of complaint box. No holds ICMP work. ICMP is used by device like the Roto Communicate with the source Off data packet about transmission issues. For example, if a day Tiger data Graham is not delivered, ICMP might report this back to the host with details to help discern whether transmission went wrong. It's a protocol that believes in direct communication in the workspace things. The utility with uses. I paint the messages to report back information on any network connectivity on the speed of data really between the host and the destination computer. It's one of the few instances for the user can indirect direct route ICMP, which typically only functions, allow toe network computers to communicate with one another automatically 15. Lecture 16 - RIP OSPF BGP: next protocol is iced by people because it is routing information protocol. R i. P is a dynamic routing protocol which uses hop down as a routing metric to find the best part between the source and a destination network. It is a distance factor of being protocol, which has 80 value 1 20 works on the application liberal for his, um, ordered, I'd be used at sporting a mark 5 20 No hope. What is the hope? Hot count is the number of routers occuring in between the source angle estimation. As you can see if this is the source and this is destination, Hakam is one are the Hopkins can be, too. So since it uses the shortest path algorithm, that is the best part. The hop count is what the part with the lowest Hope comes is considered as the best route to eat network and therefore placed interrupting table. All right, be also prevents outing loops by limiting the number of hopes allowed in. Apart from source and the destination. The maximum hope allowed for our I P is 15 and hop come off 16 is considered as network unreachable. No, what are speeches about be updates. The network are exchanged periodically. A beautiful whose bird Custer full outing tables are sending updates and the Doubters always trust one outing information received from the workers. This is also nest out or dropping off rumors. And basically there are three versions of our I. P R I. P was in one R i, p Virgin Group and R B and E The next four to call that we're going to see is SPF at his open source. Shortest part coast. All SPF is a link state lording protocol, which is used to find the best part between the source and a destination roto using its own shortest. But I'll go to the modest SPF. A link state routing protocol is a protocol which uses the concept of trigger objects. That is, if there is a change observing the learn routing table when the updates at triggered only not really the distance victor of being true. To go where the routing table orexin at the period of time, so functionality off. RFE agrees. If this kind of scene and you can see if this is the a t. L one, this is area. I think this is area one. This is a year to into Syria. Zeal. USB F drops the information to all these areas. Next protocol, and probably the last protocol dictated that we're going to see in this section is the border. Get people to go. No B GP is used to exchange rafting information for the Internet, and it is a protocol used between Internet service provider, which are different autonomous systems. The protocol can connect together in the Internet, work for Thomas System using an arbitrary topology. The only requirement is that each autonomous system that is A S must have at least one router that is able to run Border Gateway Protocol and doctors Router connect to at least one other Artemus system. BP's out Not be. DP's main function is to exchange network information with another BDP Systems B GP Protocol constructs and are enormous distance graph based on the information exchange between beachy brokers. So in short, if you we can conclude that GDP is a protocol, it actually makes indirect work. It actively transport information from one network to another network and dust. It helps in indirect work faster, that is then what is Internet? It's and network off, all right. Falling are or the characteristics actor I remember Border Get Particle and its interrupt enormous system configuration that is mainland off the BJP's to I'm sorry B GP is to provide communications control autonomous systems. Then BP supports next Top paradigm back information policy support. It also runs over TCBY, which is a connection oriented protocol. I support security as well. BG People Homes three Function which are given below my guess. I have not included in the slight, but I didn't make sure to include these functions. The first function consists off initial your acquisition and authentication. The second function mainly focuses on singing off negative or positive rich ability, information and the Tory function. Verify said. The piers and network connection between them after him. Correct. So this was all about the protocols. Now the main door, because it is file transfer protocol, will be explained by one of our friends in the upcoming videos. If you're not comfortable with all this protocols, we have also recommended resources from which you can learn extra. That is, you can not animated. Working off the typical as villas. We have suggested some books which every students are every person who is willing to enter into cybersecurity. Our networks must read 16. Lecture 17 - File Transfer Protocol: in this video, I'm going to cover about the fire transport Record the Fight Cancer Protocol. FTP this underneath for practical use for the transfer of computer files between the client and the server on a computer network. If requirement is, present a file from one to another. Steam This follow few set of instructions to do that on deck sort of instruction is abide by FTP protocol for the cause of the rules to be followed. If you don't follow these rules, you have to take care of many aspects of internal security and data inconsistency by yourself for your family. F T B is a protocol based on PCP dedicated to transfer fights can be used with different operating systems and in most cases requires authentication that is user name and password . Sometimes you can use anonymous FTP to down their fights using anonymous authentication. Normally you can only down nor fights. Upload is denied in modern systems. It is concert insecurity lack off encryption by the Ford. Now why Internet? Most of the times better option in terms of security is a safety it is based on. This is its connection. If the abuses the Casey report print, even for common transmission and transfer of data using a dedicated connection. This connection transfer data can best you or act you a basic system offifty become on Lenny's FTP. Hosting them on the pork on FTP client is a piece off software and user specie. This enables the user to get files from the server that their store are the store files from your PC to the server and upload and, if to be settled, where it just replacement for its A store. Before the data collection can be used to send actual foils, the Congo connection must be established. A specific process is followed. Who set up this connection and thereby create the permanent FT position between devices that can be used for transferring files. A country collection used is used for sending control information like user identification , password comments, Kuchins, the remote directory. Come on, street rave and store files. If it even makes use of control connection at Court 21 do the connection use very complex rules as they tapes Mavety. They did. That connection is made between data and transfer places. The dude that connection opens when a command comes for transferring the fighters and closes and file is transferred for sending actual file. If FTP makes is off the data connection at 4 20 so why do we used the fight? And so critical Alu? Transferring first from one system to another system is very simple and straightforward, but sometimes it can cause problems. Two systems may have different ways to re present text and data, so systems may have different did it pay structures? FTP protocol overcomes these problems, but establishing two connections between horse one connection is used for data transfer, and another connection is used for control connection. Hence, if the peak is ideal for sending large bills, it is reliable fast and doesn't have the size limits that can privet large files from being sent. Why image with the addition of security features and modern weapons file management FTP spill Widely used metaphor transfer ended 17. Lecture 18 - Domain Name System: in this video, I'm going to cover the domain name system. DNS. You may have heard the term Deena's with other competent languages where that skill unfamiliar before exactly this stone means In this video, I will explain exactly what is being honest and how it works. In easy to understand language, the domain name system is the phone book of the Senate, the anus the system used to convert the computers host name in Iberia. This on the Internet de una service and immediately you need off for humans. Remember, as I practices such as 1 19 to 2160 year on 1.1 arm or even complex addresses started. I previous six i p addresses. Dennis is the protocol that provides the framework for Web Rosen. In other words, Deanna's the system of computers that provides the infrastructure that allows us to browse the Internet by making include more human friendly speed, less competence, address each other with numbers on the I P addresses. However, remaining I P addresses is not an easy task for humans who prefer to give things named Dennis is a useful system that his name's try. Paris is Deena's automatic pelican words. The names were type in a Web browser at this bar, but the I peered this off the Web servers those specific sites sequester Therefore, the new Internet domain name, for example, google dot com your comfort that will find your nearest DNS terrible and asking, What is the card i p address for their name, then the DNS well written by appeared this and your computer can address the religion machine, and this was very question website. Therefore, the minister was inward unloading a Whippet. DNS records a route name server dear the names, and it is a top level domain name server on the authority names. Over here, I would like to explain the working off the Venus. For example, the use log onto the Internet service provider to use the Internet. The user opens a Web browser and types in, but you're in the art Vespa, for example. But absolutely types. Www dot you Damodar, go the competent. Ask for ice with the DNS. There was for a specific I pair this up. Www dot you name it are come once the DNS double that holds the specific I P address for the blue www dot gnu dot comes found that the minister were response with the appropriate I P address. The users competent gives this address to the user's browser. The browser opens a connection to the server using I P address provided, and then he tries the page from the site requested in this case for www dot dude a miracle , the browser displays the requested page on the competence cream. 18. Lecture 19 - Sockets: in this video, I'm going to explain about the sockets in computer networking. A soccer is one endpoint off a two way communication link between two programs. Something on the Red book. A socket is bound aboard number so that the TCP layer can identify the application. That data is this time we send an end point is the combination of an I. P address on board in layman's language. Think off it as a good off the thousands off gate in an apartment. Its primary purpose is to connect one of the empire point off a pipe through the end user to identify. Suck it. You have to mention to prime militants that is the I. P address on the port number at any point of time. Application can create opposites multiple sockets, which can perform different operations, like sending or receiving data from others. A socket is unique. Identifier often application in a network. An application is just a program running on the device that devices I didn't defied. Its I P address unique in the network application is I didn't default the port number unique within the device. If you come by boat, you will identify the application over the intended You write a socket with I P on board idea, for example, when 72.217 point 7.2 30 it is the I parentis and Gordon, 80 is the port number Well, soccer said, created and used with a set of programming request or function called sometimes called the socket application programming interface, the most common soccer's A P A. Is the Berkeley unique see interface for the sockets. Sockets can also be used for communication between processes within the same computer. She was a diagram illustrated in the given slight. I would like to explain Struggle. I mean will from purples. Think of your house. A system on your application in. No. You want to send a letter to a friend in another house? Let's suppose he's in some other state work you put on. Undeveloped is his name and address. Now his room mergers can be observed as the I P address, by which we can identify the system uniquely, but the application toe is that information sent is identified by the soccer that is his name. The soccer name uniquely defines that application. That is that person I hope that was simple. Well in the given diagram application. In one sense, a greater toe I p number 1 92 for one sec stayed for 16 or 21 off application toe with Port Number 100. Well application, too, since the data wiping number 1 92 116 tiered when. One word. One off off application. One with border early. But this is the general working off a socket now, because sockets are the means by which computers on a network communicate, they are open to computer attack. The simplest possible act like is a denial of service attack. Another common attacked is expert toe vulnerability in particular program descending at the port. Sometimes it's possible to trick listening several program allowing unauthorized access to that program or even the whole computer. The hacker, either once data on the server, wants to use the machine as mule at this launch. At that for that extra, that machine, the single most abominable liberty in service after, is probably the buffer or flow by overriding a before a soft crashes and its government to allow access or execute some corn, send by the heckle this parading excess and you must secure system from all the possible traits. The next comes the structure of socket. Well, I'm not going into the deep off the structure of suckered, but I will explain your other times structure of soccer Francis Family type or the call Local socket address anymore socket or just the family the family feel is used for defining the protocol groups such as I PV for our i p v six. Why? Such as UNIX domain protocol, The type this field is used for defined type of suckered the stream socket, socket socket or a socket. Local soccer practice it is used for defend the local soccer, the studies, the combination off local I appeared this and the port artists off the local application program. It is the host, the more Sokratis it is the combination of the remote I P address and the porter. This is the remote obligation at its destination. Well, the protocol feel is usually set to zero for DCP in unity that three soccer tapes stream suckered data grams target and draw socket. The stream suckered. This is designed for combination or you ended protocols SPCPD the disabused bear stream sockets one each on either ends for connecting one application program to another Across the Internet, the do Tottenham suckered do diagram socket is designed for connection. Connection less for the balls that is your e P. Europe uses a pair of their diagram soccer's for sending a message from one application program to another across the Internet to prosecute. There are sockets are designed for the probabilistic ICMP or a spear because this portables do not use either stream packets or data grand sockets. 19. Lecture 20 - HyperText Transfer Protocol: in this video, I'm going to cover hypertext transfer protocol, the its GDP. The extra DP is a protocol used mainly to access data on the void where the it is hypertext transfer protocol for transferring your webpages, which are designed using a language called HTML. It is a hypertext markup language. It's too deep. Uses the services off recipe on well in Port 80. It's too deep. He was in one point. One is the most common used version today. It's too deep in books by using the user agent to connect to a server the user agent could with them. Broza. The server must be located using a U. N. It's always contents is to dp Golan slash slash at the start, It's too. Dp's a glance of a protocol by which to machines communicate using a reliable, connection oriented transport, says its PCB estudio. We can be implemented on top off any other protocol in the Internet. On other notebooks, it's too dippy only prisons, reliable transport, any particle pervert and provides this function ability lifetime for connection response to single vigorous response sequence. The pure extra DB server implementation treats if the breakfast as if it was brand new. It's too deeply pages of store on your computer and Internet gashes. The biggest Lord Foster. But they're stored on systems that support nature. Don't have control over. For example, ice piece cashing proxy. Esther Deepest server is implemented by a party, STD, Peaceable or Microsoft IIS objects so as open and minimal. It's two different functions as a combination off FTP and SMTP. It is very similar if to be because we transfer Vides and use the services off PCB. However, it is much simpler than FTP because it uses only one DCP connection. I only remember this only one TCP connection. There is no separate control connection. I want to do that. I transfer between the client and the server. Although it's refuses the services off recipe, it's true. Depict itself is a stateless protocol. The client initial register transaction by sending a request message. The server replies by sending response. Hello, Request acknowledged. It should be it. It's true, basically called stateless protocol because each commands executed independently without any knowledge of the commands that came before. This is the main reason that it's difficult to implement websites that react intelligently to the user input, the Evan Davis and the seven digits off. It's too deep. I don't deserve it. It should be Piece back from Independent, which allows straight crossbred from boarding northern them. Support Rick Porter and properly. It can be used over fireballs. For example, global applications. It's not connection oriented. That's no need for network over. It appeared and meant in session and state information. Drawbacks of It's too deep. Integrity is not there, so someone can easily out there with the content. STD bees insecure as there's no encryption methods for it. This subjected doors man in the middle and eavesdropping off sensitive information. There's no indication, so you will not have any clear idea with whom you're initiating a communication. What indication is sending a clear? Anyone who encrypts lyric Chris and can know the user name password off being used. And the next comes the H De Beers, which I recover in the next video 20. Lecture 21 - HyperText Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer: in this video, I'm going to tell about the hypertext transfer protocol secure that is the extra DPS. But before governing its Judi Pius, I would like propel about SSN. It says It stands for secure sockets layer. It's a sense secures connections Would would do computers. Each time a pair of computers want to kind of security, they agree on an encryption. The ski is clear to randomly for each connection. In simple terms, a system is one of the security technology which is used to establish a secure connection between a Web server on the Web browser. This secure ling is an encrypted former, so it issues that uses data will be private and secure, assisting in industry standard protocol, which is used by several websites for protecting the online transactions with their customers. Essentially, an SSL certificate is a sign of trust displayed by your website. If your website has an online store and the Quest card payments and assistance certificated is like a digital handshake between your site and the user, this sound of trust allows you aside. Process uses credit card payments securely. Google Nordic was only common subsets to install an SSL certificate. Let this big zip to ensure the maximum safety. Google is even blacklisting certain sites that do not carry SSL certificates. And no was the Google ranking assistant Certificates. Time fully can be found free from Let's encrypt. Let's encrypt is a Google sponsor initiate you to provide assistance certificates? Freeny No, I would like to go with https. More secure version off its GDP is its GDP ISS. It can Crips all the information that is sent and received. This can stop malicious users such as hackers from stealing the information on is often used on payment websites. It's true, TPS it's tree dp over a Cissel refers group combination off its treaty p on assessing, implement secure communication between a Web browser and the Web server. The its treaty based capability is built into all modern. The process for Lehman, the principal different scene by user off liberals is dead, which has seen the U. S addresses. The extra DPS begins with https colon slash slash rather than for its street DP, which starts with its street dp good am slash lis. If it's GPS, a specific board for 43 is used, which invokes assess it where it's to TPS is used, the falling elements of the communications are encrypted. You are off the requested document. Gun prints off the document Contents of Broza forms, cookies sent from browser to server and from silver to Brazil. The country's off the it's TDP here like that. It's really busy is very more secure than extra deeply here. I've collected over one scenario to understand its to DPS and it's true typically considered difference. Alice, Bob and truly. But here truly is not the intruder. I just want to send message to Bob Fire. Trudy. Trudy is mutual friend off. Listen, book. Your friend receives the message and may respond back if needed. This is basic, Http. Here's someone can recover the message by me from the mutual friend. But blackmailing truly have been pointing Trudy. Hence its really is not that secure Second scenario A list since Mrs to brought up to truly , truly, but this time truly has been accompanied by bodyguards and gunmen. That is the SSL encryption which will only involved through you to receive the message about to receive the message Bob receives the message on may respond. This is extra DPS. Here it is next to impossible to recover The message in the way off simply are simply eavesdropping is not possible due to bodyguards. That is the encryption now only Bob for whom the messages in tender and received the message simply its deepest means. The request made to the website are in capture and cannot cannot be decrypted unders. The properties used so supreme it is dropping and man in the middle attacked. 21. Lecture 22 - Conclusion of Networking: very done. You have successfully completed the first section off. This goes. I know The first section was quite tiresome and hard to understand for any. No Westerner. But don't worry. Go through the videos and practical is once again and make your concepts all clear. Basics of competent working off there Too much, very important for understanding the foundations off cybersecurity as off. Now, congratulations on completing the first section. See you in the next section building. 22. Lecture 23 - Definition of Security: So let us begin with Section two. I hope you're comfortable number networking and its applications. Now this is going to be the main part off our course that is getting started with cybersecurity. So what does he got it? The requirements off Information Security didn't and organization have undergone two major changes in the last several decades before the widespread use of data processing equipment . The security off information felt too valuable to an organisation was provided primarily by physical and administrative means. An example of the former is a use off luck filling cabinets with a combination lock for storing sensitive documents. Example of the leader is personal screening procedures during the hiring process. With the introduction off the computer, the need for automated dudes protecting files and other information stored on the computer become evident. This is especially the case for the share system, such as I am sitting system on. The need is even more accurate for systems that can be accessed over a public telephone network data network all the planet. The genetic name for the collection off tools designed to predict data and the toward hackers is be still computer security, so security force toe all the majors that have taken to protect the place or to ensure that people with permission enter it are needed. So basically, for authorize access only security's biggest concern in today's world technology has reached far more distant that we could ever imagine. New new technological advances are taking place, and therefore the need for security has also increased. So the National Institute of Standards and Technology defined security in falling the the protection afforded to an automated information system in order to attain the applicable objectives off preserving the integrity, availability and confidentiality off the information system resources, but which includes the Harvard software, former information data and telecommunications. So you saw these 3 11 that this thing dignity, availability and confidentiality we'll be seeing these three major elements Information security end upcoming lectures. So what is cybersecurity? Cyber security force to the set off techniques used to protect the integrity. Off networks, programs and data from attack damage are on a tourist nexus. Cybersecurity is the practice of defending computer. So was mobile devices in a product, systems, networks and data from malicious attacks. So basically, security is preventing something that is valuable, and cybersecurity is preventing something related to computers. So in the next lecture will see vital. We need cybersecurity, Indy to real life. 23. Lecture 24 - History of Cyber Security: So in this video you will learn that house I was security evil. Now you will be wondering why people started thinking about security. Why was a certain era of security? So this goes a long way back. So the first is in the 19 eighties, where the forced programming arrow led to the development. An idea. Security. The creation of the first computer room was a milestone in the history or cybersecurity. The search. Just raise the very first disastrous computer worm to Robert Morris, who was a graduate from the Cornell University. Modest was curious over the Internet size created a warm in 1988. To guard it, the worm was designed to infect basically UNIX systems, such that it would count a total connections. Present underwear Morris knows through the room program that will propagate across set off networks, use normal ability to insulate UNIX terminals and then their picket itself. However, this turned out to be a huge and stick program because the warm to infect machine after machine, as a result, networks Claude causing the connector existence to crash the warm replicated aggressively to a point where the Internet slowed down to a crawl leaving untold damage in its wake. This woman is the forced to have received full media coverage and was among the very first programs returned to experts system. Whatever it is you want, effects lasted beyond the crashed Internet and connect resistance for one, models begin the first person to be charged successfully under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. He was fined Dollar 10,000 at that time and sentenced to probation off three years and dismissed from the university, although later he went on to become an a mighty tenured professor Act for the little the Development off Computer Emergency Response team. That is the process off us CRT, popularly known as the Night etc. United States Computer Emergency Response Team. This modest won't record the start of an entirely new feel in the computer security. It let more people researching on how they can create deadlier and more effective worms, invites us the movement about the greater the effect on the talk and computer assistance worms and viruses in Don't let to the rise off thank you by the solutions as a means off countering the woman virus attacks. The next we're going to see is the wires. 1990 Surprise of computer viruses As previously mentioned, the modest warm gave the week off new types of malicious programs viruses for more aggressive programs that came into light in the 19 nineties. Why this is such as I love you and Melissa, in fact, ends off millions of computers causing a worldwide failure of music skips. You're going to see an example if I love you virus in a short, practical video. Also, the other suspects were primarily concerned with financial gains strategic objectives, which can also be seen in today's world. However, inadequate security solutions at that time cause a huge number of unintended victims to be infected. The Italians became center stage as the headlining major news outlets in different parts of the wood. Suddenly, CyberTimes and attacks were a huge concern. This is setting the creations of an impediment solutions. This problem give both to anti virus software solutions. Programs were designed to detect the presence of viruses and to prevent them from accomplishing the intendant tasks. Also, the primary delivery metal viruses with the use of malicious email attachments. The wires attacks, most importantly, caused increased awareness, especially with regards to opening email messages originating from unknown people. And that is why, in today's world, most of the training includes ignoring the email attachments from unknown users. The next the antivirus industry. The early 19 nineties, so sharp growth of companies creating and re dating antivirus. Perhaps the products were scanning computer systems for the presence of viruses or worlds at the time. The available antivirus solutions can business like assistant and vested them with signatures did indeed of these, although the signatures initially filed computer hashes, the later incorporated strength similar to those friends in Malibu. However, two significant problems had high impacts and effectiveness off these Foley and other solutions, the issue posits today in some of the current cybersecurity solutions. The problems included the intensive use of resources and a large number of false positives . During the same period, the market sample service every dating pleased in size and scope. But as only a few thousands of miles, example insisted. In 19 nineties number had grown at least five million by the year 2007. So this is a very huge number. Five million marries into another seven, and in today's world that are moving 20 million mothers as it isn't the legacy. Anti virus Solutions could not handle such a capacity as a security professional, unable to write signatures that will keep up with the problems as the most. The challenge called for new approach that would offer adequate protection toe assistance. The infant protection platform approach was more effective. Customers realized that it was possible to due date and stop unknown Man ever since on your signature off other existing model was required. Andi Finally, the fights of the first hacker group. Now, since all the developments in 19 eighties introduction of viruses worms motivated people to get on a tourist access to systems and seek financial benefits. S o What does the hacker group a hacker group is 70 A hacker we have seen a hacker can be agree Hack a blue hat out off a gray hat. Vital black. Now that these hikers who take a benefit of financial a general black articles, these black hat hackers have in impeccable perfection skills, but since there the Attackers, they use it for their own benefit. So the main purposes financial gain on Khan's harmful someone on December systems are create havoc. The first hacker group was seen on October 1003 which is one of the anonymous. Now the name itself is a big risk that not only must is the name of the hacker group, it made its first appearance belong amended. Made an attack on the Children of the Scientology to the DDOS attack. So in the next, like chopping wood, see why should go for cybersecurity. Make sure you watch this lecture with all attention at all years because this is going to be the turning part off our course. See you in the next lecture. 24. Lecture 25 - Career insights: so in the studio over and see with jobs that are available in cybersecurity. What is it? They will have a look at the average 70 off cybersecurity concertante, and then we'll see what skills does a security concern need in order to proceed so you can see the other the jobs since I was a better data system that evidence trade up network in Junior Skirt, the auditor systems engineer. Now they want to look at each and every job in deep aid. In the next morning, Patrick given over you off what what these positions are usually doing in the industry. So Assistant Administrator is a person who looks after insisting models for extra security at this month and considers of subsistence system, which are present in the company. Network Engineer is the one who has accident background off networking computer networks is some little protocols all fun on but rather all Addison techniques that we have seen? And he knows how to set up. A network security order is a Boston who usually conduct audits for a new organization. We'll see in detail what other types of audits, however it gets perform now in this all security jobs. Her last one. That is a condition best up. He's actually who has a lot of work to do. Interesting tester basically is you have to test your own organization and by thinking soap condition, distant condition, Mr. News to think like and had good does. You know, you have to think that you're a hacker. But in this case, the difference between the condition blister and a black attack on is that a magician tester has an authorized access. The system. So, you know that is a vanquish. Interesting is very important for us for a particular organization to determine whether it is sound with the security. So these are the inside support our security consultant. I'm sorry for that. About a security concern for members Have I've got discerning bean so that we didn't salary . That is Abbott. Saturday for a security consultant is off 87,000. As you discussed in the last hour lecture for the mini American 50 for it, speeding off pressures and it can go upto one and dental TZ $1000. But here so you know, with experience you can see just mark make on the point. You can see the experience here. No experience column is 23.6%. I mean, that experience salary also increases. So what does a security consultant need toe? Have skill. It must know our network works. Then he must need most people to know Sickle the artist. Then we literally assessments were performed. How? How bin doesn't justice perform. They don't so about risk management and control. So now you know, if a zai have discussed in the believer's lectures that the demand for security professionals is increasing day by day, this number is also going to increase because has technology advances, more and more data is going to be stored. Now there's another branch of returning this cloud security that I'm not. Now cloud security is getting much room in the market. The need for cloud security professional is on the rise. There are a lot of demand for those chops, so you can see this is ah, verified from beef killer comb for security angina salaries. So you can see if how expedience less than one year, like you just pass out from your high school or you're just battered from certain some degree and you know some things about net security. Silicon even get around $70,000 permanent about you on this. This graph is going pleasing as it experienced. Now this is the security. After you get 20 years of experience, you get $127. But that is not the case. It also has factors like See if you have a master's degree in security field or in information protection field, then the habits ality goes up toe around 100 grounded a $1000. So it you know the job and the salary insides also depends upon your bag out. If we have ah, let living badness degree in computer science and then you have a master's degree in, let's say, cybersecurity invidious a two years course and then have some experience off 5 to 6 months working as internship, then your salary may increase may go beyond $100,000. Bowman. You know it depends upon your skills. How far you take cyber security, how enthusiastic you are learned up secretly aspect. Now it's not like that. You pass out, you have some basic skills and you get 1 $20.100,000 dollars for you. It's not like that So you need to love constantly, since technologies and emerging feel it is your responsibility to keep learning new things day by day because no tool is used. Same was no tool which is used, which was use 10 years before is now used. That out updates on new tools, which helped in using the process. But you should get used to that now. These are some states meta Tokyo job postings. I said, This is a day tough against 2 to 5 years before, But as you can see in the Silicon Valley that it's California State, the more number of job postings that delivered, you know, technologies more. So. This data is basically off 5 to 6 years before, like in 2000 14 15 inches. But now the demand for cybersecurity is has increased not only the U. S. But in the entire world people have become more concerned about the security. So, you know, it's a great oh, it's a great pleasure to serve as a security professional. And you might think off starting white if you're cybersecurity, cheap loans. I was security. So what happened? See, is off. I think if you I really want to go into this field, but I promise one to step up and step down in this field. I mean, there's nothing like it. I mean, you get to learn new technologies day by day, we learn new techniques. You get to talk to professionals, then you have Vegas courses have level throughout the industry of identifications, which we were talking also in occurring motives. So in short, in one word on family, if I would like to describe this feet, it's incredible. It's cybersecurity is incredible. You have to consider all the aspect you know, the salary inside the demand for jobs than the respect you get on the job. Satisfaction is one of the most important part in any field. I mean, you not only cybersecurity, but if you're doing any job you need to do is get satisfied. Like if there's no satisfaction and maybe you're in the wrong place if you think over and over again. So what I suggest is read more forums, blog's and cybersecurity. Then you know, start learning that working into more detail, I hope our network, the model, has helped you. And the next morning we'll see you get a clear picture off security elements. So this you all the best now and let us meet in the next morning. 25. Lecture 26 - Why Should You Go For Cyber Security: Welcome back in this luxury. We'll see why you should go for cybersecurity. Um, let me tell you, this is going to be the most intestine lecture and turning point off our course. After this lecture, you might start thinking about learning cybersecurity and moody deal. Senate doesn't begin now. What is Scoop off cybersecurity and why you should go for cyber security. I have heard people saying that, you know, cybersecurity takes all profession experience, you know, to be sounding those skills. Yes. Obviously you need to be sounding those skills, but you learn to light. You have to learn those skills first. So as hacks and D w just continue to dominate headlines, it comes as no surprise that cybersecurity exports are among the most sought after professionals with very good pay, job security and a leer off finding on the front lines of cyber warfare. The information security industry can seem nothing sort of glamorous. So what's to get you whilst I'm a crime is very real. The prospective thrills surrounding the prevention off news newsworthy data breaches are often overshadowed by reality. As with the other jobs working information security industry can demanding, stressful and routine Yes, it is demanding. It is stressful, and it is a routine job. You know, it is. It has a great responsibility on your hands on a gun toting security. Ultimately, when making any major career choice, it's essential to start with the listings expectations. I'm sorry for that. To help, I will review the re LP's off jobs in cybersecurity, the good, the bad ones and ugly serving What can be highly rewarding career. So cybersecurity is an emerging video. You all know that the concern for security has risen over the past few years. Technological advances have made protecting systems against hackers spy ways and why this is widely mordant. Virtually every type of organization has confidential information. Soon on the computer networks, where are gonna additions Even You have confidential information sort store on your phone. You have your photos. We have the messages. But it's confidential, right? You don't want them to get leaked as the Internet grows suit of cybercrime. Luckily for cybersecurity professionals, this generates create remind for jobs. According to the bureau off label's artistic, that is, gear less employment of information security analysts is projected to grow 37% from 12 4022 which is much faster than average grease read for any other job. According to the predictions by exports, the scope of cybersecurity market will become dollar 1 70 billion bad with 20. So in this current year it will become $170 billion. The market of cyber security as the principles of supply and demand dictate. This also creates a significant earning potential for qualified individuals. The BLS reports median annual salary off $86,000 for you, which is approximately $41 for our I mean you work at cybersecurity professional. Anyone around About 70 $86 off money, right? I mean, you protect systems, you want this. Also, you want fame. Also, you want respect and you're doing a good job. So through the mass media, so I was security jobs are often romanticized while high stick tests do occur. The daily tasks off these professions are typically less exciting. The major concern for cybersecurity DC's is that full factors The number of crimes are increasing. The amount of time we have the hand toe prevent a data breach is decreasing by doctors is on the rise ahead as I said the previous video that there were seven million marvels in 1006 or seven, but now the number of maladies is increased. So there is a variety off my pelvis on number number. Optical Panelists is decreasing or it's less, which means you have more d mind once you intend to cybersecurity. So job responsibilities off typical cybersecurity analysts may include planning implementing a grading and monitoring security measures for the protection of computer networks. Information and shooting that appropriate security controls are in place to see him. Got digital five on electronic infrastructure, responding to computer security breaches. And my to fill the gaps organizations and guarding the existing employees to chisel their skills by taking up certifications. So the bottom of responsibility. While daily responsibilities are often less than glamorous, it is important to remember that I was 30 professionals working complex, fast pace work environments and are often faced with our other over time. See, it did not fix that us that a cybersecurity attack meeting place between walking ours it can begin. Midnight can take that evening in the evening at midnight, out in the morning at 5 a.m. You don't know. So you know it's artifically a stressful job. So I have a city professional was always considered possible when liberties and monitor systems constantly by technology has relieved the professionals off some responsibilities that excruciating. Remember that humans are often the weakest link simple human Eric and deserting astronomical problem as it lead in the case of motorists he just wanted to count out. He just wanted to see the number of machines, but it ended up getting a womb. While this may seem like an early total fiber security, going into a new career with pragmatic understanding of the truth will benefit you employees in longer. Having realistic expectations can ease stress before, during and after if problems should occur. So what should I do on what should you do If you want to enter cybersecurity? Big actions are networks a greater degree or, you know, just get a bachelor's degree in computer science. Onda Masters degree Master's degree is, you know, considered as I icing on the cake. If you don't have muscles, see that is not a big concern. The need for cybersecurity and network security professionals is rapidly expanding so quickly that there are not enough qualified individuals to fill open positions that there was a time when, you know, college and professionals were waiting in lines for getting a job. And now the company's air lacking on the companies do not have positions filled with cybersecurity professionals. So it's like you have cybersecurity. Professions are great demand all over the world. Now this is participated you to the evolving, demanding nature of the job. But with guaranteed job security, outstanding intradermal rates and the partof choice now is an ideal time to end the UNWTO, the cybersecurity industry, interest in working in cybersecurity ru. And after hearing this many off, you will be looking for cybersecurity. So through ah fiddle you could own or your degree. In just two years of doing your muscle, you can go in the entire what I can see. Yeah, qualification needed for a knowledge needle for your profession. You can own it in two or three years and then start working as a security professional. So it could be the best decision. You do. You know me. I mean, I get any that the job market for cyber security is increasing day by day, even earlier when I was in my high school, I was also concerned with my a decision in We need to cybersecurity. But when I am trying to market, I mean, that's boom. You have tremendous opportunities that have tremendous various job parts that do that. We're going to explode in upcoming videos as well. So I think over it. The search on topics related to job profiled security. And you know it's always a pleasure to respect people's five protect data. 26. Lecture 27 - Conclusion: Congratulations on companies Section two off the scores. So you have a basic idea off for the cyber security on how it is important to us in our day to day lives. Also in the section you saw an overview of what are the current jobs on the basic skills in the current data? Now, take rest. Go to the parts off the section that you have not understood and be ready for the next section That is the core fundamentals off cybersecurity. 27. Lecture 28 Introduction: Hello and welcome back to Section three. Fundamentals of cybersecurity in the cause. Cybersecurity, specialization, Part one Cybersecurity plays a very important role to secure our privacy so that we can carry transactions through a computer without being Has it been off without having any few in the section vehicle and recover key terms in cybersecurity? You would need to know the G. Adams so that you can speak the language of the cyber world. The next comes the elements of information. Security in the elements were going to cover the most important. See, I dried. Then comes five suffered banks. Which a pass you attack an act. Do it back in the end, I'm going to cover the roads in cybersecurity are given you the overview off the rules in cybersecurity in section two. It is very important for you to make notes off this section as the terms covered in this section will be useful to you throughout your life. See you in the next video 28. Lecture 29 Definition of Computer Security: So in this video you're going to see the Senate definitions of cybersecurity or I D. Security to be this size. So technology is going everything, and as it grows, it transforms our digital world. Internet use is increasing exponentially, making us correspondingly more vulnerable to cyber attacks. By learning how cybercriminals attack and how to secure our systems and data against those attacks, you will be able to minimize the risk off data breaches and devastation that bring with them computer security deals with the protection of computer systems and information from harm theft and another tourist use. The mean reason users get that frequently is that delight adequate defences to keep out intruders and cybercriminals computer security and chills the confidence, charity, integrity and availability off your computers. And they're still did so. The National Institute of Standards and acknowledge United States define cybersecurity as the protection off information systems from unauthorized access, youth disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction in order to provide confidence, sanity, integrity and availability. These three terms, confident charity integrity and availability will be singing upcoming models. So from another terrorist access, which means the person or the people who are not recommended toe access those information or data and disclosure. That is, if we have some confidential information and you tell it to someone or some other company for financial gain, and that is disclosure. Modification is basically you take the information, do some changes and then pass on. We're going to see all these types of information attacks in the next. Like just so for this vector, make sure you understand what is cybersecurity. Another definition from the government of Yuki is cybersecurity. Is the application off technologies, processes and controls to protect this distance networks, programs, devices and beat up France. About That's so the bottom line of this lecture is cybersecurity deals with the protection off confidential information from cyber attacked in the next victim with BC Diffident Computer Securities, which are categorized. 29. Lecture 30 Types of Computer Security: from this lecture, you're going to see the four types of computer security that is in front of you. So as we have discussed in the last lecture, I hope you've got a clear idea off cybersecurity is So what is the network security? It is the practice off securing a computer network from intruders with a targeted Attackers or opportunistic man. Always. It basically deals with all the networks that are present in the world. We have seen the network devices so Attackers can also attack these devices because our gain financial benefit, the next information security it protects the integrity and privacy of data both in stories and in transit. Information has not become a crucial part of our daily life. We value our information and we want to keep information secure so that no other attacker or a notorious person should be able to access that information application security. Basically, it focuses on keeping soft three devices three off Tex compromised application called Freud access to the data it is designed to protect. So the applications, like software, food shops, are Robredo's or the absent. A present on little on 100 devices are Ameriquest. Basically, these applications also consistent with diabetes, which could result in lost off data. So regarding these devices, these devices is a major task before these cyber seeker discretions persons. Now the last one is missing, which is a major. I was disaster recovery and business continuity. So basically, it defines how an organization responds to a cybersecurity incident are any other even that causes the loss of our prisons or data. So basically, disaster recovery defines our deals with the post time off. An attack like this attack has already awkward know what to do next. How toe prevent more data loss, How cook it the data that is lost. So this this is all of Constable in association with the Incident response team. So these are the major types of computer security. Also, there is the Web security of the application security than your Internet of things, security. It's all a very big deal. But I just wanted to give you a brief types of computer security that has network security and information security. Of all these top the list