Film Scoring in Logic Pro X : The Complete Guide | Jonathan Armandary | Skillshare

Film Scoring in Logic Pro X : The Complete Guide

Jonathan Armandary, Award Winning Composer & Instructor

Film Scoring in Logic Pro X : The Complete Guide

Jonathan Armandary, Award Winning Composer & Instructor

Play Speed
  • 0.5x
  • 1x (Normal)
  • 1.25x
  • 1.5x
  • 2x
33 Lessons (5h)
    • 1. Film Scoring in Logic Pro X : The Complete Guide

    • 2. Getting Setup & Started

    • 3. Recommended Equipment

    • 4. Downloading Logic Pro X's "Additional Content"

    • 5. Storing Logic Pro X's Sample Library on an External Drive

    • 6. Importing Your Movie

    • 7. Setting Your Markers

    • 8. Logic Pro X's Global Tracks

    • 9. Choosing and Setting Tempo and Time Signatures

    • 10. The Music for Moving Image Facebook Community

    • 11. Composing - Section Introduction

    • 12. The Concept

    • 13. Choosing & Laying Out Instruments

    • 14. Controlling Instrument Parameters

    • 15. Composing a Great Melody

    • 16. Harmonising Your Composition

    • 17. Inputting Notes Into Logic Pro X

    • 18. Creating a Composition: Part 1

    • 19. Creating a Composition: Part 2

    • 20. Arrangement & Orchestration : Part 1

    • 21. Arrangement & Orchestration : Part 2

    • 22. Using Synthesisers

    • 23. Creative Audio Effects

    • 24. Production - Section Introduction

    • 25. Recording Live Instruments

    • 26. Recording in Logic Pro X

    • 27. Improving Your MIDI Samples

    • 28. Mixing: Part 1

    • 29. Mixing: Part 2

    • 30. Mastering

    • 31. Exporting - Section Introduction

    • 32. Exporting in Logic Pro X

    • 33. Exporting with DaVinci Resolve

  • --
  • Beginner level
  • Intermediate level
  • Advanced level
  • All levels
  • Beg/Int level
  • Int/Adv level

Community Generated

The level is determined by a majority opinion of students who have reviewed this class. The teacher's recommendation is shown until at least 5 student responses are collected.





About This Class

My mission when it comes to teaching you film scoring is to get you creating as quickly and easily as possible. We’re not studying notation, we’re not dwelling on theory, we’re just learning how to get your ideas out of your head and onto the screen!

The course is aimed towards beginners, so if you’re new to Logic Pro X or have never used it for film scoring before, there’s plenty for you to get stuck into. As well as technical things such as how to actually import your movie into the software, we also cover the creative aspects of film music composition too: from coming up with your initial idea, creating melodies, harmonising those melodies, and bringing your composition to life!

What will you learn:

  • How to setup Logic Pro X for Film Scoring

  • The equipment you'll need to compose music for moving image

  • Creating melody and harmony

  • Recording & producing instruments

  • Mixing & mastering audio

  • Exporting & syncing music to picture

What I cover:

  • Film scoring equipment

  • Setting up Logic Pro X

  • Making musical decisions

  • Coming up with a concept

  • Choosing and editing instruments

  • Creating melodies and harmony

  • The full process of composing

  • Developing your composition

  • Adding synthesisers & sound design

  • Recording instruments

  • Improving MIDI samples

  • Mixing your audio

  • Mastering your track

  • Syncing your music to the visuals

Add Magic to a Movie by Creating Your Very Own Film Score

Regardless of your musical background, this course will show you how to improve your melody writing, develop more interesting harmony, and how to give your music compositions the extra details making them perfect for the silver screen.

Not only will you learn the creative process of film scoring, but also the technical aspects. From setting up Logic Pro X, through recording and producing instrument parts, right to mixing, mastering, and syncing your final piece.

Unlike traditional music composition courses, I focus on getting your ideas developed and recorded without the restrictions of traditional music theory.

Contents and Overview

As a beginner’s course, we start at the beginning: how to setup Logic Pro X including downloading the additional content, storing your samples securely, and activating advanced tools.

We then explore the creative side of film scoring: coming up with a concept, setting the various tempos and time signatures required of a project, creating melodies, harmonising those melodies, and then developing your ideas into a full composition. I also show you how to use synthesisers and creative audio processing to take your pieces to a new level.

The next section is all about producing your track: recording live instruments, improving your MIDI samples, making each instrument sound amazing before giving your piece its final polish in the mastering stage.

Finally, I show you how to actually sync your music with the movie, creating a final movie file ready to present to your friends, family, and the world!

By the end of the course you’ll be able to confidently compose original music for moving image.

What equipment do I need?

The only “essential” equipment is Logic Pro X (unless you’re only interested in the actual process/composition aspect). That said, you’ll find it much easier to compose if you also have a MIDI keyboard.

Who’s my teacher?

I’ve worked professionally as a film composer for over 10 years and previously taught film music production and composition at University level. My music has won international awards, and films that I’ve worked have had red carpet premieres in London and Hollywood, LA.

Nowadays I devote my life to helping people get into composing for media through my website, courses, and podcast under the brand:

I’m always here to answer any questions and to help you in your journey to becoming a better composer!

See you in the course!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jonathan Armandary

Award Winning Composer & Instructor


I'm a bestselling instructor & award winning composer specialising in composition and arranging for the moving image.

As well as featuring on films that have had red carpet premiers in both London and LA, my music has won multiple international film festival awards.

Having originally studied Jazz Saxophone on LCoM’s first Jazz BTEC ND, I moved to music production to pursue a career in music for the moving image – initially completing the specialist Foundation Degree in Music Production for Film & Television, before finishing the BA(Hons) in Music Production, and topping it off with a PGCert in Composition.

I studied under the likes of Brian Morell (Elton John, Kate Bush) and BAFTA nominated Neil Myers, and have since worked on a multitude of project... See full profile

Class Ratings

Expectations Met?
  • Exceeded!
  • Yes
  • Somewhat
  • Not really
Reviews Archive

In October 2018, we updated our review system to improve the way we collect feedback. Below are the reviews written before that update.

Your creative journey starts here.

  • Unlimited access to every class
  • Supportive online creative community
  • Learn offline with Skillshare’s app

Why Join Skillshare?

Take award-winning Skillshare Original Classes

Each class has short lessons, hands-on projects

Your membership supports Skillshare teachers

Learn From Anywhere

Take classes on the go with the Skillshare app. Stream or download to watch on the plane, the subway, or wherever you learn best.



1. Film Scoring in Logic Pro X : The Complete Guide: Wouldn't you love to have your name upon the silver screen, your music guiding people's emotions as they watch a movie? Well, I'm going to show you exactly how to get started in my new course, The Beginner's Guide to Film Scoring and Logic. Pro X Hi, I'm John ER Mandiri, founder of soundtrack dot academy and composer for Moving Image. I'd like to help you get started in composing music for film. This course is aimed towards beginners and focuses on both the technical and creative aspects of soundtrack composition. We begin by taking a look at the equipment you'll need and how to get logic set up on your movie imported. Then we'll explore the best way to think about instrumentation, how to compose melodies and harmony on that musical development. As we move towards the production stage, I'll show you how to record live instruments on dim. Prove your midi instruments before we move on to mixing, mastering on, exporting your audio all sink up to the booth. Whether or not you at the end card with your name on it is up to you. Perfect. The hobbyist and those wanting to get started in music, moving image will actually be creating an original piece of soundtrack music as we go through the course. Maybe you have some home videos that you want to liven up, or you and your friends want to create your very own short film with original music. This is the perfect starting point for you. Sign up now and I'll see you in the course. 2. Getting Setup & Started: in this first section, we're going to look at the technical side of getting set up. I'll start by taking you through my list of recommended equipment before we open. Logic Pro X And look how to import your movie. Set your markers. Decide on the concept for your composition on how to go about setting tempos and time signatures that sync perfectly with your movie. 3. Recommended Equipment: in order to compose in sync your music to a movie, you're going to need some equipment. I'm gonna renew through some options and give you some advice on things to look out for. It should go without saying that these are only recommendations. And if you have access to other equipment that will get the job done, then great. The last thing I want you to do is to have to go out and spend a load of money on unnecessary gear. In fact, I see a lot of aspiring composes, getting obsessed with equipment so much so that they spend almost all of their time trying to find the perfect MIDI controller or the best sample library. And they never get around to finding projects, actually composing or even properly learning how to use the equipment they already have. So what do you actually need? Well, not a lot. In reality, you can write music to picture with a simple computer system and free software. That said, if you're more serious about films Carling, you'll want to get your own mini studio set up. It doesn't have to cost a lot, but you'll need a computer, a digital audio workstation or door for short of speakers, which in pro audio we call monitors an audio interface. I explain what that does in a moment and, ideally, a midi keyboard. And honestly, that's it. To begin with, you can get dragged into a whole world of equipment and software if you spend too much time lurking in forums on the Internet. But before you invest your hard earned money into any equipment, you need to decide if it's really going to help you. And I'm talking from experience. I've bought so many things in the past that I really didn't need and barely ever used. This is stuff that I bought while I was still getting set up before actually started composing, probably because I'd read on some forum that it was essential equipment. What you should do first is to start composing then and only then you'll start to find areas of your workflow that you feel could be improved. That's the point where you start buying equipment to solve specific problems. There are plenty of sales people out there that are trying to convince you that you have a problem that needs solving unless you've experienced a pain. Point yourself. Don't fall for it. Don't buy sample Ivory's just because by them when you need a specific sound for a project . Case in point. I recently moved across the world twice and got rid of my MIDI keyboard. So now I'm using my junkie stage piano step committee. The only problem is that my stage piano doesn't have modulation or pit Ben wheel. So now I'm looking for a solution to that. You see, I had a problem that I'm going to solve. I didn't try to solve the problem before I encountered it. Okay, enough trying to save you money. Let's look at those five things that I said you need Number one is a computer. Obviously, in this course, I'll be showing you how to get started in logic. Pro X for logic. You'll need a Mac that said, most did ability of workstations have some form of movie capabilities. So if you already have a decent PC system, don't replace it with a Mac just because I've told you so if your current looking to buy a new system. Though Mac has been in the industry standard for years, although PC is making a rather spectacular comeback at the moment. In order for your system to be, it's up to date for as long as possible. You want to invest your money into getting the most powerful process er and as much. Ramez. You can't also, if you're a little tech savvy and not too worried about warranty is used. You don't have to buy the round direct from Apple. You kind of graded yourself later, which works out a lot cheaper if you're very tech savvy. There's also something called Hacken touched, where you essentially build your own Mac using PC parts. There are quite a few trade offs, but for a studio machine, it might be a viable option for you. You can get a similarly powerful machine for a fraction of the cost of an official Matt. That said, there are some questions as to how legal hacking tosh machines are. So if you decide to go that route, you'll need to look into the gallant legalities yourself. Number two is the digital till audio workstation or door. As I've said, we'll be using Logic Pro X in this course, which is a favor among many composers, including some of the top Hollywood composers If you're on PC. Q Base has had some major revamps in the last few years and is now on par. Some would even argue better than Logic Pro. One of the great things about logic is that it comes with a huge sample library, including most of the instruments you'd ever imagine writing for on more. It's great for MIDI programming and manipulation, also for audio processing. So it's a really well around it door that said, Don't spend money If you don't have to, you can do most this stuff we're looking at in this course in garish band for free. If you're just doing this for fun, or if you already have fruity loops, able to know whatever else and go ahead and use those, I'm sure you can figure out the same steps we go through in this course on your door of choice. With a few minutes on Kugel, the three studio on its is a good set of speakers is super important if you want to make sure your music actually sounds good. If you're using your computer laptop speakers to write music, you're gonna miss a huge amount of information from what you're writing. Certain frequencies air either boosted or lost on ordinary speakers. Small speakers like those found in laptops, for example, simply cannot produce low frequency. So if you compose apiece while only using a laptop speakers, you'll probably find that if you play your music on different speakers such as valuable TV , you might have a sound barrel so brief was with and the base is gonna be an absolute mess. Good studio monitors produce an even or flat sound across the frequency spectrum. When it comes to listening and analyzing music, a good set of monitors is gonna help you hear extra details in the music. You don't need to spend a fortune, but if you do have some cash to invest, I personally use a set of focal CMS fifties and can highly recommend them. What I love about the focal monitors is the notice, harsh sounding or some other brands. So I find them more comfortable for listening on for extended periods of time, and I could get a love clarity out of soundtrack music with them. They've actually discontinue this exact model now, but the focal brands still have an exceptional range of monitors. Other brands to consider include K R K, Adam Djelic and Yamaha. The Yamaha Ennis Tens Actual. One of most famous sets of studio on this is in part in the pop music world. Most of these brands also make a decent monitors a lower price point. Just be careful when shopping for monitors that you're looking at monitors designed for studios and not the home stereos. There is an incredible speakers for home systems that will make any music sound incredible . And that's a problem. Your monitors aren't meant to make your music sound incredible. That meant to show you exactly how your music actually sounds. If it all possible, get yourself down to a local music shop and actually listen to the monitors you're thinking of buying, you might find you actually hate the sound of some of the really highly recommended speakers, in which case, there obviously not for you. Take a few reference tracks with you on a USB stick. A reference track is a piece of music that you know the sound off really well and continues to compare across different monitors. You can get studio headphones to these air. Great. If you need to work at night. Like if you have young kids in a day job, for example, they do come with a couple of caveats, though firstly, headphones could be seriously bad for your hearing. If you aren't careful. If he's been long hours working on headphones, you'll find that you keep increasing the volume little by little, so you don't realize you're working at dangerous levels. Pete Townsend of the Who actually site studio headphones, is the main cause of his tinnitus, and tinnitus is completely re never irreversible and horrendous live with, so be warned. Secondly, you lose a lot of sense of depth of space with headphones. So when it comes to mixing, you have a really hard time getting your panning and re verbs Correct. Brands to consider for headphones include Focal Again Bear Dynamic, Sennheiser and a K G. I use a K G two forties. I've had them forever and have never felt the need to upgrade its. I tend to mix on my monitors. They're good, reasonably priced set. But if you're planning on doing the majority of your work on headphones, there are better options available. You need to decide if you want open back or closed back. Headphones opened back and generally better for critical listening. But they let in noise from around you and also let noise out. So if you're in a noisy environment or if you'll be working in the same room as someone else, there no ideal. The opposite is true for clothes back, the less good for critical listening. But they block out unwanted outside noise, and they don't leak. Sound out. Number four audio interfaces. An audio interfaces like an upgraded sound card for your computer. They have microphone or line inputs with gain control and often phantom power, allowing you to use condenser microphones and headphone and monitor output with independent output controls and sometimes midi in and out as well. Most studio monitors come with balanced 3/4 inch jack inputs, but you can't plug directly into your computer. Hence why you need an audio interface. Also for recording. Most interfaces. Have some force or some form of pre AMP tell. Prepare your microphone or line Diggle on the way into your computer, helping you to get a nice, crisp, clear recording, trying to plug something into your computer's default. Mike in 3.5 mil socket is no Canadian good results. Trust me, I always recommend focus right products for all your interfaces. I personally use a scarlet to I four interface, but if you have a look on their website, you'll see they have a whole range with varying amount of inputs and outputs. I'd avoid their solo model, though, as only has RC outputs, which aren't appropriate for Studio On It is before you buy an audio interface, think realistically about what you needed to do. No, Smitty Keyboard's plugged in via USB. So do you really need MIDI capabilities? If you have a limited USB ports, want to free one up and maybe you do likewise? Are you get ever gonna have eight microphones or line ins at once? Probably not in your home studio unless you're a drummer. So why pay extra for all those input again? Be realistic with what you need. I have heard rumors that the focus right interfaces are a little unstable with Windows operating system. So if you're running windows, you might want to look at other options, such as pre Sonus Macchi M. Order on the likes. Generally speaking, most of the interfaces in this price range from reputable brands will be of similar quality . And finally, number five and MIDI keyboard. Now you can key in notation using a mouse or track pad, and you could even use your computer keyboard to play in that you can't. You'll be miserable, but you can. I'm a huge advocate of learning the keyboard. If you want to be a composer, you don't have to be able to play like Chopin. But being able to play a few chords and play in your melody lines is gonna allow you to work so much faster. And actually playing in your parts will give them so much more life than if you click them in using a mouse. There's a reason robots haven't replaced musicians. This is another area where you'll need to decide what you're actually going to use. Your midi control of four native instruments make a series of keyboards called Complete Control. These have knobs and dials and failures and screens and all manner of things to help you control your door from your keyboard, which is awesome. I've been tempted by them a few times after seeing promo video, but then I think about my work flow. Would I ever actually touch those dials and favors the truth? Probably. No, it's just not how I work so again. Don't try and solve problems that you don't have you. I'd recommend getting a very basic MIDI keyboard. Just make sure it has modulation and pitch bend wheel. And then, if you feel like you want a more tactile approach to controlling other things in your door , you can either upgrade the keyboard at a later date or by a dedicated door controller as a separate device. But once again, first, you need to figure out your workflow. It's all about efficiency. There should be any keys, buttons, not tiles or failures sitting on your desk that you never touch. M audio. Make a great line of very basic MIDI keyboards called key stations. Or if you also know that you want a few dials and maybe some drum pads that you can play in percussion parts. They have a series called Oxygen that are also great. It doesn't have any keys you want. There are two factors to think about your playing style and how much space you have. If you needed to fit on your desk and generally only place single Mallory lines or 100 cords. You're best off with a 25 or 49 key model. Just be aware that some smaller keyboards have mini keys that can be fiddly, and they don't always have proper pitch bend or modulation controls. If you have more space and maybe already play piano or a learning, you want at least 61 Keats whenever I play keyboard, I always fall off either. And if I don't have 88 key, so I know I'm stuck with that bear in mind. If you already have a keyboard, it may very well be capable of being a MIDI controller. A lot of modern keyboards have USB outputs on them, and most people have a MIDI output, a $5 midi cable that you can plug straight into. Your order interface is a lot cheaper than buying a new keyboard. If you can make do a lot of composers like to have two keyboards, actually a program in keyboard and a composing or playing keyboard. This allows you to have a full size waited keyboard or piano for playing and composing, and then a smaller 25 or 49 key controller on your desk for programming into your door, and that's it in terms of equipment. Like I said before, only get what you feel you need right now and an only if you encounter problems. Should you look for solution before you buy a solution, see if you can creatively solve the problem with stuff you already have, all by using a clever work around. 4. Downloading Logic Pro X's "Additional Content": in this video, I'm gonna take you through downloading and installing Logic Pro X, including making sure you have the additional content downloaded. Apple is actually made it really easy to download Logic Pro X. Now all you have to do is navigate to the APP store and search for Logic Pro X. Once that you can click on by or install or download, it isn't it is not free. Unfortunately, they have to pay for it. Garrett Band is a free option, which is also quite a great tool, considering that it's free. But logic Pro X is the professional product that will be using throughout this course. So you just click on download, obviously have to put your payment details in, and then it will automatically download to your Mac. Obviously, I already have it downloaded. It's open in the background there, as you can see, so my advantage open instead. Open Logic Pro X. All you have to do is navigate to your Applications folder and double click on Logic Pro X . You can also access it fire launchpad. It sometimes shows up on the first page or sometimes on the second page. Once you double click on logic Pro X to open it, it normally comes up with the template chooser as standard. Just double click on Empty Project on That will take you to the same window that you see in front of me. Now, now we're actually change logic Pro a little bit. We're gonna set up its advanced tools. So for now, just click create Doesn't matter what you have selected on. I'm going to show you how to download the additional content. If you click on logic, pro acts at the top of the screen, you'll see sound library, and then you want to download all available sounds. And if you click on that, it will start downloading them, and it will show you in this bar just underneath the transport window, you'll see it that went blue. When it starts downloading, it will turn orange as well tells you how long it's gonna take to download. It is a big library, so it will take quite a while to download. But you can still do things in the background as it's downloading, and once it has downloaded, you don't need to do anything else. You don't need to install or anything like that, it automatically saved into logic. Now people have said they were being problems. When they're downloading, there's a There's a book that it keeps stopping or keeps breaking, providing you download it without changing the location. First. You shouldn't have any problems it should download without problems at all. If it does break, just quit logic, reopen and re download. It can be frustrating. It could take a few attempts, but eventually you'll have your full library downloaded. 5. Storing Logic Pro X's Sample Library on an External Drive: One thing that's often highly recommended to make your system run a bit smoother is to store your samples on an external hard drive. There are some caveats to that. Your external hard drive needs to be of good quality, they say that needs to run at least 7200 rpm if it's a hard disk drive. Or, of course, solid state drives. A great and also the connection really want to be using Thunderbolt or USB three. USB two And FireWire was a bit slow for loading samples. Now it will work. It's just not a stable as USB three off often a belt, and then we can actually relocate logics sound library. So once you have all of your sounds, download and it's totally finished, you could come logic pro X Sound library and then relocate Sound library That brings up this window. Now you can see mine is already relocated onto a drive that I have called samples, says current Sound library files location. If it was on the Macintosh eight D already where yours will, probably because you just downloaded that one will be grayed out and your external drive will be light instead select the driveway. You want to have the sample saved, click on it and then click relocate, and that's all you have to do. Then your samples will be relocated onto your external drive. And as you can see, my samples drive here, Library is where logic keeps it all. Applications support Logic and Garrett Band. These are all of my sample libraries that saves me space on my main computer. It also means that my projects can run a little bit smoother because the drives aren't competing for speed, if that makes any sense. 6. Importing Your Movie: the next thing we're gonna do is set up logics advanced controls. Now this step isn't entirely necessary, but without doing it, it's kind of like your using logic, like marriage Band and Garrett friends. A great bit of a great deal of software, particularly because it's free. But you've paid $200 for logic, so why would you want to use it like courage? Ban the advanced tools really opened the full experience of logic and really give you more tools to work with. Now, even if you're not actually going to use any of the advanced tools, I always think it's best to set logic up with them activated so that you get used to how it looks with those advanced tools, because they change quite a lot of things. Even little things like you'll see on my logic of the minute I've got these little wooden sides on it, which, yeah, that's really, really pretty, but it doesn't add anything to the workflow. When you turn on the advanced controls, it gets rid of those to give you just a tiny bit more screen space. Turn on the advanced controls. All we have to do is click on Logic Pro X, Go to Preferences and Advanced Tools. Now you want to take this little box that says Show advanced tools by default. These won't be ticks. So tick each of these or just click enable all and that will have them all turned on. And now you've unlock the full potential of logic, and you can see my little wooden barriers of have gone just kind of a shame because they're quite pretty. But now we know that we're working with a professional composition tool rather than a toy. Now we're finally going. Teoh actually start looking at movies and logic pro as well, and the first thing that you need to do before you start working with movies is actually know what projects, sample rate and frame rate that you'll be working at. If you actually have the movie toe hand, you can check that yourself. If not, you need to talk with whoever is making the movie to make sure that you are working to the same sample and frame rates. The reason this is so important is because if you get this wrong, if you're just working on the audio and you're going to send the file to a friend who sticking it to the movie your audio. If you've bounced it, the wrong sample rate or frame rate isn't gonna line up with their movie. A separate is basically how often the computer looks at the either audio file or movie file per second. Now it's standard Audio is 44.1 kilohertz, and that's what Logic is set up to go to his default as well. 44.1 kilohertz. That means every second an audio file has looked at 44,100 times movie products. On the other hand, there standard is 48 kilohertz, which means that the the movie file it looked at 48,000 times per second. Now, if your film editor is working in Adobe, for example, or final cut Pro or DaVinci on their product is set up at 48 kilohertz and they drag in an audio file that's 44.1 killer hurt. The computer is going to stretch that audio file because it's trying to look at it the same number of times as it would the movie file. And that means that your move audiophiles gonna go completely out of sync. It's a bit complicated to get your head around, but once you worked at it for a while, it does start to make sense. So we need to know what separate the movie is before we import it. And you can do that using quick time, find us navigate to my movie. We're gonna use this Lila course video and open with quick time. I haven't said his default makes it is handed down. Make sure that you have your favorite set as default. You can see this is our video as it is when we're gonna be working with If you go on window , show movie inspector, it opens this little dialog box which tells you a bit more information about the movie. Good. In what format it is where it saved, how big it is that the data rate on the actual resolution. The bed that we're really interested in is just here. 48,000 hertz. That's 48 kilohertz. That is the sample right that we need to be working with and then FPs is frames per second . So that's the frame rate that's 30 frames per second. Now have all the information I need to set logical properly. So in logic, when I open my new project, the easiest way to do this is when you actually set up the project. If you click down on the little details tab here, you'll see that you have some information. You can put it straight away. Whether you want to use a musical grid on up, that's whether you want to have bars or beats. You can set the key signature time signature the tempo. And if you have an idea in your head of what the tempo is, you can just tap it in as well, which is quite cool. That must be D. I must be built to be doing things. 120 p. M. You can also choose your audio interface, your input and output device. But here's a sample rate and frame rate that we wanted to make sure was set up correctly. So we were had at 48 kilohertz and 30 frames per second. Now you can see are usually working logic at this frame rate, which is why it's defaulted to that. Instead, yours will probably be at 44.1 kilohertz logical sometimes give you warnings as well. For example, if I switch from 24 back to 30 it will say, Are you sure about using exactly 30 frames per second? Because industry standard is actually 29.97 No idea why. I'm sure some of the film people will be able to tell me, but it will ask you so make sure you are double checking things to make sure that you're using the right frame rate in the right sample. Right? If you've already opened your project and you need to change, you forgot to set the separate up, so you need to change it. You can do that by going to file project settings audio, and here you can change a sample rate to 48 kilohertz within the project. Instead, the final step of getting logic set up is to actually import our movie again. There are multiple ways that we can do this. You can go to file and this is the easiest way movie open movie. I'm a big advocate of trying to learn key commands as Ugo because if you do learn as many key commanders he can, it will save you so much time in your work flow to the key command Open movies, Ault Command. That's the first way of doing it another way. I mean, you can actually just they make everything easy nowadays, you can actually just drag the movie, and that's another way of doing it all the third ways to use your global tracks, which will explore a little bit later in the course. So Global Tracks is G to open and close that if you right, click here and make sure we can see our movie Global Track. You can click on the movie and open movie this way as well. All three of those ways will bring you up a dialog window when you import your movie. That asks if you want to open the movie and extract the audio track. If you just want to get the sound off a movie you can not open, bring the movie and untech that, and it will just extract the audio and bring the audio into the project. We want the movies. We're gonna make sure that's ticked if you don't extract the audio truck. The audio track will remain embedded in the movie, so the movie will be in logic, and you'll be able to hear the audio. But unless you actually go into the movie and the settings by clicking on it, the audio will always be playing to be a pain toe. Always make sure you extract the audio track, and when you do it will bring in the movie. It brings it in as a full window like this, you can click on the exit will just minimize it, and it puts into the inspector window on the left. Over here, you see the movie playing there. You just have a double click on it to bring it back up to full size, and you can just click and drag to make it bigger. If you want to watch it is a whole film. You'll see it's brought in the audio as well. And if we want to see these way formed a little bit bigger, we can click on the way form zoom bottom appear, and that means you can just see things a bit clearer where things are happening in the audio. You'll also see it has a little padlock on it to that means the time code is locked, so I can't move this audio file of trying. If I try and move it, it will always move back to where it's meant to be. That stuff you accidentally taking the audio out of sync. You can unlock it if you right click. Simply lock unlocks empty position that unlocks it. Now you can move it. I don't really know why you would want to do that, though. There are a few more advanced things that you can do with the movie as well as standard. When you import movie, it starts at zero. If I open up the time bar at the top here, I can change the beats in time and I can see that 0000 their movie that we started the first hour. It's start to the first hour as opposed to a zero hour, so it's always at one. And that's where the movie stopped our standard. Now, if you go to file Project Settings movie, you can change where that movie starts to say. I wanted to start 10 seconds in who 12th into the movie on me, and I could bring that back by 10 seconds and now the movies actually starts at the 12th mark off the movie. Say if you want to sync it up a lot of movies have a preproduction click the beginning. If you want zero to be exactly where that click is, you can change the movie to bring it back. To do that here is also where If you didn't extract the audio track, you commute the movie in these projects set in settings as well. And now they have actually done something in logic. What should we do now? Save our work? We always say was we go along constantly hitting command death as we're working. If you know that you might not want to keep something you could save as and say there's a new project or just work for a bit longer, but until you know you're gonna keep it. But do you get in the habit of saving the shockers command s and just keep hovering over that? Do something Hit command s do something. Hit command s two really good habit to get into the first. I'm hit command s because you haven't saved it yet. It's still entitled. It will do save as instead and you have to choose where you want to save it. If you want to do that when you already have it saved, you want to say there's another project you can use, a shortcut shift command s and that will open the safe house window as well. Now there are a couple of different ways that you can save a logic file as well. You can save it as a package or as a folder. Let's just go to the desktop will save this somewhere sensible. I'm gonna open a new folder just to make this easier for us to see logic saving. So in this logic saving folder, I'll just show you what it looks like if we save it as a package. Now a package basically means everything is enclosed into one file in your browser. It has both some positives and some negatives. I always recommend copy your audio files into that package because you don't want to lose any those. If we have a move, move the package around. And also unless you'd know for definite that the movie file is always going to be right next to your project file. I would also copy the movie file in as well. It takes a lot of space, but it means that you're never gonna lose that movie. Say, if you're backing up a drive when you're changing systems or something, so we'll save that will call it package just so I can show you the difference between the two. So when you have something saved as a package, it shows up in here as just that one file on one little icon. Now, if I save this as a folder instead, we call this folder, call it Folder, and again have audio files and movie files ticked. When I click save now, you'll see if we go back to the same folder. I've now got one called Folder and inside the folder. I have the name of the project on my audio files here, as well as my movie file. It keeps all those within that one fold instead of a package. Now, with the package, you can access those content. If you right click, you can go show package contents and you'll see in the media folder. We have our audio files on that movie files. The only problem is if we try and copy these files out from this folder. Apple doesn't like it for some reason, and it never actually fully copies. It's always a bit of a weird file, so, personally, I prefer saving is a fold. It means I can access all of my audio files and things whenever I need to. Obviously, the second downside of the folder is if I accidentally delete this audio file, then it's gone. Logic won't be able to find it again, but those are the two ways that you can save a file in logics. I think carefully about how you want your workflow toe look. The package is a very, very neat, but the folders or be easier to access files within. 7. Setting Your Markers: we're not going to look at logics Marcus and Marcus sets now when you dropped down your global tracks by clicking on the little triangle over here or using G on the keyboard, you'll see that you have an arrangement section and a Marcus section. Now the arrangement is useful for laying out you're writing a song. For example, it would put your intro verse chorus, etcetera. The problem is, if you try and delete anything in here, actually deletes parts from the project, which could be problematic when you're working on this type of of arrangement. The markers just more little signals for yourself to mark out where things happen, which is great for moving image projects really there, mostly for your benefit. The or If you're working is part of a team. They might be useful as well, but they're just little notes for yourself. Basically, it's really helpful to lay out the structure of your piece, using markets to start with. So you know exactly where you're what you're needing to hit. So Marcus working sets you can like, have a set of markers and you can see I've called this on music themed. If I go on Marcus set here I can click New set and I could call this Ah, seen cuts. And I could market all my scene cuts, for example. So to see you see what that does I'll just quickly at a marker here. Well, im aka one seen cuts. I'll show you how to do all the renaming and stuff momentarily as well. In a music themed If I put one here, you can see when I switched between these two different sets, I have the scene cuts one to save their and my music one is is saved that this computer for variety of reasons just like this, you might have one set of markers that shows you what's happening musically. And you might have a second set of markers that tells you what's happening in the film that you've marked out. So you get a real idea of where things happening. You conflict back to Music one and C o. I've missing a scene. Cut their Maybe I should actually try and hit that scene cut instead. Just helpful to see things like that, you can actually set Marcus from the movie automatically. It's a bit hit and miss because it relies on a clean cut in the movie. And also, I think it looks at the image Rene's or analyzes the color changes and things like that. So it's a little hit and miss. Sometimes I have a feeling it won't work very well with my movie will have a look that so what you can do is under the movie section. When you click on that, you can see those two options create Marcus set from seen cuts or add seen cuts to Marcus set. The difference between the two of those is creating marks that will create a brand new set of markers where adding will add it to the existing ones already have. So, if I told my musical themes one on but then I chose to add seen cuts to Marcus set, it would put all of the new scene cuts in my music themes one So I don't want that. So I'll choose my scene, cuts one movie and I'm gonna add seen cuts the market set, and now it's gonna search for seen cuts, as you can see. And like I said, it relies on hard cuts and the movie I've put together, it's all cross fates, so I don't think it's gonna do a very good job spotting any seen cuts. But we'll see. And here we go started movie yet seen to and end of movie, but still quite useful. If you're working on a longer project when you don't have to go to the whole thing and pull it all up, or even just for a quick reference is quite handy to have that as well. The way of setting the Marcus for our music is to use our own Marcus set on to add them in manually. Instead, I'll just delete that one that I created already to access our markers. You have to click on the list editor up here. So this is our little list editor. By default, it normally opened on the event window. If you just click on Marker, then you have your list of markers You cannot. Marcus actually using the global tracks as well just by clicking on the little plus here. And then, if you want to rename, you can just double click on them. Personally, I just find it more intuitive to use this mark a window, and that's because I use this window a lot because this is where we do our tempo and our time signature changes as well. It's It's a bit easier to use a bit less finicky than for tempo changes, clicking in here and doing all these little changes. You can have a bit more control when you use your list editor instead. First we want to do is make sure we change this to show event position as on length. As time when we work in movies, it's much better to work with the time code rather than bar numbers. We can talk to director much easier if you talk to director and say, Oh yeah, bar eight. They won't have a clue what you're talking about the need to know where it is in the time coat. So I always click on view show event position as length as time. And this way, when we create a marker, you'll see the position shows up as time code rather than as a bar number. The other useful thing to do is once you've created your marker, what you get all of your market. I would do this together. You can right click on locks, empty position. And then when we start messing around with the tempo, you can see when I let go. My market position doesn't change. It stays a eight seconds in, no matter what tempo I choose. That's because we've locked the marker in that simply position so we can play on the tempo and not worry about ruining all our marks. Okay, we're gonna talk about conceptualizing for your composition a bit later on. But essentially, you need to decide. Um, how how you're gonna lay out your competition, where key themes are and things like that. And that's what I could do with my markers now as well. I really don't If this film it's essentially I'm going to start start the peace with a kind of a love theme for Lyla. Then it moves into a comedy theme. When she gets pushed around by the dog, has a nose taken eso they're gonna fade out while she plays piano and then come back in for final kind of lullaby at the end. So what I could do with my markers is replicate that come to the beginning, take on the plus and call this my love theme. and then click undone to change it. You just double click. I don't have to drag my play head to the next scene Change, which is here and again. You can see in the movie where the cross fade is. You can see that. So now I can just click on plus again and I can change this again. You just double click and I can call it my comedy section. And then at the end of my company sectional, add my piano So that part Oops! And finally my lullaby. Now you don't need to set how long the markets are. They'll just come up into the end of the following marker. If you want to. For the final one, it can be worth it just so you can see where it actually ends. You just click and drag up on the length here. Be careful. You don't go too far away because that hours so it'll just shoot off all of a sudden. So that's minutes on. This is a short piece, and that one's ours. Second is the third set of zeros in a few seconds, and you can get more control there once you actually see the end, you can just click and drag the end of it as well to make sure it's lined up with wherever you want it to end. And then you could see having a nice four markers or laid out. It's a good idea to color your markers as well, because of the minute they're all grey, and they also have blend into one another. To do that, you can click on your marker, pick on the little down draw Uh, arrow appeared to bring down your toolbar and then click on colors. The shocker for that is off. See all you got to go to view show colors, and that opens up your color browser. And then you can just click on love theme that would have really one comedy, piano and lullaby. You just click on the marker and click on the color, and you can see now we have our nice, clearly defined, different colored markers. We can see them at a glance. If I just close this window by closing the you can see nice and easy where all those four things are. Another handy thing to do is to actually you can use these marketers note as well. So in my love theme, for example, I've already named it Love Theme, and it works a bit like Apple notes, where the top line becomes the title. So anything I put in below that I could just add whatever I want. I could say this is going to be piano theme and it's going to use soft strings, for example, and you can see I have my notes window here, but it doesn't show up on the actual marker. Even if you are a click done, it doesn't show up there. We only have our title up there. This is really helpful for when you might want Want to make notes again? If you're working as a team, you could mark things really, really quickly. You could stick a quick marker ins on and say, Big chord here, just a little notes for yourself. You can you can see that really clearly to 8. Logic Pro X's Global Tracks: in this video, we're going to look at global tracks in logic. I've mentioned global tracks a couple of times already. This is where we can import the movie where we can add our markers and where we can add Marcus from the movie as well. So it's this little down arrow here, or you can push G is a short cut and you'll see within our global trucks. We have arrangement, marker, movie signature and tempo. If you right click in this section, you also get a couple of other options that you can turn on such a your transposition on your beat mapping diesel the things that are available in our global tracks. Most of these could be accessed other ways as well, such as through Your list editor, where you can get to the tempo and marker and signature. Some things are exclusively in global tracks as well, like your beat mapping on transposition section. Let's go through each of these and see what they actually do. The arrangement is all about the actual arrangement. For example, if you're writing this song, you would click on the plus and you create an intro and say what you intuitively 16 bars. Then you could add in the one which would be or verse course etcetera. And you can change of these as to which section they are, or rename them entirely pretty useful to help you sketch out the idea for a track. Next up is our markers, which went through earlier on, so you have different sets of markers on within each set. You can have different groupings of markers on their, such as your start of movie s or you're seen cuts from the movie for important those all your own music themes markers that you've created yourself a swell and you concolor those as we looked at in the previous session below. That's your movie. This is where you can open your movie or remove it. You can create your market sets from here. You can access your project settings and you synchronisation settings if you want to offset the first bar of where the where the bar starts in the movie as well. Next. If you have your signature sets, this is to do with your time signature, which will look at a little bit later. But this could be really helpful to just quickly mark in where you want your time to admitted to change. So on bar nine, we want it to turn into 68 Okay, and you can see this changes to 68 There again, this is accessible through our list editor as well. Our signature appear, but it's a bit can be a bit quicker. If you have your global tracks opened, it is quickly pop them in up there as well. The next one Interesting one, which is transposed. You could again have sets of trans positions, but if you had one repeating pattern that you that you want to change key, you could actually use your transpose appeared to just click in where you want that to change to. It moves up by semi turns up to inductive or down by an active as well, and anything in between. Next was real interesting, which is your tempo now again, you have 10% to you can set different sets of tempo and snap Snap is really great because you can automatically make the tempo. Always stick to a certain place if you always want the tempo to change on 1/4 note Beat. You can select the corner snap. No matter where you click, it will always line up with 1/4. Now, As you can see, that's the 16 5 we're in 68 so it's got a bit weird, but you can see if we go to the earlier section, always on 1/4 note. Nothing in between. And what's really good with the global tracks Tempo editor is if you put two different tempos in you move up to say we want this to change from 1 32 to 1 50 You know what I put in actual dot to make it not you just click on. Add the dot You can set curves with this little black dot as well. So if my first thought is writing by a one on my second daughter is on Ah seven. The temple curve will move anywhere between those bars. You could move that curve around. Of course, if I added another dot closer to it than it would linked, it would always be between that dock instead on what the curve does. It allows you to have a an increase in tempo or a decrease in temper rather than a sudden tempo change so if you want some to gradually slow down, you can add a curve in, and then it will gradually slow down rather than suddenly slowing down. The only problem with movie music is it can make lining up that hit point difficult because you'll see if I wanted this bottle and exactly on this frame where he's picking up the blue ball. If I had a tempo curve here, it can sometimes move things ever so slightly, depending on how far you you curve it around. So when you really want to be exact with the timings tempo, curves can make it a little bit tricky. To do that, you cannot curve the old fashioned way as well, by going into your list editor tempo and then in options choosing temple operations. And you can do these create tempo, curve or constant scale. You could all these right, all these crazy things with the tempo where, for example, is a between Bar one and Bar five. I want the temper to go from 100 a two up 250. We're not 450 152. You can choose what you want it to be a smooth curve or a quicker curve or a narc curve. And so it goes up and down, and then you choose how often you want that temper to change the density. That's one tempo change per bar. If you want to be really smooth, you could go up to 1 32nd notes, and you have a really smooth tempo curve as default it. It would go back to 1 32 but if you particularly continue with new tempo, it will carry on at 1 50 to apply, and you can see it added all those tempo transitions in Andi. All of the tempo things in here minute changes. It's crazy. So really, that's what the old fashion way of doing it now that they are now that they introduced the tempo curve, which is a much more intuitive way of adding those curves in. Instead, you don't have millions of things in your in your operations. Finally, in our global tracks, we have beat mapping. Now beat mapping is where you can automatically match the temple of logic to a file that you have that you've dragged in. This is again is very useful for movie music, because generally were decided in 10 vertical. We have to be really specific with a visual, but for tidying up parts or something it can be it can be useful to use. I'm not going to go into detail on beat mapping because, really, that's not relevant. To what? What will the using logic for So those your global tracks? I'd always recommend choosing which ones you'll actually use in hiding on the others, because if not, there's just too much information to look at. So you just right click. You can take them off here or, if you click configure global tracks or LG, you can change. Take off the ones that you won't use, so I never use arrangements. I'll turn that off. I'll keep the signature there so I can see I glance. I'm never gonna use a transposition because I do that or manually tempos handed. You see a glance on be mapping. We don't need either, and then that's all. That's all we need to have a nice, clear global tracks appear, which I can quickly open a close by using the G key on the keyboard 9. Choosing and Setting Tempo and Time Signatures: one of the things that really differentiates film music on movie music from popular music and many other music genres is the amount of differences and changes in time, signature and tempo. With a popular music song, it's pretty easy. You set your tempo at the beginning, Andi, unless you really want some small sections that, like push the tempo a little bit or pull back on the tempo, it's basically gonna be the same tempo for the whole piece, apart from some slightly more developed poppy music. I mean, if you look like progressive rock, for example, that's full of temper and time signature changes. But generally speaking, the basic for the floor pop music sticks with the same tempo throughout. Now, film music changes continuously as your section changes. Or if you need to hit a specific hit point, you might add a beat to a bar to make sure that you work with that. There's all kinds of changes that occur in film music, but what is tempo and time signature? Basically, the time signature is how many beats there are in a bar. On the tempo is how fast those beats occur. So if we look at our time signature appear in this top section, you can see we have tempo and time. Our time to get you here is four slash four or 44 Now what this tells me is that there are four beats of quarter notes in each bar, so four crotch it's 12342234323442 three for that would be four bars of four beats. That's our 44 time. If we click on this, you get dropped down for different options. Or you can do a custom one if you want to, so the standard ones, As you'll see normally you have either crotch, it's or quarter notes. Ah, in a bar or eight notes in a bar to have 3444 and 54 What 6878 is a bit a bit more of a not time signature and 12 8 one of the big differences you might be. You might look at 34 and 68 for example, and say, Well, 3/4 notes is the same as 6/8 notes, and you'd be right. The differences in how those beats have felt so in 34 you would generally count 12322332 three for 23 with full laws of of 34 where is in 68 you generally feel two pulses per bar, so you have 123456123456123456 It gives it a very different feel, and that's generally the difference between 1/4 note time signature and an eighth note time signature. Of course, I'm speaking very generally here when you really go into time seeing it. Just there is a lot more to it than that. On the temperature, you can see minds a bit strange. The minute 132. When you're open logic, it's normally at 1 20 in 44 and that means that there are 120 beats per minute. So in every minute we're gonna have 120 crotch. It's quarter notes. Okay, when it comes to working with tempos in your logic project, do not use the top bar appear. Don't keep genuine timber by using this on. Don't change your times injured by using this because it's gonna change it for the whole project every time you do it. The best way of doing it is in your list editor or in your global tracks in your tempo and signature, which we looked at a little bit earlier on. I prefer the list editor. You could just see it a lot more clearly. And I that's the method that I was more used to before this. Global tracks options were really developed as much as they are now. You might find that you prefer out of them in the global tracks option because you can see it alongside your piece of it. Easier the method. I'm going to show us how to use the list editor. Now, the reason we use the list editor is so that we can have multiple changes and we don't change the entire project every time we we change the tempo. So, for example, our love theme at the beginning here, I want this to be at 120 ppm, so I'll set this 220 on. I want it to be in 44 So we look in our signature and we make sure that our time Signature is set to 44 just by clicking and dragging. And then when we get to our comedy section just for very quick example, I want to change this. I just find it my locator and move my locator to bar 17. Click on my tempo and click on the plus side, and now you see about 17. I have a new tempo and I'm gonna change this to 100 bpm and you can see it matches it in my global tracks. We started 100 20 and they're about 17. We dropped down to 100. Likewise, I might also change the signature at this point, so I click on Signature Click on the plus, and actually, what signature I want to use. That's Jesus section into 68 Say, for example, halfway through my Love's theme, I want to hit a hit points. I want to borrow 54 again. I just lined up my locator. Choose my signature click on the plus May at a bar, a 54 move to the next bar. Click on the plus and change that back to a bar four. So we have 44 for the first eight bars, one bar, 54 and then the remains of the section is in four for just bear in mind that if you see now that because I mess around with this time time signature there my tempo changes also moved . Its It stayed in the same beat as opposed to the same bar line, so we just got to make sure that we move out tempo to bar 17 as well. And now the golden question. How do you actually decide the tempo for a piece of film music? Basically, there are two main methods that you can use. One is the preferred method on the more modern method. The second is more of an old fashioned method, but it allows you to kind of decide how many bars you want in advance rather than having to tweak things around a little bit. So Method One is to simply watch the movie decide on a kind of temper that you want the feeling of your piece to be in. Figure out what that tempo is on. Aditya Logic. Let me just delete these random tempo and time to get to changes that we've added on. We'll skip back to the beginning of our peace, and this is most of time. What I do is I'll open my video. I'll hit play. I know the kind of theme that I'm going for, so I know that I have an idea because of my conceptualizing. I'll have an idea of how this piece already will feel. So just a case of really watching the video and seeing if it's any cues that helped give me a bit of pulse. Sometimes you'll find if a video has lots of edits in it, there naturally kind of fall into into beat and kind of give you a bit of a pulse to it. This one's a bit more free flowing, but it's still as I play. I still get an idea of a kind of movement. I might just along a little bit, and I've decided this is gonna be 34 something hot, keeping that in mind as well. I'm just watching and clicking a little bit to get an idea, and it's very, very rough, just going with kind of the visuals. And once I have that slight pulse, I could just open up a simple BPM counter. If you just Google search for BPM Counter. This is I tend to you. This is quite a lot all eight, and then I'll just click in. So I use the space bar. And just so 68 69 bpm is what I'm going for. So go to beginning. Makes my tempos here. Set that to 68 on. Also make sure my signature is what I want it to be, which was 34 You'll notice a minute. I'm changing the signature and temper for the whole project because I don't have any changes yet And then I can watch it again with the Maginot Man. You just click appeared to turn the match in Oman, and I can see if it lines up nicely. One thing you should do it. This state is looked through your video and see if there are any specific hit points that you really want to hit in the visual. So this is the end of my love theme section. Now you'll see my markers have gone out of sync there, and that's because I didn't follow in one of my own rule of locking this empty position for those markets going to quickly rectify that by setting my temper back to 1 24 4 Lock in this empty timecode and then resetting this bear with me. Okay, him back. And that's my markers locked to this empty position now so that when I play it, it lines up again. So yeah, you watch through and you see if there are any specific hit points you want to hit, say, for example, there's, ah, flash of light all of a sudden in your video, and you definitely want to hit that. You just make sure that you actually that lines up on the beat doesn't have to be on the first beat of the bar. There's long lines of around about beat that you have. You can work the music around it. Of course, if you wanted to be on the first beat of the bar, you just change it. Bar your time signature to make sure that the flash of light lands on the on. That first feet importantly for what I'm doing is I want to make sure that my my next section lines up quite nicely with a bar line. So here we are towards the end of this section now that's actually quite nice. Doesn't always have to line up perfectly when you work with music moving image. But if I wanted to, I can tweak a few little things to make sure it does. So you'll see. Here we have beat one 23 and it kind of changes on B three. So there's a couple of things I could do. I could add a bar of 24 in there somewhere. It doesn't have to be in this last bar. Sometimes it's good news. It tends to work in groupings of four. So after four bars on the fourth bar, I could make that a bar of two, which will give it a bit of a nicer flow. That's one way that I could do it. Or if I'm no, completely stuck on the tempo of 68. I could just tweak that temple very, very slightly so I can line up my located where I want this to, to to change. So if I want to talk to be on the bar line, Ah, lineup my located to be on a bar line. And then as I move the temper, you'll see if you watch the video in the corner of the screen, the top left. You'll see as I move this temper of the video moves as well. See that so I can actually just moved drag This tempo poured down until it's exactly where I want it to be. So you see 72 you get some of the cross fading on that image. And now for play that 31 that's perfectly on the change now and then of that at first bar allowed to my next tempo on time for the future, and I could do that throughout the whole piece. So the pros of using that method is you get a more natural feel to the peace. But of course, the cons are that you might have to have odd length bars and you might not have the exact time to into that you that you were set on when you saw me dragging that tempo around. If you have a really solid cut, you can get this super super accurate. You could get the temperature change at the exact moment you wanted to. I'll show you how to do that. You simply put the locator where you want the attempt. The to hit you put the look exactly where you want to hit to come, and then you just drag this temple until you get actually spot on. So I'll drop that down. You can see that's the cross fade there, and it's 71 bpm. If I drag the next one down, you can see Aiken really find you in exactly I want to be. And then you just keep going through all of them until you get it onto the exact frame that you wanted to be. And you might end up with a bonkers temper like 70.4863 this one. But that is absolutely dead on where I want to be. It doesn't work so well with the slow cross fade that this video has, but if you have a dead cooked, you can actually make that tempo lineup bang on the dead cut. It's not always best practice, though, because you think about when you're putting the movie together. That dead cut might have sound effects, and I have all kinds of things happening. If the music happened to the exact same time as the visual it's going to cause some, it doesn't really work off. People like to see something happen and then have the music happen or the music happens first to preempt them of something. As the music happens, it's only really horror where you have exact moments like that method to before deciding tempo is using a calculation. And basically the formula is 60 divided by the number of seconds you need times the number of beats that you have and that gives you the BPM that you can work, too. So, for example, this section is if I moved to my time. So this section is 28 seconds long. Let's say I want this to be a nice eight bar phrase in 44 at the minute we put itself in 34 and we're doing 12 bar phrase. But let's say we wanted it to be an eight bar phrase in 44 I can decide that now and then. I could open a calculator and I can say that it's Ah, we use that Formula 60 divided by the number of seconds, which is 28. It gives us 2.142 and then times the number of beats the number of beach. We said We want an eight bar phrase in 44 so we have eight bars off four. So eight times for which is 32 times they two equals 68.5714 So 68.5714 Let's move over to logic. Make sure our signature is 44 because I said, I want 88 bars of four and set that tempo to 68.5714 68.5714 Realistically, we don't want that 0.5714 because it's almost too specific. But anyway, you can see that bang on 28 seconds. That is where our eight bars end. So that's the formula that you can use to work out how long you want to be. The next step with this would be to listen to it with the click and decide whether that is massively too fast or massively too slow, in which case you need to change the number of bars that you want, hopefully be able to get it to set full bars. But you might think actually, let's just have an extra beatable at a bar of 54 somewhere, and then you'll be able to get the tempo, working with how you want it. So the pros of this method is you get the exact number of bars and beats that you decide the cons of that. It can feel too fast or too slow, because the temple is dictated by the formula rather than by the field. And that's it. When it comes to deciding on the tempo and time signature for your pieces. It's partly a educated guess and then some tweaking. That's the but the best way of describing it. You kind of get a feel for the time signature, and then you just tweak it hit exactly where you want it to hit. 10. The Music for Moving Image Facebook Community: this seems like a good time to introduce my Facebook community. The Music for Moving Image group by soundtrack DOT Academy is dedicated to helping you learn all aspects of composing and producing media music. It's a safe place to ask any questions you may have to help you achieve your learning goals . To join, visit www dot facebook dot com slash groups slash music removing image or just search on Facebook for music Moving image by soundtrack dot academy Look forward to seeing you in the group. 11. Composing - Section Introduction: in the composing section. I'm going to show you how to choose layout and adjust your instruments. How to craft a great melody had to add harmony to that melody and how to develop your composition instrument by instrument. We'll also look at adding synthesize and effects to your project. This section also includes a lecturer actually created composition from scratch so that you can see the full process in action. 12. The Concept: any followers of sound duct Academy will know that I'm always going on about conceptualizing or coming up with a concept for your composition. I believe this is one of the most important stages of composing for film, and many of the great composers seem to agree with me. Listen to any interview with the composer, and they'll talk about what they were trying to achieve with the music. What their music. It's adding to the project. And that's what it boils down to. The purpose of your music if the music you write mimics exactly what his onscreen for the whole movie, when people are sad, the music is sad. When people are running, the music is fast. When people are happy, the music is happy, etcetera. Then what's the point of the music being there? As composers, we have the huge responsibility of telling an audience how they should feel at each moment in the film. If on screen we have a character buying something in a shop, we have the power is composers. To turn that into a tense, thrilling, nerve wracking, seen or the other end of the spectrum, we could turn into a romantic scene between the customer and cashier without changing anything other than the music. And, as we all know, with great power comes great responsibility. It's often said that the composes the final writer on the project, the last person that can change or influence the story. So whenever you approach a project, think extremely carefully about what you'll be bringing to the table. Don't just add music for the sake of it. That's what library production music is full. Find a new angle. You might be following this course to write music for your own home movie, in which case this idea of conceptualizing might seem a bit intent, but it still applies. You can transform your own movies into something so much more fun and exciting with the use of music. Why not make your audience think something terrible is about to happen before lightening up into something more comedic? We need to understand drama and figure out how toe add it to a project. Go through your movie and think about what sections of music you'd like on what the music will be doing. You need section. You can create and use markers to show the sections, and I would note, Are you going to emphasize the emotion on screen or try to imply a different feeling? Think about how your audience should feel during each section and note that down. Don't feel obliged to city or computer while doing this. If you're working with difficult subject matter, take your time here, go for a walk, sit in a cafe, remove any distractions and think sitting at your computer will only tempt. You start messing around with musical ideas and before you'll know you'll have finished 1/2 score that's going in completely the wrong direction. What a waste of time. There are a lot of independent films that try to ways awareness of all kinds of huge issues like mental health, gender discrimination, etcetera. Maybe that's the kind of project you're working on now, in which case you need to think really carefully about the tone, feeling and emotion that you'll be bringing to the table. Get it wrong, and something that should be uplifting and positive might end up being the total opposite. At this point, you should also be thinking of musical ideas to such as instrumentation, all sounds that reflect the mood you're aiming for maybe tempo and time signature ideas and even specific melodic or harmonic ideas. The capture your concept, the more you can plan here, the quickie will be able to actually compose. This is where a good knowledge of music theory comes into play. You can think of what musical ideas might work before you even sit at your instrument. You can all find, find some pieces for inspiration and analyze what's happening in the say. There's a couple of pieces that really capture the mood that you're going for. Figure out their tempo time signature instrumentation and consider even trying to figure out how to play sections of their own on your instrument so that you can really get inside the kinds of ideas they're using. It will all help. 13. Choosing & Laying Out Instruments: in this video, we're going to look at how to load instruments into logic on the best way to lay out your track with your instruments as well. When you had a new track in logic, the one that you want to use is a software instrument track. So one way of doing it is like I've just done. You could contract at the top, a new software instrument track. The shock again is command cult and s really helpful to use that mouse on that, you will use a lot. You can quickly hover Quick tip. You could just put your thumb across both all in command and hit s, and you can really quickly open new saw Frenchman tracks like So another way, if it's a blank track, if you double click underneath. If you wanted another software instrument track or you could double click underneath. If you had an audio track selected in double click, it will have an audio track. That's another quick way of adding tracks, or there's the plus button here again. Put the plus and then you can choose what type of track it is just a software instrument. And finally, there's this duplicate, but and so if I already had a track set up, just quickly load one. You can duplicate the trapped in the exact same way, and it will do. You get all the effects and everything that you have set up on there as well. Let's get rid of those for now. So I have a blank software instrument track here on to open our library. It's on this drawer menu up here, or the shocker is why, and that opens up our library. Are sound library within logic. Larger groups instruments quite cleverly. It's all fairly intuitive. Bass drum kits, obvious Elektronik drum kits, guitar mallets or things like marimba and vibraphone, orchestral percussion, piano, studio horn, studio strings, synthesizers, vintage sections, world instruments, which there's a whole host of really cool sounds and things within a swell. And then there's arpeggio hated instruments. Cinematic instruments like drones plucks moments, textures on legacy insurance. Either things from Garrett Band in the old logic jam packs, which they give you access to a swell in cases, a specific sound that you were interested in so really loads of things in the first thing I did when I bought logic is pretty much go through them all and see what they all do on. I'd really recommend doing that if you've not heard the sound of a Marine but before loaded up to what it sounds like and have a listen to it, and that is exactly how you love them up. You simply click on it, make sure you have the track that you want to change. Click in the main menu and then you click on the instant that you would like to load, and it will automatically load everything straight away. There are some conventions when it comes to instrument layouts. If you look at orchestral schools, you see it's always woodwinds at the top, then brass and percussion and then strings at the bottom. Really, for your own projects, it's it's up to you. But I'd recommend trying to keep them by sections. If you have your string section, all group together on your percussion instruments or group together on your brass instruments or grouped together, which or do you put those in your in your window? It is entirely up to you. I always recommend going high to low as well, though. So have you hiring from dinner section at the top and your low interment of the bottom that's fairly standard. And then again, work out what you need quick access to and how you can get access to that quickly on what's gonna look best for you. If you're working with songs, for example, you might put drums at the bottom bass instruments, cordage, men's like harmony guitar and piano, and then your melody instrument, the vocal at the top. And you might want to replicate that in the style of Peter. Correct. Maybe you're creating a piece that has a drum be under it, a baseline, a piano part on. Then I'm early. That one single melody instrument, in which case melody piano or guitar, bass and drums at the bottom, is gonna be the best way to lay it out. Another thing to consider as well is articulations for the instrument. Be using, for example, on a string instrument you might plan on having long bowed llegado sections, a swell as plucked pizzicato sections on the strength, in which case you need to decide whether you want to have those both on the same track, which you can do in logic or whether you want to have a separate track for each again, I would recommend having a separate track for each allows you more control. When you come to mixing on getting a really good sound out of the two of them, we will look at articulation sets and logic, which is where you can control the articulations on one track as well as other options, too. Something else you might want to consider is whether you're gonna be using a string pad or a whole full string section, where you might load up all the incidents in just playing chords on the piano yourself, or whether you are actually going to go that extra mile and think individually about violins, Viola Tello's and double bases. And that's perception, not just strings. You know it's in logic. For example, in our studio strings section instruments you can load that they have, ah, selection of pre mixed string sections. And when you click on that, you get one track, which you can just play a part in an automatically attempt to split that out across violins , one violence to and Tello's, which is really, really clever or if you want to you can record those individual parts in a swell. So that's something you want to think about as you're loading your instruments to how much detail you're actually going to go into. For now, I'm just gonna load a few simple instruments. I'm gonna load, load a piano, and again, even after decision, you have to listen to it. Does piano sounds and decide which ones gonna work best on your piece. And we can also edit the sound a little bit later on, I'm going to load a string section and I'm gonna choose an orchestral string section. I'm gonna go full string ensemble. And just for now, I'm also going to load up a brass section. Full breasts. Another thing that could be really good to do here. This stage is the name and color your instruments just like we colored our markers before you can actually color your instrument tracks. I just close my library so we have a bit more space on screen and again you click on the track, open your colors command, see, and then select the color that you want that track to be. Now you can't actually see the color on the track. But when you record, it will make the region this color, and that can really help you see at a glance what's happening in each section. For three instruments, it might be a bit overkill, but if we have lots of instruments loaded again, it's really helpful. And think about how you want to killing attracts. You don't have to do it the same way as everybody else, but you could do all of your string instruments the same color, for example, as well as all of your brass instruments the same color. Or you do all of your melody instruments, one color harmony instrument, another color and rhythm instruments another color. Or you could do by articulation where all of your lo gatto parts of one color and then all of your pits, account or staccato parts are a different color. That's entirely up to you, and it's another decision that you'll have to make. It's also a good idea to name them. I mean, this is called Steinway Grand Piano. Do you really need to know the difference between whether it's gonna be a Stein with piano or just the piano for your track by naming them you'll have a better idea of what it called . And also, when you record, the regions will be named the same as the track as well again, if you just further long, it just helps you see things at a glance a lot easier. And finally, if you want a little bit of extra control, you can actually change the images on these instruments to that could be helpful if you're working with synth instruments, for example, or if you're loading things that don't have standard it pictures on them. If you own sample libraries. External the logic when you import those they don't actually have if the image is automatically loaded like these ones, too. So what you did to change is to right click, and then you can just select whichever instrument logo he wants A have. So I'm gonna put this one is a bagpipes, just the funds and I've got piano with a piano picture, strings of strings and brass with a picture of bagpipes. For some reason, 14. Controlling Instrument Parameters: one of the quite nice things that logic has introduced in Logic 10. Is this control panel. You could see the little dial up here or smart controls, or the shortcut is be. This gives you quick access to some of the controls on the instrument so you can see I've got my strings highlighted toe have hit B to open my control panel. And I have a few settings here, and I can change between controls or e que And straight away. I have quick access to some of the most use controls of that instrument, including the attack released decay sustain the low in the high ambience and the river basically on being to the very short river makes instruments sound of it fuller and your reverb is your long river that gives it a longer tail on that river sound. One thing that again I always recommend with everything is to just play with these record a little Mideast committee section, stick it on loop, and then, as it playing, just turned that all the way up and see what happens and then try to figure out what that Nobby is doing. Turn that one all the way up and down, trying to figure out what that's doing. I mean, I can tell you the attack is how hard the instrument hits, but that doesn't mean anything to you until you've heard what that actually does. Same with the low and high the Lewises and accuse it will give it a lower boom. Your sound. The high will give it a higher, brighter sound. Those are just words. Listen to see what they do and then try toggle these until you get a sound that you actually like. You can go into a lot more detail with the orchestral strings packs that I loaded up their built through logic sample, which is the excess 24 over here on the left. If you can't see that, it might be because this region menu is dropped down, or maybe even the track menu. Just click on the little triangles and it'll move those about of the way, and then you can open your access 24 by kicking on the sliders in the middle, and that's your sampler. Now this is overwhelming. There's all sorts of things in here which can get confusing if you don't really know what you're doing, but you'll see if I turn something on here. My attack is moving the attack in the sampler. So logic has made it easy for you to quickly see what controls your your controlling with the some with the excess 24. I wouldn't recommend playing around with it unless you really know what you're doing. But on things like the studio strings like sample patch. If I just push why and open some of my studio strings instead. Over here, Studio strings studio Viola is, for example, you'll see that the instrument is called a simply called strings. Just a quickly out of this truck. You have the name of the track of the top. This is a picture of what you can. You might have MIDI effects settings and then below many effects is your instrument. This is where you would if you had any external sample libraries. You'd click here toe open your external instruments, their off screen, the right to the very bottom. You can't see that, but this is where this warily of your actual core instruments are if you want to load them up a different way with no effects on them, but it's better to stick with the library ones for now. Below that are your audio effects that change the sound of your instrument. And then your sends will look at things like this a little bit later in the course. So if you click on those on those sliders again in your studio strings, this is actually a lot more intuitive than the excess 24. There's the down arrow, which opens up a few extra things. Don't really want to play around with that, but you've got quick access to cut off residents volume, attack, release, and you can have a look through. Different articulations here is well and see what they all do. 15. Composing a Great Melody: when it comes to writing good melodies, there isn't really a big secret or magic technique that will suddenly make your average maladies great. The truth is that if you want to write good maladies, you need to be listening to and analyzing good music for melody to be effective, it needs to contain a few elements. Number one. It needs to match the style that you're writing it. A purely rhythmic lead line on one or two notes like a rap isn't going to fit with an instrumental chamber piece, and vice versa. Number two. It needs to contain a variety of stepwise motion and interval. It leaps both large and small. We'll talk about that in a moment. Three. It should have its own rhythm and not just follow the harmony. Four. It should be easy for the listener to latch onto and remember. Five. It should be repeated, developed and altered. Let's look at those elements in a bit more detail. Matching the style Matching the style of the composition is really important. Will help all the elements in your piece blend together. There isn't a one rule fits all approach here. The only way you're going to be able to learn. This is by finding a few existing pieces that are in a style you're hoping to imitate and listening really carefully to the melody. If possible, try to learn the melody on your instrument is doing that will give you a much more detailed understanding off the melody. It's like its heart soloed in sunk. I'm sure there are a few tracks that you could sing the whole guitar solo to while rocking out in the club. But if you actually tried to write down or play every note, I bet you wouldn't be able to go ahead and try. If you don't believe me are actually learning the melodies on your instrument, you'll see exactly where the leaps are and get a feel for the style under your fingers that will naturally bleed into your own writing when it comes to it. Stepwise motion and intervals stepwise motion is where the melody moves, just to the note below or above it. Compared to Interval, it leaps with jump in further in either direction. For example, his amenity and stepwise motion. Here's one using small intervals on his one using large intervals, certain intervals naturally evokes certain moods or feelings, for example, of perfect fifth usually sound heroic, stable or regal while minus six could be full of anguish when you hear intervals in the styles you're analyzing, spend some time working out what those intervals are and the mood there creating Also think about where in the melody there a period. Is it right at the start or at the end? Or somewhere in the middle? Placement is really important if you want a started. These powerful E, beginning with a large interval, brings attention to the melody right away. In contrast, if you want a piece to start softly before building to a big climate, save your big interval. For the end of your phrase. The most important part of music should coincide with the biggest interval likley. Generally speaking, listening carefully to songs with lyrics could be a great way to learn how to place intervals, listen to some of your favorite songs and work out where the biggest interval happens in the melody. Usually, it's at the most important moment in this section and corresponds with a lyric that the artists wants you to hear clever right for them. You might find that you naturally add rhythm to your melodies as you're creating them. Or rhythm might be something that you always forget about. And then wonder why you're melodies a lifeless again. Think about the rhythms of the melodies you're analyzing. Melodies that just follow the same rhythm is the harmony or just one note per beat Aren't memorable. Intend to be adult? Of course, there are exceptions, particularly the orchestration of a piece is done. Well, look at John Murphy. Score for 28 days later is an example a simple, repeating pattern that just build and build and build. But it's super effective because of everything else that's happening around it. A lot of beginner composers struggle with rhythm because of how that talked. To write down notation, you'll learn crotch. It's or eighth notes, semi quavers or 16th etcetera and then line them upon paper. If you first start composing in notation software like Sibelius or finale, creating rhythm is difficult because it requires a lot of clicking, adding rests. Changing note values of this is a perfect example of where software can hinder creativity and why I believe you should not compose directly into notation software as a beginner composer. If you find that your melody isn't inspiring you or lacks energy, think about changing the rhythm instead of the note. And don't forget about pauses. Those what gives amenity a group. Hold the notes for a few beats or just leave some silent. Let's take a boring melody and make it interesting using rhythm. Remember that someone listening to your music alongside of film won't be able to take in too much musical information given to them or that once, so don't bombard them with too many notes. It's so easy to over compose when you spend so much time inside your music. That brings us to our nicely to our next point memorability. The listeners should be able to latch onto them on. Remember the melody? The way to get someone to remember something is through repetition. Go listen to any melodic film music pieces like something by John Williams on Listen to how many times each melody is repeated. Maybe start with the theme from Jurassic Park. Listen to that once, and you'll be humming it all day. Why? Because of the repetition And of course, because it's a great melody in the first place. A particularly clever trick with the drastic park score is the repetition of rhythm, that pattern the that occurs throughout the whole piece, whether or not the actual notes of the melody of being played developments. Of course, repeating the same melody over and over with little to no change is going to get boring eventually. So you need to build in some development, but take a time with it. Always think back to the idea that an audience can't process too much information all at once. They're also listening to the music alongside dialogue and sound for the first time, not the 1000th time like you are. Plus, they have visuals to focus on as well. Only give them little bits of new information at a time. For example, you could start by stating a melody with barely any compliment, like Hedwig seem from Harry Potter. Then you could repeat it. Maybe on another instrument, maybe the same one, but with a cordial part underneath. A good trick here is to give the listener what they expect. Good melodies will always give away their own harmony. So after playing through the melody once on the first repetition just at the harmony that's expected. This confirms what the listener was thinking and also gives him some more confidence to follow your score. Then you could repeat it again, but change the harmony that's going to be a beautiful balance of expectation and surprise for the audience. They have the melody to latch onto, but I'm getting bored because there's some new information added every time. - Of course, this is where the separation between melody and harmony when it comes to composition get blurred. They aren't independent of one another, and even though we're looking at them independently here, you shouldn't think of them independently. So in a nutshell, my advice on started to compose your own good melodies is to start analyzing music that you want to emulate, right to record a few ideas of your own. And if you feel like they're not quite right, try outings and intervals, some rhythm and some pauses. Then think about how you can repeat and develop your melody. 16. Harmonising Your Composition: any good melody will imply a harmony. Your job is to figure out which harmony implies and think about how you can alter or develop that harmony. That's that with the basics that what is harmony harmonies often described is two or more notes played simultaneously. That's a really easy way of explaining it. It's a bit more to it than that, as even if a piece is purely melodic, with only one note played at a time, it still has harmony and is still harmonic. But together started. Let's think about harmony as court. Obviously, an entirely thorough explanation of harmony and harmonization is beyond the scope of this course, but I'm going to give you all the information you'll need to get started. Very simply, music is built in octaves or Western music anyway, So between the two notes see to see is one active. Vice versa. This is always one octave when it comes to deciding what QR writing in what called you can choose, you basically just have to choose eight notes between those octaves, including the top and bottom No. So a standard major scale is you see 12345678 to 8 notes octave too active in terms of which notes you choose between those operatives there are formulas and there are rules. But just find something that you think sounds right to start with and matches the mood that you're trying to create. I'm not gonna give you any standard formulas like tone tone, semi tone, tone, tone tomato like you often hear given in scale, books and things. But just decide on, ah, starting note and then work out. Make sure you got eight notes going from the bottom note to your next octave, and that's it. And then we conform some courts from there. So, for example, you might have the major scale we talked about. Or you might want to make that a bit Doctor and Jews in my that minor scale. But just usual here. If you don't want that very classical sounding top, no, you can flatten that, and then you have a form of mode or a natural minor. There are so many different scales that pretty much anything you choose to do is gonna be a scale in some form. And then it's just a case of deciding how to form the cords on top of that. So essentially we're going to choose that major scale cause that's gonna make it as easy as possible. To form a court, you simply play one note, skipper note placement and play the next note skipping note and play the next note. So you have 13 and five 12345135 and that it gives you a standard court. And if you do that on each of you, the notes that you chose in your scale, that's one chord that's another court and another one and another one and another one on those your diatonic chords. Diatonic means that they belong to the key that you're working in, and that's all there is to in terms of creating a key and cords that you can use. You can make your court sound a bit full of by adding 1/7 as well. So that's where you play one, This one, the next one, this one the next one, this one by another one and yet it with 1/7 chord. And they sound a little bit fuller within those chords, a certain notes that sound more rooted and certain knows that add some more flavor. Generally speaking, the one and the five give the general sense of accord those your powerful strong tones. But the third and the seventh of what give it its flavor. Uh, so if I were to play a root fifth on a standard third, it gives it that one flavor. If I just flat in the third, it gives it a different flavor. So they're in. The fifth described the court, but the third gives it its flavor. After is the seventh, uh, just to give you an example in a different key. Let's do something a bit weird. Okay, it's a that's a mode as a really interesting flavor to it, but the same rules apply in order to form accord. We go with a one, this one by the next one, this one by the next one on. Then we could follow that pattern of the of the keyboard, etcetera. So any eight notes in the active that you're choosing will form your key that you want to work in and then choosing notes. 135 and seven, if you choose, gives you the court for each degree of that scale. Remember as well that when you're adding cords to a melody or harmony to a melody, not all of humanity notes have to fit over the court. For example, humility might go Okay, so the first know is G have a G chord underneath it. But the passing notes isn't part of that court in the court, we have G B and demand. Then we haven't a at the top. That doesn't matter that that note doesn't belong to the court. If you try and change court every single time you have a note that doesn't fit, it's gonna be all over the place, just too many court changes. Likewise, even the powerful notes of a melody don't have to technically land on a cord. You can go on your mat, cordon underneath. I mean, that's technically 1/7 but it doesn't fit in there. Tried that. We've chosen that be, but it still works, and it still has some power, and that in fact, that is how you add tension to music. By choosing notes that don't quite work with the court you're playing with, think carefully about how often you want to change court. Obviously, the more off the new change, called the more pace Your pieces going tohave. But bearing in mind the rules about melody adding rhythm, your courts can have rhythm as well. Don't just stick with 1 to 1 Teoh one Teoh one to think about how you can one Teoh to add some more rhythm to your piece. Then you can also experiment with cords that are outside of the key that you're working in a swell so you have your standard set of chords. So let's get again. Go back to see Major so it's easy. Things are standard chord of C major and you'll it was none of them. Use any of the Black keys. Just the White Keys. There's nothing to stop me when I have a court sequence in C in C major. Just 50 borrowed from the the key. So you see suddenly introduced more black notes into that into that passage, which kind of takes on a little journey. So don't be afraid to choose from cord outside of the key signature, but think carefully about where and how you do that. Basically, any chord can be forced to fit into into a passage if you voice it correctly. Although there are rules with music theory and cold sequences and things, anything goes, particularly in film music. When you choose cause that don't belong to the key signature, you can actually get some really filmic sounding stuff. It's very filmic technique. For example, in SciFi music, you often have this kind of progression on those two chords that are complete that belonged to completely two different keys, and yet it sounds very, very filmic and very, very sci fi. So experiment with finding cords that don't belong to the key, but still give the flavor that you're after. Maybe to start with one chord and see where choose any of the court and see where it takes You also don't forget the courts could be inverted as well. And that's what that means is that if this is your C court way, have see e g, you would take the sea, and you put that at the top of the other active instead of that. So we have on the root note can also move as well. It gives a very different sound to that chord, and as your piano playing improves, you find you naturally do that anyway, uh, you'll find that some courts naturally lead into other chords that because you're so used to hearing them, those are called cadences in the committee. End of phrases. So, for example, you're expected me to go pretty obviously, but you can use those to your advantages as well. If you've come up with a court sequence that you feel it's definitely leading somewhere, just like that one, you've got a pit little secrets that goes, Why don't you trick the listener and do something a bit more interesting? Take them in a completely different direction. But remember, first, you have to have, um, expect that. So maybe that's on the second repetition of that court sequence. A final trick that can add some life D accord as well is by using suspensions. So that's where you take your 13 and five your three notes. But on the third, you either move that up or down and out and not give you nice. A nice bit of suspension is actually called suspension. It's really easy toe. Add those Indio pieces, particularly your final court. So again that 251 little suspension at the end can really add some life to your pieces. So when it comes to harmony, yes, there are rules, but there are no rules. Figure out what you think. Sounds good. Figure out the key that you're working in. What I would really recommend doing if this is really new to you, is choose those eight notes that you like the sound off and then right down the cords that are available to you as standard cords. To get a bit of paper you can. You can number these notes if you want to write on 135246357 as your cords, if that's how you want to work. If you know the names of the notes and write down them down his names of notes. Obviously, if you know the names of the cords, writing down is the names of the court. And then you've got a list, of course, that you know you can use on. You'll be safe pretty much any way you move within. Those cold sequence is fine. You can do pretty much anything with those white notes, and nothing will sound out of place and then work out ways off just adding a bit of interest by adding a nod cord that isn't fit and just use area. Okay, don't like the sound of that. I like that. That captures the sci fi kind of mood. I just work out ways you can go with your court sequence. I think about what best serves the mood that you're trying to create. 17. Inputting Notes Into Logic Pro X: Okay, so we're actually going to compose something now, I'm gonna take you through the various methods of actually in putting MIDI data to control your door. We're going to look at setting the tempo and timing of each section of the piece, and then I'm actually gonna creates a melody and harmony in a very sketch format. The way that I like to work is I like to try and get kind of the whole thing done as quickly as I can. I like to tranq self composed through rather than some people. And it's a It's a totally fine method as well. Some people like to get all of their instruments loaded and get the real sound and really kind of padded out as they go. I prefer to get a simple melody and harmony across the whole piece and then build out. I find that method stops me from over composing too much from putting too much information in because I couldn't get the whole thing really quickly. And then you can really see where you actually want stuff or not. So this section we're gonna look at just getting that melody and harmony in its really basic form throughout the whole piece. First, let's look at a couple of methods of how you can actually input the MIDI data. Hope you'll have a MIDI keyboard. Like I said, I'm using my my big keyboard so you'll be out actually played in on the keyboard, which is probably the quickest and easiest way of doing it. If you don't, though, there are ways that you can still do. So just move this temple bar up the way so you can see I have a piano loaded up on again. I like to load two pianos, have a melody and harmony. Part helps me separate the the parts so that when I come to develop it later on, I can see clearly what his melody. And then what is the chord sequence on? I can I can pull things from both and copy and paste or whatever I want to do to develop that later as well. So if you're going to be clicking in the MIDI data that's clicking and with your actual mouse actually clicking on the the part, actually and the first thing we need is a region, so you'll see, this is an audio region. This blue thing on that's we also have midi regions as well. The region is is the section that contains the information, so this blue section contains all of this audio information. If you click on the little pencil, appear sorry the pointer appear. You can see you get a selection of different tools, and the pencil tool is the one that we want to that we can draw in our regions. You'll see the mouse cursor changes to this pencil. You just click, and then that's your region drawn in, and you can drag this by hovering over the end. You can drag this tohave along you wanted to be, so if I want this to be 14 or 15 bar region, I just drag and click and drag, and then this is our region. The shortcut for getting this tool is to use T for tool on the keyboard, and that brings up the list straight away, and then you can see all the short cuts down the edge as well. That's a really great habit to get into using using the keyboard to just quickly tap T to choose your to use your tools. Once you have your region, you could just double click on it, and that opens your piano roll at the bottom. And here is where we can actually click in our MIDI data. I'll just pull this up so it's a little bit bigger and you can see the Ah highlighted orange area. The top is the actual region, so if I scroll to the beginning of this, you see, that's where the region stops. Anelka's go to the end, and that's where it finishes. And we also have our marker information appear as well again to click in, we have to choose the right tool. Now you can see there's our clicker pointer on dMarc e or Command Click Tool is up here, and there's a second set within the piano roll. Now they both you could have separate ones working in the arrangement down the piano roll windows. So just be careful with that, because if you have your pencil tool selected here and you think, oh, great, I'll just click in. Nothing's happening. And that's because you haven't chosen your pencil tool in the actual ah piano roll section . So click in the piano roll. You can see the little blue highlight around that show you which section you have selected . If I click in my arrange window, you can see this section turns blue instead. So click into our piano roll, get my region selected, and then I can use the keyboard shortcut T p to get the pencil tool. Another quick shortcut. To point out, you'll see that there's two options appear, and then they're both and pencil of the minute. The one on the right is if you hold down command. So if I choose my pencil here, you'll see that pencil and that. Sorry, that's a pointer, and that's pencil. So normally it's a pointer. But if I hold down Commander, my keyboard turns into a pencil. That could be really quick. Way to input data as well. And then, once you ready to start kicking in, you just hold down command. Or if you've got your tool selected, you just click where you want your note to be, and there you go. Now, by default, it's it's default to a semi Cueva. If I change this to be a Karachi or 1/4 note, the next one that I click in will automatically be 1/4 note as well, which is quite helpful again. If I make that a Cueva or an eighth note the next, my click is an eighth note. So this is the way that you can click in your melody handy if you haven't got a keyboard. But it takes a long time, and it's also very mechanical. If I were to play this to you now, it's perfectly Kwan ties, and it's all the same velocity. So it sounds like a robot. Logic also has a built in keyboard that you can use and actually actually using your computer keyboard, not a midi keyboard. So if you go to window show keyboard or show musical typing, you can get to both of them in the same way command cases shock up. If you were to click on show keyboard, you'd have this view, which is just the Midi keyboard, and you can play it if you click on the key. But on a few chose musical typing, you'll see this layout, and this is as you'll see. You can play the piano on the keyboard, which is one other way of adding it in, and you can actually record the MIDI In doing this, it's not very comfortable, but you can't if I hit record, you'll see and that copy all of that data that I just played in. As I recorded with the musical typing keyboard. You can also change the velocity, so by default it's entering at 98. At the minute you can just click on the minus, and it takes it down by five step to the time or plus to get a more powerful or less powerful velocity. Velocity is how hard the note is played. To put this into the highest you'll see there was a red, and they're very loud. If I put onto a really low one, you'll see you can barely hear them on their blue and released soft and delicate. That's two methods so far. You can either click them or play it using the on screen keyboard. There's also step input as well, which is actually handy if you're copying from the school or if you think in a in a notation kind of way, let me just delete this region and will, uh, open another one instead. Step input essentially means that you can input your notes as you go without having to click in with a mouse or move the Ah, the locator around to change where your notes are. And you could do that using the on screen keyboard or a midi keyboard as well. To activate step input, you need to click on this little Midian burn here and then if you click on window show step input keyboard. This is your controls for your step input. You can also. So, as I said, you can do with your musical typing or you can do it with your media keyboard. And basically, how step input works is you set your locator where you want to start step in putting your music. You use this step input keyboard to choose the note value, so quarter Note the velocity mezzo forte, and then you just play the note on your keyboard and it will add it to the region. So if you see here, I'll play a C three, and it adds the C three note there straightaway. This velocity actually overrides the velocity of the step input, but I could do the same in my normal media keyboard as well, so this could be one interesting way of adding adding music as well. Again, it's gonna play in a very robotic way, but it's an easy way of making sure that you're adding it. No, by no. If you're not very confident with recording or if you really thinking in that kind of way, you can also quickly change the note value just by using the numbers on your keyboard as well. So if you choose, you have to have the make sure your actual stepping for keyboard is selected, and then you can use the numbers to swap between the difference. No values, which again can make your notes input very quick. If you have 100 your midi keyboard on one hand on your computer keyboard, you can play so minimum men in. And then if you quarter notes on a few eighth notes and you see the idea, I did it accidentally then. But you can see you can also do chords if you play one. If you hold down more than one note at a time and you get cords, this also means that you have to be very careful when you play that you don't accidentally hold down a note a lot of people quite lazy with the plane. They'll play one note and then by the next night, without actually lifting the first. No off. You need to make sure you are lifting off, because if not, it's going to do this. You end up with a court instead of a melody. So that's so now we've looked at how to click it in how to use the on screen keyboard, the keyboard, the computer keyboard house you step. Input on the final method is to actually just use a MIDI keyboard, which again, I think, is probably the best method to do that. You don't actually need to create your region first like you do. If you're clicking in, you can just simply start recording. Do you make sure you have the correct track selected hit record and then simply playing whatever you want to play in and you get your little melody or recorded. And as you can see typical human, it's not perfectly lined up. I could make it perfectly lined up by Quanta izing, which will look at a bit later, but it's a nice, honest representation of what was actually played of what was actually recorded, and it has a bit more life than if you've clicked it in or if you've used step input. 18. Creating a Composition: Part 1: As you can see, I went through each of my sections and I've set my tempo on. I've set my signature on a larger project. This would look a lot more complex than be lots more time signatures and a lot more tempo changes. We're working with the home videos. We've had the luxury of editing it together ourselves on. There are a huge amount of hit points that we really, definitely want to hit in these movies, either. But as you can see, I have a slower tempo 72 bpm at 34 in it to start with. And then, as we get to our our comedy section of up tempo 220 BPM in 44 the plan is as we get to the piano section, the company section will have a final low and fade as we first see the piano. And then there's a section where the actual original audio from the piano movie will come through, have not bothered about making sure that that's in time or anything like that, because it's gonna be a stand alone section. I'd rather the Bar five here. Nothing's gonna change musically because of no music that I'm writing at this point, but that bar five years to make sure that this next section for the lullaby lined up nicely . So that bar the beat one of that bar lines up with that first scene. And then there's this final section back in 34 back at 72 BPM because I'm going to use the same theme as I used it. The intro. I'm just going to rearrange into a into a lullaby theme for this closing section. So that's how I decided on the tempo and timing signature for this piece. And now the idea is to come up with a theme or a melody or an idea that's going to run through this in the conceptualizing stage, you already have an idea of what themes you might want. So I'm gonna have a love theme here, which that one theme is gonna exist throughout this whole piece. It's only a short video just under a minute and 1/2 so I don't want to introduce too many themes. So it's basically Lila's theme, my daughter theme. I'm going to arrange into a few different styles throughout, but we need to actually come up with that thing again. There are various ways of doing this. I'm a big advocate for not just sitting behind your instrument or your keyboard or your computer and trying to think of ideas there because you often get closed up. That said, for some things, that can be the best method now, for I find personally for, like, romantic ideas and things that are perhaps mawr ordinary ideas, ordinary musical ideas. The piano is often the best place for me to start because it's quite natural to play those kinds of things. That said, if I was doing a horror score something that's really out there when really experimental and bizarre, the piano is gonna be the worst place for me to start. I might start with a synthesizer train, get some interesting sounds, or I might just start by going out and thinking of what can be weird, what kind of odd recordings I might be able to get or things like that. But for his romantic love theme or for Lila Steam, I'm going to start with playing on the piano. So bear with me while I come up with some melodies. The state is I'm gonna go through are coming up with the mode or the scale. I want to be working in the actual key and then just coming up with some ideas, remembering to balance out the stepwise motion, the intervals, Onda having that repetition in the melody as well. So here I go. Okay, so I've come up with a little pattern. I decided to stick with C Major because it's simple, it's easy, and it's a kind of nursery rhyme like quality if you think about Ah baby, there more last on two simple little bill scaling ideas and I've built on that toe have this little pattern includes a little repeated, um ah trio of notes. That's the kind of foundation of it combined with a few Interval it leaps. So this is the melody that I have decided on just needs a little pattern, and I'm going to develop that and change that throughout the piece as we go. Of course, one really important thing to remember as your writing melodies the time signature that you're gonna work in for your main theme as well. When I first started there, I just are creating, then realized I was working in 44 not in 34 So you have to remember that you're working in a specific time, signature games and very quickly record that part in on my melody lines. At least I have it notated Andi jotted down somewhere because it's very easy to forget these melodies. One trick that you can do when you're sketching out ideas like that. It's actually just hit record in your in your door on as you're playing ideas, it's always gonna be recording what you're playing. The worst thing that could happen is when you come out, you finally come up with that amazing idea you're Yes, I've got it, and then you go to record it and you've forgotten it, or you for gotten the pacing of it or the or the rhythm of it. So by recording it as you go, you can. You can easily you've captured all those ideas, and you can get back to it because composing is practice. And if you know the more you composed, the more you'll find that you can easily remember themes and melodies and ideas. But as you're starting out, you might find it difficult to latch onto onto onto ideas particularly extended ideas again , referring to popular music. Popular music often has very short ideas, just two or four bar phrases. If you're creating a theme that might be a 16 bar phrase, that's a lot of information to remember if you're not used to remembering that kind of information, Okay, it's gonna quickly not record in this melody. So it's it saved on my melody truck, and that's my melody that's gonna form the basis of this, this whole piece. I'm also gonna think of harmony now. I was naturally thinking of harmony as I was creating Melody. As I said before, they don't they're not completely independent of one another, but I'm just going to sketch in the actual harmony that I know is going to work with this with this piece again, back to the manager toe. Check that harmony. Make sure that what I had in my head is actually how it sounds on the keyboard. And then we'll get this harmony briefly recorded in as well. No, I have worked out a basic court pattern that's gonna go underneath just one chord per bar again. This will develop and change out the piece, but this is our core chord sequence. As I said, every melody always implies a harmony, so there's kind of a natural harmony that fits with it. The trick is to build your core theme, your core melody and chord sequences in its most natural form. And then we want to develop and change it, weaken, play around with those ideas a little bit more. So let's add in my court part underneath, and I'm just gonna plunk try it on the keyboard. It's not gonna sound pretty, but it's going to be functional and tell me what the court actually is. - So some key things in that melody and chord sequence to that, I added in there. E It's a fairly basic. There's a lot that small that were happening in the development, so you'll see this simple melody. Major pattern murdered just fits perfectly with the C major. That's the 1st 3 notes of a C major scale, bub, and it repeats the roots. So we have a just simple see major up to ah Gino. So again, naturally, our court becomes a G court, nothing uncomfortable there. And then, on the repetition of that little melody, the court changes to on F Instead, we have a slightly different take on it. A slightly different take on the on the harmony there on as it falls down to that be. I've chosen a G chord again with the with the B s so that so that he doesn't feel uncomfortable. If I have kept on an air for even brought up Teoh back up to see or something that B would sound really uncomfortable. Let me just show you the difference. So with the with the G chord be just disappears within the court. Or if I have moved up to a C, for example, it's Ah Seventh. So it's a little bit jazzy, but it doesn't quite work with the style that we're going with again. It's all about that style. It's a nice chord in itself, but it doesn't match that overall style or feeling back to our original little major pattern over a C major chord. So the listener has something to latch on to have heard it once. We've heard it slightly changed. Come back to beginning, Okay. We're used to we think we know what's gonna happen. And what we think is gonna happen is is gonna go to that G like you did the first time around, but it had a But instead we jump up really big leap all the way up to this. Be instead. So this part here is kind of our focus of attention. So far, we've had moment where we think it's attention, but it at the hope That's a nice bit of attention, that another Adam and then, but at a birth big moment of, like, wow, here we are way on top of that. Underneath that, b, I should say we have an a minor chord, so the B doesn't actually fit in that chord. In a name. I know you've got a C and e. So be isn't a court tone. We spoke a little bit about how you don't always have to choose cause that match, the court turned to that again. Just bring your attention to a little bit more because it's like there's a note that doesn't quite fit with the court, and it's been a big leap. It's like, Wow, this is a big moment off of in the piece, but and then because of that, that big moment, we kind of want to back off now. So the melody slows down a little bit and just becomes this descending. The just drops down and just everything slows down a little bit back to court tones. And here's a nice trick that I use quite a lot, which is Ah, suspension. So we have our G chord in the baseball, which has the notes g the day on the melody. It starts on an E, which is the sixth of G. So it's not a very settled note and then falls onto the onto the D so we could actually reflect that in the court. We could take out the fifth and have it actually the G six dropping down, which is quite common as well. Another common suspension is to have the fourth instead, so that could be a C put out of the sea. And I just moved that out and you can hear that's a really unsettled court before it resolves, you would know me resolve down to a B. So yeah, that's a little suspension on that last chord. Makes you feel like it's finishing off. And also that court, the G is the fifth chord of C It's a five chord and see which lined us up nicely to bring that Sian if we choose to in the next section, which will make it feel really resolved. If I just play this last section, I'll play on the keyboard, the C chord at the end. You'll feel how naturally it pulls towards that chord in the next section. That's a really natural pull into that into that note. But of course we could take the listener somewhere totally different at this point as well . That's the beauty of what we've done here. We've set the listener up, so I have this five and I was like, Okay, it's definitely gonna lead to the sea And instead, we might take them somewhere totally different, totally unexpected, and start taking them on a little journey elsewhere. Exactly what we're gonna do, because at this point, the time signature and the tempo changes. We're in this new comedy section, so it's gonna be a big change of feel here as well. Now this is my basic melody and harmony sorted. All it's a case of now is taking this really sure idea on expanding it to cover the full minute and 1/2 of the video. That's how easy it could be to come up with just a nice, short, simple melody, and then we'll just tweak and change and shop until we have a whole piece constructed from this from this simple melody. One of the things about composition is it's not about generating hours and hours of new material and new thematic ideas and and constantly new stuff all the time. A lot of it is about getting some very good small bits of material and then reversing it or expanding it or just taking the rhythmic idea and changing that. It's a lot about reusing small bits of material rather than just creating hours and hours of new material. If you had to create original brand new stuff for hours and hours on end, it would just be horrendous. Rather than being able to just chop and change and develop and expand the things almost one of the hard things with film music is actually not creating too much material. This melody that I've got here takes almost the full section of this first. This first part, this first part I've got 12 bars on my melody is, um Well, the last note lands on on the ninth bar. So 10 10 by melody already, which we only gives us two bars. So if I stick a little intro of two bars at the beginning of a little piano part poor Bobo Bobo Bobo Bobo that's the whole first section gone already. So I might actually have to chop away from this melody a little bit so that I don't have too much material. And this is one of things. With film music, you are just constantly chopping and changing to make things fit. So, like I said, I like to try and sketch out my idea across the whole peace first, So I kind of know where I'm going. So now that have that core melody in the core harmony, I'm gonna see if I can work out a way of fitting it across this whole this whole section. What are you going to do? Is these are my This is my core theme. I'm gonna move this right to the end. Out of the way, could I don't want the pieces start straight off with. That's still too much straight. And I want to have a little pulse to start with so that there's something built. And then bring the melody in so that they think this things happening rather than just all in straight away. It's gonna be these over to the end, and then we're gonna look at how we can develop this out a little bit. 19. Creating a Composition: Part 2: when it comes to developing these pieces out, one good thing to do is think about similar sections. So my intro on my outro are gonna be very similar. Maybe slight differences in instrumentation, maybe. Ah, the little of ice section cause it's meant to be. It's softer, will probably have a few less notes. Might be a bit more spaced out, but I can kind of work on these two sections simultaneously once I get my my first theme created, which has a bit more detail in it for the lullaby, the outre section, it's more a case of taking away to create that softer sound. So I'm gonna work firstly on getting this first theme. Loved the sweet theme Put together. We have a melody and harmony. It's just a case of expanding that out Now. When I played the been you'll Remember it was just very simple. Clunking on the cords, pretty badly played. Not time, but it's just a sketch for an idea. The simplest way of expanding this out is to make that chord part a little bit more interesting, and then the melody can stay as it waas. Now I don't mean that have the core pot gown all over the place nor crazy. What I mean is, just have a little rhythmic pattern in it, or a little idea it. And you could borrow these from other tracks, have a listen to songs and listen to what piano parts of doing in certain songs. And then just apply that pattern to your court sequence. He might find a pattern. That's ah, like it's all typical, Walt. Okay, that's a well used pattern. You can take that and apply it to your own courts, Deacon. So in this case, okay, too familiar pattern that called tickets might even being used with that type of pattern in the same way before. That doesn't matter. Your court sequence can't really be copyrighted with that panel. If as long as it's differences, you know, you haven't stolen that from anywhere. The melody and chord how they work together is still unique. And what you're gonna do with it is still unique. So find a pattern that you think you want tohave in your Kordell part and apply it to that Kordell part on, Then work out the best way of playing that as well. The arrangement is very important when you work out these harmony parts to on about that. I mean, don't just stick with court triads playing three notes in the same way every single time. I think about how you invert those cords and how you making the flow and even which notes you might leave out. So that final chord that we looked at which is this G chord on in the top? We haven't e. I might leave that d out of my chord voicing in the G Take that d out completely when I voiced it out so that that is in clashing with anything and it leaves it nice. A nice a resolve into that d. I've been working on a few piano ideas off camera, and I think I have a nice pattern that's going to work, which I'm just gonna record in now. - One of the great things about Media's actually played some of that in wrong, but because I want to capture the pattern and the feeling it's not a problem. I can go in and move the midi to the right notes. As long as I had the right rhythms and the right patterns, which I did in that case, Actually, sometimes I prefer just capturing that rhythm really quickly, even if I get the wrong notes, because then I have to think a little bit more carefully about which notes I am choosing. Whereas if I just recorded something in and it was fine, I wouldn't then have to go in to think a bit more carefully afterwards to sometimes playing badly can be a benefit. I'm not going to focus too much on how this part sounds right now are more interested in the actual notes, If that makes sense by sound, I mean, like the mix and even the velocities and stuff I'm gonna tidy all that up a little later on in the kind of production stage, for now is to make sure that the notes are all correct. You can see in this pattern how I've tried to follow the emotional contour of the melody without Bigby notice. We have the court actually develops out a little bit more for the first time when we have three notes in the top part, whereas before we'd only had two notes in the top part so that to this part, suddenly we get that's the big note on the cord builds out a little bit. It's only very subtle. Likewise, the 1st 4 car cords repeat, so you have C to G and then again, C. G. So to disguise the fact that we have the same chords repeating the top part. I've just inverted the court a little bit, so it carries on descending down this pattern instead, so you'll see the left under the same thing GTO, CTG and then g to d. So, um bom bom bom bom bom bom bom while the top part goes and the harmony to that as well. So those 1st 4 chords, although they are repeated, actually sound quite different. You'll also notice on that C chord that hadn't a in the top, which doesn't belong in the Sea Court. It's the sixth of C, and that's fine when you're working with harmony, they're just seen his extensions. There's although we might be working with triads. You know, this court sounds like a splotch of notes. Somehow, somewhere it could be justified. See, I still have step input turned onto its program to all into logic, but it's accord is a a malleable thing it doesn't have to be C and then exactly those three notes off. See, you can change, you know if it still fits and if you feel like it works, and if it's if it helps the flow of a piece, that's totally fine. So I wanted this little descending line if I'd have stuck strictly to the note from C, I have had to bring this down to a G, and that would have changed. The whole flow of that line still kind of works, but it's just nice with the in there as a descending pattern as well. Let's drop our melody on top and just make sure that it fit because this is another thing that can sometimes happen is as you go away and work on the harmony. You lose track of how the melody fits, and when you put them together, it just doesn't work, and I'm happy with how that works together. But there's some clashes in the sound. Now you have no it's this harmony part I wrote takes two hands to play left hand and right hand on. Now a melody, which is also on piano, is going to require another hand if this was played by one pianist. So in my head I'm already thinking about different instrumentation and how this could actually work if it were to be played. And that's really important that didn't think about how your instruments are played it If if it can't physically be played, people listening a straight. We're going to know that you're working with a sample library in a computer rather than working with real instruments. So I'm already thinking about other implementation. I could use this harmony, part thinking, maybe a chill EST or something kind of bell ringing. That's that's really nice, kind of sound. Melody might stay on piano, or I might think of a different instrument. These are all things that I have thought about in the conceptualizing stage, so I should already have a clear idea of where I'm going with it. But obviously, naturally, sometimes things come up depending with what you create. The next thing I need to think about is the fact that this doesn't fit with our our section yet we're missing two bars, so I need to find two bars from somewhere. And that's pretty easy with this because, as we said, before this is going straight into a melody part. So what I could do is just drag this back and then repeat the first couple of bars from the Harmony parts to really come and trick. So let's just cut this. There's a few ways you can cut in logic. If you click on this down draw bar, you can then split by play head. And I ask you, if you want to keep short on or split the note, just keep them For now. Copy that there to copy that on using Ault and clicking and dragging when you that copies the region rather than moving it. And I'm gonna join these back together since I cut them so I would highlight them both and push command J. And that joins them back together. And that builds me nicely into my next section, which is gonna be a comedy section. And I'm quite happy with that Lay already. Now this is the stage where normally you'll end up doing a lot of draft. You'll create this. You'll be working in his own. You'll think it sounds really great and then you come back. You'll open your video. Your player alongside, you'll realize it doesn't capture the mood. It all. And if I'm honest, there's probably more that I could do to this to capture the mood a little bit better. But I don't think you want to sit in what me create a 1,000,000 different versions of the same piece. But it's not. Don't think that your first idea is gonna be your best idea. If it's not right, don't think. Oh no, I'm a failure. Go and write another idea and just keep tweaking things until you get something that really does work and really does capture the flavor that you're after. The next thing that we said might work is that because the first section of the last section are so similar, we might just be able to drop this on at the end, and it might work fine. So let's try and do that. Let's move this to this final section and see what happens if we play alongside the visual and did you notice by Happy Little Accident? That note landed bang on the scene change and was actually really quite powerful. We had the high note and then as it as it pulled off way had the sleeping face and that worked. Really realizing this happens all the time with movie music, these happy little accidents. If you get any film and just put on a song and play it alongside the film, they'll be little moments that line up perfectly, Which is really add something to that scene, which is an amazing, amazing coincidence but also really showed the power of how the human mind interprets things that line up properly. So just by that, working on that one section, we kind of have to Sex is completed. Now I just need to fill in my comedy section. Onda. The piano sections already has music to it from the original video will fill in our comedy section, and then we have a nice hole composition done. It's just the tweaking development that comes next. When you look into a new section of music, One of the really important things to do is think about the transition. So don't ever start at the beginning of the section and just go straight, and I'm gonna write a new piece from here because and when you play it, you'll find that you have this lead up to idiot to and then all that all of us are not know where. There's a completely new thing I really try to work on, um, the Outro from the section before on how that's going to lead into the new section. So I planned it in my melody and harmony that that final no is a health court, which is a really good idea because it allows me a bit more freedom as I move into the new section. So because it's last note holds the whole bar, it's quite easy to start. You can come in with pretty much anything you want there, and it's going to feel okay. If you Adam or constant Pulse coming out of that first section, you have to work a lot harder to make sure that the new section feels right with the old section. What you can do is is kind of right, your new theme, like as if you were writing in the middle of the sections off halfway through and then spend some time really working on how you're going to move from your first theme into your second theme. But if you can find a way of having a held note before a big time or casing Sorry time or tempo change. I would really recommend seeing if you can figure out a way of having a held note on what I'm going to do for this comedy. Second is borrowed bits and pieces from this melody. I'm not gonna play the whole thing in its entirety because it will. Just copying the same melody over and over again is going to be repetitive. Ah, dull. And it's not gonna work for the style of the comedy section. But this first little pattern is a really nice thing and could work in a more comedy style . For example, we can have or something a bit silly like that, and that's really gonna capture that slightly silly, slightly comedy field. So let's record that in improvised a little bit at the end there, and I don't know if that's gonna work. So I'll have to tweak a little bit because, as you can see, just visually, you can see that last no, actually lands on the same time that the piano recording in the audio track start really again. I want to a little bit of a pause before that note comes in, but I like the first half, so open that on DA When I started being silly, I'm going to cut it out. One thing I sometimes do is when you sit in a piano your limited a little bit by your technique and your improvisational skills. Improvising should be should come from the head first. It shouldn't be where your fingers land. You should actually be singing the melodies in your head, so sometimes I will actually physically sing the melodies. I'll watch it back and I'll try and line up where I want things to fall. I'm looking at this. I do so with the first recording. We overlapped with the where the piano start. So I know that I have a couple of bars that I need to fill, and then I need to pause on a note. So sometimes I like to display the last few bars and then try a sing where I think it should go. The But But, uh, forgive me. I sell idea pop about pump, pump pump. Now again, you might want to have an audio track recording while you do that. If you have a microphone, settle for even using your internal mike so that you don't forget any ideas just just in case. As I said before, you don't lose ideas. Okay, let's record that in. It's at this stage where you really have to have a good imagination. Obviously, I'm not gonna have the final actual melody played on piano on this. It's probably gonna be something like pizzicato strings or another funny sounding instrument of an instrument can sound funny. So having a good imagination of meal to hear and know what articulations and what idea is actually available to you is really important as well. And quite naturally, that melody is quite bouncy that goes hand in hand with the comedy kind of feel and sound. So my accompaniment part should be really bouncy is well, I'm again. I'm thinking pizzicato strings is gonna work really well for the company. But maybe not the melody. If the accompaniment is pizzicato, strings will play around with those ideas and we developed a piece a little bit more. But I'm thinking of a bouncy light, almost percussive kind of accompaniment part. So again, also, I might sing along with it. That's how we generate a lot of ideas. I play and I sing and I just get a little ideas. And then I work out how to actually get that on the piano. If you're struggling to come up with a harmony part or a cordial part, one thing you can do is just try and figure out a baseline once every baseline you can then pat that out into full court. This section, for example, works quite well with both line like this. Now I'm not gonna actually play in with a sustained base like that. Like I said, I'll be pizzicato. But it gives me a starting point for where to build the courts from. And as I said, I was thinking of something a bit jumpy, a bit a bit lighthearted. So the kind of pattern that you hear quite often on pit string to something like. So now I have my baseline. I just have to work out which court over that baseline. It's not always as simple as the base line being the bass note. Sometimes it might be an inverted court. Generally, you're pretty safe if you use the cord that does fit over that all. The triad that does fit over that baseline certificates of working out which court actually is playing in with that pattern. Instead, again, I got lost and I got the notes wrong. But that's fine, because I could just go in and tidy it up again. - Uh , also don't worry too much at this stage about how well it's played in. If you can get the perfect recording, then great. But as you all know, it's My timing's a bit sloppy. The notes are lining up perfectly, but that's fine, because I'm gonna title that up a little bit later on. I'd rather just have it captured and the ideas across to start with, and now you'll see our whole pieces done already. Just like that, we have amenity throughout. We have a harmony throughout. Obviously, if you're working with dialogue, you'd have a bit more tweaking to do with the melody, because you have to try and work around that. But for a home movie type of thing that we're working on and for for moving, moving music, like their sons, are fairly simple list projects. A nice just backing layer and sound of music works really, really nicely, and of course, if there are any sounds. If you specifically want to hear, it's quite easy to just drop out the melody here or there or have a pause in the accompaniment. It's really quite simple to do those little tweaks. You just have to literally mute notes that you wait where something's happening and you want to hear something and you'll be good to go. The next ages have actually developed this out and put onto the correct instrumentation. Make sure the parts actually work for that instrumentation and really make it start coming alive. If you've got a good core theme and harmony, you're already set and you already have your your your basic ah, core sound there. Then you have a really, really good start. So do spend time to make sure that this stage is done. Really, really well. Don't try to do at the same speed that I've just done it. This is very much throw it on for the sake of the course, in many ways, just to quickly give you an idea off, Um, of how the process goes. In reality, there's a lot more time spent thinking about the melody. A lot more draft a lot more tweaking of the melody, a lot more working around sound effects and dialogues and things like that. But really, getting these core ideas together should be really, really important in a real focus of getting them really working. Getting that melody, really working with that harmony to your basic idea is great. And then we can develop it out and make sure the the orchestration or arrangement works really well and just heightens what is already there. You shouldn't be relying on the arrangement to create the peace. The two piece, should already existent, should already have weight and merit of its own. 20. Arrangement & Orchestration : Part 1: for developing our peace. The first Andi probably most important consideration is instrumentation. Now our peace has three clearly defined sections. We have this control of theme our comedy on then our lullaby section, which is a little bit over P off the love theme at the beginning. At the minute, it's an exact repeat. We're gonna do a few tweaks to make it a little bit different. What we need to think about is how arrangements are gonna melt together now with us having such differences like a really kind of soft loving theme versus a real comedy theme. The temptation would be to have totally for instruments. But then there's gonna be a huge divide between those two sections. We wanted to sound like they're from the same piece. So really, we want to be thinking about instruments that will work for both of those sections. So for comedy, like a kazoo might work, you know, kind of a silly sound, but there's no way that's ever gonna fit in without love theme section. But something like a clarinet might work. Clarinet can be both beautiful, with a really full bodied sound, but also a little bit quirky if it's played staccato in and bounce early. Likewise, for Ah, Harmony section, a string pad would work really nicely for some held chords. And then the pizzicato strings would work really well in that comedy section. If I combine those strings with a piano, maybe Celeste, which is like a high pitched bell type sound like you here at the beginning of Hedwig's theme in Harry Potter, we'll have a really nice blend of instrumentation there, and then I can bring little instruments in. So the kazoo that I mentioned, I could bring it in quietly in the comedy section behind the other instruments, and it would still fit. Well, I'm not saying that you have to stick with the exact same lineup, but it's really good to think about which instruments can carry forward to give some continuity to the peace. So I'm gonna first load of the instruments that I want and make sure I put them in the order that I want them to appear on. Then look at how we can expand those pieces onto there. I'm also gonna think about the articulations of those instruments as well. So I mentioned pizzicato strings on also lo Gatto strings on. I'm gonna load up a separate track for each of those articulations. It's I find it easier to work and see them. That way you can use articulation sets in logic where you can have all of the articulations on one track. Personally, I find that becomes a little bit more finicky on. I'm not gonna be putting this into score or anything like that. So there's no reason for me to have everything on one trapped like that. Another thing that's important to think about when you're loading your instrument is how you want tohave, the parts laid out for strings. For example, you could just load a full string section and have everything on one section. Or you could load the individual instruments on batter out, right out for the individual instruments. The second way is the better way to do it per instrument, but it takes a bit more practice and a bit more time for what we're trying to achieve. I'm just going to stick with a general string section rather than individual instruments. Once you have your instruments loaded, the next stage is to actually get your parts onto those instruments It's tempting to just copy and paste the parts on, which is fine if the original part is well played. But you'll find that because I played on piano, I played it in a certain way on the piano and by just dumping it onto this clarinet part. It's not going to sound very nicely played. It's all it's not terrible, but it's not quite how are clarinetist would play it. So ideally, you'll want to load your clarinet part and then try and learn the peace as if you were playing clarinet. So try and get into the mindset of a clarinet player. How they blow, how they how their fingers move, where they have to breathe on. Then learn the part on the keyboard as a clarinet player and then recorded it. I need to breathe. If you really think about that, then you're part. They're gonna have a lot more life to them straight away. They'll be a few tweaks. We have to do later and actually in the production stage to get them sounding even more realistic and a bit nicer. But if you can get it played in like a real play would play it it's really gonna help further down the line in terms of arranging the other parts onto instruments. It's just a case of thinking about which instruments capture the emotion that you're trying to get at each stage and also about the right range to write in those instruments. So the clarinet there, for example, in that mid register is very comfortable, very soft, whereas if it was gonna be really high, it's a lot more piercing already on. It's not a very natural sound to be playing in that really high register very softly for a clarinet player. So again, learning about your instrument is really, really important. But just think carefully. Generally, for wind instruments, the higher register is more difficult to keep soft and controlled. Not always, but generally the middle register is nice and full bodied. On the lower register can also be a bit shouty because they have toe put a bit more support but more wind. To get that lower register out on most instruments the mid register, the mid range of that instrument is the safest place to stay. You could find the ranges of instruments just by going on Google and searching for range off violin, for example. There's with normal on the Wikipedia page. It gives you the range. There's some really good articles on it, so find the range and then figure out where is comfortable. Within that range around the middle on, you'll be choosing the safest place. All working with sample Liar is like we are. Some of them limit the rain so you physically can't play outside of the range of certain instruments. Others, you're just naturally hear what sounds right on. If you're playing into and it sounds really high and really awkward, you probably writing in the wrong range to see if you can rearrange it slightly. So think about the mood you're trying to capture in, which is, let's capture that best. So, for example, this lullaby section, the court sequence, is going to sound best on Celeste. I already know that, because it's that's a natural place for it to sit. If I drag that down onto cellist right now, we just swallow it. You'll hear it's ah, lovely little by kind of sound without me doing anything. Teoh already has that little by sound to it, so we need to take this information and patter out into our other instruments. We might also have to add something, so this little pattern probably isn't gonna work on Lo Gatto strings. We could try it of our copy it straight over, but in reality I'm probably going to write some new chord sequence for those strings as well. You hear how it's a little bit awkward on that string part, so I think I'll write some actual just pad cords very softly in the strings. And really, the strings focus is going to be in the comedy section, where they come through their pits of Carter's sound. Mexico's where the string is instead of boat. So we'll have that pit strings where they're the center of attention under this section will probably have them just very quietly, very softly. Which brings me to my next point, which is about doubling instruments as well to create certain sounds. So that clarinet part might sound a little bit weak or a little bit too low to full bodies . I could out of solo flute with that clarinet, and now if I copy that region across the both you'll hear, just get rid of these Ah, that gives it. The more breath in us, a bit more body to, and I could even put this up a knocked if hoops and you'll have it again. Fuller and a bit more piercing through. This is where playing in those parts becomes very, very important as well, because you'll hear those are the exact copy, and no interment would ever move that perfectly in time with one another. No matter how good the players are, there's always going to be some slight fluctuations in timing and how they phrase things. So learning to play the actual part play it for those instruments is going to really bring them alive. Likewise, this chill Esther part at the end here. That might work really well if I doubled that on a music box. If you're not sure where a sound is in the library, you can just search for it here as well. Music box. So again, if I just double this part onto the music box on, I might take that a productive to Okay, that's not a great sounding music box, but it will do for what we're doing. If we double that cellist sound on a music box, would turn the music box, so it's really soft in the background and later on, in the mixed age, you could add a hollowed a river to it, to put it more into the background as well. This is why it's really handy to know about the stages that you're going through and what you can do two things So you don't get caught up thinking that doesn't sound quite right. Later on in the mix, you can edit it and tweak it a little bit too. Way with Music Box turned very all the way down just right in the background. It really answer that lullaby kind of field music box traditions One of those spiral things that plucks little strings you know you can buy on, Ah, car boot sales or souvenir shops. You twist a little bar and the rial turns and plucks clocks. Little metal bars. That's what music boxes. So it's naturally a little by sound. This music box, that is it is obviously a synthetic music box, so it sounds a bit weird. We've had access to a different music box sample. It would work really nicely, but with a bit of reverb on and turned right the way down doubled without your lest you get a really nice little by kind of sound thinking about how your instruments can be. Doubles can really improve the sound of your pieces well, and that's really what separates some of the pros from the amateurs and amateur. We'll just load a a clarinet part play and then be confused as to why it can't be heard in the mix or why it doesn't have any piercing quality or why it's not full bodied enough where the pro knows that the clarinet on its own isn't going to get that sound. It needs to be doubled with a flute, for example, or if you wanted to really come through, double it with a xylophone. So there's a really percussive sound, so you'll hear that zyla phone hit the note so that note stands out on the clarinet gives the body to afterwards. Thinking about how you can double those instruments will really improve the arrangements and orchestrations of your pieces. I'm gonna crack on, orchestrate this out for these instruments, and then we'll recap once it's all fully padded out, and I'll take you through some of the decisions that have been made 21. Arrangement & Orchestration : Part 2: I've spent some time developing that piece out now, and I have something that I'm quite happy with. As you can see, I've I've added Licata clarinets, Takata clarinet, llegado flu, Celeste Steinway, grand piano, pizzicato strings and lo gatto strings. You can see the Lagardere strings have only been used very sparingly. I had thought about using them as pads under the court in the intro, but it felt like there was too much information there, and that's fine if you came up with something in your concept that you thought you were going to use, and at this stage, you don't feel like it's working. Don't try to force in. Just get rid of it. So I thought my concept some nice pad strings under the romance section would work nicely. Turns out it didn't really work, so I've scrapped it. Okay, let's have a look at what I have done. There's a few tricks you can use that will help straight away. Wake, make your peace sound like you know more. There's a few tricks that you can use it straight away will make it seem like you know what you're doing. One of that one of those tricks is to share the melody across instrument. So if we have a look at this opening love theme section, you can see the clarinet part starts the melody here and then the flu part takes over from the melody on Ben. They play together, and I've actually added, Ah, harmony on the flute. Instead, let's have a listen to that so you can see that the clarinet played the melody first. Then the flu paid the repetition of the melody. And then they both played together on the Harmony entered on that key climactic note that we were talking about before the piano part. Sounds a little clunky it the minute we're gonna fix that later on in the production stage . But you can also see that I've added a chill s part only very subtly. And the reason I've added it now is that it's not a surprise when it comes back in a little bit later on in the piece so you can see this The less part just plays the second while the top part of the court on as the Piano plays a top power for the court as well. So you'll hear it here. So it just adds that top part of the piano rhythm that we added earlier on, and that's all it is for that interest section less is more when it comes to music for the moving image. It's so tempted to get carried away and keep adding and adding and adding and developing and developing and developing. And then you come back to watch the actual movie and you realize is way too much going on. Remember as well that when you are writing, you're spending a lot of time going back and forth over the same part. Where is when you're watching a movie? It's gone in an instant, and that's how the audience is gonna consume. Your music are only gonna hear it as it sweeps past. In a few minutes, they're not actually going to sit and have the chance to skip back and hear the same section over and over again. The same goes for any sort of music. When you listen to music, you're listening horizontally, whereas a tendency when we compose is to start thinking vertically and just keep adding and adding and adding don't get into that habit so less is more That's why I've kept this very , very simple. It's just the melody, the harmony on, then just slight addition to the harmony on the melody moving between instruments but only one thing to listen to our time apart from where the harmony comes in. Okay, the comedy section. As we move into that, you can see we've kept on the staccato clarinet that I planned on keeping on and the pits of Carter strings. And that's what gives the entire field for this whole section just pizzicato strings and stick Carter clarinet again. I probably could add some other instruments in there to double up, which might give it a bit more body, But I'm quite happy with how it sounds, just as this is you can see as well that on the staccato clarinet, this little bits missing and innocently appear above on the low got a clarinet here, here and here. That's because I have decided to split my leg, artistic Otto, So the loads that held for longer have to be put onto the other articulation. In logic, you can have the articulation played on the same track. I just like to have it different, but it means that there's a bit faffing about when it comes to long notes held within staccato sections. So this section now sounds like this. There's a few things that will need tweaking a little bit. That last string court that comes in is a little bit of group, so I need to do some work on getting that of its softer Andi. Some of the timings are a little bit off any tweaking a little bit again. That's gonna come in the next day, so I'm not worrying too much about that right now. One thing that is really important to think about. As we went through the instrumentation earlier, I mentioned how you could load up individual parts so you could load a violin second violin , the viola on a base or cello or both, and then right for each one. Or you can load up a full ensemble patch. I ought to just unload the ensemble patch, which has some positives and some negatives. The positives is that it's easier to write in. You can see it's just one part, and you could just play in as if you're playing keyboard and you've got something that resembles a string part. The downsides is it doesn't sound very authentic or realistic into in that every note you play has multiple parts on it. So when you lay them together, you and that we loads more string place and you would ever have in real life. And it's not a not a riel riel sound. You can get away with it if it's just soft in the background for things. Either way, you should be thinking about the actual instruments as you write these parts, so you'll see in my pit tico strings section to make this a little bit smaller. I've written this as if there is a bass part or a cello, part of the bottom end on, then a violin, second, violin and viola, and all the parts are written in that they're spaced out. So you wouldn't really play like this on a piano, because that's quite a big stretch. That's a C to a G and in the e. R. At the very top, as well as playing a left hand part. You wouldn't stretch like that on piano. I don't think you physically could. Maybe Rachmaninoff could. I certainly can't. And as that progresses, through those parts remain like that. Those big spreads as if they've been written for violin parts, not a piano player playing on string instruments. That helps just add a little bit of realism to that string part that makes it sound a bit more effective. One way to help your chord sound like they flow a bit better when you write like this is to try and have his little movement as possible in the string part. Ideally, you'll find cords that match across note. Sorry notes that match across two chords so that your violin or cello viola player doesn't have to move Notat all. They can actually stay on the same no across two chords. And that's gonna make those core just really feel like they actually merged together a lot more. You can see I've done that here. So the second violin part over there a court is playing in a and then when it changed to an F, the second violence stays on the A, and so does the viola. It stays on the sea, so if you listen to those two chords, I'll just mute the clarinet part. Most. All of this drinks you'll hear that they really feel like they are connected. Those courses, not too much movement between them. It feels like a part of the same thing. It's not feel like jumping around loads. You'll find that if you just play triads on the keyboard as you play these and it's gonna sound like your parts of miles, each chord is a big jump between the other court. You might have also noticed the final chord is held out for quite a long time. You. The idea is that that chord is gonna fade out, and then the piano part in the original audio tracks going to take over two. Really important to be able to think about these things in your head of how things are going to work. When we come to manipulate the MIDI samples to getting sounding more realistic, we're gonna add those crescendos and D crescendos in so it sounds like a natural player playing. This is one of the problems with sample libraries. For example, this regatta clarinet, part a sample has no idea when the note is going to end. It just waits until you take your finger off the key, so the sample my even crescendo might get loud, allowed a lot of them. Take your finger off the key and the sample stocks, so we have toe work with that. When were mixing the MIDI after the draft of a player as they see the end of the note coming, they would naturally ease, often slightly de crescendo or diminuendo so that it was a little bit quieter just before the end of the note. We need to add those in afterwards, but we'll do that in the production stage a little bit later. Finally, the lullaby section again. I've made this really, really simple, have not added load of instruments. The chill Est comes in as a feature, and it sounds fine. It fits in the blend because we've had it earlier on in the piece at the beginning. So as the chill s comes, and it's not a surprise we've had already heard it on, we've added a little monotonous pattern to it, just like you would in a lullaby. You know, you're trying to put someone to sleep. You want something that rotates and loops. So I've just made the pattern go up and down basically on the jealous but just goes up and down, up and down repeats like that on in the piano part, we've added right at the very top register. In octaves, we have the melody playing with the sustain pedal held down the entire time, so it's really river be release, onerous kind of sound. It's here that together, - and that's it when it comes to developing out your your part. As I said, it's all about matching the mood that you're trying to achieve with the instruments that will help you achieve that mood. Not much else has changed in anything I've done. The clarinet part in that middle section is exactly the same as the piano part that I played in. It's just that it's on a different instrument. The harmony part is exactly the same as the harmony parts, just on a different instrument that helps captured that mood. Let me show you those two parts side by side so you can see how much of an effect it has. So the original it was a little bit quirky, but it was by no means fully comedy, whereas with the pizzicato strings and the clarinet just has a much more lighthearted much more uplifting feel to it. That's all there is to it, matching the mood with the correct instruments, and then you're good to go. There's one thing that I haven't done much of in this piece, because it didn't really call for it. But that's adding counter melodies as well. The trick riding counter melodies is just finding the gaps where they fit. Basically, they shouldn't be fighting with your main melody. They should be like an answer to your main melody. So in this comedy section, for example, I could have a ah telephone you just quickly at his ill a phone. And then I could add a second partner, counter Melody, alongside my main melody that just complimented That doesn't take away from it but just adds to the conversation. And the really important part is that it doesn't take away from that main melody. The main melody is still the most important part. Counter Melody is just an addition, so we could have something fairly simple like, and you see how that added to the melody, just joined in afterwards and then obviously joined in in harmony at the on the on the longer notes and That's a good counter melody because it just contribute to the conversation without taking away. This piece doesn't really call for that. With those action, it's it might be a little bit too much to take in. 22. Using Synthesisers: one thing that you see a lot of in music for moving image is synthesizers or electronic sound effects. Things like that added underneath a track, or even sometimes in the feature of a track as well. I'm gonna quickly show you some tricks for adding pad part two pieces. We're gonna look. It is very basically I'm gonna take you around a synthesizer and how a synth works and then the types of things that work underneath a track as well. I've opened a new track here, and I've just added I haven't gone through any of the sound effects or the actual library sounds just added instrument on its own. Basically, if you click on the instrument part here, you get a whole lot of different instruments that are available to you. I'm gonna show you around the E S p to start with, just to show you something quick and easy to help you get your head around how synthesizers work. So this is our GSP, and I'm just going to quickly record in a little part, nothing particularly interesting on melodic. It's just a sound so I can show you how these things work without me. having to reach across the keyboard all the time. So most synthesizers have similar settings. It's just working out where they actually are. The ones that are most useful to you is the actual sound settings the envelope on then the cut off frequencies. So this is literally how the synthesizers built. Now the ESPYs built on adding, adding, These sounds together to create a final sound of eternal of these off you'll see, you'll hear the difference of sound. So the minute there should be nothing, and you can see this is a sore tooth waves if I turn this up. Sorry, uh, trying to the wave. It was a sore tooth wave. Sounds like this. And then there's a square wave. Have these more random waves on even noise. So creating the Senate sound in this sound in this synth is just about combining all of these different elements. And that's how you create your brand new sound with the synthesizer. The next important thing is this envelope. This is what shapes the actual sound of the synthesizer. So you have attack, decay, sustain and release. The attack is how quickly that note is hit. If I put Tony attack right down. That means the note comes on straight away, so much so that you get in that clique there as well. If I turn the attack down, it comes on slowly. Then the decays. How quickly the sound diminishes after it's being hit. The sustain is the volume that which the note sustains and holds. And then finally, the release is how quickly they know dies after you let go of the note, he takes a long time to stop there. So you have your attacks. How quick the note is hit decays. How long it takes for the initial hit to die down. Sustain is the level at which it will be held on. The release is how long it takes to be let go at the end. Just get a bit more of a normal setting on here, you see, with a decay hired and sustain. It hits and then comes off a little bit. And then the next thing is your cut off. Now these are called different things in different things. Synthesizers. So here it's called frequency because it's the frequency at which the cut off happens and the cut off is basically a low pass filter. It's it. Let's all the frequencies below it through and cuts off anything above it. So you can hear if I turn this up and down, you'll hear it. You hear the low end, and as I lifted up, it opens up and you hear the ah, perent and the residents is kind of the spike at the point of where the cut off happens. So it's if you have a lot of residents than know whether where the cut off is, will he really defined the reason I'm showing you through? All of this is so that when you load up a patch or ah, preset instrument, you can actually tweet the sound a little bit to get closer to what you want, rather than spending all day trying to find that exact sound that you'll probably never find. If you find something close enough now, you have the skills to go in and tweak it slightly, a really important part of synthesizes automation as well. I'm going to show you how to automate things a little bit later in the course, but you can automate all those parameters. We just looked at on a since you can have a sound that constantly changes underneath, which could be a really effective way to get a cool, interesting sound beneath your composition in terms of how you can use a since it's about finding a nice sound that will add to your composition again something that heightens the mood that you're aiming for. So in my my romantic on my love theme opening part of this composition, I could have a really nice warm pattern e that will just make you feel happy and warm on a synth park. And really Antah loading a percent and building one from scratch is a great skill to be able tohave. But in reality, most people tend to work with presets on again. Logic has loads of presets built in. You could find those under the synthesizer section in the library. There's also some great ones in the cinematic section. Two Ambien drones, for example. You might find something. They reunite Nice in there. Warm Wave sounds like something that's really gonna match the style of my piece. Great. Now some of these logic presets they're actually like stacks. They have d c. I dropped down on this. There's load the different instruments that make up that final sound going through all that and trying to find the cut off. For example, if you want to roll out, the top 10 could be really, really tricky. So you could do that just with a normally Q. You can kind of at a cut off yourself if it's just a cut off that you want by rolling top off on here and dragging this down, cause I thought this Santa is a bit crisp at the top end. So now that's a much warmer sound, and I could just add that to my peace. It should work again. You just one note sometimes works with since rather than holding down a full court. If I play accorded this sound, that's a lovely full sound. But there's a lot going on. It's going. It's going to take over everything in my composition. So I just think one note underneath might work really nicely here. Now if you like me and you have a bit of a short attention span, sometimes sitting and holding that one note while it plays, the whole thing can be dull, so just record a little bit off it, drug the region out and then go in and drug the note as well. And there we go. We have a path sound underneath. I'm not actually gonna leave that pad sound, and I don't think adds anything to the track. But that's how you go about using these, these effects underneath. And you, If you just play around with presets, you'll find some really cool sounding things in there as well. Just click through them on play on the keyboard, see which ones you like the sound off. 23. Creative Audio Effects: While we're dealing with sound effects and things, I might show you some creative audio processing that you can bring in at the composition stage as well. To help you just create a new interesting sounds. What is going to play around with the piano sound that we have for the time being? I'll just show you some quick fun effects. You can add to it Teoh track in order to give it some liveliness or just bonkers if you want. Samad sounds just fun ways of processing the audio. So to remind ourselves this is the panda pop that we're gonna be playing around with. Okay, so the first effect I'm going to show you is called a ring modulator. If you just hovering that these air your effects here you will look at this a bit more in the production section. But we've got a unique you compressing a tape delay already on there. You just click in the gray box underneath. You can add another effect on in modulation. You can see one called a ring shifter. This is a great if you just trying to find some fun sounds to add on to attract the rings it is a really good place to start. That's one of its more sensible ones. If you look at walked, you have all kinds of crazy stuff in here. If you're looking for effects tile underneath, I wouldn't recommend using this is the main part. How much is that? And then you could do something fun, like you could bounce that as audio and reverse it. And then you get a really, really crazy sound that might just add something amazing when the neath and something really unique underneath the track that you're creating. Speaking of reversing tracks, let me should quickly show you how to do that as well. These are orders, fun things that you can try out on you track to see, see what can happen. Speaking of reversing tracks, that's another fun effect that you can do as well. So if you take your midi region and bounce it in place if you right, click and look at bounce in place. What this does it is a kind of exports the track as an audiophile exactly where it is, just be warned. Once you've done this, you can then edit the midi. You can't do it because it's an audio file. Now it will leave the MIDI track in place, but the thing you'll be listening to over the audio or you can choose to delete it if you want to, we'll just mute it and it's gonna have this Steinway grand piano on a new track and it will clear the order. All this information, okay, And you see that we now have an audio track of that piano part. Now that we have an audio track, we could do some more audio processing on it. So if you double click on it and then you choose file at the top instead of track file, you can functions reverse. That wasn't a functions in the reverse. And now you see, we have the peace backwards. Oops. And you can get some amazing sound effects when you do. When you do that, when you reverse the track, you can get some really, really cool stuff, particularly to like double underneath. If you have the same chord. Obviously, it's going to play the whole thing backwards, so you'll need to either play in the park again, backwards or you're retrograde the region. Yeah, you got a really cool, interesting effect behind that. You can also stretch the track as well if you hover towards the end of the track and make sure you have the bar with two arrows pointing either side, not the one with the loop, then with two hours. And if you hold down bolts on your keyboard, you'll see it becomes almost looks like a sideways sand timer. She click and drag. Then this stretches the track. Keep hockey polling all while you let go. It'll process for a second, and now we have the same thing but stretched out really slow. And if we do that for a really long time, you can get some really bizarre things happening there as well. Let's see if this fits under the track. It might not. It sometimes doesn't, but on the chances of it, working with these notes, totally backwards are not ready big. But if I make it really, really quiet and play it in, that's just a Knute this. There are parts of it that kind of work. You could chop it up and make things fit and get a really interesting bed of sound beneath again, not really appropriate for the contents I'm working with. And that's why you have to remember, Don't just be experimenting because you want to experiment. Make sure you are always serving the purpose of that visual. But there's some really cool stuff you can do there as well. You'll also see in some of logics effects. For example, if I had a reverb on here, a lot of the effects have, like a warped or a C warped effects, which can odd if you want. If you're just looking for something a bit weird to add to a track playing around with some of these warped effects, you could get some really cool stuff. So that was in the Space Designer. You could do the same with the delay designer. They have some warped effects in there as well, and you might find something really interesting, really unique, that you want to add to your track. This is always just generating cool stuff. To put underneath the tractor at a bit of bubbles are a bit of sound, a bit of texture to the peace, which could be really, really effective 24. Production - Section Introduction: in the production section. We're going to talk about recording live instruments into your project and how that can give life to your composition, as well as how to improve the MIDI instruments to get them sounding more realistic before we move on to mixing, including the use of buses and automation on the final mastering of your piece. 25. Recording Live Instruments: one of the problems with creating music using digital audio workstations like Logic Pro X is that the music can sometimes sound a bit lifeless and artificial because of the samples used. Even with some of the super high end sample libraries like Spitfire Audio or East West to go to great lengths to capture authentic recordings of instruments sections, it still is an actual performance of your music. There are a few ways to improve this, though, on one of those ways, by recording in a few of the parts yourself, if possible, even one live instrument can inject the world of expression into your music, even if it's not played. The hotel. The presence of a lie recorded part tricks, the listening, tearing other instruments, Israel Instruments as well. You could also get some really creative sounds into your pieces by recording part yourself . Say, for example, you want a high pitched, ticking, percussive sound in your piece. Grab an empty drinks, cans and chopsticks. Sever Mike on. You'll not only have a live recording on your track, but also a sound that's totally unique. Even if the method has been done before, it's likely that your recording will sound slightly different. I'm not like you just opened up a preset in a sample library. Of course you want to record, then you'll need some equipment. And this is another area where it can get really expensive really quickly, but it doesn't necessarily have to. I'm by no means at the level of professional Sound engineers, nor if I got a massive collection of professional microphones, mostly because I've never needed it. Just like I said at the beginning of the course. I'm a firm believer in only getting stuff when you actually need it, and I've managed fine with the equipment I have for years. Yes, if you're gonna be recording pop songs or pieces with a really defined lead part, then you probably need some higher and microphones, depending on the instrument. But if you're just adding live instruments to add realism to a project, it's likely they'll be sitting quite quietly in the mix with a load of reverb on. So a less perfect recording can be disguised a bit. In fact, I was listening to an interview with Kyle Dixon and Michael Stein of Stranger Things, Faith as well as one with Oscar winner Michael Donna. And they said, Hey, views recordings that were captured with their phones in their films. Got with the right mixing. You could blend most recordings into a track that said, You should always be aiming for the best quality you can get at each state of your process if you keep dropping the standards here or there by a tiny amount that overall, the project is going to suffer. We discussed audio interfaces in the earlier section on equipment, and if you want to start recording, a good audio interface is absolutely essential. You might have heard of dedicated preempts. A swell preempt basically prepares a microphone signal ready for recording by boosting its signal. High quality pre empt very little noise, meaning you can turn up the game without getting any sinful kissing or buzzing, resulting in a really clean signal. And they also add a little character to the recording as well. But they cost an absolute fortune. Luckily for you, most audio interfaces include preempt. Sure, they're not on the same level is dedicated preempt, but you could still get a great sound with a pretty basic audio interface. I found the focus right pre amps to work particularly well. It really improve the quality of my recordings when I switched over from my older Interfax . Next up, you need a microphone and cable. In my opinion, the best bang for your book is the October M K 012 It's an amazing little microphone that comes with a variety of capsules. Those obits that screw onto the end, the alter, the polar pattern to try and sum it up as briefly as possible. The polar Patton is the direction and range the microphone picks up. So, for example, you might have a hypercar do it. The only picks up what is directly in front of the microphone or the other end of the spectrum. There are omni directional pans, the pick up everything from all around the mic. For the most versatile recording cardio. It is usually the best bet, but there is no one size fits all microphone for these videos. I'm using the October with a hypercar doing pan just above my head here, the high Picardo. It works so well in this situation because they're only picks up what's directly in front of it so it doesn't pick up much of the echo or reflections in the room, giving me a nice, clean sound without having to acoustically treat the room acoustically. Treating a room is where you had a combination of phone panels, which absorb sound and diffuses that reflect sound in a variety of directions in order to remove unwanted frequency spikes. Sometimes sound waves get trapped and can make certain frequencies stand out more than others, which is a problem for both recording and mixing. It comes back to trying to get that flat sound from you monitors that we talked about in the equipment lecture. Many recording rooms are purposefully wet. That means they have a bit of re verbal liveliness in order to give the recording life. In fact, some of the most sought after studios of famous because of their natural river, apparently Abbey Road, a super cautious about changing anything in their famous studio to which is where the Beatles recorded in case it alters the sound. Because although acoustic is a science, there's also something a little mystical about it anyway, back to microphones. If you have the budget, a matched pair of October's will probably give you the most versatility. A matched pair is where you get two of the exact same microphone and the two are is close to identical is possible because, like most things audio no two microphones ever exactly the same along with a microphone. You'll, of course, need a cable. Understand it's worth. Opting for a slightly better cable and stand is cheaper. Cables not only tend to break, but can also sometimes add nasty noises like this is buzzing and even crackles and pops if they're not, if they're really bad. Similarly cheap microphone stands often don't stay in place very well. I'm sure you've all seen a keyboard player at some point desperately fight with the makeovers down that keeps slowly shifting lower, I stick with K and M stands as they're superbly built. The stand, amusing now is designed for overhead microphones like the one above me and weighs an absolute turn to prevent it from ever falling over. That's the kind of considerations I want from a mic stand manufacturer. A final thing you might want to get if you're recording vocals or dialogue is a pop shield . Pop Field Stopped Close is like P's and B's, causing the microphone to pop something else that I'm sure you have all heard at some point . Perhaps more important than good equipment, though, is good microphone technique. This takes a combination of research, experimentation and practice. There are lots of tutorials on correct microphone placement. If you search on YouTube before whatever instrument your recording mic technique so violin mic technique, for example, you can use those as a starting point. But bear in mind that every microphone, every instrument, every room and even every performer will require slightly different methods. Once you have an idea of where to stop, set up your microphone and take a picture of where it is in relation to the instrument or even better set of a video camera. To capture the whole session. Record some audio with the mike in that position and then move the microphone and try a few different positions, remembering to take a picture each time. Unless, of course, you have the video rolling before you listen back and compare the various sounds. Now you can refer back to your photo or video to see where you'd place the microphone for that take on, you'll have the best placement. As I said before, one might position in one room might not work in any other room, so this will always take some experimenting. It's much easier if you could have someone else playing the instrument while you move around. I know that it's not always possible, though another tip going back to that idea of rooms having a little natural reverb or character. It can also be worth finding the best place in the room to put the instrument. Don't assume that right next to your computer is the best place to record. It might be the most convenient, but you might get a better sound elsewhere in the root. One way to find the best place in the room to record is the literally player instrument. If it's acoustic while moving around the room until you find somewhere where you think just sounds good might sound odd. But depending on where you are in the room, you'll get different types of sound reflections bouncing around a lot of smaller studios where both the recording and mixing take place in the same room actually have acoustic treatment to make the area around the desk, where mixing takes place extremely dry while they keep alive area at the opposite end of the room, which is more wet or reflective, where the instrumentalists have placed in order to have a better recording sound totally dry Rooms are not always the best for recording certain instruments, particularly acoustic instruments. For some instruments, you might be able to plug directly into the interface, using a jack as well. This is good for keyboards and since, but for guitars or things like electric violin, it's best to try and record the AMP, if possible. And, of course, if you have a decent AM, obviously, for using a Software AMP. Emulator and there's some awesome ones available, then you couldn't record straight and using a jack cable instead. So to recap, the equipment you'll need is an audio interface, microphone, mic stand and cables and maybe a pop shield. And then you'll need to find the best sounding place in the room to play the instrument and the best microphone placement to capture the sound you're after. 26. Recording in Logic Pro X: gonna quickly record apart into logic. So you get an idea of the process of recording. It's not something I'm gonna use in the final project, but just so I can show you how it works, that's what we're gonna do now. So to record an audio part, you needn't audio track. It's not gonna work with a software instrument track. So click on your plus Jews audio and then make sure you choose the input related to whichever one you've plugged into in your audio interface. Don't worry about taking any of these other things. Just make sure things untech For now. If you're not seeing the options from your audio interface, it could be that you don't have logic set up properly. So that's remembering to go to file. Sorry logic Pro Preferences Audio on making sure that your input device is your audio interface, so now you can see I've got a healthy level coming in here. That's office, because I have it set up to record to record. My voice with Now, as I'm talking to you is going through the microphone. You'll need to plug in, plug your microphone in if it's condenser microphone, give it some phantom power and then slowly turn up the gain until you have a nice healthy signal coming in. Ideally, want to be aiming for between about minus 10 to minus 20? Maybe a little bit more. You could see my normal talking volume I'm coming up to That's 14 from my normal talking values coming up to 11. 8.8, that might be a little bit hot. You don't need to really push it with digital interfaces. If you push it too much on, then you actually hear high. No, it's gonna clip is gonna come above zero, and it's gonna get nasty clipping sound and that if you caught that at the recording process, there's very little you can do in the mixing with the production process to fix that. So keep your levels nice and sensible, nice and low. So they're not really spiking too much. As you can see, you have been talking the whole time here have been moving towards and away from the microphone, and I've never come up above minus 6.2 is as high as it come, and even that's probably pushing it a tiny little bit. We don't need a big boost in in faces like this. A couple of things to check before you recorded that is set up as a mono track. You should I see one line here. If you're seeing, too, it will be because it set up a stereo. So just click on this little circle up here. You might be seeing two circles of the minute, so click on that and until you see one circle and then you know it's on mono, which it should be if you're according a line in like this, and also make sure you have the correct input selected by clicking on the input and making sure you choose and put one if you're going into him. But one, obviously, when actually comes to recording by default, the Metrodome will start clicking. If you click on taking hold, you can turn off the click while recording option, and that will stop it from clicking while recording, although hopefully you'll actually recording with the Maginot because you have been clever in your tempo setting stage one trick that I sometimes do in order to help my self or if I'm recording musician here, the Metrodome properly is to make the mention of more tonal. To do that. If you click and hold on the Metro no and choose mention home settings, you'll see the option here for tone. If I turn this right the way up and then record, you could hear them. You can hear the mention of the rial tone to it, whereas I turn it down. And now listen, it's just that's just a click. So give them that. You know some tone and you'll be able to hear it much easier. The problem, though, hes it's gonna get picked up by the microphone if it's bleeding out of the air phones too much. So need to balance being able to hear the match tone but also making sure the microphone doesn't pick it up. And this is where those closed back headphones come in really handy. These open back headphones, so anything that comes out my earphones is likely to get picked up by the microphone. Closed back headphones would be much better at keeping the sound in. I'm just gonna record a quick little whistling part in this comedy section. Bump of them just so you see how the process goes so you line up the mention Where the locator where you want to start recording When you hit record, it will jump back a bar, but it won't start recording the audio until actually lines up with that locator. I'm not the best Whistler, but you get an idea, and now we should be able to play it back on a very great recording. I obviously need to look at my whistling mic technique. It's not the same as my talking Mike technique, but we captured the audio there, and we have a nice sound Now. There's a few things you can do with logic when you are recording. That can help speed up your processing if you needed to do multiple takes. If you click on record at the top of the screen, you'll see overlapping audio recording options. Now the cycle on or cycle office. Whether or not you have the yellow loop bar at the top, which looks like this, that's the cycle. So if I have that on, then that means it's on. If I click on it, it turns it off, and those are the different options, so you could have with the if you could have it created take folder, create a new track or create a track alternative. So the minutes on create take folder. So with my cycle off, if I now record over the top of this thing is a take folder, you can see it's made a little folder with a drop down arrow with the different takes so I can if I want my breath first take. I just choose the first take or the as much of the first take as I want, and then I can leave. Part of the second taken really great safety recording an improvised guitar solo, and you want to choose the best bits from various solos, and you want to keep it looping over 12 bar sequence, for example. That's a really great way of doing that. If you choose create new track, it will do the obvious. It'll create new track, so paint record again thistles recording with creating a new trap, and you see you create a brand new audio track when we dropped those down. So it's not confusing a brand new audio track with the new recording on top of it, finally create track alternative. This is creating a track new track alternative. Now you'll see that what I had recorded before has disappeared. But where is it? It's because it's created an entire alternate track. If you say it's dropped down over here, if I click here, I can go back to a and that was my original. And he's a new one so that if you just want to have lower two different options to choose from, it's much more difficult to chop bits from in between each take on this one that you know I can't take half of the first taken half of this take without having to copy and duplicate things across. This is really if you're happy to have total separate versions off things without having to copy and pasting in between. So that was with cycle off. Let's have a look at how we do things with cycle on. So create Take folder is the same as before. It just create a folder with drop down options, create tracks and mutes means that it's gonna create new track and mute the original track Every time it loops. Let me show you that the great way of doing it cycled like this is you could just have loads. Load two goes at the same section, so let me do the whistling thing again, and then you'll see how I could have multiple takes of that. So you see, you create a whole new track and then muted the original track. I can Then, if I want to, I can chop and change groups, the both selected. I can chop and change from ones I want like this. It's a bit more finicky and doing it with the take folders. Likewise, the finals create track alternatives, and that does the same as it did on the cycle. Off. It creates an alternate track within a B. C E folder, etcetera. Really, the the most useful one I find is the take folder. It means you can quickly chop into the sections that you want, rather than having to do any cooking or pasting or spicy or anything like that. You just drag whichever bits you want, However, sometimes you might be recording a part where the new part starts just before the end, and you don't want it to To try and Moser's together, in which case you might want to create a new track so that you are a bit more flexible with the start and end off the of the previous version. The next thing I want to think about with your recording is your Metrodome settings, particularly your count in settings. So if you come to the quick way to get to his car and you mention home, mention home settings and then you click go to recording. Instead, you can get to it by going file project settings recording that will open this window and you can see when beginning countin you consigned. How long you want to count in force. You give yourself a four bar counting if you really want to get into the feel of the of the pace with movie music, you might have realized that because the tempo change, it starts in a slow tempo. Could start to the temple before it. Then when it gets to it, a temple increases that couldn't be quite problematic, and it could be quite tricky to work in. So what I sometimes do is as I'm working on a piece on my either drag the tempo back of bar or I might record everything about late, and then What's the finish? Recording everything. Just drag it forward again, but you can choose how big account and you want to give yourself as you're recording. 27. Improving Your MIDI Samples: in this video, we're going to look at how to actually get our MIDI sounding better. There's a few stages when it comes to manipulating MIDI. The first stage is to actually get the MIDI data as good as it can be. And then the second stage is the mixing where you add reverb, unique use and compression, etcetera. That stage of the mixing stage can make even quite bad Midi sounds good, but if you can get the core midi data sounding as good as it can be first, there's a lot less work to do in the mixing stage to get it sounding good. When we looked at the first recording stage, I showed you shoot a few different methods of in putting. Midi assured that how you could either click it in with your mouse, use the computer keyboard or play in on a on a midi keyboard. If you chose to play it on a midi keyboard, you already gonna be leaps and bounds ahead as opposed. If you clicked it on a plate in the keyboard because you already have tempo and timing fluctuations on also velocity fluctuations to if you have clicked it in or used the computer keyboard, you're gonna have exact length notes that all start dead on the beat and are all a set velocity as well. And getting midi to sound good is basically just working your hardest to make sure it sounds like someone is actually playing it. And when people play things, they hit things different velocities. Or if it's a wind instrument, they blow a different velocities, and they pushed things louder and quieter. So we have to manipulate the MIDI to make sure that we're replicating that human performance in order to get it as good as it can be. So I'm gonna go through the instruments here now. Thankfully, I've got a nice mix of instruments. I've got some keyboard instruments, some wind instruments and also some string instruments. Aiken tell you that some of the characteristics of each of those instruments and what you should be looking out for when you are manipulating your midi I'm gonna start with this piano part, and what I've done already is make it perfect in a way I've made all the velocities, the exact same on have made it so that the it's perfectly quantities, which is when you make things land perfectly on the beat. Just to show you how to do that, I'll show you in my chill EST part. You can see these done all line up. If you highlight the notes that you want to quantities to put in time and you can come to time quantities over here and shoes, I would choose the biggest one you can get away with. So all of these are on quarter notes song and choose quarter notes to be safe, and you'll see they all just shifted into place so they're perfectly in time. It's handy if you want to tidy up a performance, but obviously it does make it sound a little bit mechanical sometimes and undo that. So it's back to being a natural performance. Okay, back to our piano part so you can see it's perfectly in time. It's perfectly velocity. They're all exactly the same. If I play this now, you can hear it's very flat, very straight. There's no dynamics, a very flat performance, so we want to make this a little bit more human. We want to humanize it. There is a function in logic that does that which we will get to in a minute. But first, before we humanize that, we want to think about the dynamic flow where we want to push the dynamics where we want to be quiet. So we wanted to be louder. So I know the 1st 2 bars of this start. Before melody starts, we have two bars of piano, and then the melody comes in. So for the 1st 2 bars, I want those to be a little bit louder than the rest. So when a highlight that section, choose my velocity tool so I can click here and is one called velocity tool. And this allows me to turn the velocities up or down by clicking and dragging. And you can see it gives me a demo of how of the velocity. So you need to click and listen and work out what kind of tumble you want from the instrument for those at the loudest part in this case where we're starting here. So if I if I even wanted this loud a bit to be really quiet, I could put the nicest soft, and you can hear that a really gentle piano sound. Whereas if I put it right up full. It would be really harsh on that. Doesn't really work without image, which is a child sleeping. So we want to make sure it's a soft, but it's a little bit louder. That's nice for our introduction. And then we said We want the rest quieter. So that was Velocity 83. You can see it tells you just next to the key, so I'm just gonna highlight the rest of this. Now, zoom out a little bit. Make sure this is all less than 83. We get down to 65 so we start with a nice, slightly louder intro on. Then we go a bit quieter and then we know the melody builds as we get this a minor chord. Don't wait. So I might just bring this court up a little bit and then this court of a bit more things will be allowed. This a sample of it and then this one just getting a little bit quieter, quieter again. Now I have a bit of a flow. Where it starts louder, goes quiet, builds up again on drops Quiet. You can also see this in your media automation. You click up here and you can choose the velocity note velocity. You can see a bit more of a flow that how it goes up and down. This is another way that you can get the velocity of in of individual notes. Click and drag on here instead. Let's have another listen to this, uh, to have a bit of a nice of flow there to it now some dynamics, but it's still not very human, So what we can do to humanize it is to select all of this section. You can use command A to select it'll and then go to functions, maybe transform, and you'll see an option called human eyes. Humanize has a few different settings to it. You have this on the left, which is the start time. So where you want the note to begin? This is the velocity. How much you want that the velocity to fluctuate once you humanize it on. This is how long the note last time. How if you want to contact the end of the notes now because I've recorded this in on the piano and then I and I fixed it. The note lengths are actually already all varied because I played it in quite naturally. If you clicked it in, or if you use the step inputs of the notes all the exact same length, it could be worth randomize ing the end. But I'm going to turn this down, so zero. So that means there is no fluctuation in the length of notes. The 10 here means that the velocity will fluctuate up to 10 degrees above or below. That's quite a big range, so I would make this a little bit smaller as well, cause if not, you might end up with some big spiking velocity. So six or seven is a good range here on your stop again if you put this too big. If you put this up to, like 30 your notes are gonna really go out of time, and it's gonna really feel really uncomfortable. But if you keep it nice to settle, 10 is a good starting point. You'll find that the start notes just a pushed or pulled very slightly, and it gives it slightly more human element. When it comes to operating, you have you can either operate only or select and operate. We've already select our notes we're gonna choose operate only to make sure we don't accidentally do this. Two things we might have selected elsewhere that we don't realize, because if you choose, selecting operator will select everything in the region that you have selected. So let's operate this and you can see I'll just show you in case you missed that. If you look at these notes in the background, they shift ever so slightly on a completely randomly so that when we play it now there's very slight fluctuations in velocity and very slight pushes and pulls in timing, and it sounds a lot more natural. It's a lot nicer just with that slight human touch to it. The next thing you would do at this stage as well is to listen very carefully and see if there's anything that stands out. For example, when you humanize, something might have just gone a bit awry and you might have something like this happen, Uh, suddenly re loud notes. Wanna pull that down and really work through your piece and see there's anything else that you want to push or pull or if anything stands out or you want to soften anything and really just think. Does this sound like a human is playing it, or does it sound like a machine is playing? The closer we can get a human, the better. This last chord, for example, here is Well, we have this little, uh, pattern that comes up. If I were to just soften these notes, it sounds like it's fading out a little bit. Certainly it'll sound a lot more a lot more human as a whole new life to that little ending . So you need to go through the piece and really find anything that stands out on day, tidy it up and fix and get each part sounding as human as possible. The more detail you put into this, the more time you spend here. The less time was spent mixing in, the more life your piece is going to have naturally. So that's the piano parts. Let's have a look at our wind part. Arla got a clarinet and flute. The same principles apply. We're trying to make this sound as realistic as possible, as if somebody is playing it on. One of the things with wind instruments that always stands out when you get wrong is forgetting to leave space for the player to breathe. It sounds so obvious, but if you have a long section, you need to think about where that player can actually take a breath. So have a look at your part with solar This again? Uh, so a good clarinet player could probably manage that phrase. It's not too long, but we could give a bit more life by adding some breath marks in here. So if you think carefully about where you play my brief, try to close your eyes and imagine playing that instrument and maybe sing if you want to. But, uh uh, I took a breath after that big top. No. So that might be a nice place to add a little pause in the clarinet part, and it also gives it a bit mawr, feeling a bit more groove, a bit more pace to the melody as well thing I think that really works nicely and again. Go through your piece and find out where you want to add any dynamic increases any pushes. Find out where you want to add those breath marks in and listen carefully for anything that stands out is not being realistic to you. I'm gonna make that know a little bit louder as well. I think it feels a little bit too long to me. So you can just tweak things a little bit here, maybe title at the timing a little bit. Theo, We never really nice phrase on that detail again is just gonna help make this sound a lot more realistic. Another thing that can really add some life to your wind on string performances in particular is the use of automation on either expression or modulation. So most instruments have some kind of control associated with the expression or modulation controls modulation you often have on Midi keyboard. You have a pitch bend which get off it, bends the picture up and down on a modulation and traditionally that would kind of give it some more vibrato or tremolo Would would give a vibrating sound, but a lot of the sample libraries and logic associate the modulation with dynamic in terms of how powerfully the no is sounding. And if you or if you put automation in your track, controlling those modulations, you get a lot more life to the pizzas. Well, so if you open your piano role. This isn't still that look at a clarinet part and push a on the keyboard or click on your automation Appear. You can then choose from the drop down menu expression or modulation, so that's off the bottom of your screen. But you can choose expression there, and then you just click in this section and it will start the the MIDI control data that the automation here and if you listen as I drag this happened down, you'll hear the notes get loud, required. Theo. It's important now for me to differentiate between velocity, Andi dynamic or volume. The velocity is how powerfully the no is played and then the expression or the volume controls how loud that no is hurt. So it's kind of a playing style, so you can play very loudly and aggressively on the key on the on the instrument. But if you turn the volume down, it's awfully quiet us. It's not heard as much, so you could have this on full. And it's not really That doesn't mean every note is gonna Blair, because this no is still a soft, low velocity No. So a good idea is to start with it either full or to give yourself some room to breathe out . Pretty Start around about 100 then you've got a nice balance. Think about where the player might just emphasize things a little bit. So we're thinking, but, uh, it might have a little portion volume on here, so you can just click beneath that note and click again. No, I would click at the end as well, so we know weaken coming back. So we have three dots here we have beginning of the note end of the note and then the middle of the No. And that's what we're gonna push up here so I can hear on this know, have a little bit of a dynamic increased now tha Same for this. No, I think we should have a bit of a push. So we if you hold down on the on the automation nodule that you've added, you can see a line appears. It's really helpful for lining up with your note. And you don't always have to have this fight in the middle. You could have it towards the end of the notes, so it increases and then drops right at the end Instead, we spoke about keeping enmity that at the end of a know a player would normally naturally pull off a little bit, whereas a MIDI sample doesn't know that, but it doesn't know where they know is going to end. So at the end of phrases, it's always good practice to just add that drop. Maybe not straight from the start of the note, though, because why would the players start D crescendoing straight away so we can have a little much helps the phrase end. The little cleaner and a little smoother looks a bit finicky, but if you could do that for all of your parts, it's just gonna bring your piece toe life. And you can do that for strings as well of the violin parts. If the plane leg art Okun really push and pull, things like that would win instruments of great obviously piano. You don't need to do it with because you can't change the velocity of the dynamic of a note as you're playing on a keyboard. But thinking about how they know is hit on a piano. Instead, you can also add a little pitch, bends to help give a bit more life to pieces as well. You know, normally, if you were, if you have a solo instrument, you really to spend a lot of time making it sound as good as possible. Normally, if it's part of ensemble, you can. You can hide things a little bit better. But again, if you want to just make this piece sound tiny, bit more authentic, you can have a tiny little pitch bends and things in to help it give a bit more life way. Just click. Make sure that we're 00 is central. Note. I'll show you this extreme to start with. You really hear what this does? A really big push there, but what you could do to get to make a note sound a little more human is just to give time impeachment at the beginning, as if the player is moving up to that note, which had a few little dots and we make sure that the best one is at the end of that note before, and we have a tiny little bend up to that next note. See how this sounds a little bit too much, maybe, and we started a tiny bit early It's handy to zoom in at this point so you can really see what you're doing. Pull it right to the end and bring that up a little bit. It a bit more settled. You see, that just had so much more life to all of a sudden, Where's it gone? Sounds like a player is playing that like they've gone up to that note and they're spending up to with their with a lift a little lip bend again. This could be done on wind brass strings. They cannot have slight bends in just to help give it a little bit more life at the end of a note, for example, here askew, go quiet on a winning team. It's sometimes hard to hold the pitch quite exactly. So you could put a tiny little bend at the end as well, Not much. I mean, if you go full, it's gonna sound a bit mad. Good for effect. You know, we're not talking about massive pitch bends like that, but just bring it down a tiny little bit. So the end of the note as it gets quieter that's too much as well flattens off, makes it sound a little bit more. Real imperfections in music is what makes it sound real. That's the reason samples don't sound like in a real player playing because they're perfect . And there is a released such thing as a perfect performance in real life. There's always mistakes, and that's what make things human. When it comes to the timing of things. You saw that we quantities that piano and then humanized it because it was played in quite out of time. So we tighten the timing up to make it sound a bit more in time, at least, and then we had to humanize it again afterwards. If you have a part which you played in like this pizzicato string section, I played all these strings and individually, and you can see that the timing isn't perfect on them. But rather than quanta izing it and then humanizing it, I could just drag this cord and move it. So it's Maurin time, but then you still have all three parts starting at slightly different times. It's still human in itself, so I could just They're all a bit had obviously pushed a little bit as I was playing it so I could just pull them all back a little bit on, then listen through and see if there's anything that stands out is incorrect. We listen carefully, so I didn't pull that one back and you could feel that it was pushing a little bit, so we'll just pull that back. But obviously there might be some some occasions where you have, like, just from when you've recorded in your line this up, and it's very obviously out of time. So those ones you need to go in and just fix, but try not to put them perfectly in line with the other notes. If you zoom in a little bit, just try and make sure they are slightly out, and then it will still sound a bit more human, particularly cords, which a hit and remembering that we're pretending that we're writing for four string blaze here cello, viola and two violins. So to think about, they're not gonna be perfectly in sync. It's not one hand hitting three strings. It's four different players hitting a note on all trying to be perfectly in time with each other. So on a piano, slight movements, you know, tiny bits. If you hold control as you as you drag things. It doesn't automatically snapped, by the way, hold control on the keyboard. You get total control. If you don't hold control, it snaps to the bar line or two of the note. But on a piano you might want it a bit closer because he is one hand thing. Three notes on string parts are part of this multiple incidents. You could have mawr things pushed forward and backwards and still get away with it because people appreciate the fact that it's four different players. That's totally fine for strings on piano that might be a bit much for strings. That's fine. And one final thing that can help make your midi parts just sound a little bit more authentic. Ah, Grace notes. Just tiny little, almost like that bend we put in the clarinet part. We all know it's appeared just before that. Just lead into that next note. So let's do that on the flute part so we can hear how a grace note might make it sound a little easier. A little more real Sorry. So it on this this top note we're gonna go. We're gonna tie Little Grace note before this we get but where? So have a little note that just pushes up before it. And you could just copy note from before again by holding Alton clicking and dragging that copies it. And we had a tiny little grace note, and this could be on a passing out. I mean, that's on Ah, the flat or D shop, which isn't anarchy it all. But it's fine because it's just a passing notes, and you can barely even hear that. But you know, some things happen is like a ghost note, and it just again brings a little live in listening to that flu part compared to see that with Mechanic, the Where is the other way around? Uh, just gives it a tiny bit more life, and you don't have to do the pitch Ben thing then where it actually physically Here, the pitch bend it just tricks your mind a little bit, and that's it for getting a midi sounding good. The main main thing is just thinking about how a player would play in Haku. Make it sound Mawr in perfect. Less perfect is what we're aiming for. We're looking to make things a little bit wrong so that it sounds more human 28. Mixing: Part 1: we're now moving on to the mixing stage of the process. Now. Naturally, people tend to mix as you as they go along. Mill tweak things as as they work, which is fine. But it's good to have a dedicated stage where you kind of say, finished with the arrangement. I finished with the writing. Now I'm purely focussing on audio. On the basic aims of mixing is to make sure that everything that is meant to be heard can be hurt. To make sure that everything has a place in the mix and to make sure that there's no specific frequencies or areas they're overloaded in the mix. You don't have a big spike, a certain frequency. We want to make sure that everything's lively but fairly flat and turned to the mix. It's well balanced, high to low and left the right. One way that I like to think about it is kind of like a triangle, an upside down triangle. So the bottom you've got your base frequencies, which should be center and quite narrow, and then as you build up, you have higher pitched frequencies. It can spread out and really fill the stereo spectrum, so at the top end, you have a lot more spread a lot wider. That's how I like to think of things that people might disagree. I mean, you can. There's nothing wrong with having They spread really wide at the bottom is, well, that really fat. They sound. But I like to see in this type of music is, ah, a kind of upside down triangle when you're working with Castro stuff. It's a little complicated because contra bass and cello in the orchestra are on the right hand side of the stage. So it's tempting to pan the base of the cello towards the right to make more realistic for an orchestra. But whenever you put bass frequencies panned left or right, it makes the mixture really unbalanced than you actually kind of feel like you, Nick Carpenter cock your head to listen to it. So for general based things center and then as you grow up, you could look more spreading things left and right Top tip. If your arrangement is good, there's much less to do in the mix. If you've thought about this as you go thought, OK, we've got four high pitch investments. We're gonna spread them across that frequency ranges and overloaded. Whereas if in your arrangement you've got loads of happening in the base and loads of muddy frequencies of bottom because you've just written everything too low down, then you're gonna have a problem when it mixing. It's going to be very difficult to make that bass sound, not muddying to give any clarity to the base. So think really carefully about the spread of instrument as you're actually writing and arranging as well. Another top tip when it comes to mixing less is more. Don't put effects on just because you think you're supposed to Don't really hit things hard with the queues or compresses or anything. The less is more when it all adds up is a hole. That's when you're gonna get that really nice final mix. You'll notice when you load instruments into logic that they already have quite a few things on them. For example, this down we grand piano. This is just the logic basic, and you can see it's got une que a compressor, a tape delay and then to bus sends for reverb as well, which will look up in a minute. This could be quite cool, and you can play around with the effects that logic is already put on. Let's solve this piano Parton, and see what they've done. I'm gonna loot this so it always goes to beginning so we could have a look at what they've done on the Q, the shops and frequency out here and boosted it. Here. We could see the compressor as well. What they don't. I'll go in a bit more detail on these momentarily. It's not very not doing very much of the velocity that I've got. And then there's a tape delay. Another thing. You can turn things on and off just to see what they're doing. What, the minutes Doing nothing. Because the drives a 100% in the West is at zero. The dry is the original signal. We're on multiple effects, one reverb. So whatever else when you see the dry or wet dry is the original signal and wet is how much of the affected signal that you want to hear. So if I turn this dryer off, you'll see that we hear nothing. So I combined. Absent dry. If I turn the wetter than I can see here. What this effect actually is doing. Okay. Uh, loud really settled the lake and really add nice nice parts to piano as well. Again, it's thinking carefully about how you're going to use these effects and you see, we have to re verbs. This is quite common to have to re verbs on an instrument part. The first reverb is normally a short river, so you can see it said on here that it's ah, small hole slash 1.3 2nd diffuse hall on the second reverb is a large hole, 6.6 2nd river. This is quite common. The small hole gives ambience to the part or makes the part sound fuller, while the large hole give it some space and some placement in the mix and also the grander reverb sound. So if you see if we listen to this piano part again, if I turn this bus one right the way up, top tip hold Ault and click on effect, and it will zero it even with volume or anything. So this is right away. Down at minus 7.25 Hold cult and click. It will take it straight to zero. I'll click on this, He'll take it to zero and you're here That very short reverb I turned that down Now I have a nice balance where the piano sounds full but the river basin overpowering And again listen to what this big river is doing Now if you're if it's totally new to you in logic is brand new and your this is this is already complicated enough Just getting a piece written playing around with this standard effects will get you good results. It will get you really great end sounding results just tweaking these and getting the sound that you want. If, however, you want to really learn how to mix a bit better, we're gonna stop pull of these a totally clean get rid of all the effects were gonna start from scratch. We can see how we can actually build it up. First thing is actually titled what we're looking at so we can weaken quickly get to stuff that we want to get too. So you'll see that the melody and harmony This is my original sketch. That's just muted now so I can hide these trucks. If you right click on the track, you can choose hide track and then you'll see this hate appears at the top. And if we click on that, we can now see any This hate appears next week's tracking any tracks that want to hide we click on and it will just hide them So they're not cluttering up our mix. We have the original audio file from the video as well. What you gonna leave in? Cause I'm gonna do some just involved automation on that to have things coming in and out where I want them in the video. Okay, So, like I said, if you're new on bond, I just want to get something sounding good and learn to mix a later stage. Just play around with the effects that are already on the channel strips on dsi what you come up with. So for the clarinet part again, there's a couple of different re verbs. Ah, a nice big river can really help disguise midi samples thing. Be careful when you're working with a small group of instruments like I have like I'm here because sticking a massive river bonds gonna make them to sound wishy washing and kind of lost. And it's not gonna sound authentic. It's going to sound too big in many ways. So getting the balance right is is really important. But like I said, we're gonna start with a clean slate. I'm gonna actually get rid of all of the ah effects that are on here that we don't want and rebuild them. Essentially kind of a semi point is exercise, but I'm going to put in quite a lot of things back on. But let's just make things easy, clean, fresh ourselves. So we know where we're starting stove in your mix CDs, click X on the keyboard, and that brings up your mixer. Or you can click on the little mix of, but not at the top left of the screen. And you can highlight multiple instruments that wants to remove things. The highlight them all and you click on the little arrows. Oops. Click on the arrows. No plug in. Well, just get rid of everything that we don't want and we'll turn off these sentences. Well, I'm gonna look a little bit sends on buses further down the line. The one thing you don't want to get rid off is the instrument. This is the actual incident that's playing. So we'll leave that on there, and we just get rid of these of the sends that we have that those sends were being sent to . You can see because there appear they're called Bus one, bus to and bust three. I'm gonna delete those as well, so we have a totally, totally clean slate. Did he, anyway? Okay, now, if I play this now, it's gonna sound pretty naturally. You can see logically does quite a lot of work to make sure those instruments sound good out of the box, which is brilliant and really, really helpful. But if you want to be doing your own mixing, it can also mean that you have to do a bit of tidying up like this as well. One really important thing that I want to point out at this stage is about gain staging, and that's making sure that you're not putting too much signal in every saves throughout the throughout the mix. These are all quite quite infamous, thankfully, so you can see even at that loud, loudest kind of point there, our master channels only coming up to minus 7.1, which is healthy If you've got a lot more instruments or louder instruments, the first thing you should do is highlight all of them and bring them right down. Minus 10 is even Mawr minus 16 is is totally acceptable. To start with, you should be working quietly because you can boost things at the end. There's no noise floor to push up on with sample libraries like this. So work quietly because the last thing you want to do, let's have this stereo channel coming above zero. Because when you bounce the track, it's gonna crackle and clip and distort and sound horrible on after you spend ages automating your volume, then having to tweak it because one sector is going to allow, you have to go through and mess around with the automation and everything. It's a really headache, so start quiet. Keep everything quiet and weaken. Just boost it at the end with That's not a problem. It's all gonna keep this really nice and quiet. Turn my monitoring level up slightly so I can hear a bit easier. So effects are linear in in any door, any any audio processing that they go in a row. So this is a center like a fader, like on those big mixing desks you sound comes in, and then it goes through your effects to your sends and into your fader at the end. Generally, you can change the order of things by choosing whether it's postman pre fader, etcetera. But generally, if you imagine things coming in from the top and down, so it come. The input is of the interview where it starts, and then it goes into the effects. If I were to put a e que here and then a compressor, the sound is going to be e queued. First on, then the e queued sound is going to be compressed. It's the compress. It won't affect the original sound. It will affect the sound that's already gone through this effect. What this means it is if you put some more musical or um, editing effects like the ring shifter or re verbs delays anything like that before your e que and compressor. Those are both going to be affected by the EQ you on the compressor, which means that your your compresses gonna squeeze the all that reverb tailor make it sound really loud and washy. So you have to think really careful about what order you're putting your instruments, it your effects in on me. Generally speaking, most tracks should have a compressor and any Q. And then those two re verbs like logic, had automatically set up. Beyond that, it's it's choice in its for specific things that you might want to do. And another thing to talk about at this point is you shouldn't be listening to instruments solo. You shouldn't you consoler things to just quickly get an idea of which frequented you want to cut or pull. But you should be thinking about your final mixes with all of the tracks playing, because if you're hearing things in isolation, that's not where it sits with the other instruments. We'll go through Internet by instrument and will add the effects that we want to answer. Like I said, most incidents you should be thinking about having an e Q and A compressor. Some people do we come any Q A compressor, and then another re que. Afterwards the first hickey was to cut sounds and the second e que is the boost sounds, and that's because the compressor essentially squeeze everything and pushes the dynamics of things, including things you want and things you don't want. So that's quite a good system is to cook first with you re que so that the compressor isn't boosting sounds that you don't want and then use a second e que To boost frequencies. You might want to keep things a bit simple. I'm just gonna use the one e que. It was a totally acceptable method as well. So start with any Q on Allah. Got a clarinet now, ignoring what I just said about not listening to things in solo. I'm gonna listen to my clarinet and solo, listen to each instrument as we go, just to give a quick first passes what we call it. Set a locator. Now, when you're mixing, you'll be listening to things on. Repeat over and over again. So find a section that just sits on loop easily, where it's constant blanks. You're not sitting and waiting for it to waiting for the gaps for it to come back around again. And we could just click, play Onda open, Eric, you and see what we want. Todo found that thing by default. The e que shows you the frequencies and you can see down here, says Analyzer Post. So it's showing us how it looks after the queue. So this spike these spikes here. If I pulled him right down, you can see they disappear because it's after its being a cute it's most likely when you re queuing that you'll want to cut some frequencies and you'll want to boost some frequencies on. You want to roll off the top end on the bottom end of the queue so that you're just working with the frequency range that you want? Sometimes a good starting point is to actually look at what defaults logic has. Now when you're working with orchestral stuff, there's gonna be less things unfortunately, could. It's more built for pop music, I guess. But that might you might find something similar so clarinet might be. You might think it's similar to a female vocal, for example, or a whole. Or maybe a saxophone might have a similar wreak you particularly soprano sax for a clarinet so you could start with some of these presets on the listen out toe what they've been trying to do on DSI. What they what that waas. So this is a soprano sax preset? If I hit play, E can see they've boosted it. 9 75 boost that mawr. I can try and figure out what they were trying to do with this. It says the airiness. Okay, so I'll keep reminding a little bit. There will keep it there. That's one way that you can use presets. Figure out what they were trying to do and then work with it. Gemany When you re queuing, you'll want to listen for any unwanted frequencies and boost any any desired frequencies. So we play. If we push a spike up like this. Eureka has a frequency, which is the actual the pitch, how much you're boosting that frequency by or cutting. And then what's called the Q, Which is how wide that band is, so you can make it. Really. You could make an absolute pencil point, or you could make it wide so you can get an idea of of the frequencies around it. What I normally do is put ah, fairly Wide cube so you can hear a good spectrum boosted up to quite high. Not ridiculous, Don't 24 because it will just crackling sound horrible boosted by maybe 10 and then play, and we caught scooping. So we scoop around the frequency range, and we tried to listen out for any frequencies that we are the one that we don't want way. Uh, if you go on Google and you look for clarinet e que settings or whatever instrument it is, CQ sings, you'll likely find some guy just away. You should push and where you should pull. So they might say If you want some body, boost it about 250 hertz. And if you want to add some brightness, boosted about four kilohertz. There's general rules of different instruments, so I can't go through every single one of them, obviously with you, because we'd be here forever. But that's generally what you listen for is his body. And, um, harmonics are extra things. So one of the medical and a bit warmer we might boost about 2 50 cooked with a nice wide. You wanna make it brighter, we might boost in the higher frequencies. I'm actually gonna cut a little bit there. Another thing you can do to make sure not getting any muddiness in the low end. That might spike the final mix is just by rolling off the bottom. The human ear can't hear below 20 Hertz, and there's nothing in clarinet that's going to be in that base frequency so I can roll off all the bases. Probably all the way up to about 80 hurts even higher, and that's not gonna affect the sound at all. But it's gonna make sure there's nothing sneaking through that's going to affect the balance with the other instruments but makes you are listening. When you do that, the last thing you want to do is roll it right off and think That's OK and it sounds Thank you on the telephone to make sure it's not affecting the sound. And you could do the same on the top end as well, just to make sure none of that digital nastiness it getting along the top as well. We care for the top end. A lot of harmonics come through on orchestral instruments that really affect the sound, so you're taking off too much again. It might sound okay now, but you have everything together. You'll realize it sounds really weird, and that's because you're missing all of these subtle top end harmonics that are coming through. So you do that for each of your instruments. You are unique. You you scoop, you find out which frequented you want to keep. You want to find out which frequencies you want to cut. Andi that That's kind of first step of mixing. The next thing is think about compression as well. Not all instruments or want compression. And like I said, less is more so to really listen out to what you're doing. So if you go to your plug ins into dynamics compressor again is low two different compresses to choose from. I would recommend going to default of finding something similar. So for a clarinet vocals gonna be close enough. We'll just find something like a nice light vocal, and that's a good starting point. And it will also recommend you have different types of compresses. Appear V. C a effect classic BC, A vintage fete. So we'll find ah, where I recommend one. That might be good. And then again, we're just gonna play and we're gonna listen. A lot of these defaults have auto gain, which means it will automatically reset the dynamic to alter the makeup. The gain. Normally, I would recommend turning that off. I'd also recommend making sure that the attack and release an upset on automatic. So make sure that is off as well, and also make sure that the limiter is off. So we're just working with a compressor and were in complete control of all of the sounds that we're gonna have coming from the So you can see this meter appeared. A little graph shows you how much it's being compressed by. So the loudest point e coming right there down. It's being taken off about five decibels. We have a threshold ratio, makeup, knee attack and release. So the threshold is the level at which it's going to start affecting the sound. So if I put this right the way up 20 you're gonna see that the press is probably not going to do anything through the dynamic is never getting loud enough to trigger the compressor. If I bring you, write that down. It's going on all the time and really heavy all the time. Don't over compress good. It concerned. Very tiring on the years on could really make the sound sound a bit strange. I never try to take off more than about 1 to 3 decibels. Really, unless it's really peaking at certain points thing, and I see the big note there was peeking a bit more. The ratio is kind of how hard it's being compressed. This if you if you mind you've got your threshold, is that as a top bar that comes down, the ratio is kind of how steep it's, then start compressing once it is compressing. So if you have a really high ratio, it's just gonna be like, really, really hitting it hard vice versa. A soft ratio is just gonna be really quite gentle on it again. Most instruments people tend to stick around to to about four, maybe five of the most. So think carefully about how that's working. The maker present. How much? Because when you're compressing already taking off dynamics, it's crushing it by that secreted by half dynamic taking off five decibels. So the makeup is how much you want to then re boost the signal by again to make sure that we're not. It's not going to quiet in the mix, and if you had a good healthy headroom when you when you pull the volume down. You're good to have a nice amount of makeup on here is well, the knee is how quickly the compressor acts. Once you get to the threshold limit, how steep the how steep it starts working. And then the attacker releases how quickly the compressor acts want. It's being triggered on how quickly it let go once it's being triggered. So if you have a really fast attack, as soon as it is the dynamic, the press is gonna hit it. You can see straight waits kiting hitting as soon as the sound comes in. That's good for if you have every percussive sound that's really hitting and you want to take off the initial hit if you want to make something dunmore, because if you can put a bit of a slower attack on because then it will let let the sound come through and then compress it. So you have a bit more of a percussive sound. And again, the release. If I put the exactly the release really fast, you'll see that soon a sound finishes the compressor lets off. You can see it really bouncing along. Release on once it's being hit it just slowly pulls off the dynamic again. So you work with the compressor to fight, to figure out again, using your ears to figure out how much you want to compress by. If you have pieces that have really big spikes and dynamic, your if you want to make sure that you you're controlling that. But also you can make it sound a bit more. Bounce your percussive by tweaking your attack and release accordingly. So we go through all of our accusing. We do that, then we work on our compressing as well. Like I said, you don't have to compress all of the instruments. And they were gonna look, adding some reverb as well to help really warm up these pieces. So if you select all of the instruments again and you go to send and she was bus and Bus One, and that's going to set this new auxiliary bus trip, which basically means that you can choose how much of a change that you want to send to this and this can have effects on it, which can be affected. What are the 2nd 1 as well, he said. We normally have one small reverb you can double click here to rename it, so we'll call this small reverb and one large river. And then we just had our reverb onto here. So click we go Reverb space designer spaces on is a really great reverb unit, and you can, if you want Teoh, sample them. You can just send. Make sure you send one instrument 100% to it on. You can figure out what it's actually doing, but you can start by over the default, choosing small spaces If you find one that might even there might be one that just says yes , that's exactly what I'm looking for. So you could look at holes, ambience hol. Okay, well, I'm looking to add ambiance to my instruments, so that sounds perfect. Have a listen that's adding a really nice wants to it. You can add a lot more wetness to the sound if you want to. To make it even even fuller and even bigger, you'll notice the dry is muted. We don't want any dry signal coming through on our orcs trip, because if we if we send the dry skin as well, it's gonna just double the sound. Essentially, Andi make it too loud because this is on ork strip. It's just the wet that we want to hear. You'll see if I play this and solo my my small river. We're just hearing the reverb. They're not the actual original clarinet part way. Do the same on our second set to quickly copy effects, you could hold Altan effect in click and drag as well. And then you quickly copy the same effect over with all of the same settings to we're gonna do the large face hall. Let's have a look what we might want. You think about what type of reverb you want. You can have warm reverb, savory, full bodied, or you can have bright reverb that really high end and really twinkly in the top end like a stone hole it imagine being in a hole made of stone. It would be really echoed, but really brightly reflective, whereas if you're in a hole made of wood, it would still echo, but it would be a warmer sound, So think about what type of peace you're doing. If it's a really lively, happy beat, you might want to break the sound. If it's a warm romantic beauty myself, once and thin, warm like a warm hole, for example, and you could see it tells you how long each reverb is. A 3.2 seconds, 3.9 seconds anywhere between four to about six seconds is good for your big river. You can go crazy and have 10 22nd re verbs, but we want something nice and big but not too overpowering. Let's just try out the church tower, see how that sounds. Probably be quite bright, I think again we'll just turn up the an instrument so we can hear it. I might just solo that plan as well, talking really here, actually a little bit warmer than I was expecting for that church tower. So that's great. We'll stick with that one. And this is where we then listen through the piece on. We add as much reverb as we feel necessary. I wouldn't normally actually start by choosing all the instruments and adding a bit of the ambience. Not too much again. Play and listen. We should be out to hear what does by just walking up. This is something I do a lot when I'm trying to work out what something does Put on full strand here when it does and take it off and see what the effect is seen for your compressing. If you want to hear what it's doing, pull the threshold right the way down. OK, I can hear what it's doing. Take it back up again. So we just listen makes you got the nice Matin ambience. And I'll show you how important it is to make sure that you have the reverb on the same revives on instruments. Because if I turned all this river off on these, But I give, uh, my strings load to Riva. Only the around will give our stick out like a clarinet load to reverb in the strings. Nothing. You hear that? They sound like they're just coming from two totally different worlds. Way use Revert to try and put the instruments in the same room to make it sound like they're in the same place. So it's all about balancing that. So we'll just add some reverb to all of our instruments and then we'll tweak. Take away what We don't want Another quick triquint with three verbs as well. Something I like to do is actually solo the reverb and listen to it. Sounds a bit strange, but if you imagine that you stood outside a room listening to the instruments inside, that's kind of how your reverb should sound, so I could hear I might need more clarinet. There, you see, it kind of sounds like it's down the corridor somewhere, so if you get a nice mix, nice balance and actually hear the instruments on that river. But if it's down a corridor, when you put everything together and here the original tracks as well, you hear you see that it fits quite nicely, and that's your basic mix on a que compressor on and sending it to to re verbs. Sometimes I'll also send everything to 1/3 bus, and we'll have a delay on that bus delay. Designer. Depending what type of pieces I might do something ordinary, something simple or might you? Something walked into the bunkers, but some normally a simple 1/8 dotted basic pan, for example. I'll just show you what that's doing on my piano part so you can hear we'll put the cat apart. Zero. Here you get not repeating the only delay, but particularly for percussive parts. So for a piano and out, Celeste, if we have this really re subtly, I'll solid this so we can hear it so again turned out to hear what it's doing. Okay, now I know what it's doing. So I'll just back off. Uh, and you see, it just adds a little bit of liveliness behind that piano, and I could do the same with the choice, and it's only really, really subtle, but just enough so that we can hear it on. That can give a nice balance to the nice liveliness to that to those parts as well. Anything percussive, which is a tiny bit of delay on, can really help. 29. Mixing: Part 2: one of the really important things that I haven't touched upon yet is the actual balance of volume on panning as well. So panning is the balance of ancients. Left to right on volume is how loud or quiet they are. As I said earlier on, if you imagine that upside down triangle the higher frequencies, you can get away with panning a bit more generally anything lead any of your lead instruments should be central on office, any basis from Shelby Central's. Well, anything extra Can you pan left and right? So in this piece, for example, my Kyra, Let's and flutes are lead parts, so they should really be central because we have two parts we might. We might just balance the ever so slightly left and right so that they you can hear independent parts. But my Celeste is an additional instruments that could have some panning on my pianos harmony so we could get away with planning that a little bit my strings again. We can stick some spread on there, but we do want the base part of the string to stay central as well. One quick way of getting a nice spread is by using a stereo spreader. So in parts like piano parts under the string parts, you can go on to your effects on under imaging, this one called Stereo spread. I just sold the Pianist. You can hear what this is doing. You cannot sit without. I had the stereo spread. You'll hear that. It certainly sounds like it's mawr left and more right now in its default setting. It's that's a bit extreme, and it makes you feel a bit odd in your particular wearing earphones like I am. But if you drop down the menu and choose a light, high frequency spread or a medium high frequency spread, or even a medium, mid and high frequency, spread any of those options. So the higher frequencies mid to high frequencies. You'll see that from fire, and it hurts upwards. It starts spreading it and getting wider and wider, and that's gonna get really nice spread at the higher end for you on your harmony parts or four months on. You can define where it starts. If you want to start but lower, you can pull that down a little bit. I'm gonna go a bit higher, actually with it and Also, you can choose how Why do you want to start at the bottom On how Why do you want it to be at the top of the spectrum on also, how often you want to go left or right? So if you just have four, it's only gonna be awesome. Big range of frequencies pan left and right, which, if you go up to 12 it's gonna be more often so smaller Bands but mawr of them left and right. That's a nice way of straight away, adding some spread to your tracks. I could put that on my piano on my strings on even much less if I wanted to. And then we might have a nice, wide ranging sound spread out across there. You take it off much a lesson. I'm actually gonna pan much Celeste manually and have it in a specific place that has a nice its own little area to sit in. Obviously, if you have more instruments, you can play around a bit more with this. But I'm gonna put my clarinet a little bit on my a my butt, Botham, because remember, these are kind of pretending to be the same instrument um, I flew the opposite way again, Just listening to make sure that's not too extreme. Yeah, when it comes to setting our volumes, turn that piano down because it's a way ahead of everything else we're gonna want. Start doing some automation. So automation is where you automate or make things move automatically, and you can automate pretty much anything you can automate. How much you're sending. You could automate any effect you want in your compressor or your e que. You could make your your high pass turn on and off on your EQ. You you can automate reverb settings literally pretty much anything you can change in logic . You can automate somehow. So if you go back to your main track humane, arrange window and click a on the keyboard or click on your automation button up here, you'll see that opens your automation. I've already done a little bit here, which I'll talk about in a minute, and basically you. The standard is read because it's gonna read the automation. And if you could drop down on this side, you'll see all of the different options. So in my compressor, those were my compressor options or Mike, you options everything in my access 24 which is the sample of as instruments in it all kinds of stuff, so you can automate. As I said, pretty much everything. Things you might want to water may include your volume. Your e que settings on the amount of sends you might be sending to you could automate a delay turning on and off, for example, So there's one word that you want to have a delay on. You can automate it so that delay just turns on for that word and then turns off again. If you want to automate something and you can't find its description in any of these controls, an easy way to do that is make sure you have the track selected. Change this to touch and then open the thing that you want to change. So let's say, Well, we want to change something in our sampler, play the track and then move whatever it is, and you can see that it's automatically added the new track with the glide time on here, which is the thing that I touched in the excess 24. Then I can delete what I did because I don't want you want to keep that? So there's an automation select tool 30 automation selectable. I can select all of that I didn't want and delete it. And then I've got my glide select thing here that I can automate as I choose just in the cloud and do it since let's put that back on Read Touch is a great way as well. If you are, you can actually solve play in your automation. So if you want to play the track and control the volume you could just based. It's a really great way to write in your automation quickly and give a bit of life to performance really, really easily. So we come to automating. One of the first things we should do is work out. Just listen to our lead line and make sure that that is consistent throughout the piece. It's on a solo, mike clarinets and flutes on. Just listen through changes back to volume you see here have pulled off a little bit, and that's because the clarinet and flute balance, which is nice when they both come in together they boost a little bit, so I've pulled them down ever so slightly so that there is still the same dynamic or it still sounds at the same dynamic. And I need to make sure Mr Carter fruits the same as, well, clarinets. You can check on the output now. This isn't always an actual reflection of what you hear. This is like how the actual frequently spike. But here it was. You click it reset 32 22 of the most. If I reset that now, I can see that when my staccato clarinets that's just reset by clicking around about similar kind of volume around 30 way, you want to make sure that the lead part is balanced throughout and then we can mix. The rest are instruments around that lead part, so that's going to set our benchmark the lead part there. So we go through an ultimate all of that, and then we cannon Salo these and listen to the whole track. Think OK that Celeste is really pushing through. Turn that down. China's taking over a little bit as well Turn that down a little bit. Think pit strings of fat allowed those right down what automation I've got on there. But something went a bit crazy in the background, and that's how we go about setting the levels for our peace. So we get our lead part where the lead melody, whichever it is, where it is through the whole piece and make sure that a consistent, stable volume throughout and then we arrange our other pieces. Oh, are the parts around that again, automating everything to make sure that it docks where it needs to do it. And then it comes up where it needs to come up, are briefly showed you buses when we looked at setting up our reverb and delay bus. There are few things that you can do with buses that are quite cool. One is to use it for a side effects for your reverb and delay, for example, another is you can use into group instruments as well. If I were to select thes, there is no option you can see in logic called Group on. I can assign these to a group. The problem is it it makes editing them a little tricky because it always moves. The fate is together, and it could. It could be a bit of a pain, but if you instead where your output is instead of sending it straight to stereo. So this basically stance sends these three instrument Well, all of the instruments, as you can see, are all being sent the stereo out that send it straight to this channel strip, which is our stereo out channel strip what we actually want to do if we send these to our bus now, a good rule I sometimes follows. I use the first buses that 123 etcetera for effect. And then I go from the top down for instrument groups. So I'd start a bust 32 for my instrument groups and you'll see it creates a new strip. And I can call this melody because that's our lead. These are all of our lead instruments that are being sent to our to this strip. So now these instruments are sent straight to this melody strip, and then this strip goes to the city area out here instead. What this allows me to do it means I can control just my melody wherever I want to controls both the flu and the clarinet, honesty, car clarinet. So I have total control over that. This is really useful you might send all of your strings. If you've done a separate violin viola cello contra bass section, you might send all of that to one group so that you can control the entire string section as one bus as well. You can also add, like a generally queue for all string parts on this on this setting on this strip as well, which can be really, really helpful. Another thing you can do here is with this strip is actually put it into the arrange windows that you could do automation on it as well. If you right, click and choose create track, you'll see that they jumped over here. But underneath our flute parts clarinet parts. When I close this mixer, you'll see that it's appeared in my range window. So now I can automate those melodies as a group was, well know individually. So instead of doing this many automation on both parts here, I could have just automated it on my orcs end instead. That's a really great way of using buses. You can even put your stereo out Masters Channel strip into the track of oil by creating a track. Sometimes logic at the let It doesn't like it when you do that, though, and you have to create another track. First reassigned track mix. Ah, its output stereo stereo out and then it creates it below. I don't know why it It's a bit of a bug and logic, I think. Anyway, there's a stereo out now, so I could even automate my final stereo out if I choose to. It's better to automate bosses rather than stereo out. You couldn't send. I could send this to a burst them. I could send my bus to another bus if I wanted to as well. So I have my my group of melodies. And then I could send my melody bus to a general music bursts and more all might that sound . I have effects to a different bus. Instead, you can chain up to as many buses. You want to have all kinds of parallel things happening where sending things the buses could be useful as well is. I could send all of my musical stuff so I could highlight everything here and send this to ah, Bus 31 which I'll call Music and create a stripped from that great attract from that and now in my arrange window. And it comes to balancing sound effects, music and whatever else. I've got a strict dedicated to music, so I can really tied everything up if I want to, as well I can by hiding everything so I can hide all of this on all of this. And I'm left with just music sound effects in the video on my stereo out so that I can then work on balancing those three for my final final mix. 30. Mastering: We're gonna look at mastering out tracks now. Mastering is a bit of a dark art, really. In fact, when I had Simon graft user a mix engineer on my on my podcast, he said The mastering is like masters level stuff after you've the whole degree on mixing you do mastering afterwards and he wouldn't recommend anybody touching mastering because you can really ruin a track with it. That said, there are a few things we can do just to help boost the signal. So essentially mastering is making the piece sound louder, wider and fuller. That's the whole aim of mastering. And like I said, doing it properly is very, very difficult. So Well, what we're gonna look at is just ways of essentially boosting our sound to make sure that it's a healthy level and it's balanced so that we can control it nicely. Just a few standard things you would put on a master track was gonna make sure we can hear all of our instruments. Everything's hidden. Make sure nothing soloed, and we just working with our absolute final track now so your master would normally go on your stereo out. If it's just a music piece. Obviously, I've got music and dialogue from the original video as well. So I'm going to do my mastering on a bus, which is my music bus that we looked at that we created earlier. We'll make sure this is what we're hearing now. Mastering is something that happens after you finish mixing normally. If you were to send your piece to a mastering engineer, you would literally send them the bounce off the stereo file. Send that to a mastering engineer. They do. They're mastering work just on that stereo file, so make sure you're mixes finished before you start mastering. Mastering doesn't help your mics sound better. The mix should already sound as good as it can be. So that's the final piece. Mastering is, like I said, Louder, Fuller. Wider. It's not part of the mixing stage to finishing mix. I. I need to do some more work on this mix, really, but I'll show you some of the mastering stuff before I do that to finishing mix and then do your mastering just help boost things up. So on your audio effects, there's a There's a fairly standard route that you would go through with the mastering, and the first thing is to actually meet her it. So I'm eatery. You have a multi meter, and this is just so you can see what you have going on in your piece. So the left is the perceived dynamic. How loud your clothes off, hearing the piece that's at minus 37 on these are all the frequencies that we can hear. What we're looking for is to see if there's anything that's really sticking out. He might have loaded, based off happening or big spikes anywhere. And that's what we need to work on in the in the mastering to make sure that we're flattening that out so we can boost everything. Because when we start turning everything up, if there's one thing that sticking up above the rest, it's a bit like Thea the iceberg that sank the Titanic sticking out the top. Well, that's gonna trigger all of your compresses and things to turn on when you don't want them to. So first I'm gonna listen to make sure Well, well, look and make sure line spiking up way. Wanna make sure that when things are coming up, they're all a similar kind of levels, which they appear to be roughly on this piece is a bit of a spike Around 500 there tells you hurt. There's also a gun he omitted, which helps you gauge how wide and how full your pieces as well. Okay, so you've meted it. You've had a look at what needs doing. The next step that you would do is to add an E que often with mastering people use linear phase e que instead of a channel eq you so linear phase e que open that. And we have to be very subtle on my mastery. So there are some defaults again. Mastering for example, you're not gonna find mastering for orchestral music in here. Balad might get you where you want, but you'll see any of these presets are all really subtle things. Four is six quite is quite big for mastering. Really, You'll see most of them are quite quite subtle. Generally lets reset not to default. So, really, when it comes to take you on mastering again, you could do the sweeping thing to see if there's anything that's really, really specifically sticking out. So I said the into my meter ring. We had a bit of a spike around 500 hertz. I'm gonna pull down at 500 actually make that a lot narrower. But we're not taking off much or any tiny, tiny little bit on. We're gonna listen to it while we do it on. Also turn on our analyzer as well to see if there's anything sticking up there. I think it's case of thinking about what sound you want, so if you want a bit more brightness, you'll raise a top only by a tiny little bit two or three decibels at most everything you do, The Mastering State is gonna get amplified loads along the state's very, very subtle things. That way, the next standard thing to have on a mastering chain is a multi band compressor. So that's in dynamics multi presser, and this is the same as a compressor. The only difference is that you can control if the attack release threshold etcetera in different frequency spectrums, so you can see this four spectrum say, the 1st 1 between 20 hertz on 175 ish 160 the next one between 116 1100 on the next one between 1107.5 kilohertz. You can move these crossover areas as well you can. You can change where you want them to be. So this is again another tool to help us balance out that spectrum, to make sure that nothing is spiking in and pushing anything above where it should be. And if they're us again, some presets on here. So you want, like a final pop or rock compressive, for example. Slow attack, four bands, drinks compressor. Fine. You can go through these and see there's any that work with the track that you're working on. For example, I might try final pop compressor again. We're listening carefully to see what it does. Don't be fooled by the auto gain again so that it automatically turn on auto gains. So sometimes you'll hear something you think, Wow, it sounds loads better on. That's purely because it's louder when you hear things louder. People seem to think it sounds better, so make sure you ought to gain is off. Listen again. Make sure the compressor is actually doing what you wanted. Teoh on Tweak. As necessary, you've been Salo the section, for example, the low section, so make sure that we're actually getting the frequent. We want just the low end change where the threshold is and how much is gonna hit the signal by one thing I forgot, Thio added, at the start of this strip, Actually, even before our multi meter is again, if we've had it really quiet, we might want to actually boost the whole signal. It is a little bit, as I said, in response, to mix quietly, which is really, really great on the utility gain stereo. You can actually boost the whole whole piece. So let's have a look at my multi meter again. This is really naughty. I should have done this before I did my you curing and more depressing. I need to go and change those again now. So, looking at where are peaks are minus 30 minus 31. Go to the loudest part of the truck. Probably my comedy section where things go Eso I'm peaking at minus 25 at the most, so I can really afford to push this quite a lot with my gain to get a good healthy signal for my mastering here. Wait, maybe not that much and then the final or the next thing in the train is an adaptive limiters on the dynamics adaptive limiter stereo. This basically boost the signal all over but also captured. At a certain point, it's not going to clip at any point. So we want to turn the output seeming to about minus 0.1, just to make sure we have a tiny bit of extra space to make sure nothing goes clip on. Then we could just a just a game to make sure we're not. There's not reduction happening all the time, but at some point where it's a really big signal, we might have a little bit of reduction happening just to keep things in check. If you find the Africa really gain here, you could go back to your multi band compressor on. Look about increasing some of the gain makeup in your compressor as well. Just help boost that signal along the way. E. I would start to get quite loud with it. With all Castro and film music, we don't need to be pushing everything to the limit. You see a lot of pop tracks when you look at the masking it just looks like a block of audio. We don't need to be doing that with orchestral music, particularly because it's gonna be going behind dialogue and things as well. So we want to have some more dynamic in it to be able to control it a little bit. This state is just to give a nice, healthy, consistent signal. Really. After reductive limiter, we'd add another multi presser just to check that what we've done has worked. Basically no multi presses. Sorry, a multi ah, multi meter at another multi meter just to see that what we're doing is working on. There's nothing spiking up any more out of place and to make sure that our spread looks nice, too. So we have that first multi meter that shows what it is before and then a second showing its what is afterwards. There's another couple of things you can add to your mastering strip as well. This is your standard mastering layout. You gain it. You have a meter e que multi band compressor limiter and then another multi meter just to check your final things. After your IKI, you can also add on exciter and excite is kind of like a nice distortion that just helps saturate your signal. Give it some warmth and a bit more fullness. So on anything you. Q. You can see we have a little line we can add under specializes an exciter, and again, maybe start with a default. So have a look. There's add silver artificial overload. Edge addition Sizzle might be a nice one to start with for a mastering track, so we'll just have a listen to how this sounds. These are more things that would normally do on on pop tracks, really on songs. But orchestral music it's it's a bit contentious is the how much of this stuff you would actually do that's too much straight away. I can hear that's too much, but you can again when you're playing around with these things, just see what things do. Turn them right the way up, right the way down, and listen to what's going on. You have a frequency where you want to kick in, that you can you can convert you really, really want to be. Doing the top frequencies is to add that sizzle. If you do it too low down, it's just gonna sound moody and dark and messy. I'll show you that was horrible. I wish I wasn't wearing headphones for that. It's just a top frequencies that you're hearing, and it's really a subtle sizzle that it's adding on to the top of their If you choose to about this, there's two different colors in the exciter as well, so you can see which one works best for your track alongside the exciter. After you've multi band compressor before you limit it, you can also add that stereo spread that we added on the piano part as well. Stereo spread a similar process, really similar kind of thing. You're looking at a light, high frequency spread. It's just the top end that you want to spread out a little bit to give a bit more depth on a bit more with to the peace. But again, less is more. Don't put these things on just because I've told you that's what you're supposed to do. You think that's what you're supposed to do? Put the spreader on playing with the settings? Listen really, really carefully. This is why they say mastering is is a high level stuff, cause it needs really, really good ears and good monitoring systems to be able to hear properly. So listen very, very carefully to what it's actually adding. And if you don't think it's adding anything or if it's even making the piece sound worse, don't feel obliged to keep it on, get rid of it and just and ignore it on excitingly want you to the mastering that is your piece finished and ready to go. 31. Exporting - Section Introduction: we're nearly at the finish line. We're now going to look at the final delivery of your project. Will be looking at two methods. The first using logic Pro X and the second using a really exciting bit of free software called DaVinci Resolve. This is one of my favorite part of great music for film, as we can finally see it all come together, even though you can watch the movie with music inside logic itself. This something wonderful about opening an actual movie file and seeing and hearing the end result. 32. Exporting in Logic Pro X: when it comes to exporting a movie using logic. There's a couple things have to look out for, but it's quite a simple process, really. But the first thing is to make sure you're actually only exporting what you want. Tohave hurt. I've actually sent the wrong files before where I've explored the peace to movie and haven't checked the movie before I send it, which is really big. No, no. And I've left the original audio file in that the director had sent me. And that also means that when he imported into his system, the my audio, my music on his audio and then his own audio in the computers all doubled up late. And it's a mess, and you can't control just the music. So you need to make sure that if you aren't sending any audio that you have the original audio track muted or that you tweak the audio to make sure it's what you need. So in this piece there's this piano section that that I wanted to keep in so I will automate my my track here to make sure that the piano part is still there. But there's nothing either side of the piano part so that when I export it, I'm just gonna have the actual section that I want in that audio on my music track, which, as you remember it all hidden at the moment. But I promise you is that and then the process of exploring is very, very simple. We go to file movie export audio to movie, and this gives you a couple of options. Asked you what you want. The audio format to be the sample right and bit step normally standard for movies 48 kilohertz and 24 bit linear PCM means it's gonna be either Wow for a FF. It's a high quality file as opposed to choosing a A C or Apple lossless, which is less good quality. And then we save who wouldn't wanna overwrite it. Let's call it final. It's a good idea to get in the habit of choosing good file names. Some people use the date. Some people use a version number like V one, version one V two data quite cool because they're always in the right order. You do it backwards. You do like 2000 and 19 march on today's the 19th and then My next version might be March 21st and that will appear further down in my in my window, so safe. And then I asked you if you want to export any of the original audio as well. So if I want to have my originality of file, non edited are literally the original imported. I would take that and it will import as a new audio. I don't want that because I'm going to export the actual audio I have in my window here. So untech that doesn't matter if it's on separate tracks on up and then okay and it will bounce now that I have had problems with logic, sometimes where it says that the synchronization problem matter, it's bounced. Let's see what happens on this occasion. We're all fine now. You'll see in my folder. I have a lot of course video the day that we saved it as and here it is, it saves in the original movie format, with which ever audio format you chose to add on top on their it ISS with music should be way. One good thing to check after you've bounced. It is obviously make sure that any audio bits you brought in us are actually there, which they are checked the beginning that it doesn't start to abruptly and also check the ending. Now you see, that cuts off very, very abruptly, and this is something that happens a lot. You see a lot on advert where they've the advert cuts dead in the music just stops dead as well when someone says they want 30 seconds of music that mean exactly 30 seconds as to fade off exactly at zero. So you'll need to do the same with your music here and make sure that you do fade it off. Or make sure it finished a little earlier exactly in line with the end of the movie, so that at the end, make sure it's not too abrupt. It actually fades properly with the movie to the really quick fade out that ends solidly, and that's it for exporting through logic off. They'll have to explore that again. Now that I've put the fade out in and that's it. You have a final movie put together, which is grateful 33. Exporting with DaVinci Resolve: The second method that I'm going to show you involves using an awesome bit of free software called The Vinci Resolve. Divinci makes a really high end movie editing software and hardware and cameras and all kinds of stuff, but they actually give a free video editing software away, which works amazingly. It's a lot better than something like I movin in Apple, for example, although I movies totally for sufficient for what we're trying to do as well. So for working with DaVinci Resolve, the first thing we want to do is bounce the audio from logic to make sure we have a final music bounce and again only bounce exactly what we need. So again, I want to keep that audio from the original video, so I'll keep that coming in with DaVinci Resolve. I could actually do that manually resolve as well, but I'm gonna keep it on my music track for now. Make sure things set, and then I have to set my locators so I'm bouncing exactly what I need a quick way to make sure you're bouncing. Just the exact length that you need is to highlight the audio from the original video and then set locators using that and that That way, you know, your music track is gonna be the exact same length as the actual video audio track. We then go to file Bounce Project or section or the Shockers Command be. Now we want to choose the right setting so we don't want it is an MP three once it is PCM I f f or wave is fine. 24 bit 48 kilohertz into leave no dithering. Make sure normalizes turned off normalized trashy track. It'll just make it the same loud loudness throughout. So make sure that is off. Sometimes it's good to bounce in real time. You have a final listen through to make sure everything is okay that the bounce goes well, we'll do offline for now and then we just click OK and choose where we wanted to save. So that's a central place for it. Gonna call it audio bounce on. It will bounce. We then go into DaVinci resolve and we can start a new project. Tyler Course video. An individual resolve. We have a number of options along the bottom. Basically, you have your media pool, edit section effects and things audio effects. When you deliver, we're gonna bother with our edit section and and deliver section. For now, this isn't a course on DaVinci resolve, so I'm not going to show you all of the in an ounce of it, and I I only use it very basically as well for stuff like this. So we navigate to our original course video and drag that into our media pool. We have one of these options, like we get in logic. So let's change that. And then we also won our audio file that we just bounced a swell. We'll drop that in that, too. Track the course video into arrange window. If you need to remove the audio, you can either just mute it or you can unlinked these by clicking on the link. But I want you haven't highlighted and then select the audio and delete it and then bring in the audio that we bounced from logic and they knew that track and it was she that it should sink up properly. Still, I want to have everything lined up, how you want it. Obviously, you can add effects and things within DaVinci, which is really great, but then we just go to deliver on Divinci. Automatic has a whole different profiles that you can choose as well. So if you want, if you know this is gonna go on YouTube, you can choose a YouTube 10 80 p. Call it what you want to call it for hours where you wanted to be saved and then add to render queue. The nice thing about DaVinci is you can line up lots of things. So if you want to do from edits of this or I want to do 10 videos at once, I just edit them all at the mall to my cue and then want. It's finally ready, and I don't know all the things I want to do for today. I just click, start, render on. It works its way through each video and renders that down to a final Phil. So that's how you could do individually Resolve. If you are into video editing or putting together videos like home movies like this, I've really recommended into resolve. It's an awesome but if a free software, but you can do loads with. Obviously, there are some limitations compared to premium software like final Cut or Adobe, but you could do titles, graphics, anything you want in it on. It's a really powerful bit of kit, which has saved me a lot of time. When it comes to video editing, things like my movie or Windows movie maker are great as well, but there are a lot more basic. This is kind of in between something like I Movie and Final Cut, for example, has pro features, but you have to unlock some of them if you want some of the like four K editing and things like that, for example.