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Building Structures in Spanish - Structure 5

teacher avatar Kieran Ball, Learn a language in 3-minute chunks

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Introduction to the course

      2:02

    • 2.

      1 - structure 5 outline

      3:15

    • 3.

      2a - the imperfect tense

      4:25

    • 4.

      2b - ar verbs

      4:20

    • 5.

      2c - ar verb endings

      4:03

    • 6.

      2d - er / ir verbs

      4:23

    • 7.

      2e - er / ir verb endings

      3:13

    • 8.

      2f - list of verbs

      3:56

    • 9.

      2g - pedir, probar, pagar, hacer

      4:06

    • 10.

      2h - alquilar, tomar, tener, cambiar

      4:03

    • 11.

      2i - comprar, comenzar, salir, gastar

      4:01

    • 12.

      2j - pasar, llamar, quedar, encontrar

      4:03

    • 13.

      2k - decir, traer, estar

      3:27

    • 14.

      2l - ver, ir, ser

      3:24

    • 15.

      2m - practice questions

      3:28

    • 16.

      2n - practice questions

      2:35

    • 17.

      3a - extra information

      3:29

    • 18.

      3b - practice sentences

      2:31

    • 19.

      4a - manipulating structure 5

      2:49

    • 20.

      4b - using names

      2:31

    • 21.

      4c - using names

      3:30

    • 22.

      5a - recap of question words

      3:34

    • 23.

      5b - recap of imperfect tense verbs

      3:06

    • 24.

      5c - practice questions

      3:12

    • 25.

      6a - were you vs. did you use to

      3:36

    • 26.

      6b - practise with double meanings

      3:02

    • 27.

      6c - practice questions

      3:07

    • 28.

      6d - practice questions

      2:55

    • 29.

      6e - practice questions

      2:57

    • 30.

      6f - practice questions

      3:12

    • 31.

      6g - practice questions

      3:10

    • 32.

      6h - practice questions

      3:21

    • 33.

      6i - practice questions

      3:51

    • 34.

      6j - practice questions

      3:09

    • 35.

      6k - practice questions

      3:02

    • 36.

      7a - as a non-question

      3:00

    • 37.

      7b - practice sentences

      3:20

    • 38.

      7c - practice sentences

      3:17

    • 39.

      7d - practice sentences

      3:57

    • 40.

      7e - practice sentences

      3:18

    • 41.

      7f - practice sentences

      3:10

    • 42.

      7g - practice sentences

      3:43

    • 43.

      8a - recap of question words

      3:24

    • 44.

      8b - recap of imperfect tense

      3:11

    • 45.

      8c - recap of extra information

      3:10

    • 46.

      8d - practise structure 5

      3:03

    • 47.

      8e - practise structure 5

      3:57

    • 48.

      9a - turning it all negative

      3:35

    • 49.

      9b - negative double meaning

      3:19

    • 50.

      9c - negative non-questions

      3:57

    • 51.

      9d - practise with negatives

      3:24

    • 52.

      10a - using structure 5 with other structures

      3:34

    • 53.

      10b - using structure 5 with other structures

      2:47

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About This Class

The whole of the Spanish language can be broken down into several different structures. If you take any sentence from any Spanish book or any utterance, you will see that it fits into one of these structures.


I remember one weekend, I was writing some lessons for the week ahead, when I suddenly realised this. I noticed that there are a certain number of structures in Spanish, and that every sentence follows one of these structures. I spent the rest of the weekend working out all the structures, and I wrote them all down.


Every structure you learn gives you the ability to say a huge amount. Some structures are used more than others, but all the structures together make up the whole Spanish language. Once you’ve learnt how a structure works, all you have to do is insert different words into the slots and you have a sentence.


This course introduces you to structure 5. I’ve limited each course to one structure so as not to overburden you. By looking at just one structure at a time, you can really get to grips with it and understand its usage. It will help to clarify the Spanish language and make it more like a reflex rather than something you have to think about as is it were a maths equation.


Each structure can also help to propel you to fluency; if you can manipulate the structures at high speed, you can start to say anything you want without having to thing about how to say it.


This course contains plenty of practice opportunities for you to revise what you’ve learnt and it also contains some hints and tips on how best to learn and memorise the structures and the vocabulary that goes with them. You’ll learn how to make questions out of structure 5, how to make statements and how to turn positive statements negative.


The Building Structures in Spanish series is set out using the same learning techniques as the 3 Minute Spanish courses. You can work through the course in three minute chunks, enabling anybody to learn Spanish, no matter how little time you have.

Meet Your Teacher

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Kieran Ball

Learn a language in 3-minute chunks

Teacher

Hello, I’m Kieran and I’m a language tutor based in the UK. I have created a series of online courses that you can use to learn to speak French, Spanish, German, Italian and Portuguese. (I also have some English and math courses)

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Transcripts

1. Introduction to the course: Egn videos. Hello, and welcome to building structures in Spanish. Structure five, I'm Kevin, and I'm a language to two based in the UK. I wrote this series of courses to help you to learn to speak Spanish. The whole of the Spanish language is made up of a number of structures. And I remember one weekend I was writing some lesson plans for the week ahead. When I suddenly realized this, I noticed that there are a certain number of structures in Spanish and that every single sentence follows one of these structures. I spent the rest of the weekend working out all of the structures and I wrote them all down. Once you know what all the structures are, you can begin to learn them. Every structure you learn, it gives you the ability to say a huge amount in Spanish. Certain structures are used more than others, but all of the structures together make up the entire Spanish language. Once you've learned to structure, all you have to do is insert different words into the slots and you have a sentence. Learning these structures can help to propel you to fluency. Because if you can manipulate the structure is at highest speed, it means you can say anything you want without having to think about how to say it. In this course, we're going to learn all about structure five. If you've already learned structures 123.4 using this building structures series, then you will recognize the method used in this course as well. So remember to limit your study time to chunks of just 3 min. Because if you keep your study sessions short, three amazing things will happen. Firstly, you'll maintain enthusiasm. Secondly, you'll be more consistent in your studying and consistency is the key to success. And thirdly, you will find that you remember things much more easily. So let's begin learning about structure five in Spanish. 2. 1 - structure 5 outline: Structure five in Spanish uses the imperfect tense to form questions and statements. It consists of just two parts, and here is an example of it in use. Commas. Commas. It means What were you eating? Cake comas. Or you can use the word to, which means you get to come. Yes. The word two, meaning you is a subject pronoun. They are optional in Spanish. Will learn more about these shortly, but for now, just know that more often than not, the Spanish miss them off. So you'll hear K Camille has more than two commas. Let's break this structure down into its core components and give each component and name. So we have k is a question word meaning what. And then Columbia's or two. Columbia's is an imperfect verb. It means were you eating? The first part of structure five is simply a question word. And since we've seen them all many times now, you will already know them. So let's just test ourselves to refresh our memories. How do you say in Spanish, where? Don Day? What? At what time? When quandl how? Como. Which are which one? Y. How much? How many? How long, how much time? Quanto tempo, who or whom? Pn. So what we can do with this fifth structure, start to build up questions using the two parts, the question word and then the imperfect tense. We can change either of the two parts in this structure. E.g. we can change the word k, meaning what at the start of the question. So K Columbia's means, What were you eating? We can change k to Dante. Dante means where we get done. They come, Yes. Where were you eating? Instead of saying Don Day, we could change it to quandl which means when? One.com? Yes. When were you eating? So just like with the other structures, you can change the question word without changing any of the rest of the question. The cameras doesn't change at all just because you changed the question word, gecko, Mia's bone, they come yes. Or if you want to use the word to get to Kami has bonded to Kami us. Cuando to come. Yes. What were you eating? Where were you eating? When were you eating? 3. 2a - the imperfect tense: As I said, there are just two parts, destructive five, the question word and the imperfect tense. We already know what the question words, what was, where? Non day, what? At what time? Akira. When? Quandl, how? Como. Which or which one? Coil. Why? Both gay. How much quanto, how many quantiles, how long or how much time. Quantity, MPO, who or whom, Kian. So that's the first part done. But what about the second part? The imperfect tense? The imperfect tense is a past tense, and it's not too tricky to form. In fact, we have seen it before. When we learned the third structure, we had one part that was the infinitive carriers in the past tense. The past tense that we used for them is actually the imperfect tense. There are three different past tenses in Spanish. One is called the present perfect tense, one is called the preterite tense, and the other is called the imperfect tense. When we learned structure for, we learned all about the present perfect tense. It consisted of the auxiliary verb and the past participle. When we learn to structure three, however, we had one part of that structure that was an infinitive carrier in the past tense. The past tense that we used was the imperfect tense. We had infinitive carriers, like these carrier, which was, I wanted body us. Could you, Debian? Did they have to? The endings of those verbs? The IA, IA, s, and n are the endings for the imperfect tense. Let me give you a few examples of some ordinary verbs, not infinitive carriers in the imperfect tense include their meanings. You can see what this tents looks like and what it means. Baby a baby. I was drinking. I see. Yeah. I see. Yeah. I was doing SQL DB or SQL DB. I was writing Camila. Camila. I was eating Salia. Sally, Yeah. I was leaving. Have you noticed that all the endings for the imperfect tense in Spanish and in AI, in those examples with an accent over the eye. Well, all ir verbs and E-R verbs in the imperfect tense, when you conjugate them for I or your, will end in the letters I, j with an accent on the eye. Once again, you'll see that I've put the word, you're in brackets, just like I did with two. And that's because you all is another subject pronoun. It means I, but it's optional in Spanish. So you can just say baby, your baby year as CEO or your SEM or your SQL via Camila or your cornea, cilia, or your cilia. And there's no difference in meaning. It's more common, however, to miss off the word you say, you'll tend to just hear the verb by itself. One reason for using your would be to emphasize the word I. So if you said your baby, yeah. It means I was drinking as opposed to you're drinking your Assyria. I was doing the yard is optional more often than not, it's left off completely, but you can use it to add emphasis. 4. 2b - ar verbs: Al verbs, just like when we learned the present tense in structure to the imperfect tenants has its own set of endings. Just like with the present tense, there is a set of endings for AR verbs and another set of endings for ER and IR verbs. Here are a few examples of some AR verbs in the imperfect tense in Spanish. Lava. Lava. I was speaking, I was buying can TVA, can TBA. I was singing about hover. Hover. I was working by lava. Lava. I was dancing. Or you can put the optional, you're in front your your Kampala. You can TVA, your travel, your by lava. Let's look at the imperfect tense conjugation of an AR verb so that you can see what it looks like for all the different persons. Will pick the verb, which means to speak. I've lava, lava. I was speaking I've love us and love us. You were speaking of lava. Lava. He was speaking of lava. Lava. She was speaking of lava. Lava. You were speaking Alabama's I've lab Ahmose. We were speaking. I will advice. I've Levi's. You were speaking of 11. 11. They were speaking and I'm 11:00 A.M. lab Lavon. You were speaking. And you can see once again that I've put the subject pronouns in brackets because they're optional. But you might notice why they could come in handy. If you look at the I was speaking. He was speaking. She was speaking. And you were speaking versions of our blood. They're all lava. The only way that you could distinguish them is if you use the subject pronouns. Your lover, I was speaking a lover. He was speaking of lava. She was speaking. Who step up lava. You were speaking. And the same goes for they were speaking and you were speaking in the plural of Lavon? Agarose have Lavon makes it clear that it's definitely they were speaking. Status of Lavon makes it clear that it was definitely you were speaking. So you can use the optional subject pronouns either to emphasize the person or to clarify which one you're talking about. Another thing that we've already seen before, but I shall just go over again quickly, is that there are four different ways to say you in Spanish. We have two whose death most otros and status to and vosotros are the informal ways of saying you, you can use them with friends or people you know quite well. And we'll status or the more formal ways of saying you, you can use them with people older than you, people you don't know, or if just want to be polite to is the singular informal. Vosotros is the plural in formal, and all Steph is the singular. Formal. Status is the plural formal. Your lover, I was speaking to allow us. You were speaking a lot of lava. He was speaking AR I've lover. She was speaking. Who instead of lava, you were speaking? Nosotros, vamos? We were speaking. Most authors have lobbies. You were speaking a or subclavian? They were speaking who status are leaving you with speaking. 5. 2c - ar verb endings: We've just seen the imperfect tense conjugation of the verb. To have lavas. Lava, lava, lava, lava. Most basolateral sub lobbies have Lavon, WHO status are loving. What we can do with that conjugation table is look at what the endings are, because the endings on this verb are going to be the same endings for any AR verb in the imperfect tense. So it goes AABA for you. For two. Other, for L, abba, for a abba. For all staff. Obama's for nosotros, advice, for vosotros, oven for ios, and oven for status. We have to do now is take any AR verb, remove the AR, and add those endings, and you have the imperfect tense. So what you could do is write those endings down on a cue card and put up the top imperfect tense AR verbs. Let's practice by conjugating a couple of AR verbs. Let's start with the verb, which means to buy. What I'd like to do is to see if you can conjugate the verb comparator into the imperfect tense, we have to do is remove the AR, then add those endings that we've just seen. So pause the lesson, conjugate this verb into the imperfect tense, and then press play to see if you got it right. Is to buy your comparable. I was buying compresses or to compress. You are buying comparable or L comparable. He was buying company Java. Java. She was buying compression or state comparable. You were buying company Obama's nosotros comparables. We were buying compromise. Most operas compromise. You were buying compression. Compression. They were buying comparable WHO status complement you were buying. Let's do one more practice verb. Let's have a go at conjugating the verb espionage, which means to wait into the imperfect tense. So pause this lesson, conjugate the verb SPR into the imperfect tense along with its meaning in English. And then press play to check if you got it right. So SPDR means to wait a spin ABA, or your S beta, gamma. I was waiting or two SP Rava's. You were waiting. Is para. Para he was waiting. Sp SP Rava she was waiting. Spl rather. Boosted is parabola. You were waiting. Sp lava muss. Es para most. We were waiting. Aspera is most atrocious expert advice. You were waiting. Is Beethoven. Beethoven. They were waiting. Pit oven. Status, SPL haven't. You were waiting. 6. 2d - er / ir verbs: So we've now seen the AR verb endings in the imperfect tense. Abba, Abba, other Abba, Abba, Abba. Most obese, oven, oven. Er, and IR verbs. In the imperfect tense, ER and IR verbs share the same endings. For I or your, e.g. once you've removed the last two letters from the end of the verb, you can add the letters i, ae with an accent on the eye. Or your cornea. I was eating. Or your SQL DB. I was writing Salia. Your salary? Yeah. I was leaving. Maybe, yeah. Maybe yeah. I was drinking. Layer. Your layer. I was reading. Let's have a look at the imperfect conjugation of an ER verb so you can see what it looks like in all the different persons. Come air means to eat. You're coming here. I was eating. Kami has to come. Yes. You eating? Columbia? Columbia. He was eating. Come here. Come here. She was eating Columbia or boosted. Come here. You eating gummy Ahmose. We were eating gummy ice. You eating Chameleon. Chameleon. They were eating. Coming in. Who? Status command. You eating. So you can see that the endings of those verbs are ear, ear, ear, EMOs, EIA's Yan and Ian. And I said that E-R verbs and ir verbs share the same set of endings. So let's look at the imperfect tense conjugation of an IR verb. Now, Sally means to leave Salia. Your salary. Yeah, I was leaving Sally us to soleus. You will leaving Salia or L Salia? He was leaving Salia. Aslr. She was leaving cilia stereocilia. You believing? Cellulose? Cellulose. We were leaving. Sally. Sally ice. You believing Sally-Anne. Sally-anne. They were leaving. Sally-anne. Sally-anne. You will leaving. The endings for the imperfect tense for E-R verbs and ir verbs are yeah, for your yes, for two. For l, for Asia. For boosted. Emos, for nosotros, EIA's, for vosotros, EN for ios and EN for status. So again, what you can do is write those endings down on a cue card at the top right, imperfect tense endings for E-R verbs and ir verbs. Or you have to do then is take any ER or IR verb. Take off the last two letters and add those endings. And then you have the imperfect tense. 7. 2e - er / ir verb endings: We've just seen the endings for ER and IR verbs in the imperfect tense in Spanish. We had ear for your, ear to ear for n. Yeah, For Asia. Yeah, false death. Emos for nosotros, for vosotros, EN for ACOs. Ian for status. You simply take any ER or I, remove the US two letters and add those endings. Let's have a practice at conjugating an ER verb into the imperfect tense. The verb means to do. Pause this lesson, grab a piece of paper and write down the imperfect tense conjugation of the verb along with its meaning in English. Then press play to see if you got it right. So as CEA or your ostia means I was doing RCS. Rcs. You were doing ostia? Ostia? He was doing she was doing associa. Associa. You were doing as CMOs? Cmos. We were doing as CIA's. Most authors are CIEs. You were doing they were doing a CN status or CN you were doing. Now let's practice conjugating an IR verb into the imperfect tense. Take the verb, which means to write and conjugated into the imperfect tense. So pause the lesson and press Play once you've conjugated it, and then you can check your answers via your S-curve here means I was writing SQL DB to SQL DB. As you're writing SQL Libya. Libya. He was writing SQL DB or SQL via she was writing trivia, stave Escambia. You were writing SQL, VM OS, nosotros, estamos. We were writing SQL DB or SQL DB. You were writing SQL, avian, AOCS Caribbean. They were writing SQL alien status as Caribbean. You were writing. 8. 2f - list of verbs: Let's go through all the infinitives that we've been using throughout the building structures series, and try and conjugate them into the imperfect tense. The verbs we've been looking at our command, meaning to eat, to drink. Two order. To try. Bagger means to pay. Acid, can mean to make or to do. To hire tomar, to take ten air, to have. Can be hard to change. To buy. Comments are to start to leave or to go out. Gas star, to spend as into spend money. To spend as in to spend time. Gamma, to call guitar, to stay. In contrast, to find, this here, can mean to say or to tell dry air to bring a star to be, bear, to see year, to go, and sell to B. So let's conjugate all of those verbs into the imperfect tense. Now at the start of each verb, what you can do is pause the lesson and conjugate the verb yourself, and then press play to see if you've got them right. There are only three irregular verbs, and that's the last three verbs in the list, bear, year, and sell. So don't try to conjugate those ones as they don't follow the rules. But the rest of them, you can have a go yourself and get familiar with the imperfect tense. Compare means to eat. Commedia. You're coming here. I was eating gummy has to come. Yes. You eating Camila? Camila. He was eating a academia. She was eating. Camila. Camila. You eating most GMOs? We were eating gametes. Both authors, Camila is you eating a IOS commands? They were eating gummy and status chromium. You eating means to drink. Baby. Your baby? Yeah. I was drinking. Baby us to baby as you were drinking? Maybe, yeah. He was drinking. Maybe. She was drinking a beer. You were drinking? Maybe amaz, nosotros, baby Ahmose. We were drinking. Maybe ice. Most authors, baby ice. You were drinking. Maybe an AOSP Debian. They were drinking. Maybe I can say this, maybe when you were drinking. 9. 2g - pedir, probar, pagar, hacer: Means to order. And in the imperfect tense, we get barrier. Your bed. Yeah. I was ordering to barriers. You were ordering barrier? Barrier? He was ordering barrier. A barrier. She was ordering Bezier. Who said you were ordering be the most? Nosotros PDMS. We were ordering PDAs. Most authors PDAs. You were ordering Bayesian, AOSP Padian. They were ordering Bayesian status Padian. You were ordering pro bar, means to try. Bro Baba. Baba. I was trying to prove. You were trying to probe our apra. He was trying brava, Ada. She was trying throw Baba who said probiotics. You were trying probe Obama's nosotros provenance. We were trying to minimize muscle cross-product ice. You were trying to Robben Island. They were trying broadband status problem. You were trying backyard means to pay by gather your bag. I was paying bicarb us to buy gas. You were paying by gaba. Gaba. He was paying by gaba. By Gaga. She was paying by gaba. State PAGA. You were paying by gaba most nosotros pack Alamos. We were paying by gaba is most authors, PAGA is. You were paying back oven. Aosp Raghavan. They were paying I haven't status by Gabon. You were paying means to do or to make a CEA. Your fascia can mean I was doing or I was making a CS two RCS. You were doing or you were making a CIA? He was doing or he was making Ostia. Ostia. She was doing she was making Ostia. Ostia. You are doing you are making as CMOs, nosotros as CMOs. We were doing or we were making a CIA's. Most Latinos as CIA's. You were doing or you were making a CN AOC, ICN. They were doing or they were making. Whose status or CN you were doing or you are making. 10. 2h - alquilar, tomar, tener, cambiar: Alar means to hire. And in the imperfect tense we get alkyl lava. Your alkyl lava. I was hiring icky lavas. Two alkyl hours. You are hiring icky lava lava. He was hiring icky lava lava. She was hiring icky lava boosted alkyl lava. You hiring okey lab animals, nosotros, alkyl Obama's. We were hiring or kilobase. Alkyl advise. You are hiring 11 ACOs. Alkyl, haven't they were hiring Alec 11 status alkyl, haven't you? Hiring domain means to take your omega. I was taking Domo has two, Tomas. You were taking DaMatta, tamara. He was taking Komaba, Bamaga. She was taking DaMatta. Who stayed? Tamara. You were taking Domo Obama's Tom Obama's. We were taking my rise. Is you are taking Donovan alias doma been they were taking Donovan. Who status bar m7. You were taking then air means to have tinea. Tinea. I was having then yes. To ten years. You are having denier Taenia? He was having the linea Alba then yeah. She was having tinea. Tinea. You're having then EMOs than EMOs? We were having their knee ice. Then the ice you are having. Then Yann, a Justinian. They were having, then Ian status then you are having can be ad, means to change. Can be either your Gambia. I was changing cambium us to Canvas. You will changing Gambia, Java. Java. He was changing. Can be other. Gambia. She was changing. Gumby ever will stay there. Can be other you will changing. Gambia, Obama's nosotros can be Obama's. We were changing. Can be ABA, is both authors can be advice. You will changing. Can be oven, a yours can be oven. They were changing. Can be oven. Status. Can be Alan. You were changing. 11. 2i - comprar, comenzar, salir, gastar: The verb means to buy. And in the imperfect tense we get Rabaa. Your comparable. I was buying company has to traverse. You were buying company Java. Java. He was buying company Java. Java. She was buying Java. Java. You were buying comparable most nosotros comparables. We were buying compromise. Compromise. You were buying compression compression. They were buying compression compression. You were buying. Comments are means to start. Command Sava, your comments. I was starting Goldman Sachs has to come in service. You were starting gametes Dava, l command Sava. He was starting saba, common Salah. She was starting saba. Coming Sabah. You were starting saba most nosotros, common Southerners. We were starting common sub I is most common sub I is you were starting come in 78 years, come in seven day restarting. Gummies. Seven, status, command seven. You will starting sally means to leave Salia. Your Salia. I was leaving soleus. Soleus. You will leaving cilia. Cilia. He was leaving cilia. Cilia. She was leaving cilia. Cilia. You will leaving cellulose. Cellulose. We were leaving soleus muscle cross Salia, is you believing Sally-Anne a Sally-Anne. Sally-anne. Sally-anne. You will leaving gas. That means to spend, as in to spend money. In the imperfect tense, we get Gustavo Jocasta. I was spending Gustavus. To Gustavus. You were spending Gustavo L. Gustavo. He was spending and Gustavo AR Nesta. She was spending gas lava boosted Gustavo. You were spending Gustavo most. Nosotros, Gustavo most. We were spending gas turbine is vosotros gas database. You are spending Gustavo on AOC and gas Taiwan. They were spending and gas the one who studies and gas davon. You were spending. 12. 2j - pasar, llamar, quedar, encontrar: The verb bizarre means to spend as in to spend time. In the imperfect tense we get by Sabah, your Passover. I was spending by savages. Do per service. You were spending per sub l Passover. He was spending by Saba, agar Bus java. She was spending Bus java or steadfast abba. You were spending by Saba most. We were spending by Sybase. You were spending by seven. Aosp are sovereign. They were spending by sovereign status by seven. You were spending EMR means to call Yamada. Your Yamada? I was calling Yammer buzz. To Yammer buzz. You were calling Yamada LEM Abba. He was calling your mother. Your mother? She was calling Yamada. Yamada. You were calling? Yeah. My bungalows, nosotros, vamos. We were calling Yamada is both authors. Yammer by 0s. You were calling yeah. Marvin Yamada. They were calling Yammer been status Yammer been you were calling the verb gada means to stay. Good. Our yolk data. I was staying, get us to get Ava's us staying, get Alba, Al Qaeda. He was staying, give our Ada. She was saying was that you were staying get Obama's nosotros, vamos. We were staying. Good advice. Most arthroscopy rabbis. You were saying good oven, alias, get oven. They were staying get R1 status oven. Us staying. The verb end contract means to find in control over your ankles Strava. I was finding in service to income Travers. You were finding in contract law and contract law? He was finding in contract law and contract law. She was finding in contrast, step in controversy. You were finding in contrast most nosotros in contraband, most we were finding in contrast bias both authors and controversies. You are finding in contravened ADOS and contravened. They were finding in contraband status. In contrast, when you are finding 13. 2k - decir, traer, estar: The verb can mean to say or to tell. In the imperfect tense, we get this year. This year. I was saying, or I was telling this to the CSS. You are saying or you are telling the CIA? The CIA. He was saying he was telling this year. This year. She was telling her what she was saying. The CIA. Who stepped the CIA? Usa, inc. Or you were telling the CMOs? Cmos. We were saying or we were telling the CIEs, vosotros, the CIA's you were saying or you are telling the CN AOC and SEM. They were saying or they were telling the CN status the CN you are saying or you were telling that I add means to bring your trachea? I was bringing to try. Yes. You are bringing try. Yeah. He was bringing Ada diarrhea. She was bringing try. Yeah. You were bringing that I EMOs nosotros estamos. We were bringing dry ice, muscle throws. You were bringing Brian? Brian? They were bringing Diane. Diane. You were bringing a star. Means to be in the imperfect tend to be get, Estella, your estaba. This verb can be used to mean I was I was being estaba 2S2 service. You were or you were being estaba? Estaba? He was or he was being estaba. Estaba. She was she was being estaba. Stay the estaba. You were you were being estaba most nosotros estamos. We were or we will being a stab eyes, muzzle throws. You were, or you were being stamen? Stamen. They were. They were being is davon. Whose status is Steven? You were you were being 14. 2l - ver, ir, ser: We've just seen 21 regular verbs in the imperfect tense. Now we'll look at three irregular verbs. So don't worry about conjugating these ones before we go through them. The verb, which means to see, is irregular because you don't remove the last two letters before you add the endings. Or we have to remove is the r. So you take off the r and then you can add the normal endings. So we get Bay. Yeah, you're Bay. Yeah. I was seeing betas to bias. You are seeing Bayer? Bayer? He was seeing Bay Area. Bay Area. She was seeing Baier. Who said you were seeing Bay? Ahmose, nosotros Bay Emma's. We were seeing bias. Bias. You were seeing Bei Yan Bian. They were seeing ban. Who status Bei Yan. You were seeing. So you can get a cue card and write that first irregular verb down. The next irregular verb is the verb ear, which means to go. This is just very irregular. So the endings sort of looked like the endings for AR verbs, but not quite. So. This is another one for you to write down on a cue card. It goes IBA. Your Eva. I was going to give us you were going Eva. Eva. He was going Eva. Eva, Eva. She was getting Eva. Eva. You were going EVA most nosotros estamos. We were going eBay's, vosotros is you will going even AOC, even. They were going even WHO status, even you were going. Then the last irregular verb is the verb, it's sad, which means to be. And this is the most irregular verb. All of them. It goes era, era. I was being eras. Eras. You were being era. Era. He was being Ara. Ara. She was being era. Who stayed? Era. You were being enemas a Ramos. We were being eta is eta is you were being Aaron? Aaron. They were being and Aaron status. Aaron. You were being 15. 2m - practice questions: To turn the imperfect tense verbs into questions, you don't need to do anything other than put question marks around them and raise your voice at the end. E.g. Salia, or Salia means he was leaving. If you want to turn this into a question, you put an upside-down question mark at the start and the normal question mark at the end. And you get Salia, is Italia, was he leaving? So we have to do is raise your voice slightly in speaking as acellular. He was leaving in Salia. Was he leaving or without the word Salia? He was leaving. Cilia will see leaving. So how would you say in Spanish, Where were you eating? Don't they come yes. Don't they come here? They come Mia is known, they come in. So there are four different ways to say you. So depending on who you're speaking to, you can say one of these. Or if we include the subject pronouns, we get donate to Kami us. Non-legal state Camila. Camila is they will stay this Camille. What was he ordering? Get barrier. A barrier. What cake? We're trying to get that data AS problem man. How are you paying? Comorbid. Comorbid. Comorbid. Comorbid cabin? Or if we use this object pronouns, gamma2, buggers, Gamow, boosted by gaba, Camarasaurus, big arise Como status by gaba. What were they doing? Asean. Asean. Whom were you seeing? Again? Again? Again. Again began. Now we have to use the word are in front of the word c0 n here, because Kian is standing for a person and in Spanish, in front of a person, you have to use the personal Archean or using this object pronouns. Again to be yes. Again, who stayed barrier. Again, vosotros bases. Again. Who stay this ban. 16. 2n - practice questions: By building questions using structure five, you'll not only get yourself more familiarized with the vocabulary and the structure, but you'll also, without even trying, reduce the time it takes for you to string a sentence together in Spanish. At first, it might take quite a while for you to think about how to say each of these questions. Because not only have you got to think what is the verb, but you then have to think, well, how do I conjugate it into the imperfect tense as this is a whole new tend to view. But as you practice more and more, it will become more of a reflex and you'll be able to say things without thinking so much. So let's do a few more example questions. How would you say in Spanish, where are we going? And only IBA most add-on the nosotros, estamos. So in this question we use add-on day rather than just don't they? Because when you use the verb, which means to go, you always have to say you're going to somewhere, literally in Spanish. Rather than saying where we'll be going, we say to where, where we going, add-on the ybar most or add-on the nosotros estamos. How would you ask why was she hiring a car? Alkyl around Cauchy per acre alkali bankruptcy. When were they going out? Cuando Sally-Anne. Sally-anne. So the verb is Sally, or it can mean to go out or to leave. The question cuando Sally-Anne can mean when were they going out or also when were they leaving? Los alien quandl AOC, Sally-Anne. How would you say what was she trying? Get parabola. A parabola. 17. 3a - extra information: Extra information. Extra information, or all the nouns, adjectives, and time words that you can add to the end of questions in structure five. Let's have a look at some examples. K as k to I see, SIR, what were you doing yesterday? So a year means yesterday. Bulky alkyl Abba song called sin. Two alkyl lavas on Cauchy. Why were you hiring a car? So in gotten means a car. I don't the EVA is less amount of data. I only do invest less than men episodic. Where are you going? Last week. So last seminar pass data means last week. Here is a list of some example, extra information words that you can use to enhance your structure. Five questions. Again, means yesterday or today. Lastly, amount of pasta. Pasta. Last week. El ano pasado, a law passed last year. I say those, Diaz. I say those two days ago. The word assay means a go and you can put any amount of time afterwards. So acidosis Diaz two days ago, but you can say assay plus any amount of time to say that much time ago. Madrid. Madrid's to Madrid. Madrid. In Madrid. In Madrid. Restaurant, the restaurant. The restaurant, or to the restaurant. Boil. It, boil. The chicken. Elaborative rehearsal, elaborate ego. Recall the red coat, me yet they're getting a ticket. But a bedroom. Bedroom for Pedro. A key a key here. Deb McCarthy. Mccarthy onus, on holiday. So now you're armed with some extra information with you can make your questions a little more adventurous. How would you say in Spanish, What were you doing with my car? Gaseous can be CO2e, a CEA can be Cauchy, is going to be Cauchy, gassy, and can be cocci. Or if you wanted to use this object pronouns, you can say get to SES can be CO2e status Jacobi CO2e, cable salt rosacea is going to be Cauchy status as CME committee co-chair. 18. 3b - practice sentences: How would you say in Spanish, What were you buying for Pedro? Get comparables, but a bedroom get comparable, but a bedroom get compromised. But a bedroom. And a bedroom. Or using the subject pronouns, get to come grab us, but a bedroom. Bedroom. Most authors comply by is per bedroom. But a bedroom. How would you ask, Where was he eating in Madrid. Don't they come here in Madrid? Don de El Camino in Madrid. Where was she going on holiday? Add-on. They Eva Eva Eva data Castillo on is when you're talking about going and you're saying where someone's going and it's referring to going to somewhere, then you have to use add-on there rather than just done day. Because you have to use the word which means to with the verb ear. We put it at the start of the question word add-on. They Eva Davis, Cathy onus to where was she going on holiday. How would you say what were they doing here? Okay. I see Anna key on a key. 19. 4a - manipulating structure 5: You can manipulate the structure five in many different ways. E.g. you can take certain bits out to make different types of questions. You don't always have to stick a question right at the start. Let's see what happens when you don't put the question word on. How would you say in Spanish, will you eating gummy as Camila? Camila is coming in. So all you have is the verb, or you can use the subject pronoun to Kami, us stayed Colombia. Most of those committees whose data is coming in, How would you ask were they eating the pizza? Pizza. Yours, Camila pizza. Would you paying the bill? Bicarb as La Quinta by gaba, like Quinta by gaba is like winter, by Gavin like winter. Or with a subject pronouns to packages like Quinta, who stayed by gaba Quinta. Most of those PAGA is la Quinta. Who status by gamma Quinta. Was he buying some cheese? Was she going to Barcelona? Iba a Barcelona AR IBA or Barcelona. Was he ordering some water for the table? Mr. LPD, are you doing something? I see as valuable as CIEs algorithm. I see an algorithm. Or with the subject pronouns. Do i, c, s, algo? Who said, I see algo? Asi, I will say this. I see an algo. 20. 4b - using names: You can put any name in front of the imperfect tense verbs, or we have to do is use the he, she version of the verb. So Camila or alkalemia means he was eating. I cava, or Aqaba. She was finishing. Well, we can change the L or to any name. So alkalemia he was eating becomes Pedro. Pedro. Pedro was eating or a aka Baba. She was finishing. Can become Maria Aqaba. Maria Aqaba. Maria was finishing. Just like with the other persons. Or we have to do is put question marks around these and they turn into questions. So bedrock Mamiya means Pedro was eating bedrock Haumea. Bedrock Haumea. Was Pedro eating? Maria? Aqaba means Maria was finishing. But if we turn into a question, we get Maria Aqaba. Maria Aqaba. Was Maria finishing? So you put an upside-down question mark at the start and the normal question mark at the end and you get a question. And in speaking, obviously you can't see the question marks. So you have to raise your voice to make it sound like a question. So Pedro Camila means Pedra was eating. Pedro Columbia, bedrock of media. Was Pedro eating. So if you make your intonation sound like it's a question, then it becomes the question in Spanish. The same goes, if you're using more than one name, you just use the wget forms of the imperfect tense instead. E.g. comedian or a chameleon means they were eating. We can change the word alias, meaning they two names, e.g. petrol e. Maria acromion, Pedro de Maria acromion, Pedro and Maria were eating. And again, we can turn this into a question simply by putting an upside-down question mark at the start and the normal question mark at the end. And we raised our voices slightly when we speak. Pedro Emory acromion, Pedro de Maria comedian. Were Pedro and Maria eating. 21. 4c - using names: How would you say in Spanish, what was Pedro finishing yesterday? Pedro. Pedro Aqaba yet what we're Sophia and Miguel eating today? Guess Sophia, ME alchemy. Noe. Guess Sophia, you Miguel can be annoying. Where was Maria taking the car? I don't they Maria Tom about alkoxy add only Maria trauma by Cauchy. Now I just wanted to point out a little quirk in Spanish. When you have two names, obviously, you can join them together using the word and which is E, e.g. Sophia immigrated. However, if the name that comes after the E starts with the letter I, the word for and changes. It becomes a, which is spelled just E. E.g. Miguel. Miguel ASR. Well, the reason is because the letter I is pronounced e in Spanish, the word for and is E as well. So if you had Miguel e sub l, It sounds a bit funny because the two e sounds clash together. Miguel E Is of L. But if you change the word for and to a, you get Miguel. Miguel. Miguel, and Isabel. How would you say what we're Maria Isabel doing? Maria ASR velar. K Maria AS have LSTM. Now you might be aware that in Spanish the word order is not fixed. You can be very liberal with where you put the words, e.g. the names don't always have to go directly in front of the verb. You could say in this sentence, I CAN Maria AS Ave, Maria Isabel, which literally means what were they doing, Maria and Isabel. The names can go after the verb if you want. Anyway, how would you say what was Carlos eating? Get Carlos. Carlos Camilla. Was Sofia speaking Italian? Sophia. Sophia of lava, Italiano. 22. 5a - recap of question words: Let's recap all the question words and then have a look at some common imperfect tense verbs. How do you say in Spanish, where? Dante, what? At what time? Aqi order. When? Quandl. How? Como? Which are which one? Well, y. How much quanto, how many quantiles? How long or how much time? Quanto tempo. Who or whom? Given. How would you say were you eating using the singular informal way of saying you Kami has to come, yes. Was he drinking? Maybe a baby, yeah. Where are you ordering using the singular informal way of saying you ADS to PDFs. Where we trying probe Alamos, nosotros, estamos. Were you paying using the singular formal way of saying view? By gaba. Gaba. Was she doing ostia? Ostia. Where we hiring alkyl Obama's nosotros, alkyl Habermas. Was he going Eva? Eva. Were you taking using the informal plural version of saying you? Doma bias both. Stoma is she having tinea? Tinea. Where are we changing? Can be MMOs. Nosotros can be at most. Was I buying your compiler? Will you starting using the formal plural way of saying View command sovereign, state is coming seven. 23. 5b - recap of imperfect tense verbs: How would you say in Spanish? Were they stubborn? Stubborn. Where we going out? Cellulose. Cellulose. Were they leaving? Sally-anne. Sally-anne. Were you bringing using the singular informal way of saying you? That I yes. To try yes. Was he spending as in spending money? Gustavo. Gustavo. Was he spending as in spending time. Bossa nova. Where are we seeing? Most? Nosotros, Bay MOs. Where you calling using the singular formal way of saying you Yamada, steady, amoeba. Were they staying? Get oven. Oven. Were you finding using the plural informal way of saying you controllerAs, vosotros and compromise. How would you say in Spanish, What was he doing? Ostia. Ostia. How would you paying Komaba, gaba. Gaba, gaba. Gaba, gaba is co-morbid Garmin. Or if you use the subject pronouns, como to buy gas. Como, who stayed data? Como vosotros PAGA is Como status by Gabon. Which car was she buying? Literally in Spanish. You say, what car was she buying? Keiko take on brava. Keiko J. A. Accompany Java. 24. 5c - practice questions: How would you say in Spanish, why were we hiring a car? How much were you eating? Quantile. Quantile. Quantile Columbia is quantile. Quantile. Quantile. Quantile. Quantile. Who status command. Where were you taking the car? I've only tomar el cocci ad on the doma by ECL code. Or add-on it to tomatoes are cocci. Add on the basolateral stoma is Alcott, say add on the stoma and L CO2e. What were they eating today? A. Oscar me NOE. Whom were you seeing? And don't forget when you use whom as the object of a question. You should put an ad in front of it in Spanish Archean, because it's the personal that goes in front of a person. Again. They are again BI's. Again Ben or again to the yes. Again, who stayed barrier. Again, vosotros pays Archean. Who stayed span. What time are they leaving? Akira. Akira AOC Leon. Who must she calling? Again? Yamada Archean. A Yamada who was paying the bill. Gain back up. Again. 25. 6a - were you vs. did you use to : Were you versus did you use to? The imperfect tense can actually mean two different things in English. If you take this question, e.g. get a CS or get to see us in English. It could be translated either as what were you doing or what did you use to do? So you can use the imperfect tense in Spanish to say what it is that you were doing. And also what you used to do by Saba, Las Vegas, the onus and Espana, El Paso, Las Vegas, Jonas and Espana. He used to spend the holidays in Spain. Eva most are Madrid, Mustang. They will. Eva, most are Madrid, Boston, Tea, Amanullah. We used to go to Madrid quite often. They need Inaki told us last time and as a mini anarchy told us last time minus they used to come here every week. So let's practice looking at the two translations of the imperfect tense. What are the two things that this could mean? Columbia's to come? Yes. You eating or you used to eat? Baby a baby. He was drinking or he used to drink. Barea. Who stayed barrier. You were ordering you used to order nosotros, Obama's. We were trying or we used to try. Megabase. Both buttressed by gaba is you are paying. You used to pay as Sia. She was doing. She used to do the lab and most nosotros, alkyl Habermas. We were hiring we used to hire Eva. Eva. He was going he used to go. Dhamma been steady stoma when you were taking you used to take. 26. 6b - practise with double meanings: What two ways could you translate into English? Tinea. Tinea. She was having or she used to have can be albums. Nosotros, tambien us. We were changing or we use to change your compiler. I was buying or I used to buy common sub i's. Most common sub i's. You were starting or you use to start a stubborn stubborn. They were being or they used to be cellulose. Cellulose. We were going out or we used to go out. Sally-anne. Sally-anne. They were leaving or they used to leave. To try yes. You were bringing or you used to bring Gustavo? Gustavo. He was spending or he used to spend when you're talking about and money by Saba Passover? He was spending or he used to spend when you're talking about time? Bay almost nosotros the most. We were seeing or we used to see Yamada. Yamada. You were calling or you used to call? Get oven, AOC get oven. They were staying or they used to stay in contravened status and contravened. You were finding or you used to find. 27. 6c - practice questions: How would you say in Spanish, What did you use to eat? Columbia's Keko Medea. Click on the eyes. Kikkoman, or with the subject pronouns, get to Kami has cables that come here. Gables author's Kami eyes will stay this command. What did they use to eat? Get Chameleon. Chameleon. When did he use to finish? Cuando Alibaba? Cuando el Aqaba. What does she used to do in Paris? Garcia embodies a Ostia in Paris. How did you use to pay co-morbid gaba. Gaba, gaba. Gaba, gaba is co-morbid Gabon, or with the subject pronouns, Gamow to biogas, Como setback other carnivores, others by guys who stay this bag urban. Whom did you use to see? Again? Again? Again they are is again Diane or again to bias. Again, who stayed barrier? Again, both of those BI's a Kian who status by n. Why did he used to say that? The CISO per k l, the CISO, which guarded used to have kickoff with Aeneas, technology, tinea, cake or tetany eyes, gecko tinea or with a subject pronouns get CO2e to ten years, gecko tail, Stefania, kick or table salt or Austin, the eyes will stay. Dystonia. What did they used to do here? I see an AKI get a monarchy. 28. 6d - practice questions: How would you say in Spanish, What were they doing here? Gassy and Aki get a Oceana key. What did she used to drink? Maybe a good idea. What time did she use to start? Again, what I recommend saba. Where was he going? Add-on the IBA. I've only a IBA. What were you eating at the restaurant? Restaurant. The restaurant. The restaurant they are with the subject pronouns. Get to come. Yes. Gail stayed Columbia Restaurant. Status command. Was he speaking Spanish? Espanol. Espanol. Was she drinking red wine or white wine? Vino Tinto will be no Blanco. Baby Abby, not Tinto or being blanco. What were they saying? Get the CN get a decision. Why was he leaving? But again, what was he buying? Gate 29. 6e - practice questions: How would you say in Spanish? Were they speaking with Pedro? Competitor. A competitor. Who mushy calling yesterday. Again Yamada yet again a Amara. Did she use to call Pedro often? Yamada, a bedroom. Bedroom and Google. What time did they use to finish? Akira? Akira a Osaka Babylon. How much did we use to buy quanto comparable most cuando nosotros comply with most. How many pizzas? What's the ordering? Does pizza as pedia quanta speech, that's a barrier. How many cars did they used to have? Scott Justinian. One. Does Cortes a Justinian. How much wine did he use to drink? Quanto be no baby. Yeah. Quanto be no, maybe Yeah. Which one was he drinking? Gave me know baby. Yeah. Baby. Yeah. So in Spanish, the word for which is quiet. But the word for which when it's followed by a noun is k. So literally you say What? So rather than which wine, you say what wine gave me know which car is a car kit called T. So you don't tend to say quality or quality. It's not incorrect to say quite amino or quiet cocci or coil plus any noun. It's just not used as often as K. So you tend to say Gabby, no, baby rather than Calvino baby? Yeah. 30. 6f - practice questions: How would you say in Spanish, What were they making? Osteon. Osteon. What did they use to make? Gaseon? Get a oxacillin. Were you trying to wine? L vena? Cava is solving a problem. Or with a subject pronouns to probe a Selena who stayed pro-Obama, Elmina. Elmina, who stay this program? Lv non. Why were they ordering food? Pdn comida, AOSP, Eddie and Camila. Were you making a reservation? I see us another set of another set about CIEs. We're not a server. Server. Or if you use this object pronouns to another server hosted. Cerebella. Ataxia is another server. A server. Why was she making a reservation? For K? I see another set of a bouquet. What were you taking? Ghetto MBAS. Get omega. Omega is get Oman. Or with the subject pronouns. Get to Tomas. Gave instead DaMatta, gable, Sagar, stoma, bias. Stoma been what carded. He used to have kickoff, tinea, cake CO2 then, yeah. Why was she changing the reservation? Bouquet? Can be a a can be a server. 31. 6g - practice questions: How would you say in Spanish who was changing the reservation? C0 n can be either a server can can be said about why was he calling Maria? Maria. Maria. Why were they calling Pedro? Yammer been a bedroom per K or Cmaj7? A bedroom. What were they ordering for us? Get BD and para nosotros. Tambien para nosotros. Why was she ordering for me as well? Portkey, a parameter I'm Yenn. Berkadia parameter mean. Where were you? Don't they estab us Monday estaba. Don't they? Estaba is known they estaba or with the subject pronouns bonded to estab us. Don't, they will stay at estaba. Non-labor, non-native status, Esteban. Why were they buying a car? Bouquet? What were you doing here last week or last amount of Passover. Garcia key lastly, amount of Passover. Asci is a key lesson manner, Posada, gassy, and a key lesson manner Passover. Or with the subject pronouns too, I see as a key less amount of Posada, GamePadState, a CR key, less amount of Posada gave us photos are CIEs are key, that's Amana Passover will say this. I see an IQ less amount of Passover. Which house while she buying Kick ***. Picasa. 32. 6h - practice questions: How would you say in Spanish, What did you use to have it NES, get Anya, get any IE's, get the neon. Or with subject pronouns get to ten years, get boosted. The NEA gave us the neon. Once he being stupid. Establish Tupelo. Estaba is Tupelo. What film were they watching? Men get Bailey cooler, AOSP, Yan. Did you use to watch a lot of films? Beyers, motors, Caligula's, Bayer, much as pediculus. They eyes much as colliculus, bayesian motor spelling coolers. Or to be as much as pediculus. Boosted Bayer, metallic glass bottles payer is mortal. Colliculus will stay this Maryanne moot as Caligula's. Was he drinking red wine? Baby or B naught into? Baby or B naught into. Did you use to drink wine? Baby as vino, Baby, Abby know, maybe ISB know, maybe unbeknown. Or with the subject pronouns to be VSB know, who's dead, baby, be no, muscle throws. Maybe ISB know who say this, maybe unbeknown. We use speaking a lot of Spanish in Spain. Mutual spaniel and Espana. I've lived out more to expand your linear span here. Is mutual Espanol and Espana. I've love and mutual spaniel in Espana. Or you can use this object pronouns and say to allow us to espanol, espanol. Espanol, espanol. Most other US ally is more to expand your own Espana status. Mucho espanol. Espanol. How are they finding the film? Como en contraband like Caligula, Como AOC and contravened labelling cooler. 33. 6i - practice questions: How would you say in Spanish? Were they waiting at the hotel or hotel? Sp Robin, hello. Tell how much time did you spend in Spain? Quantity, MPO, past habits and Hispania, quanto tempo Passover and Espana quantity ample pi sub I is n, Espana, quantity and purpose, oven and Hispania. Or if you use the subject pronouns, you would say quanto tempo to Passover and Espana quantity and posted possible and Espana quanto tempo and Espana quantity and boosted as possible and Hispania. Did he use to spend a lot of money? Gustavo motor, the narrow elite, Gustavo Mussolini arrow. What pizza was eating? Pizza. Pizza alkalemia. Who mostly speaking with lava. Lava. So you have to say literally, with whom was he speaking? Because you can end a sentence or a question with the word gun in Spanish. Whom are you calling? Ikea. Ikea and Yamada. Again, Yamada is Kenya MVA. Or with the subject pronouns again to Yammer, Java's. Again, we stayed. Yamada again, vosotros the gamma is I can withstand a Cmaj7. How much did you use to take on holiday? Quanto Tomas, democracy, honest quantity omega delicacy on this quantity omega is tobacco. See on is quanto toma been Democrats? Or if you use this object pronouns, quanto to tell my boss Deborah, Cassie bonus, quantum state doma delicacy onus quanto vosotros Dhamma is delegate stillness, quantum state is calm and delicacy on is how would you say, What were you taking with you? Get omega is contiguous. Okay. Tamara Tamara is combos across get tomorrow and column status. So you'll notice that with you is just con, with the subject pronoun, except for the two version, we say contiguous. Contiguous means with you in the singular informal, because we're saying with you on the end, you probably don't need to say this object pronouns. So it's clear without them who you're speaking about. Tomas. Get omega. Omega is called vosotros, get Bowman kind of status. 34. 6j - practice questions: How would you say in Spanish, What were they changing? Urban areas can be oven. Why were they making a reservation? On a server? Where were they eating? Not the comedian. Known the most common. Did you used to eat here? Come here. Come here. Aki is a key, command, key, or with the subject pronouns to Kami as a key. Aki. Hockey instead is coming and Aki, what were you saying? Good to see us. Get the CIA, the CIEs, get the CN, or with the subject pronouns, get to the CS. Gay boosted the CIA. Is the CN. Why was he seeing Maria? And Maria. And Maria? Which Madison did you use to take? Give me the total mass. K medical, men tautomer omega gamma, they come into Tamara is gametic, I meant automaton, or with the subject pronouns. Gametic or mental. Two, Tomas, get medical mental state, Komaba, give me the command. Key, medical mental status. Donovan. What were they bringing with them? Try and Cornelius. Ryan Cornelius. When did they use to live abroad? Quandl BBN and electron hetero. Cuando AOSP BBN intellects Tran, hello. 35. 6k - practice questions: How would you say in Spanish, Why were you starting early? Work? A common service, ten per annum per K comments about ten per annum. K common sub I is ten per annum. Brigade command 710 planner. Or with the subject pronouns, predicate to come and serve as Tim Brown. Who stayed command Sabbath and Brandon. Brandon. Okay. Whose data is common sub and Tim Brown. Why were they visiting Madrid? Kbt tab and Madrid, HSBC tab and Madrid. When did she used to live here? Cuando Bb, aa, bb, AKI. Why was she taking that? Tamara? So a actomyosin. Whom was he telling? Again this year? Again in the CIA. Who was he seeing in Barcelona. Again, bear in Barcelona. Again. In Barcelona. What was he doing two days ago? Garcia, I see those Diaz gait, ataxia as he does ds. What were they taking? Been a customer van. Was Sophia bringing that? Sofia. Sofia. So. 36. 7a - as a non-question: So far we've only looked at structure five in a question format. However, you can also use it in a non question. Let's just start this lesson with a quick recap of the structure in the question format. Structure five in a question format consists of just two parts. E.g. Columbia's gate Kami has it means What were you eating? Or we now know it can also mean what did you use to eat? It consists of the question with k, meaning what, and then a verb in the imperfect tense. Corneas or to Kami S means where you eating or did you use to beat? And then we learned that we can add the optional third part, the extra information, e.g. k. Or k to CMS a year. What were you eating yesterday? So there is the extra information to use this structure when you're not asking a question is quite simple. You just take the question marks off. E.g. we had the question, don't they? Don't they AS command, it means where were they eating? So a chameleon means were they eating? Well, if we take off the question marks, we can answer with chromium AKI, a comedian, AKI, they were eating here. So chameleon or a chameleon can mean, were they eating in a question, or they were eating in an unquestioned baby n. Or a median, means they were drinking. I've love and con Pedro. Allowing bedroom. They were speaking with Pedro, bag and lac Y into a bag and La Quinta, they were paying the bill. Another thing to note is that just like with the question format, the non question format can have two meanings to every imperfect tense verb in Spanish can be translated in two ways into English. E.g. Camila, your cornea can mean I was eating or I used to eat. So there's always one way with was Inc. and another way with use do I blouse, nosotros up lava flows? We were speaking or we use to speak. Bag Yvonne, AOSP Raghavan. They were paying or they used to pay Fadia. Fadia. You will ordering or you used to order. 37. 7b - practice sentences: How would you say in Spanish? She was buying something here for petro comparator. I'll go a keypad, a bedroom, a accompany, keep out a bedroom. They were buying the wine yesterday. Comparable and ACOs comparable and LB No. I was seeing Maria. Amenorrhea. Your Bayer. I'm Maria. I was bringing something with me that, uh, yeah, I'll go amigo, your algorithm omega. We used to buy that at the supermarket. So super Mercado, nosotros comparable most ISO, I'll suit Mercado. I was trying some cheese. So your pro rata case. So I was buying something from my mom here. I'll go Pardon me, madam rocky. Your comparable parameter. Aki. He was very tired. Estaba, Morgan saddle. Estab I'm weekend subtle. I was watching this film. Is the follicular. Your Bay Area, is that particular? He used to bring everything for Pedro. Triad total per bedroom. Try a total per bedroom. I was taking some food to Madrid, DaMatta comida, I'm Adelaide. Yokohama by Camila, I'm underneath. 38. 7c - practice sentences: How would you say in Spanish? I was saying something this year. I'll go You're they see an angle? They were bringing some wine for Pablo. Can be no para Pablo. Hey, Australia being opened up Pablo. She was starting last week. Come in Sabah, last seminar, Posada. Coming summer lasts amount of Posada. We used to eat at this restaurant. Chromium OS or STRS aren't the most. I stated sovereignty. You use to finish earlier. Obama's mass, tan brown or gaba mass, Dan Brown. Gaba is mass then Brennan, aka Batman, Mustang brand. Or you can also use the subject pronouns to a Cabela's mass than banana. Aqaba mass ten banana. Most notorious Agriba is must implement status or Gabon mass ten planner. He was buying a souvenir in Barcelona for his family. Own require though in Barcelona, Paris to familia. A comparable own adequate though in Barcelona, Paris, who familia. You were changing the reservation. Can be lattice. Alpha, can be our lateral cerebellum, can be advise. Laura, Sara can be oven, ladder Silva, or with the subject pronouns too, can be as large as Silva. Who stayed can be said about. Both of those can be ABA is Laura Sara. Status can be oven ladder server. They used to order a pizza every Saturday. Median when a pizza total Slavs stab at those AOSP median when a pizza dough those low status. 39. 7d - practice sentences: How would you say in Spanish? They were eating at my house yesterday. Amicus, I hear a Colombian Amika. Yeah. I used to see me a lot when I was living in Madrid. They are mutual media. In Madrid. You obey or multimedia quantity will be via a mother if she was eating something. Camille alga. Alga. We used to bring everything with us. Stata can also trust that I am a startup. I was doing something important. Ostia, I'll go important. They USE algo important. They used to spend too much money. Gas Davis demos, Seattle, the narrow Gustavo demos, Seattle in aero gas turbine is demonstrated in arrow gas turbine, them axiality nato. Or if you use the subject pronouns to Gustavus Damasio De Niro, who stayed in gas turbine Damasio, the nato nato status gas Stalin, them osteology narrow. I was at the hotel. Estaba allo tail. Your estaba allo till I was changing the reservation. Can be Abba, lattice, cetera. You can be a lot of server. You used to buy too much food at the supermarket. Compresses them, Asiana comida, I'll swoop Mercado Libre at them as theatrical media outlet Mercado. Compromise them as Seattle comida, I'll sweep Mercado. Dema Seattle comida astute medical, or using the subject pronouns to demonstrate how the comida, I'll swoop Mercado. Libre, demonstrate how the comida are super Mercado. Most authors compromise them. I see other comida outstrip medical status, comparable dema, see how the comida, I'll sweep Mercado. The word demos Seattle means too much. But in this sentence, because we're using it in front of a feminine noun, dema Seattle becomes the master data. 40. 7e - practice sentences: How would you say in Spanish? I was calling Pedro Yamada. A bedroom. Your Yamada a bedroom. We were hiring a car. Most uncoating. Uncoating. He used to call Maria every day. Yamada and Maria total slots, DS al Yamada and Maria. Dollars loss Diaz. I used to spend a week there every summer. When I say manner, I gather around on your bus Alba when I say Man, I got about Anna. She was drinking my coffee. Baby, a McCafe baby or McCafe. We used to speak with Carlos quite often. Almost gone. Catalogs, Boston, nosotros available, most common, Carlos, Boston Tea. A minute ago. We used to start at 09:00 last year. Goldman Sachs and most Alaskan wavy. And I know pasado nosotros vamos a minute, pasado. I was ordering a bottle of water for the table. The idea when I day the aqua, but let me stop. Your media, went about their battle Amazon. I was ordering for you media, but at D, your barrier, but at t. Instead of beta D, We can have hosted by both autotrophs or better status. 41. 7f - practice sentences: How would you say in Spanish? She was calling Sofia. Sofia Yamada as Sophia. I was speaking with color this morning. I've gone Karla is the manana. La manana. We used to spend three weeks there every year. Let's say minus i e told us was annulus nosotros stress the minus i e told us Los Angeles. I used to order the chicken here all the time. Pdf for your key takeaways, tiempo, your elbow, your key takeaways, Campo. We were changing rooms. Can be happened was they habitats Tian the habitat Steven. I was watching a good film. Bay Area when I went up L'Aquila. Your Bay Area? When I went up L'Aquila, he was trying something in Spanish. But Ababa, I'll go espanol. Espanol. We were eating here yesterday. Kami Yamasaki, nosotros, Yamasaki. I was doing everything last week. I see a total last seminar, Posada. Use a total loss. The amount of data. 42. 7g - practice sentences: How would you say in Spanish? I was in Avalon. Estaba in Avila. Your estaba en EBITDA. They were starting today. Command seven or eight, most common sub and you were telling me something. May they see us? Algo may see alcohol. May the CIEs algo, medicine, alga. Or if you use the subject pronouns, you get to Medici as alcohol. State, militia, elbow. Is algo. Who? Status medicine. I'll go. I was buying something for Antonio. Algebra, Antonio, your butter Antonio. She was changing. Everything. Can be about total. Ar can be about total. They were calling Maria. Yeah, man, I'm Maria AOC Yamada and I'm Maria. We were in Larry Johann today. Estaba most NRAO Hawaii, nosotros estamos en la the way she was here today. Estaba QoE estaba key. We used to drink three bottles of wine every evening. Maybe almost trespass. Cannot say nosotros, baby, almost trespass. They've got an octet. So then you have the fifth structure in Spanish, in a non question form. Comedian, a key or a ischemia and a key they were eating here is made up of an imperfect tense verb, comedian or a chameleon. And then you can add extra information to the end, e.g. a. Key, meaning here. 43. 8a - recap of question words: Let's do a recap of all the question words. Some example imperfect tense verbs, and some extra information. How do you say in Spanish where? Dante, what? At what time? When cuando. How? Como? Which or which one? Well, why? For k? How much quanto, how many quantiles? How long or how much time? Quanto tempo. Who or whom? Tn. How would you say were you eating using the singular informal version of you? Kami has to come, yes. Was he drinking? Maybe, yeah. A baby? Yeah. Were you ordering using the informal singular version of view? Barriers to barriers. Where we trying. But Obama's nosotros problems. Were you paying using the singular form or version of you? By gaba. Who stayed by gaba? Well, she doing I see. Yeah. Yeah, I see. Yeah. We're, we're hiring alkyl Obama's nosotros, alkyl Habermas. Was he going Eva? Eva. Were you taking using the plural in formal way of saying you? Dhamma is both a thorough stoma is she having then? Yeah. And then yeah. We changing can be atomos. Nosotros can be at most. Was I buying your cars? 44. 8b - recap of imperfect tense: How would you say in Spanish, we use starting using the plural, formal way of saying you come in sovereign state is coming salmon with a Esteban, AOC, Esteban, where we're going out. Cellulose. Cellulose. When I leaving. Sally-anne. Sally-anne. Will you bringing using the informal singular way of saying you try yes. The two triads. Was he spending as in spending money? And Gustavo that Star Wars he spending as in spending time by Saba aided Passover. Where we seeing most Bay MOs. Will you calling using the singular formal way of saying you, Yamada, who steady amoeba with a staying, get oven. Oven. We finding using the plural informal way of saying you and controversies, vosotros n contract price. Now let's look at some of the extra information words. How do you say yesterday? Today? Last week. Lastly, amount of Passover. Last year. El ano pasado. Two days ago. I say those Diaz to Madrid. Madrid. In Madrid. Madrid. 45. 8c - recap of extra information: How would you say in Spanish? At the restaurant or to the restaurant? Restaurant. The chicken, POJO, the red coat. A ticket wouldn't be yet day for Pedro. But a bedroom Here. On holiday. Never can see on this. How would you say in Spanish, What were you bringing? Guitar? Yes. Get RIAA, get dry eyes, get Ryan. Or with the subject pronouns, get to trial. The dryer gave us Australia is gate, will stay this trillion. What was he eating? A Camila. You were spending too much money. Gustavus demo Seattle in narrow Gustavo them as Seattle in aero, gas turbine is in dema Seattle, the nato gas turbine, them, Seattle in arrow. Or using the subject pronouns to Gustavus. Who said gustavo, them osteology, nato. Nato. Who status Gustavo and dema Seattle the narrow. What were you seeing? Give us a nice Gibeon. Or using the subject pronouns get to bias. Instead they gave us is status Bayesian. Did they use to call every day? Yeah. My been told us was Diaz AOCI, Mab and I was bringing some wine for Pablo. Be no palpable. Your trachea be no para parallel. 46. 8d - practise structure 5: How would you say in Spanish? We were eating at the hotel. Colombia most Aladin nosotros estamos. Did she use to start at 04:15? Gametes Java allows quatro equal to a or comments about what she paying the bill. I got my Quinta by gaba Quinta. What was he doing there? K e. K e. What time did you start? I recommend surveys. Again, you recommend seven. Or you can use this object pronouns, Akira to come and service. Akira. Akira vosotros, comments, advice. Akira will stay this command seven. Wine, were they trying? Kb? No problem. Give me know, AOSP Ron. What were you doing yesterday? Okay. I see. I see I is a yet. Okay, I see Anna yet. Or using the subject pronouns, get to see us. Get boosted a CIA Cable photos, I see. Isil will say this. I see. And he was buying food at the supermarket this morning. Competitor comida, soup, Medicare, the Western manana, a comida, I'll sweep Mercado s-domain, Yana. 47. 8e - practise structure 5: How would you say in Spanish? I was saying that the CISO. You're the CISO. What were we saying? Get this cmos, gate, nosotros, the CMOs, they used to visit this restaurant quite often. Visit Taiwan, is data sovereignty must anti busy tab and Boston Tea. Was she trying to wine? But Ababa, LB, No. Ar. Which car was the hiring? Gecko t or k lava. Lava. Whom are you seeing in me has Archean bay as Amy has. Again, they are en mi has. Again, the idea is Emmy has Archean Eon and me has. Or if you use pronouns, again to be yes and me has again, who stayed barrier and again, vosotros pays and Mick has again, whose data is Beyond Meat has. Whom will you calling in Paris. Again, Yammer was embodies a key. Any omega n berries. Again, Yamada is n varies. Again, Yamada and n varies with the subject pronouns. Again to Yammer, buzz, and buddies. Again will stay the amoeba in Paris. Again, vosotros Yamada is and varies. Again, we'll say the CMA and embodies. Why would you go into Salamanca? Eva Salamanca? Eva or Salamanca? Iba is a Salamanca gate, even a Salamanca. Or with the subject pronouns for K to Eva Salamanca boosted either a Salamanca, portkey vosotros IBA is a Salamanca per K will stay this event and Salamanca. Now here is an outline of structure five in Spanish, you've got the question, where is on the left, the imperfect tense in the middle, and then some extra information, whereas on the right. And you can use this outline to build your own questions in Spanish. The more you practice, the more these questions will just flow off your tongue. Donate to Comey as pd as Ristorante. Obviously, there are many more in perfect tense verbs and extra information words than there are in this structure outline. But use this as a starting place and then add some more words to build even more questions. 48. 9a - turning it all negative: There's one more useful thing that you can do to this structure quite easily. Make it negative. You can change the structure from positive to negative quite easily in English, e.g. why were you doing that? Becomes, why weren't you doing that? Did he use to stay here? Didn't he use to stay here? Were they eating when they eating? As you can see in English, it's simply a matter of putting a little N apostrophe T after the dead were all was. Well, it's just a simple in Spanish too. Or you have to do to turn the imperfect tense verb negative is put the word not in front of it. E.g. I'd love us to allow us. Means were you speaking no above us to know when she's speaking. You can also see that if you do use the subject pronoun the word nor comes after that. So the knock comes directly in front of the verb. So I'm going to give you some positive in perfect tense verbs. What I want you to do is turn them negative. Two chromiums means were you eating or did you use to eat? What would be the negative version of this and what was the meaning be in English? No commas to knock them, yes. And it means when you eating or didn't use to eat? Barrier. A barrier means was he drinking or did he use to drink? What would this be in the negative? Nobody. Nobody. Yeah. And it means wasn't he drinking or didn't he used to drink? Barrier. That barrier means will you ordering or did you use to order? This be in the negative? No idea. Who said Nope idea. And it means where did you ordering or didn't use to order? Sally-anne. Sally-anne means where they leaving or did they use to leave. So what will this be in the negative mausoleum? Mausoleum. Meaning when they leaving or didn't they use to leave? Linear. Linear means what she coming or did she used to come? What would this be in the negative? Non-linear. Non-linear. Meaning, wasn't she coming or didn't use to come back out? But most will be paying dividends to pay. What would this be in the negative? Not by gaba, most nosotros, not by governments. When we paying or didn't we use to pay. 49. 9b - negative double meaning: Just like with the positive imperfect tense, there are always two ways in English to translate something into Spanish, and it's the same in the negative. In the negative in perfect tense, you can either say didn't use to or wasn't, or weren't in, in English. E.g. knocking me us or to no commas means once you eating or didn't you use to eat? Mausoleum. Mausoleum means when they leaving or didn't they used to leave. So let's practice a little bit the negatives. How would you say in Spanish? Why wouldn't you trying to wine per K? No probability of V naught. But again, no problem. It'll be no gain, no problem. No problem. An El Nino. Or with the subject pronouns, don't forget they go in front of the word no, but no probable cell vena cava, it will be no no probabilities. There'll be no gail steadies, no probe and it'll be non wasn't he making a reservation? Nausea. Nausea when at a server? When they buying something from Maria. No comparable algebra Maria AOC, not comparable algebra, Maria. Why wouldn't we helping? No, I have no idea. Why wasn't she doing that yesterday? Nausea. Nausea. As to why didn't they used to come with you? Nobody and configure and yours. Nobody uncomfortable. Or instead of Quantico, you can say Kano State throws or status for with You. Didn't he used to go to moderate every year? Not even a matter. It told us was Daniel's November amateur. It told us was Aeneas. 50. 9c - negative non-questions: How would you say in Spanish? Where did you get into Barcelona? Know, EBUS or Barcelona. Barcelona. No, eBay's about Silvana. Know even about a cylinder. Or with the subject pronouns to nobody bats a Barcelona. Know about Barcelona. Bottles know IBA is about Selena who say there's no Evander Barcelona. You can also turn the non question imperfect tense negative. You just put the word not directly in front of the verb again. E.g. are gaba or your Alibaba means I was finishing. Know Aqaba. Your know, Agatha means I wasn't finishing. So let me give you some positive in perfect tense verbs. And I want you to turn them negative and see if you can put what their meanings would be in English. So Colombia, Colombia means I was eating or I used to eat. What would this be in the negative? Now come here. You're not come here. And it means I wasn't eating or I didn't use to eat. I c s to SES means you were doing or you used to do. So. What would this be in the negative? Nicias, to know RCS, you weren't doing or you didn't use to do Eva? Eva means he was going or he used to go. What would it be in the negative? No, Eva. Eva. He wasn't going or he didn't use to go up lava. Lava means she was speaking or she used to speak. So what would this be in the negative? Nabla. Nabla, meaning she wasn't speaking or she didn't use to speak. Most nosotros comparable, most means we were buying or we used to buy. In the negative, it would be no comparable. Most nosotros know comparables. We weren't buying or we didn't use to buy. Salia. Who said Salia means you will leaving or you used to leave. This be in the negative. Nostalgia. Nostalgia. You went leaving or you didn't use to leave. Sally-anne. Sally-anne means they were going out or they used to give out. What would this be in the negative? No, Sally-Anne know Sally-Anne, they weren't going out or they didn't use to go out. But Obi-Wan AOSP probe Yvonne means they were trying or they used to try. So what would this be in the negative? No problem. No problem. They weren't trying or they didn't use to try. 51. 9d - practise with negatives: Again, just like with the positive imperfect tense, there are two ways in English to translate something from a Spanish. In the negative imperfect tense. You can either say in English, didn't use to or wasn't all went in. E.g. Nakamura. Your Nakamura can mean I wasn't eating or I didn't use to eat. Not by gaba most nosotros, no bag Obama's can be translated either as we weren't paying or we didn't use to pay. So how would you say in Spanish? I wasn't doing that yesterday. No, I see. I SO your nausea. He wasn't eating the chocolate. Nakamura. Nakamura. They didn't use to spend too much money. No, Gustavo know Gustavo. Them osteology narrow. She didn't use to call Pedro. No. Yamada. A bedroom? No, Yamada, our bedroom. You weren't leaving at 03:00? I'll stress. No cellular stress. Nostalgia is stress. No Sally-Anne or stress. Or using the subject pronouns to nostalgia as well as stress. Who stayed? Nostalgia allows stress. Vosotros. Nostalgia is stress. Who status? Mausoleum stress. I wasn't hiring it. I was buying it. Another wacky lava local minima. Your normal Kyla, YOLO comparable. We weren't going to France. Not IBA must have Francia, nosotros know IBA muscle fancier. They didn't use to arrive early? No. Yeah. Gaba and Tim Brown? No, Yeah, Gavin Dan Brown. She wasn't working in Spain. Hispania. Not terrible habit. And Espana. 52. 10a - using structure 5 with other structures: Now that you've learned quite a few different structures in Spanish, you can start to put them together to form more complex sentences. Two easy ways to use the structure five is with structures. For. You can use the imperfect tense from structure five with the present tense from structure to, to compare what you used to do with what you do now. E.g. EVA or francium, amino go, boy spaniel. Your E by a fancy, little. Better, well water. Boy, Espana. This means I used to go to France often, but now I go to Spain. So it's got IBA, which is the imperfect tense from a structure five. And then boy, which is the present tense from structure to come, Yamasaki, tiempo, better, our commitments and otros restaurant, this by the way, better, wow, what are called memos and otros restaurant this we used to eat here all the time, but now we eat in the restaurants. So we've got Camille most, meaning we used to eat. And then come memos, which is the present tense from structure to meaning we eat many archi, mucho better our AR Benny archi, mutual, best of our knowledge, famous. She used to come here a lot, but now we don't see her. As well as the present tense from structure one. You can also use the imperfect tense from instructive five with the past tense form structure for to say what you were doing when something else happened. E.g. I've love a con Maria cuando, a bestow a bedroom. You are gone, maria quantile, I bestow a bedroom. I was talking with Maria when I saw Pedro, I was talking of lava. Was the imperfect tense. Then the other past tense, AB star from structure for means I saw in France, yeah, cuando icon of CDO as to mohair in Francia, as sumo hair. He was working in France when he met his wife. So he was working in France? In France, yeah. And then the other past tense he met of pseudo hover in laundries. Wonder why does he didn't move that. Say a mother is a traveler in laundries, quantify the CD8 on Moodle to say, I'm angry. She was working in London when she decided to move to Madrid. Harbor means she was working. And then add the CD20 is the other past tense. She decided. So how would you say in Spanish, What were you doing when I called I see as cuando a Yamato. One the way Yamato, cuando a Yamato, gaseon cuando AR model. Or obviously you can use the subject pronouns. Get to ICS or get boosted. Rca, cables, arthrosis, sea ice, or status or Sian. It uses structure five in the first half, what were you doing? And then structure for in the second half, when I called. 53. 10b - using structure 5 with other structures: How would you say in Spanish? We were visiting Madrid and we saw the royal palace. Busy table, most Madrid. Emos bestow el nosotros, busy Taba most Madrid EMOs bestow a policy or a file. We use the imperfect tense from structure five. In the first half, we were visiting Madrid, busy tab Ahmose. Then when we're talking about one thing that we did, we saw the royal palace. We can use the past tense from structure for most bestow a busy table, most Madrid, EMOs bestow a Bellagio. They used to go to Barcelona every year, but now they go to Valencia. Even a Barcelona told us was annulus better. I would have been a Valencia AOC, even a Barcelona told us Los Angeles pair of our band of Valencia. So E1 is the imperfect tense they used to go. And then when we use the present tense, we say ban. They go now to Valencia, our app ban or Valencia. How would you say she was making dinner when he proposed? And to propose in Spanish is open-air matrimonial, which means to propose marriage. And prop on air, comes from the verb Bon air, which means to put. So it's conjugated in the same way as we conjugate pair, meaning the past participle is pesto for Panera or ProQuest for proper layer. So how would you say she was making dinner when he proposed as CLR center cuando app request or matrimonial Asia. I see Alesina, cuando el matrimonial. So as Sia, she was making a CLS Anna, she was making dinner. And then he proposed a ProQuest or matrimonial. Broadway star is the past participle app ProQuest, or matrimonial. He proposed marriage or ProQuest or matrimonial.