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Building Structures in Spanish - Structure 4

teacher avatar Kieran Ball, Learn a language in 3-minute chunks

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Introduction to Structure 4

      1:55

    • 2.

      Lesson 1 - What is the fourth structure?

      3:15

    • 3.

      Lesson 2a - the past participle

      3:28

    • 4.

      Lesson 2b - examples of some past participles

      8:57

    • 5.

      Lesson 2c - the auxiliary verb

      3:48

    • 6.

      Lesson 2d - question auxiliary verb

      2:19

    • 7.

      Lesson 3 - changing the auxiliary verb

      3:30

    • 8.

      Lesson 4 - extra information

      4:22

    • 9.

      Lesson 5a - removing the question word

      3:17

    • 10.

      Lesson 5b - using names

      3:27

    • 11.

      Lesson 6a - recap so far

      3:46

    • 12.

      Lesson 6b - practice questions

      4:08

    • 13.

      Lesson 7a - two meanings

      3:20

    • 14.

      Lesson 7b - practice sentences

      3:24

    • 15.

      Lesson 7c - practice sentences

      3:23

    • 16.

      Lesson 7d - practice sentences

      3:06

    • 17.

      Lesson 7e - practice sentences

      3:28

    • 18.

      Lesson 7f - practice sentences

      3:14

    • 19.

      Lesson 7g - practice sentences

      3:09

    • 20.

      Lesson 7h - practice sentences

      3:19

    • 21.

      Lesson 7i - practice sentences

      3:22

    • 22.

      Lesson 7j - practice sentences

      2:02

    • 23.

      Lesson 8a - as a non-question

      3:14

    • 24.

      Lesson 8b - non-question examples

      3:21

    • 25.

      Lesson 8c - non-question examples

      3:32

    • 26.

      Lesson 8d - non-question examples

      3:45

    • 27.

      Lesson 8e - non-question examples

      3:29

    • 28.

      Lesson 8f - non-question examples

      3:20

    • 29.

      Lesson 8g - non-question examples

      5:21

    • 30.

      Lesson 9a - question word recap

      3:15

    • 31.

      Lesson 9b - past participle recap

      3:33

    • 32.

      Lesson 9c - let's build our reflexes for this structure

      3:27

    • 33.

      Lesson 9d - let's build our reflexes for this structure

      3:14

    • 34.

      Lesson 9e - let's build our reflexes for this structure

      3:28

    • 35.

      Lesson 9f - let's build our reflexes for this structure

      3:24

    • 36.

      Lesson 9g - let's build our reflexes for this structure

      3:15

    • 37.

      Lesson 9h - let's build our reflexes for this structure

      3:34

    • 38.

      Lesson 10a - turning it all negative

      3:16

    • 39.

      Lesson 10b - negative questions

      2:40

    • 40.

      Lesson 10c - turning non-questions negative

      3:04

    • 41.

      Lesson 10d - negative non-questions

      3:02

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About This Class

The whole of the Spanish language can be broken down into several different structures. If you take any sentence from any Spanish book or any utterance, you will see that it fits into one of these structures.


I remember one weekend, I was writing some lessons for the week ahead, when I suddenly realised this. I noticed that there are a certain number of structures in Spanish, and that every sentence follows one of these structures. I spent the rest of the weekend working out all the structures, and I wrote them all down.


Every structure you learn gives you the ability to say a huge amount. Some structures are used more than others, but all the structures together make up the whole Spanish language. Once you’ve learnt how a structure works, all you have to do is insert different words into the slots and you have a sentence.


This course introduces you to structure 4. I’ve limited each course to one structure so as not to overburden you. By looking at just one structure at a time, you can really get to grips with it and understand its usage. It will help to clarify the Spanish language and make it more like a reflex rather than something you have to think about as is it were a maths equation.


Each structure can also help to propel you to fluency; if you can manipulate the structures at high speed, you can start to say anything you want without having to thing about how to say it.


This course contains plenty of practice opportunities for you to revise what you’ve learnt and it also contains some hints and tips on how best to learn and memorise the structures and the vocabulary that goes with them. You’ll learn how to make questions out of structure 4, how to make statements and how to turn positive statements negative.


The Building Structures in Spanish series is set out using the same learning techniques as the 3 Minute Spanish courses. You can work through the course in three minute chunks, enabling anybody to learn Spanish, no matter how little time you have.

Meet Your Teacher

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Kieran Ball

Learn a language in 3-minute chunks

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Hello, I’m Kieran and I’m a language tutor based in the UK. I have created a series of online courses that you can use to learn to speak French, Spanish, German, Italian and Portuguese. (I also have some English and math courses)

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Transcripts

1. Introduction to Structure 4: All our Indian men Eagle. Hello and welcome to building structures in Spanish. Structure for I'm Karen and I'm a language tutor based in the UK. And I wrote this course to help you to learn to speak Spanish. The whole of the Spanish language is made up of a number of structural features. I remember one weekend I was writing some lessons for the week ahead. When I suddenly realized this. I notice that there are a certain number of structures in Spanish and that every sentence follows one of these structures. I spent the rest of the weekend working out all the Spanish structures and I wrote them all down. And you know what all the structure is are, you can begin to learn them. Every stroke you learn gives you the ability to say a huge amount. Some structures are used more than others, but all the structures together makeup the whole Spanish language. What you've learned to structure or you have to do is in different words into the slots and, and you have a sentence. These structures help to propel you to fluency because if you can manipulate the structures at high speed, you can start to say anything you want without having to think about how to say it. In this course, we're going to learn structure fall. If you've learned structures 123 with the same core series, then you will recognize the method used in this course. Remember to limit your study time to trunks of just three minutes. If you keep your lessons short, three amazing things will happen. Firstly, you will maintain enthusiasm. Secondly, you'll be more consistent in your studying. And thirdly, you will find that you remember things much more effectively. So let's begin and learn structure for in Spanish. 2. Lesson 1 - What is the fourth structure?: The whole of the Spanish language is made up of different structures of words. If you know the words and you know which order to put them in, you can speak the language. In this course, we're going to learn about structure for structure for uses the past tense to form questions and statements. This fourth structure is probably my favorite structure in Spanish. I think I've said that before, but this one really is a, consists of three small parts. And here is an example of it in use. K as Camila. Camila. What have you eaten? I asked Camilo is made up of the word K, Which means what is a question word? Us is an auxiliary verb. It means have you. And Camila is a past participle. It means eaten. Gay asked Camilo, what have you eaten? The first part of structure for is simply a question word. And since we've learned them all a few times already, you should be quite familiar with them. But let's go through them again just to refresh your memory. How do you say in Spanish where? Dante what what okay. At what time? When? Quandl how? Como. Which or which one? What? Why? How MOOC? Quanto, how many quanta us? How long will literally how much time? Quite simple. And who or whom? Kn. So what we can do now with this fourth structure is start to build up questions using the three parts. The question with the auxiliary verb and the past participle. We can change the face as part or the third part in this structure. For example, instead of saying k at the start, which means what? We could change it to quanto, meaning how much. So if we had K as Camila chaos Komodo, which means what have you eaten. We could change it to quanto as Camila. Quanto as comida, meaning how much have you eaten? Or we could change the question were to non-linear and get Don they asked Camilo, non, They asked Kamila, meaning, where have you eaten? Just like with the other structures, you can change the question word without changing any of the rest of the question. The asked Camilo part didn't alter just because we changed the question word. 3. Lesson 2a - the past participle: There are just three paths to structure for the question word, the auxiliary verb, and the past participle. You should already know the question where is from? The structure is 1, 2, and 3. But let's have a quick recap. How do you say in Spanish where? What k At what time? Acting Laura. When? Cuando. How? Como? Which or which one. Why? Perky? How much? Quanto, how many quanta us? How long or how much time? Quantity, MPO, who or whom. Kn. The next few parts of structure for an auxiliary verb and the past participle. But what even is an auxiliary verb and what is the past participle? Well, an auxiliary verb and the past participle used together actually make the past tense in Spanish. Let's go through a quick explanation of what the past tense is in Spanish. The past tense. For structure one, We learned lots of infinitives. That's the whole verb. We can take those infinitives and turn them into the past tense. There are actually a few past tenses in Spanish, but this one is called the present perfect tense. And it's this one that we'll be using for the structure. And yes, the present perfect is a past tense, even though it has the word present in his name. The present perfect tense in Spanish is made up of two parts, an auxiliary verb and the past participle. In the example sentence for this tense, we saw that as hate, AS was the auxiliary verb, and Camilo was the past participle. The past participle. You can change the word comedian, which is the past participle, to any web you like and change the meaning of the sentence. Gas Camino. K as Camille means, what have you eaten? Gas pedal. Pedal. What have you ordered? Ks, baby doll, k as BBDO. What have you drawn? K as Nessie below, KS deciliter. What have you decided? So we've got committal means eaten. By vivo means ordered. Babybot means drunk, and Deci DO means decided, and they're all past participles. 4. Lesson 2b - examples of some past participles: We've just seen for past participles. And you might have noticed that all the past participles ended in the lattice ID. They were committal, the DDL, BBDO, deci, DDO. The reason the past participles all end in IDEO. Ideo is because the infinitive they come from and in, ER or IR. Compare means to eat. Pdr means to order, bear means to drink. And the CDR means to decide. And you can turn any infinitive that ends in the letters E-R or to a past participle by changing the ER or IR into the Edo. Spanish verbs come in three different forms. You have verbs that end in ER, verbs that end in IR, and verbs that end in AR. To turn any infinitives into a past participle, you change the ER to IDEO, the IR to IDEO, and the AR to AD 0. For example, compare means to eat. Well, if we change the ER to the ER, to IDEO, we get Camilo. Camilo, meaning eaten. Pdr means to order. The past participle is Paden. Pedal, meaning ordered. So we changed the IR to IDEO. Hablar. Hablar means to speak. Are Blotto. Blotto means spoken. So we changed the AR 287 Spanish to turn any verb into a past participle, you change the last two letters. If the last two letters are ER, or change them to IDEO, pronounced IDO. It, the last two letters of the verb, our AR. You change them to a radio, pronounced other. And you can put these past participles after the word as in structure for, for example, as Pareto, as peduncle means, have you ordered. Unfortunately, the three rules of turning ER to IDEO, IR to IDEO and AR to ATO. Don't always work. And there's a small handful of verbs that are called irregular verbs. And they don't follow the rules. Because the reasonable most commonly infinitives in Spanish, and look at their passport decibels, and we'll see the irregular verbs as I crop. So k-mer means to eat, bear, means to drink. Pdr means to order. Pro bar, means to try. Bogata means to pay as a means to do or to make. Alkyl, means to hire. Year, means to go. Tamar, means to take. The mean of can be our means to change is to buy. Comments are means to start. Sal, means to be a star, means to be. Salia means that year means to leave or to go out. Dry air means to bring and gas star is to spend money. Pasa means to spend time. Bear, means to see. Yamaha, is to kDa. To stay in control. Means to find Nasir, means to say or to tell you Hagar means to arrive. Many mere means to come. Aka bar is to finish. So what we'll do is look at the past participles of all these verbs. Most of them are regular, so all you have to do is change the last two letters, either to IDO or audio. But there are a few irregulars and I'll point them out as we come across them. So compare means the Arameans to eat. Comedian means eaten. By their means to drink. Bbdo means drunk. Barrier means to order. Benito means ordered. Peribulbar means to try. Roboto means tried. Peg is to pay. By Gatto means paid as their means to do automate. And this is our first irregular verb, H0, H0, which is sehe ich sehe H0. H0 means don't homemade alcohol OR means to hire. Alkylation means hired. Yr means to go. Ego means gone. Tomorrow, means to take domes, taken. Ten air is to have the needle. Means hat. Can be our, wants to change. Can be Adam, means changed. Compiler. Is TBI comparable? Comparable means bought. Comments are means to start. Comin saddle means started. Sale, means to be. Cdo, means been. A star, is to be o, means been. Sally, mere means to go out or to leave. Sarajevo means gone out or left. Dry air means to bring. And the past participle of dry air is very slightly irregular, is dry IDO. And what may, and what makes it irregular is that the eye has an accent on it, dry vivo. And that means brought in gastr, means to spend money in gas. Tau means spent money. Pasa means to spend time. Pasado, spent time. Bear means to see, and this is another irregular verb. Bestow. Bestow spelled VI osteo means scene. Mr. Yamada means to call Yamato. Yamato means cold. Guitar means to stay. Good. Adl is stayed. Ng-controller means to find. In Colorado means found. Nasir means to tell or to say, but irregular verb. Indeed jaw. The jaw means told or said. Yigal means to arrive. Yigal arrived. Veneer means to come. Benito means come and ACA VAR means to finish, and Aqaba means finished. So the three irregular verbs where as air, which means to do what to make, and that becomes H0. Mare needs to see, and that becomes bestow and the seer. And they see a means to tell, to say, and that becomes Detroit. And dry air is ever so slightly irregular because the past participle try ego, gets an accent on the eye. That's just one more way of hours to look at. And that's bull bear, which means to return. I just couldn't fit on the ball bearing is to return. And the past participle is an irregular verb. Waldo, Waldo, v, u e l TO, it means returned wealth. Don't. 5. Lesson 2c - the auxiliary verb: The auxiliary verb. Oh, celery just means a helper. And that's what the auxiliary verb does. It helps us to use the past tense. If we simply use the past participles, talk about the past, we wouldn't get very far. Camilo, for example, means eaten, but it doesn't tell us who had eaten. This is where the auxiliary verb comes into play. If you place the word as HHS in front of the word Camilo, then we get an actual question in the past tense. As committed. As Camino. It means have you eaten. The word ass means have you, and it comes from the verb, our bear, which is the auxiliary verb in Spanish. You can conjugate of air into quite a few different forms. So we've got a meaning. I have US, which means you have L, means he has Ada. She has. Instead. You have MOs. We have our base. You have a Lausanne. They have WHO status and you have, you might have noticed that there are four different ways to say you have in Spanish. The reason for this is because in Spanish there are plural and singular version of you, as well as formal and informal versions. Singular means that you can use it with one person. Plural means you can use it with more than one person. Informal means you can use it with people you know, or generally people that are younger than you. And formal means, you can use it with people that you don't know. The four ways to say you have R Us, which you have in the singular informal. Who said Our? Which means you have in the singular formal. Our base means deep in the plural. In formal. And GU status means you have in the plural formal. Another thing you might have noticed is that there are some of the auxiliary verbs that have a word in brackets beforehand. That's because those words without the bracket part could mean more than one thing. For example, the word spelled HA can be translated as he has, she has, or you have. The words in brackets mean, you can use them to make it clearer as to whom you mean, but they are optional. You only need to use them if it isn't clear by the context. So l and Ustinov mean he, she and U and mechano be used in front of to mean he has LR, she has AR. And you have instead are similarly a and oo status mean they knew and they can both be used with and to mean they have a Lausanne and you have status. And the words in brackets can actually go pretty much anywhere in a sentence. It doesn't have to go directly in front of the auxiliary verb. 6. Lesson 2d - question auxiliary verb: The good thing about the auxiliary verbs in Spanish is that they can be turned into questions quite easily. All you have to do is use an upside-down question mark at the start of the sentence and a normal question mark at the end. Have a look at these two sentences. They change a bit in English, but the only thing that's different in Spanish is the question mark. Therefore, when you say the question version, you should raise your voice at the end little to make it clear that it's a question. El Camino. El Camino means he has eaten. El Camino. L Camino means has he eaten. So you can see that it's the exact same words. It's just you're changing the way you say it. And the second one has question marks around. Let's have a look at some of the auxiliary verbs as questions. So a means I have, but in a question, a commune have I as means you have a question as means have you. Lr means he has a law in a question, is Has he means he has a question? A ja means Hershey. Boosted our means you have a question. Who said OK, mean have you? Mos means we have. But if you put question marks around it, it means have we, MOs are base means you have. But in a question, our base means have you. A ofs n means they have. But in a question, egos n means have they and who stay. This means you have. But in the question, WHO status and means have you. Then all you have to do is put a question word in front of the auxiliary verb and the past participle on the end of it. And you've got a structure for. 7. Lesson 3 - changing the auxiliary verb: How do you say in Spanish, where have you eaten? Non-linear non day. What has he ordered? Or you can put the L in there somewhere and say k. Which one have they tried? How have you paid o Como status? And what have they have a dune. Whom have you seen? How much have we spent today? Quanto OU. Why has she hired a call? Pork? Pork? Or you can put in there and say, but again, our Asia. By building questions using structure for you'll not only get yourself more familiarized with the vocabulary and the structure, but you'll also, without even trying, reduce the time it takes for you to string a sentence together is. So have a go at forming some of you are in sentences. 8. Lesson 4 - extra information: Extra information. The extra information are all the nouns, adjectives, time, words, et cetera, that you can add to the end of the question in structure for, for example, chaos HO, what have you done? But you could say chaos H0 or a k as HOA, what have you done today? Or poor gay as alkali and cocci. For gay as alkali Don't co-chair. Why have you hired a car? So the main structure is why have you hired of you hired Paul K as alkali. And then we can add some extra information on the end board game as our gelato and cocci. Non-linear US tomato and Cochin. Don't they ask, Where have you taken the car? So some extra information, words and phrases that you can add to structure for i. I means yesterday, i o means today. Last seminar, pasado la la semana. Pasa means last week. El ano pasado. Ano pasado means last year. As a lost ds, dt ofs, ds, two days ago. So the word athlete is time phrase, whereas in English, we say ago after the time phrase. But you can change those Diaz to anytime phase you want to say after a dose does two days ago. And Madrid. Madrid means to Madrid. In Madrid. In Madrid means in Madrid. Restaurant, the restaurant, the means at the restaurant or to the restaurant. Elbow. Your elbow means the Chicken. A la Rigo Rocco. Elaborate. Means the red coat. Wouldn't be yet. There means a ticket. Para Pedro, para bedroom. For Pedro. A key. Aki means here. So now that you have some extra information words, you can make your questions a little more adventures. So how would you say in French, what have you done with my car? K. K. K. K. K. And off-state is H0. What have you bought for Pedro? Gas? Bedroom. Bedroom. Where have you eaten in Barcelona? Non the ASCO middle imbalance, Ilona. Normally, I would stay in balance, Ilona in Barcelona. Long the status quo middle in Barcelona. 9. Lesson 5a - removing the question word: You can manipulate structure for, in many different ways. For example, you can take certain bits out to make different types of questions. You don't always have to stick a question word on the start. Let's see what happens when you don't put the question word on. How would you say in Spanish, have you eaten? As Camila? Camila. Camila. And instead is Kami don't have they eaten the pizza? La pizza. Pizza. Have you paid the bill? La Quinta. La Quinta. You bought some cheese. And instead is have you finished now? A base? And instead is Aqaba. Laura? Has he paid the bill? Avogadro La Quinta or L? La Quinta. The weight in brackets, the L is optional, just like you can add a year for xi or Ofstead for you, or for the plural way of saying you in the formal. You haven't got to put these within. It makes it clearer if you do so by GABA-A, La Quinta can mean has an has he paid the bill or has she paid the bill or have you paid the bill? But adding the extra word makes it a bit clearer. So l are Bogata Quinta. Has he paid the bill? 10. Lesson 5b - using names: The past tense, also known as the present perfect tense in Spanish, is made up of two parts, the auxiliary verb and the past participle. For example, asked Camilo. Camilo, meaning you have eaten, has as the auxiliary verb. And the past participle, Komodo, as committal means you have eaten. As we have seen, you can turn this into a question pretty easily. Or you have to do is put question marks around everything. So as Camillo, as, as Camino means you have eaten. But if you put question marks around it and raise your voice at the end when you're speaking, you get as Camino as committal, which means have you eaten as Camino. So it's all about your tone of voice. You can say as Camila. Camila. In the past tense. You can also use a name with the he or she version of the auxiliary. For example, Pedro Camilo. Pedro a Camilo. This means Pedro has eaten. Maria, aka Marianne, aka battle. That means Maria has finished. You can also put question marks around everything to turn them into questions. Pedro, middle, bedroom, I Camino. Has Pedro eaten? Maria? Maria are tobacco. Has Maria maria finished? The same goes, if you're using more than one name, you can just use the waveforms of the auxiliary verb. For example, petro e, Maria and Kami, Don, Pedro de Maria and Camila. This means Pedro and Maria have eaten. Or as a question, you'll get Pedro and Maria and Camino, Pedro II, Maria and comedian. Have Padre and Maria eaten. So how would you say in Spanish? Has Diego finished now? Diego. Diego eaten today? Whereas Maria taking the car. 11. Lesson 6a - recap so far: Let's do a quick recap of all the question words, all the auxiliary verbs, and some common past participles in Spanish. How do you say where, what, and what time? When? Cuando, how? Como. Which or which one. Why? How much? Quanto, how many quanta us? How long, or how much time. Quantum. Who or whom Kn have I have you in the singular informal. S. Has he, or has she, or have you in the singular formal. Or have we. Mos. Have you in the informal plural? Have VA, or have you in the former plural. And how do you say eaten? Drunk? Bbdo, ordered. Perdido, tried. Bravado, paid, done or made. Hbo. Hired. Gone. Ido, taken. Tomato, had changed. Can be other board. Started. Common saddle, be from the verb sadder, CDO, bean from the star, left, or going out. 12. Lesson 6b - practice questions: How do you say in Spanish? Brought spent doesn't spend money. Gustavo spent spent time. Pasado. Seen bestow, called Yamato. State, found, Raul, said or told, arrived. Many though. Finished. Returned. Well, how do you say in Spanish? What has he done? Okay. How have you paid the bill? Como aspect of La Quinta? La Quinta. La Quinta. Como La Quinta. Which one has she bought? Why have we hired a car? How much have you eaten? Quanto as Camino quanto, our state comedian. Quanto, new status comedian. Where have you taken the car? As? Tomato. Tomato. Tomato, and what have they eaten today? Which one have you seen? Quieter. Quieter. Quieter. Quieter. 13. Lesson 7a - two meanings: Now, English has more ways of saying the same thing as Spanish dose. So sometimes things can get a little confusing. When you're asking a question using structure for in English, there are two ways to say it. What have you eaten? And what did you eat would both be translated as K as Komodo into Spanish, for example. This is because there is no did you in Spanish. So because the did you doesn't exist. We can also say that did I or did he or did she doesn't exist either. Whenever you see did you in English, you have translated into Spanish as have you, which is us. You can apply this to all the auxiliary verbs whenever you see did he, for example, you have to say in Spanish, has he, which is or whenever you see, did we? Well, you have to say in Spanish halfway, which is Amos. Therefore, the Spanish auxiliary verbs can be translated in two ways. In English. A can mean have I or deny. As can mean have you or did you or LR can mean has he or did he? Who can mean has she or deci 0 state? Can mean have you or did you MOs can mean have we, or did we abbeys have you or did you and or a Lausanne can mean have they or did they h1 or h2 status and can mean have you or did you. So whenever you see did think have or has in Spanish instead. Here are some examples of the double meanings in English of some Spanish questions. Chaos, Camino, k as Camille. Well, this can mean what have you eaten or what did you eat? Pork has Tamar, well, Cauchy per k as tomato alkyl chain. This can mean why has he taken the car? Or why did he take the car? And baby though? While and BBDO. This can mean which one have they drunk? Or which one did they drink? How would you say in Spanish, What have they eaten today? What did you eat today? 14. Lesson 7b - practice sentences: How do you say in Spanish? When did you finish? Cuando. Cuando. What did she see? How did we pay? How have we paid them? Why did you say that? Why have you said that? Our steady state if D2L so what have they done? What did they do? What did they drink? A drunk. What have you eaten? 15. Lesson 7c - practice sentences: How would you say in Spanish, What did you eat? Has he understood? Accompany them? What have they said? Candy cane and D2. What did they say? Kn d2. And d2. Did he speak English? Blotto English. Spoken with Pedro? Pedro. Did she call yesterday? I actually call today. What time did you finish? Okay, you wanna ousted by quantile. Quantile m of compound. 16. Lesson 7d - practice sentences: How do you say in Spanish, how many pizzas have we ordered? Pizza. Pizza. How many pizzas did we order? Pizza? Pizza. How much did you drink? Wine? Has he drunk? Quanto be no. What did they make? K. What have they made? An H0. Have you tried the wine? El Nino. And off-state is going to be no. Did you try the wine? As our state? And have you made a reservation as a2? A2. A2. And with status 17. Lesson 7e - practice sentences: How would you say in Spanish, did you make a reservation as a2? A2. A2. A2. What did you have? The needle. The needle. What have you had? K. K. K. And why have you changed the reservation? And why did you change the reservation? As can be ousted, can be lattice oedema, can be either letter Sigma. Status can be unviable. When did he call cuando Yamato? Cuando el y has a cold. What did you vote for us? Nosotros. Nosotros. 18. Lesson 7f - practice sentences: Has she ordered for me as well? Where have you been? Don't they? Don't they don't they are based non-linear. Why did they buy that way? So what did you do here? K, k, K. K. Which one has she bought? Which ones did you have? Have I being stupid. Did they see the film? 19. Lesson 7g - practice sentences: How do you say in Spanish? Have they seen the film? And and have you drink the wine as Baby Doe LB, No. Baby. Baby Doe, LV know. And we'll state is maybe there'll be no. Did you drink wine? Maybe the baby. The baby. The baby. The baby. Did you speak Spanish in Spain? As a Blotto espanol espanol. Espanol. Espanol. Espanol espanol. Espanol espanol. How do they find the film? Como. Como. Did you find the hotel? I will state. And instead is how much time did you spend in Spain as pasado espanol. Espanol. Espanol. Quantity NPO status. 20. Lesson 7h - practice sentences: How would you say in Spanish, when did you spend a 1000? How much money do you spend? Quantity narrow. Narrow. Has Pedro spoken with Maria? Pedro. Pedro. Maria. Whom did you call? What did you take with you yesterday? Tomato. Tomato. Tomato. Or what have you taken with U? K as k. K are based on other Cassandra's status. What did they change? Why did they make a reservation? 21. Lesson 7i - practice sentences: How do you say in Spanish, where did they eat? Don't they? Have you eaten here? As comida wacky. I was lucky. I know state is committed wacky. What did he say? What film did you see? Which one did you take? Quite as tomato. Tomato. Tomato. Tomato. What did they bring? When did the film stopped? Cuando la, la, la, la la saddle. Why did you bring that to Madrid? Madrid. When did you take that? 22. Lesson 7j - practice sentences: How do you take in that way? So him did he tell has he told what did they bring? Didn't say that. Sophia Sophia 23. Lesson 8a - as a non-question: So far, we've only looked at structure for in a question format. However, you can also use it in a non question. Let's start this lesson with a quick recap of the structure in the question form. So structure for, in the question format consists of just three parts. A question word, an auxiliary verb, and the past participle. For example, k, as Camila. What have you eaten? Or a grocer mean what did you eat? You could also add an optional fourth part, the extra information and say something like k. K as Camila or what have you eaten today? To use this structure when you're not asking a question is really quite easy. All you have to do is take the question where it off and remove the question marks. Let me show you what I mean. Let's compare a question and a non question in the structure for format. Don't they? And Camilo, non-linear. And Camino. It means where do they eat? We can take the question where it off and take the question marks away. And we get an Camilo. Camilo, which means they ate or they have eaten. And we can add a bit to the end and we can say, I'm Camilo AKI. They hear and Camino AKI. So the phrase and Camila in a question means did they eat? Or in a non question, it means they ate. Let's have a look at some other verbs as non questions. And maybe though, and maybe though they drank and compatible and incompatible. They spoke with Pedro and Bogata La Quinta. And Bogata La Quinta. They paid the bill. One thing to note is that just like with the question format, the non question format can have two meanings to every past tense verb in Spanish can be translated in two ways into English. For example, a comedian, a committal can mean either eight or I have eaten. There's always one way that has the word health and another way that doesn't have the word have MOs, Avalon, MOS or bladder. This can mean we spoke or we have spoken. And by Gatto unpack add-on. This can mean they paid or they have paid as PDO, as pedicle. This can mean you ordered or you have ordered. So there's always one way to translate the English with the word half and another way without the word have. But in Spanish, they both mean the same thing as PDO. 24. Lesson 8b - non-question examples: How would you say in Spanish? She has bought something here for public. They bought the wine yesterday. And I don't hear an El Nino year. I saw Maria. Now, when you have the name of a person in Spanish as the object of a sentence, you have to put the little word, just the letter a in front of it is called the personal a bestow Ahmadiyya AV store. And Maria, I've brought something with me. We found that at the supermarket. So Mercado, I tried some cheese. I bought something for my mom here. He has been very tired. I have seen this film. 25. Lesson 8c - non-question examples: How would you say in Spanish? He's brought everything for Diego badda, Diego. Badda, Diego badda Diego. I took some food to Seville. A tomato. Tomato. I said something. They brought some wine for one. And she started last week. We ate at the restaurant. You finished yesterday. As he bought something in Paris. In berries. 26. Lesson 8d - non-question examples: How would you say is financial? You changed the reservation, etc, etc, etc. They ordered a pizza and pizza. And pizza. They ate at mine yesterday. And I saw Maria in Spain, Amenorrhea in Hispania. You found something. I think we brought everything with us. Nosotros. Nosotros. I did something wrong. You have spent too much money. Acid Gustavo Demosthenes, the narrow as Gustavo Demosthenes De Niro. Who steps did I, Gustavo Demosthenes below the narrow our base. Gustavo Demosthenes slowly neuro status and Gustavo Demosthenes Arduino. I found the hotel terrible. A contract. Hello. 27. Lesson 8e - non-question examples: How would you say in Spanish? I changed the reservation. You bought too much. I call Miguel Yamato. We hired a car. He drank something or I spent a week there. She drank my coffee. Mccafe. We spoke we started last year. Ano pasado. 28. Lesson 8f - non-question examples: How do you say in Spanish? I've ordered a bottle of water for the table. I voted for you. A video, but the vosotros. She called Maria. I Yamato. I cold call us this morning. A Yamato. And Yamaha Carlos. We spent three weeks then dressing minus I0, I0. The chicken fascia scattered. We changed. I saw that. 29. Lesson 8g - non-question examples: How would you say in Spanish? He tried something up Roboto. We ate here yesterday. I did everything today. And today. I've been in Avila. Aristotle. Aristotle. They started today. You've found the hotel. I bought something. She's changed everything. They've called Maria on Yamato, Ahmadiyya, and Yamato. I'm Maria. We've been in me has today. She's been here today. We've drunk three bottles of wine. Vino. So there you have it. The Spanish structure and a non question phone and committal AKI. They have eaten here is made up of an auxiliary verb and meaning they have the past participle Camino, meaning eaten. And then you can put extra information on the N, such as AQIM, meaning 30. Lesson 9a - question word recap: Let's do a quick recap of all the question words, some auxiliary verbs, and some extra information with how do you say in Spanish where? Non, non-Native. What Okay. What time? When quanto how? Como. Which or which one? Why? Okay. How much? Quanto? How many quanta us? How long will it be hammers? Quanto tempo. Who or whom? Have I, or did I a, have you or did you in the informal singular? As has he or did he or she? Has she or deci or have you or did you in the singular formal. Ofsted? Have we, did we MOs have you or did you in the informal plural? Our base. Have they, or did they? Or a ofs n. Have you, or did you in the formal plural? And 0 status? How do you say Eaton? Camille, drunk. Bbdo, ordered pair DDO, tried. But Roboto paid by Godel, done or made. Hired gun. Ego. 31. Lesson 9b - past participle recap: How does a in Spanish taken? Tomato had changed. Can be auto. Boat started, comment saddle being in the permanent CDL, being in the temporary, left or gone out. This Alito wrote, spent money, spent time. Pasado, seen, be stone cold. Yamato, stayed, found and can travel. Told or said. The CIO arrived. Ego Kuhn. Benito, finished, returned yesterday. Today. Last week. Last time. Last year. I know pasado two days ago. As a dot dS to Madrid. Madrid. At the restaurant or to the restaurant. I'll restaurant the chicken and the red coat. Coat. And I Brieger reform. A ticket for pedro. Pedro. Here. 32. Lesson 9c - let's build our reflexes for this structure: How do you say in Spanish? More did you bring what does he eat? You spent too much money. As the narrow base, Gustavo. And Gustavo. What did you see? Gas be Stone, get boosted status. And when did they call Yamato? Cuando Anya model. I brought some wine for Miguel. Did we eat at the hotel last week? Did you call Christina as the Yamato? Christina. Christina Bayes. Yamato. I Christina. Christina. 33. Lesson 9d - let's build our reflexes for this structure: How would you say in Spanish, did she pay the bill? Legato La Quinta. How did you find the film? Como la, la, la. What time did you start? Saddle. Saddle. Saddle. And coming saddle. Which ones have they tried? Unprovable. What did you do yesterday? He bought the food this morning. Piano. Piano. I said. What did you say? Guess ditto. Ditto. Ditto. Ditto. Did they see the restaurant? And we stop. 34. Lesson 9e - let's build our reflexes for this structure: How would you say in Spanish? Has she tried the wine? Vino. Which whom did you see in ban on Medina. Dns be score in Ben and Medina. Medina. And instead of n by n and Medina, whom did they see in Malaga and VSCO and Malaga. And bestow in Malaga. Whom did I call in Valencia? A Yamato in Valencia. A Yamato in Valencia. Pedro left this morning. Bedroom. Bedroom. I arrived in Spain yesterday. You stayed at a hotel and the train left early. 35. Lesson 9f - let's build our reflexes for this structure: How would you say in Spanish? Diego came with me. Diego. Diego. I went out with Sophia and public last night. When did you arrive? Guano as quantum state? I giggle. Cuando. Cuando status. And what time did the train leaves? Why are those photos? Whom did you go out with last night? And then Spanish, literally you would have to say with whom did you go out last night? Not NOT condition a base Alito. And unsteadiness solidify Noachian. When did he arrived? He arrive cuando ID Gabo. Cuando el. Maria has left. Maria Maria. 36. Lesson 9g - let's build our reflexes for this structure: How would you say in Spanish, Why did you leave early for gain status? And then Brannon? Have Maria and Pedro going to Paris? Maria e. Pedro and Maria Pedro. And either parties. Did Maria stay here? Maria. Maria. Have they left and Alito. And when did Maria and public leave? Quantum area E Babylonian soluble. Cuando Maria? He stayed at a hotel. And why did they go together? And have Maria and severe come with you? Maria is Sophia and Maria. And Maria is Sophia and bonito vosotros. Maria E, Sophia and Veneto. Status. 37. Lesson 9h - let's build our reflexes for this structure: How would you say in Spanish, you returned last year? El ano pasado. Ano pasado. And window time. Yeah, I'm color come together. Daniel, Karla, and Benito, whom does he, Karla and many Lohan pass. So in this sentence the word for together is Han pass, which ends in an s. And so we make it feminine. So Tanya, Tanya and color. So we've got a feminine plural subject. So ontos is together normally OS, but when it's just talking about, he's talking about too feminine nouns, then you can make it pass. How would you say in Spanish, has Pedro gone out? Bedroom? As she returned? Has Maria gone out? Maria maria are soluble unless we have a structure for outline. So you can see we've got the question words, don't make k again, Laura, cuando Como, qual port gay, quantile, quantiles, quantiles. And then some example past-tense verbs and some extra information. What you can do is practice writing or saying out loud some sentences and questions using the structure for format. So you say one word from the question. Well column, one word from the past tense column, and one word from the extra information column. And you've got a sentence or a question. And you can try leaving bits off as leaving off a question word or leaving off extra information. So instead of saying gay as committal as committal wire, which means what did you eat yesterday? You could just say as committed wacky I hear as Camila wacky I am. Did you read here yesterday? The more you play around, around with building your own sentences using structure for the more familiar you become with it, and the more fluent your sound. 38. Lesson 10a - turning it all negative: Turning its own negative. There's one more useful thing that you can do to this stroke. You quite easily make it negative. You can change the present tense from positive-negative quite easily in English. For example, why did you do that? That becomes, why didn't you do that? Did he stay here? Becomes didn't he stay here? Have they finished? Becomes, haven't they finished? In English? It's simply a matter of putting little N apostrophe T on the end of did or has. Well, it's even simpler in Spanish. Or you have to do to turn the web negative in Spanish is put the word no, n in front of it. For example, as a Cavaco, as ICA model means have you finished. But if you put a not in front of the auxiliary verb, you get no Asoka battle, Nausicaa battle, which means haven't you finished? And you can do this with any past-tense verbs in the question form. So here are some past-tense verbs in Spanish. What I'd like you to do is to make them negative. So we have psychobabble, meaning have you eaten or did you eat? And our Baby Doe has the drone caudate he drink. Who stayed up? Pedot. Have you ordered or did you order? And sadly, don't have a left or did they leave? Her? Are Benito has she come or the chicken and the spiccato? Have we paid? So pause this lesson and then see if you can turn those webs negative. And then press play and see if you go right. So as aka battle becomes know Asoka model, haven't written or didn't you eat? And our Baby Doe becomes l know BBDO. Hasn't he drunk or didn't eat, drink? Who stayed up? Payday loan becomes homestead know Apollyon, haven't you ordered or didn't you order? And solider becomes ohms non-soluble. Haven't ME left or didn't they leave? Her? Have a needle becomes a, uh, not have any ego. Meaning hasn't she com or didn't she come? And most packable becomes know hemispatial, haven't we pay it? What didn't we pay? Just like in the positive past tense, there are always two ways in English to translate something from Spanish. So in the negative, you can either say didn't or haven't. For example, no asked Camilo. Know as Camilo can mean having new eaten or didn't you eat or no, unsullied on non-solid on means haven't made left or didn't they leave? 39. Lesson 10b - negative questions: How would you say in Spanish, why didn't you try the wine? Vino. Didn't he make a reservation? No, I haven't made bought something for Maria. Maria know. Why didn't we call Luca? No MOS Yamato. Luca. Luca. Why didn't she do that yesterday? Didn't they come with you? No, I'm Benito. Continue on. Benito. Didn't he go to Paris last year? 40. Lesson 10c - turning non-questions negative: You can also turn the non question past tense negative. You do it in exactly the same way. Just put the word no and in front of the auxiliary variable. For example, a AKA battle. A aka battle means I have finished, nor am I babble. Nor a aka battle means I haven't finished. So here are four Spanish verbs in the past tense. What allies do is to put them into the negative. So we have a Camino, I have eaten or I8 as HO, you have done or you did. L idle. He has gone or he went a level. A level. She has spoken or she spoke. So pause this lesson, civic import those four verbs into the negative and put their English meanings and then press play and see if you got it right. A Camino becomes not a comedian. I haven't eaten or I didn't eat. As H0 becomes known as HO, you haven't done or you didn't do. A Lidar becomes L nor Aikido. He hasn't gone or he didn't go back. A year ago, becomes a, a plateau. She hasn't spoken or she didn't speak. Let's do another for verbs. We have MOs comparable. We have bought or we bought. Who stayed as a leader? You have left or you left. And solider. They have gone out or they went out. And bravado. They have tried or they tried. So pause the lesson, put those four verbs into the negative and then press play and see if you got it right. It's comparable, becomes know MOS comparable. We haven't bought or didn't buy. Who stayed as Alito becomes Ofstead, lowest value. You haven't left or you didn't leave. And selenium becomes not unsolvable. They haven't gone out or they didn't go out. And Roboto becomes not unprovable. They haven't tried or they didn't try. Just like in the positive past-tense, there are always two ways in English to translate something from Spanish in the negative past tense. You can either say didn't or haven't. For, for example, nor a comedian. Nor a Camilo, can either mean in English, I haven't eaten or I didn't eat. Can either mean we haven't paid or we didn't pay. 41. Lesson 10d - negative non-questions: How would you say in Spanish? I didn't do that today. No. No. He didn't eat the chocolate or grid. They didn't spend too much money. She didn't call Miguel. Miguel? No. You didn't leave at three o'clock? No. Stress. Stress. Stress. I didn't hire it. I bought it. We didn't go to Spain. They didn't arrive early. No.