Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 2 - Chords, Scales, & Keys | Jason Allen | Skillshare

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Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 2 - Chords, Scales, & Keys

teacher avatar Jason Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      1 part2 Overview


    • 2.

      2 ToolsWeWillUse


    • 3.

      4 WhatAreScales


    • 4.

      5 ChromaticAndDiatonic


    • 5.

      6 OrderedPitchClassCollections


    • 6.

      7 ChromaticScales


    • 7.

      8 WholeAndHalfPattern


    • 8.

      9 ScaleDegreeAndTonic


    • 9.

      10 Solfege


    • 10.

      11 Practice


    • 11.

      13 UsingMajorScales


    • 12.

      14 MelodyAnalysis


    • 13.

      15 WhatIsAKey


    • 14.

      17 MajorKeyOverview


    • 15.

      18 WhatAreKeySignatures


    • 16.

      19 IdentifyingKeySignatures


    • 17.

      21 WhatAreChords


    • 18.

      22 SongAnalysis


    • 19.

      23 Triads


    • 20.

      24 BuildingTriads


    • 21.

      25 DiatonicChordProgressions


    • 22.

      26 Inversions


    • 23.

      27 RomanNumerals


    • 24.

      28 Analusis2


    • 25.

      30 WhatIsInsideOfATriad


    • 26.

      31 TheThirdHoldsThePower


    • 27.

      32 FindingThirdsByHalfSteps


    • 28.

      33 FindingTheFifthByThirds


    • 29.

      35 DimishedTriads


    • 30.

      36 AugmentedTriads


    • 31.

      37 AddingOctavesToTriads


    • 32.

      38 GuitarChords


    • 33.

      40 AnalysisOverview


    • 34.

      41 AnalysisCanonInD


    • 35.

      42 NonChordTones


    • 36.

      43 MinuetInG Part1


    • 37.

      43 MinuetInG Part2


    • 38.

      45 MinuetInG Part3


    • 39.

      48 7thChordsOverview


    • 40.

      49 4Typesof7thChords


    • 41.

      50 Maj7thChords


    • 42.

      51 min7thChords


    • 43.

      52 dom7thChords


    • 44.

      54 BluesChords


    • 45.

      56 WhatNext


    • 46.

      57 ThanksBye


    • 47.



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About This Class

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These classes I'm making for Skillshare use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

Recently I was named as a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year award because of my in-person university classes. Now I'm taking those classes to Skillshare in an online format in order to reach more students and give them the joy of Music Theory.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own.

This class is a Comprehensive class - it will have many parts, going through my entire annual curriculum.

This class is Part 2: Chords, Scales, and Keys.

Throughout this class, I'll be providing you with 8 worksheets for you to practice the concepts on. If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. Also in this class I have several complete analysis projects that we will complete together - just like in my college classes.

In this class, we will cover:

  • My approach to Music Theory
  • Tools you will need to learn Music Theory quickly and efficiently
  • Chromatic and Diatonic scales
  • Ordered Pitch Class Collections
  • The pattern of a Major Scale
  • Scale Degrees
  • Solfege
  • Writing melodies with major scales
  • Analyzing melodies
  • What it means to be "in key"
  • Key signatures
  • How to identify key signatures
  • Popular song analysis
  • Building triads (chords)
  • Diatonic chord progressions
  • Roman numeral analysis
  • Inversions
  • Finding chords by formula
  • The thirds inside of a chord
  • Finding fifths by finding thirds
  • Diminished triads
  • Augmented triads
  • Chords on the guitar
  • Full Analysis: Canon in D (Pachabel)
  • Full Analysis: Minuet in G (Bach)
  • 7th Chords
  • Major 7th Chords
  • Minor 7th Chords
  • Dominant 7th Chords
  • ...and much, much more!

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. Start here.

Dr. Jason Allen is an Ableton Certified Trainer and a Ph.D. in Music Composition and master of Electronic Sounds. His music has been heard internationally in film, radio, video games, and industrial sound, as well as the concert hall and theater. His 2015 album, Aniscorcia, reaching the CMJ Top200 Charts and radio broadcasts nationwide. In 2014 he was named a semi-finalist for the Grammy Music Educator Award.

He currently is a professor at Augsburg University and the CEO of Slam Academy in Minneapolis.

Praise for classes by Dr. Jason Allen:

  • "Without a doubt the best explanation and east of use that one can get. It leaves you enough room to go explore. The classes go by quickly, so you can be on your way to being proficient. What are you waiting for!"

  • "Amazing - Seriously Loved It! I took all his courses and have to say I'm so happy! Learned loads! Jason is an awesome teacher!"

  • "I have never had any formal training in music at all. Trying to learn all the notes and how everything translated was a serious challenge. After going through this class, Dr. J has totally brought down the barriers. The content was very useful and was easy to grasp for me."

  • "I like these courses because you can get up and running quickly without having to spend hours of time wading through TMI (too much information!). Jason hits the high points but shows you what you need to know. Thanks!"

  • "I've watched many other videos on scales and chords before, however, this one has been the best. I now understand minor scales and chords and even how to analyze songs. It really gave me the confidence to start producing music because I feel like I have some structure and guidelines to follow. AWESOME!"

  • "Clear and Informative - Jason has a clear uncluttered style (with the important dashes of humor) of presentation that is focused on the important key aspects of this course. Recommended for those starting out!"

  • "Dr. Allen does it again with his music theory series. This course really opened up everything I learned from the 1st section, and now I understand more about the composition side of things for music. I highly highly recommend this course to anyone!!! Really opened my eyes to many things I wasn't aware of."

  • "The Best Teacher Ever, who makes you understand the ins & outs of Music Theory by all means without giving what you don't want to know."

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jason Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen teaches... See full profile

Level: Beginner

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1. 1 part2 Overview: way, everyone, welcome to my second in my series of big, comprehensive music theory classes. Now, why do I call a comprehensive? The reason is I found that making these short online classes are good for some topics, unless good for other topics and music theory is one that is not extremely simple. It gets complicated and it builds and it builds and it builds. So I wanted to devise an online course that took us from beginning to end. So the 1st 1 I made which you may have seen focuses primarily on reading notes. I am basically how to understand a music score like the one we're looking at here. This one is going to dive into the real nitty gritty of music theory. We're gonna focus on major keys throughout this whole course. We're going to look at cords how cords are built, what notes go in cords, how to figure out what notes go in chords, how to figure out any scale by the pattern of a scale, not just by memorizing, but by learning what makes up a scale. What goes into keys in the same deal with that one. What is the pattern of a key. How to figure out any key, not just memorizing. There's not gonna be very much stuff that you're gonna need to memorize in this course. A couple things, But mostly we're looking at learning how to understand music on a deeper level, including this piece that we're looking at. Here we are going, Teoh. By the end of this class, do a complete analysis of this piece. This is menu it in G by Bach. It's not the most exciting piece ever written, but it has a lot of really interesting things in it. We're going to know what every single note is doing on this page. We're gonna do a complete harmonic analysis using Roman numerals. Same thing you would do in one of my college classes. I'm gonna walk you through every step of it. Also, throughout this class, I'm gonna give you Ah, whole bunch. I think eight practice worksheets that you can do if you want on these worksheets, they'll be some things that you can do to reinforce the concepts that we've just learned in each section. And then I'll also be giving you an answer keys. You can check. You can also post questions to the class, and I will answer those very quickly if another student doesn't answer them before me, which is also a nice time. So I hope that you are excited to learn music theory as I am to teach it so please jump in and let's get started right away. Now, before we jump into the class, one of the things I always do is I wait to film this introductory video until I finished filming all of the rest of the class. So the classes done. I'm filming this now, and I want to show you some of the cool stuff that we cover in this class. So here are a few excerpts from the class that just kind of show you the teaching style that I have and how we're going to cover different things in a couple of the topics that we're going to cover. So please check this out and then I will see you inside the class for the first lesson. Gayle looks something like this whole whole half whole whole whole half. Now you're gonna hear me say that a 1,000,000,000 times. Let's put a G right there, because that's the fifth note of my scale, which is going to make this feel like this note is gonna lead to there? That's one of those tendons. Fifth note of the scale makes a C major triad, because way used the scale of C. Let me say that one more time way. Start off with the C major minor seventh chords have a similar kind of prettiness to them, but, um, kind of encapsulated in a minor. There were smaller than major thirds right? Augmented is a term we use to mean slightly stretched apart, slightly bigger than it ought to be, right? 2. 2 ToolsWeWillUse: All right. Welcome to my comprehensive music theory class part two. So, as you may have noticed from the opening lecture, I don't need to repeat myself there. But this is the second part. And by that I mean the second class. The first part was basically all about how to read music and how to read notated music. So either you took that. And now you're in this class and following up, and we're gonna talk about how to make and use major scales and the Circle of fifths. So we're gonna devote this whole class to that because there's this is really, really fundamental Teoh how music theory works. Now, in that first class I I went through, um I did, ah, video about the tools I'm going to use. And I'm gonna do that here also because I think it's important for you to know because if you skipped that first class, which is totally fine, if you already know how to read music at least a little bit then, um, this class, we'll be just fine for you. But I do want to talk about the tools I'm going to use in particular. Two. There are two tools I'm going to be using and I would like you to use in order to get the most out of this class. And those two tools are, um, a music notation program of which there are a few. And I'm talking about a piece of software here and some just some good old manuscript paper and a pencil is handy for you to have. So let's talk about manuscript paper first. There's a lot of different kinds of manuscript paper you can buy some, or you can just print some out in the next, uh, unit of this class. The next video chunk. I'm going to give you a a link for a PdF of some manuscript paper. You can just print off a couple copies of this. Have it handy so you could scribble out some notes. While you're thinking of how this stuff works. Trust me, it'll be handy. So just print out, you know, maybe 10 copies of this and have it as just kind of, you know, a note pad because you'll be glad that you did. Okay, now let's talk about software. There's a bunch of different kinds of music notation, software and that means programs like this one where you can, um, let me just set up a new blank thing here. Let's do a trouble. Chlef finish OK, programs where you can, um, you know, right music in them and it will play it back for you so we can do this and then we can say Yea, play it back meat right? These are called music notation programs. There are two big ones on the market right now. One is called Finale and one is called Sebelius. If you want to hear my whole kind of dissertation on those to jump back to the part one of this class on reading music and I'll tell you kind of the nuts and bolts of those. But here's the main thing. Finale is pretty hard to learn. A lot of people say Sebelius is also hard to learn, and Sebelius and both of them are fairly expensive. There's 1/3 option right now, which is called Muse Score. That's the one I'm using here. This is a free program, and it works darn impressively, so I am recommending that you download and install Muse score on your computer. It's a totally free program. Um, I don't have anything to do with this program, so I don't get any and he kicked back from them or any endorsement. I just think that, um it's a really good program. Um, if you're making professional scores that you're gonna, like, give to an orchestra to be totally honest, I used finale for that. But for our purposes here, um, you score will be just fine. And on that same note, I have students that use muse score and have made professional parts, and they look pretty good. So, you know, um, new scores come a long way, and I've been really impressed with it, and, um, especially impressed that there still keeping it open source. They're not charging anything for it. So get it while you can. OK, so that's our main tool. You're going to see me using you score throughout this whole class. I'm gonna look at scores like this one. Ah, using you score. And we'll also kind of work through some ideas in mu score so that you can see them on the page. We can hear them, and you can see me kind of interact with them, and I would like for you to have the same possibility. So if it's ah within Ah, your means. Meaning you have a computer. And I think muse score works for Mac and PC. Um, install that on your computers. You can follow along with what I'm doing. Cool. What's it? Play on this while we Segway into the next, uh, topic? No. 3. 4 WhatAreScales: Okay, let's talk about scales. Now, If you've ever sat down to learn an instrument, one of the things you probably did and one of your earlier lessons was to learn how to play some scales. Probably a C major scale. Maybe you b flat, major scale. Maybe a G major scale depends on the instrument. Why? Why do we care about scales so much? Um, I wanted to point this out because I remember learning how to do this and thinking I am so sick of scales. These they are so boring. Um, and they are there. They're quite boring to play. But from a music theory perspective, what scales do is they show us a pattern and that pattern we kind of can use as a template to see almost all of music. So we look at that template and we kind of put it over top of all kinds of melodies and all kinds of harmonies, and that shows us what's going on. We basically compare it to a scale we compare the music we're seeing to a scale, for example, in this piece of music that we're looking at here I was just kind of a random piece I found on the Muse Score website. But it's a nice little piece. We see little scale fragments all over the place in those scale fragments. Aiken tell what key were in because of those scale fragments. I can tell when we go outside of that scale meaning were changing keys or were just doing something. Not entirely, um, let's say predictable, which is okay, which is preferred. It's actually great. Um, I can also compare scales toe all of these chords that I see in the left hand of this piano part. All of those cords are made from scales. Scales make up cords or let me. Maybe it's more accurate to say that backwards cords are made from scales. That's a better way to say that cords are made from scales, so we take a scale. We take certain notes out of the scale, and that makes a court. That's exactly how cords are built, so we can't really build cords until we understand how scales work. And we can't build melodies that stick to certain keys until we know how scales work. So melodies, harmonies, kind of everything is built around different scales, so we have to know how they work if we're going to understand really anything about, ah, piece of music. So let's dive in. So what next? I want to talk about a couple different definitions, particularly, Ah, the words chromatic and diatonic these air two words that I'm going to use a lot and we need to get very familiar with them. So let's dive over into a new video and talk about that. 4. 5 ChromaticAndDiatonic: Okay, Two very important words. Chromatic and diatonic. Um, now, in order to explain these, I think easier way to do it just at first. So look at a piano keyboard to kind of understand what's happening here. So if you're using you score. You can pull one up by going to the view menu and then piano keyboard. Or you can just hit the letter p and turned one on and off. It's very nice. So let's have a look at this and let's hover right around middle C here. So what is the difference between chromatic and diatonic? The easy way to put it is diatonic means were in key. If we are playing a melody that is diatonic, it's going to stay in a certain key. No, there's, You know, sometimes one note can go out of that key and stuff like that, and we can still call it diatonic. But more or less diatonic means were in a key. So if we're in the key of C major, which is all of the white notes, right? So we're gonna talk about keys shortly. Don't worry, but trust me. For now, the key of C major is just white notes. So if I was playing a melody, something like that that is diatonic because I am staying in the key of C major, right? That's so diatonic means staying in key. Now. The opposite of diatonic is chromatic. Chromatic means there's no key. It's pure chaos. It's the total Wild West of music is chromatic. So that means any note goes chromatic the word itself we get from the word chroma, which means color. So it's like using all of the colors. Chromatic music, music that is completely chromatic is tends to be, I should say, Ah, pretty ugly And, um, pretty dissonant and kind of crazy out there. Now there are people that made whole careers on, writing entirely chromatic music. And we'll talk about that sooner or later in this class. Um, near the end, Um, and a lot of it is really interesting, but, um, it sounds kind of crazy on so chromatic would be something like, I'm gonna just not worry about what key? I'm in it all. I'm gonna play, okay, you know, like I could play all the notes and that is chromatic music. So those were the two differences chromatic and diatonic chromatic means any note will work . Any note is fine to use in a chromatic setting, but in a diatonic setting, it means we're locked into a key. Or as I just said in the previous video, into one of these templates that I'm gonna call a key or a scale I'm locked into a scale or a key, And most of my notes are coming from that. So the majority of the music that we're gonna work with, um, in this class, actually, I might even say all of the music that we're gonna work with is going to be diatonic. It's going to be in a key and, um, it's going to use mostly notes from within that key with, You know, the occasional note goes out of the key, and that just makes it sound fun and interesting. Um, but for the most part, diatonic music is what we're working with. So I might say we might look at a piece of music and I might say, Oh, this is this gets kind of chromatic in a section, meaning it starts to go outside of the key quite a bit. But then it comes back into the key and resolves or does whatever it needs to do. So that's what I mean. When I say something gets, ah, little chromatic, it means it's going outside of the key, right? So that's what those two words mean. They're very important words. 5. 6 OrderedPitchClassCollections: Hey, one last thing about how scales and keys work before we Ah, dive into figuring out our first couple scales is that another way to look at thes is something we could call. And you see this written, sometimes ordered pitch class collections that is a super, ah, fancy way to say a scale is an ordered pitch class collection. So let's dissect those four words. Um, so let's start with pitch class right in the middle here. So in order, pitch class collection, that pit class element of this something we looked at in the first class that I put together on music theory on how to read music, what a pitch class means, it simply means any note, regardless of the octave that it's in. So let's jump over and look at that. What? So what that means is, here's enough. Here's an F Here's an E and here's Anne. Okay, so I have f f b e in in different octaves, right? So these two EFS are of the same pitch class, um, meaning they are of the pitch class called F. They are essentially the same note, but in different registers. So we call them pitch classes as our thes thes are two different ease. They belong to the pitch class E, but they are different pitches technically because they are in different registers. So the reason we would use that when we're talking about scales is because if I do, this is the beginning of a C major scale. Okay, those are the 1st 4 notes of a C major scale. If I do it up and active, those are also the beginnings of a C major scale, right? So the 1st 4 notes C D E f. And here is the same notes C d E f. So this is a long about way of saying the octave doesn't matter for in the key of C, we can use any note in the key of C in any active. So that's what the pitch class element of that forward thing means. Now let's go. Um, to the first word of this, this goofy little phrase ordered pitch class collections. So the word is ordered. That means scales are in an order. They are. You know, this is the first note. The second know if there no in the fourth note. Now I'm what I have up here on the screen right now is is, uh, incorrect. I want to get rid of It was correct for what I was saying before, but it looks like this is a scale, but it's not because I skipped a whole bunch of stuff here. So let's make this a proper scale. So f g a B c. So this is a C major scale right there, beginning to end, and that is the order of the notes in the scale. That doesn't mean we have to use those notes in order. But any means, um in fact, we usually don't use the notes in order, but its scale, as it is, is a ordered Siris of notes. So it means if I'm going to say this is the major scale, I'm going to play those notes in order. If I say this is a melody or harmony derived from the C major scale that I'm not really using them in order. But by definition, a scale is an ordered set of notes. Now let's go to the last word of that. That fancy term ordered pitch class collections and collections. It is a collection of notes I just said set of notes. Just another word for collection. So it's a group of notes in an order in any active. That's what that term means. So when you see that, that's what we're talking about. Ordered pitch class collections. It's in an order because there is an order to a scale pitch class means, if one note is in it than any other active of that note is in it as well. And collection means it's a group of notes. So it's a group of notes in order any active. There you go. So don't let that term freak you out if it ever pops up. 6. 7 ChromaticScales: So we now know what scales are, and we know what chromatic and diatonic means, right? So let's talk about our first scale. The first scale we're going talk about right now is, uh, kind of the easiest one. The easiest one when it comes to understanding how scales work and that is the chromatic scale. Now, we're not gonna spend a lot of time on the chromatic scale because it's not really gonna be hugely useful to us, Um, for a long time. But it does do a really good job of explaining to us what scales are. So the chromatic scale is every single note we've got. So let me pull on my piano keyboard here. Here we go. So I'm going to start the thing about the chromatic scales. You can start anywhere. Um, well, I guess that's kind You could say. That's kind of true of major and minor scales. Also, but more on that shortly. Um, I'm gonna start on see here. So I've I'm gonna enter the notes as I type, So if you're wondering how to do that, um, you scorch hit this little end and then hit keys on this keyboard and they will get entered up here. So, um, here's a c. Right. So in the chromatic scale, it is all possible Notes. So here's C sharp d d sharp e f f sharp g a Oops, sorry. A g sharp a a sharp be and see. Here we go. It's scroll back and have a look at that whole thing to turn that off so we can see a little bit better. Here we are. There is the chromatic scale from sea to sea. It is every single note right now. The reason this is important because we're about to start talking about major scales and what major scales are actually what any other kind of scale is is the chromatic scale where we're gonna leave off some notes in a way that makes a pattern. So for the major scale, we're gonna leave off this note this note, this note, this note and this note and then we end up with a major scale. Now, don't worry about what I just said. I'm going to clarify how that exactly works. In the next video, we start talking about major scales. I just want to point out here that the chromatic scales, All the notes, um, the major scale and minor scale and all the other kinds of scales are the chromatic scale, with some notes left out. Okay, so, um, keep that in mind. When you do a chromatic scale, you play everything all possible notes. When you do a major scale, there's a pattern to the notes, and that's what we're going to talk about next. And that's like a really key thing to keep in mind. When you're thinking about scales, it's think about them as a pattern. Um, there's a fairly simple way to remember the pattern in terms of whole steps and half steps . When we're gonna talk about that, Uh, right now, why beat around the bush? Let's just dive right in. So let's jump over to the next section and start talking about major scales, and we'll go right into that pattern of major scales 7. 8 WholeAndHalfPattern: all scales can be kind of diluted down to this very well to a unique pattern so important to remember. Each scale has a different pattern, and in fact you can define the scale by that pattern, you could just say the pattern. And and, ah, anyone who knows music theory really well, we'll know how to put together that scale. So let's just dive right in and talk about the pattern for the major scale. Now, when I talk about the pattern, this is a combination of whole steps and half steps. Now, just a quick review. Ah, whole step. Well, let's do 1/2 step 1st 1/2 step is a note to the next closest possible note. Right? So C two c sharp is 1/2 step B two c is 1/2 step right. It's the closest possible note that it can go. Ah, whole step is to half steps basically so ah, whole step from C up would be to de because C two c sharp would be the half step and see sharp to d would be the Holston, right? Ah, whole step from D is gonna B E because there's one in between It's another way to think about a whole step is that there's gonna be a key in between or a note in between. So here on E, the whole step is going to be have sharp because there's a key in between. So 1/2 step toe f and then ah, half step toe f sharp gets us to the whole step. So the pattern Ah, for a major scale looks something like this whole whole half whole whole whole half. Now you're going to hear me say that a 1,000,000,000 times. That's super important to remember, because that combination of W's and H is is the major scale. W W H W W W H. Key to note is, there are only two half steps in it, right? So here's how we use that. Let's look at our piano keyboard. In fact, I'm just gonna turn on the note entry here and let's do a C scale because this is the easiest to see. And this is why we like to use the pitch, see to show, to talk about major scales because it's gonna end up being all white notes because that pattern of whole whole half whole whole whole half happens to be the order of the white notes. Where are half steps? Line up right here. I'll show you what I mean. Okay, so let's start with C. So I'm gonna hit a seat. Now I'm gonna go a whole step that gets me to a D. Now I'm going to go a whole step that gets me to and heat. Now I'm gonna go 1/2 step. That gets me to an F now a whole step. Another whole step. Another whole step gets me to a B and another half step gets him back to a C. And therefore, by following that pattern, we have created a major scale. So all we have to do is put that pattern on a note and then follow the pattern of whole steps and half steps from there, and we will have created a major scale. Let's try on different bitch. Let's try. Ah G. Okay, so here's a G. Let's move down and still a bit here. Okay, so this is a G. So let's go. Let's just do our pattern. Whole step. Whole step, half step. Whole step. Whole step here. Now here's the tricky one whole step gets me to here because this is 1/2 step. This is a whole step and then half step gets me back to G. Now, you should If you did this right, you're always gonna begin an end on the same note G and G. Okay. And also, if you did this right, the only one of these the Onley major scale that's going to be all white notes is going to be the C major scale. That's the only one that's all white notes. Every single one of these is gonna be different, depending on what pitch you start up. So now we have a G major scale, right? Let's do one more. Let's do a weird one, Stewart. One with a lot of accidental remember accidental czar notes with a symbol in front of them . Flatter sharp. Let's dio, um, let's do be This is probably one of the one of the weirdest ones for start on B. We're going to go whole step that gets us to see sharp. We're gonna go whole step again, gets us to D sharp. Now pause here for a second. You'll notice my notation program wrote C sharp and then e flat. That's not really what we wanted to dio. We wanted to write d sharp. Um, because we some keys, some scales we usually talk about in sharps and some we usually talk about in flats, and B is a sharp key. Um, we'll talk more about that later when we talk about key signatures. But I'm going to switch this just manually to a d Sharp. And this is something that computers just don't really know. They don't really know if you want it to be a d sharp or any flat. Okay, let's continue on. Let's start over. So b two C sharp as a whole. Step two d sharp is a whole step now. Need 1/2 step, gets us to e. And then we need a whole step, gets us to f sharp, and then we need another whole step to G sharp. Another whole step to a sharp put a B flat. I'll correct that in a minute, and then 1/2 step gets us back to be okay, So we're all on Sharps here except for that one note. So I'm gonna fix that. Here we go. The same note I just spelled it. And harmonically, if you remember that word from the first class and harmonically means I'm just re spelling a note. So be flattened. A sharp are and harmonic notes, they're the same thing, just different. So here's our scale. Now, this might be a lot to remember, right? We have to remember that there's five sharps in this thing. But if you just remember the pattern of whole steps and half steps, you'll remember how to make that so etched that into your brain whole steps and half step. I'm not going to tell you a ton of things in this class that I'm going to say. You have to memorize this in order to really understand this. I'm not a big fan of memorizing things. However, this is one thing that you should memorize is this pattern of whole steps in half steps. It is crucially important. So, um, we're gonna do it a lot of times in this class, I'm gonna build a scale, and I'm gonna say whole steps and half steps, and that's how we're gonna do it. So memorize that. Okay, Next, let's let's dive into a little bit of terminology so we can kind of dissect what we have here, what we have in our major scale 8. 9 ScaleDegreeAndTonic: Okay, Um ah. Couple terms that I want us to get in her head because I'm gonna start using these terms. Ah, lot. Um, first, let's put a c major scale back up on the screen because that's a little easier for us to, um, see how this works. So here we go. I'm gonna do this again. See? Whole step, whole step, half step. Whole step. Whole step, whole step. Halftime. Here we go. C major scale. Okay. To fairly simple terms, Um, the first term that I'm going to introduce you is the tonic. Now, the tonic uhm means the note that the scale is named after is the easiest way to think about it. So in C Major and if we're looking at a C major scale, the tonic is C tonic is a single note. It's not a scale or a cord or anything. It's a single note. The easiest way to think about it is the note that the the scale is named after. Sometimes we don't know what the scale is named, and we have to figure out what the atomic is. That can be kind of tricky. Hold on to that for now. we'll talk more about that later. What to do when that situation happens? There are tricks you can do where you basically do some trial and error and try to use the pattern and find where the pattern works. But right now we know what the scale is called, Um, because all the notes are in order. So it's fairly easy to see that this is the tonic. This is also the tonic, right, because it's also a C, and it's the resolution. Another way to think about the tonic is what feels like the beginning. In the end of the scale, for example, let's get rid of this note. I'm gonna play this scale going up, and it's gonna stop right here, and that's not going to feel like the end of the scale. It should feel like I've left you hanging like you're waiting for this other note toe happen, right? So let's just prove it. So when we hear that note, it's going to stop, and then you're going to think, Oh, it's missing a note. Something needs to be happened and you're all in suspense and you're waiting while I because you really want to hear so that tells us that this is tonic because we really feel that it's happening. It needs to be there. Um, that kind of points us towards This is probably tonic because it feels like the most natural tone. This will become more obvious when we talk about cords, but for now, just think of it as the note the scale is named after. Okay, so let me replace that note. Here we go so we can see the whole scalp. Uh, okay. The next little vocabulary term is the scale degree. Now, the scale degree is, um, just a number that we assigned to each note in the scale. So 1234567 and then eights, although we don't use ate all that often. Sometimes we just call that one. Because if the scale continued, let's do it, the scale can continue. So in this case, 1234567 Then it starts over because this is the same note as that for both sees the 1234567 and then won again. So we have two octaves of a scale. Sometimes we call these eight, but usually we call it one again. So it's one through seven because those are our different notes. So tonic is one right? Um, scale, Degree 23456 and seven. They each have kind of special properties that we're gonna be talking about. And so it's important to remember when I say scale, degree to scale degree three or something like that. That's what I'm talking about. Um, we tend to write these as a number with a little, um, carrots on top of it. That's how If you're looking through any kind of textbook or music theory book or anything like that and you see a number with this little carrot on top of it, it's referring to a scale degree number, which is important because soon we're gonna have several different kinds of numbers we're talking about. Um, and we don't want to get confused if I'm talking. If I say the number two, I want you to know I'm talking about scale, degree and not accord or something else. So that's why we put that little carrot on top Teoh differentiated between different types of numbers that we're gonna be talking about. So keep that in mind scale, degree and tonic to vocabulary words for right now. 9. 10 Solfege: in the first class. I talked a little bit about soul fish when we were talking about different languages. So it's in in English. We talk about we we give the notes letter Name C D E F g. Um, if you're learning music in another language or even in English but another part of the world, Um, other than, ah, the United States. And I think the UK you might be learning doh Ray me fa so la ti dough as the different words. I don't want to go into that too much, but we use so fash sometimes, uh, as a way to talk about scale degrees. So we just learned what scale degrees aren't right. 123 hoops 1234 etcetera. Sometimes we also use the the words for selfish four scale degrees. I'm not gonna do that a lot in this class, but I want you to know what they are so that if you encounter them ah, you know how to deal with them. So all that is is scale. Degree one. We call dope scale. Degree to recall. Ray Scale, Degree three. We call me Scale Degree four. We call five scale Degree five We call Soul Scale. Degrees six. We call LA Scale degrees seven. We call T and then scale degree eight or one we call dough again. Let me show you how that might work. Let's jump down here So let's play a familiar melody here. Let's just input a familiar melody. Let's go. Oops! Okay. A simplified version of Twinkle, Twinkle, little star So let me show you the usefulness of scale degrees and selfish. Ah, so here we go. So we could outline this whole melody using scale agrees. If we were to do that, it would be 115566544332 to 1. Right. So that is, um, away. We can keep track of the notes that we might also do the exact same thing in Selfish Dodo, Seoul, Seoul Life Last Soul 55 Me, me, Ray Graito. I am the world's worst singer. But the reason that we might do that is, um believe it or not, it can help you learn how to sing these better by using those syllables. Because what happens is that, like dodo soul, this relationship here dough to Seoul or 125 or C to G you. If you think dough and soul, you can start to equate in your brain the sound of it going up 1/5 and this interval. That's why we like selfish. Um, Now we use a system called movable dough sole fish. So I'm This is a little bit of background on how selfish works. Um, in the United States, we use a movable dough soul fetch, which means dough is always tonic. Let me explain that again. Whatever key were in whatever scale we're looking at, dough is going to be the root of the scale. If this was down here, if we were in the key of B, then this I would call dough and this would be sold right. Everything would adjust so that whatever the tonic is, which is, you know, the scale that it's named after. Um, I'm gonna call dough tonic, right? That's called movable dopamine Dough changes depending on what key were in. Basically, now, many other parts of the world um, don't use a movable dough, and they use a system called fixed dough and in fixed dough, see, is always does, um, it's always the pitch, see, no matter what key you're in. So this kind of depends on where you are and how you were trained and things like that. Um, I'm a movable dough person because that's how I learned it. So that's how I'm going to do it. But we're not going to talk about soul fish a lot in this class. I wanted to point it out in this video that you know what it is. I will be talking about scale degrees as they come up just so that you know how to, uh, just because we need scale degrees to talk about scales and especially when it comes to building cords, we're gonna need scale degrees, But that's what Sol fishes. 10. 11 Practice: Okay, now we know how to create major scales. What we haven't learned yet is how to do really interesting things with them. And we're gonna be talking about that soon. And the next part of this class, I'm going to give you a little homework project. Now, I don't think I've talked about these little homework assignments yet, so let me just take a minute to point out. What, you're going to see where you're going to see you. Next thing is a pdf that you can download. Ah, you can print out if you want. You can just do it on your computer if you want, or you can skip right over if you want. Totally up to you. What this is is practice because learning this stuff takes practice. Um, just like any language, I say this over and over and over. Learning music is learning another language, so it takes practice. So I'm going to give you a worksheet that's going to have a bunch of things for you to try on Bunch things for you to do and in the next particular worksheet. Because here we're working on scales. I'm going to say build a scale using the whole step house step pattern on this note. And then on another note, um, tell me what scale Degree Number six is, etcetera, etcetera. Just some little exercises for you to try, so you'll see a pdf, and you'll have these exercises on it. Then if you scroll down to the bottom of that, pdf on the last page of it, um, I'll have the answers. So I'd like for you to do the pdf as a little project. Make sure you know this material. Check it against my answers. See if you're right. If you're right, array, move on to the rest of the class. If you're not right, then maybe review, um, these last few lectures. And if you still don't get it, um, Post a comment or whatever you want to do and see if you can really understand, because I think it's it's really crucial that you understand each piece of this before we move forward. So see if you can figure out what you did wrong. Um re watched the videos, get it right, and then let's move forward. Um, if you want to skip the ah worksheet, that's just fine. That's totally up to you. Ah, they're there to help you get a deeper understanding of this stuff. Because it's not entirely It's not the easiest thing in the world, and I totally acknowledge that, so don't feel that. Okay, so that's what the worksheet is. So I'm gonna give you a worksheet in the next ah unit, and then we'll be on to something new. Off we go. 11. 13 UsingMajorScales: Okay, so now we know how to make and find a major scale. Let's talk about how to use it. So what I want to do here is I'm going to write a melody, and I'm gonna point out a couple things about using the major scale that are important to keep in the back your head. So let's first just write a major scale. Let's stick to the key of C here because we like C. C is easy. So I'm just going to write in a c major scale just so we can see it and use it for reference. Here we go. Now we know this is a major scale just because we look at it, it's all there. There are no accident ALS in it. So that tells us, for one thing, that it's a major scale. Also, we could go through and pick apart the half steps and whole steps pattern. Right? See, De is a whole step whole step half step between E and F and then etcetera, etcetera. Another half step between B and C. So that is a major step a C major scale. See, is the tonic Okay, so let's write a melody. Now what I'm gonna right here is I'm gonna try to write a very typical melody, meaning I'm going to follow the rules. Um, it's not going to be the most interesting melody you've ever heard because it's going to follow every rule and do everything as expected. Um, but it's important to understand those kind of fundamental ideas. So when we write a melody, typically and we don't have to do this, but typically, we start on the route, and we're probably gonna end on the route. Also in the root. Sorry, the route is another word for tonic. Okay, So tonic and the route are the same. Have the more or less the same meeting. So I'll try to use tonic since we just talked about that. So we're going to start on the tonic for our melody, and we're gonna end on the tonic. Also, either octave would be fine. I could start up here or down here. Now we want to pay special attention to the fifth note. The fifth note of the scale has. It's what we call a tendency tone, meaning it kind of pushes things to go a certain way and What the fifth note does is it pushes everything to go back to the tonic. You can think of that as like we'll talk more about this later, especially when we get into court. This will become a big deal. But you can think of this note as I think of it as like, this is a weird analogy, but as like lily pads, Right, So imagine a frog jumping back and forth like this is home. This is the other thing. They can jump between these two spaces, but whenever they're here, they're really just waiting to jump back to here. So this makes it feel like we want to go back more on that we get into cords. But we're going to use that somewhere where we wanted to really push back to tonic, right? For example, this second toe last note is a great place to use it because we want the last note to be tonic so that it feels like unending. And this will make it feel like we're going to tonic, so that works quite well. So let's just randomly put some notes. Well, you do weaken, jump around. Let's go a, um e Let's maybe make that Ah, half note. Here we go and then we'll do some eighth notes. It's kind of weird Little jump, but then we'll go. Okay, Now I'm gonna use that G. So I'm gonna I'm approaching the end, right? So I'm gonna put the end right there. So that's tonic again, right to see. So let's put a G right there because that's the fifth note of my scale, which is going to make this feel like this note is going to lead to their cause. It's one of those tendency tones. Hey, moron. Tendency tone soon. So let's hear my little melody. It's short, but it's cute, you know, it's nothing fancy. I stayed completely in the key because I didn't er in the scale because I didn't go outside of any notes. I used only white notes in this case because that's what is in the key of the scale of C major. And then he's kind of bounced around you some different stuff. This note. I thought it was maybe a little weird. You got change that 12 maybe there I can use G again. That's totally fine. Um, so I just kind of meandered around a little bit. And then I ended on C with a nice tendency tone pushing me there. So that's kind of how you can use major scales. Really? What I've done here is I just bounced around within it, you know, I'm not gonna go outside of it. I'm gonna only use notes in that scale, and my melody is going to sound pretty fine. Um, just using those. You can add a little tendency tone if you want. You don't need one, but it helps. But I want to introduce that idea of a tendency tone. We're going to see it a lot more when it comes to court. Okay, up next, Let's take a look at maybe a familiar melody and see if we can dissect it and figure out what key it's in and what they're doing with it. 12. 14 MelodyAnalysis: Okay. What I have here is Ah, this little mini wet from Mozart. I've taken just the first line for us and what this is This is a piece that we looked at in the first class. Those solo flute thing was actually four lines long. But I want to just look at the first line, um, in this video, because it does something kind of interesting that I want us to look at. So, um, let's hear it first. Always important when you're gonna analyze something, getting your head first. Don't completely trust what's on the page. Listen to it and see if anything jumps out at you. So let's just hear it and get it in our head, okay? And it started over. Okay, So what I'm gonna do here is I'm gonna split this in half. Pretty much so right about here. Um, right where there's this breath Mark. Eso Let's look at this part first and then this part second, including this last note. Okay. I wonder if I could No poops don't want to do. Okay, So here's what we're gonna do here. Um, let's just try to figure out what scale is being used in each of these two parts. Okay, so in this first part, we don't have any accidental. Right? So I know these notes up here, they could be kind of hard to read when you're just getting used to it. So I'll just tell you, this is E C e ah f g f d b d e f f e So no accidental so far, right? So that means we're probably in the key of C Major. If we want to be sure, here's what we can do. Let's lay them out in a single active. Okay, so E c e f g. So I'm gonna jump over here really quick, and I'm just gonna do it all in a single active What? I say e c e f g. So I'm not gonna repeat notes here on, Ideally, I'd put him in order, but that's gonna be hard to do really fast. So g f de be the I'm just making sure I'm not repeating notes here, so d b then he gets it for new notes. So let's go. De and beef. Okay, now, actually, let's put them in order. I'll just do it down here. So C e No, there's a D over here and then e given f You have a g? Doesn't look like there's an A, but there is. Ah, be all right. Cool. So, what we can do here? We have a missing note. There's one missing note right here. There's an A. But we can tell we're probably, you know, 99% sure Safe bet that were in the key of C Major. Because if we count up, we have a whole step. Whole step, half step. Whole step missing note would be a whole step. And then, ah, whole step from the missing note to be and then ah, half step to see. So that makes a C major scale. If we just use our imagine on that imagination on that missing note. So this pretty safe bet is in the key of C for now. Now, let's look at this other half because it changes and this is okay because it can use everything can be based on a certain scale in one part of the song and change for another part of the sun. Now we're gonna talk. Let's take a little sidebar really quick here before we look at this second half a couple of times in this video, I think the previous one, I accidentally said the word key instead of the word scale. Let me explain what we're hearing when I say that what I'm trying to talk about here is we're talking about all the notes being based in a single scale. But what we're going to start talking about is how that scale relates to the key that were in. So we're going to start talking about keys. But for now, I'm really focusing on just what scale are all these notes being pulled from and that usually equates to the key were in also. So I'm trying to use the word scale, but in case I use the word key and you're confused, Um, that's why I'm I'm doing it. So let's look at the scale for this part. So let's pick apart our notes here, E see a So let's just go back over here, and that's maybe get rid of this stuff. Let's just lister notes. Same as before. E see, that's funny. E c Hey, Okay, E c a c A f sharp. That's a new one, right? so we comptel because there's an accidental on it. We're not using just C major scale anymore because that note does not happen in the C major scale. There is no f sharp. There is enough natural, but there is no f sharp k f sharp. We've already had both of those, dear Ah, we have not had a D yet. We have had to see we have not had to be. So I need to add D and B D and B and B ah e we have had d see, we have had be we have had a we have had and then g I don't think we have had a G that's at a G. Okay, now let's put those notes notes in an order from low to high. Now let's do it from C because I wrote, see as the lowest No, and that's fine. I might have to do this again once we figure out the key. So C d is there an e? Yes, F sharp g. Ah, there is an A Through is a B. Then we already had a C. Let's put that see there again, just for the fun of it. Okay. What do we have here? Because now I'm able to spell a C two c scale, but it has an f sharp in it. So it's not a C major scale, right? So let's use our pattern here. This is where this pattern has to get used very carefully, so let's just count out the pattern using what we know. So we're looking for a whole step. Yes, that is a whole step. Whole step D t e. Yes, that is a whole step e to f sharp. What we need here by the pattern is 1/2 step. But this is a whole step, right. This is 1/2 step out here, so it's all weird. So let's just try. We know that that doesn't work. It can't be see because my pattern is wrong. So let's try starting on a different note, right? How about we start on D and do the pattern? So whole step? Cool step. That's correct. Half step. That's correct. A whole step. Cool step. Full step. No, that's 1/2 step. So our pattern almost works in the key of D, but not quite. Because we would need a c sharp here right, so it doesn't quite work. So let's keep going. Let's go to eat whole step. Whole step. No, that's 1/2 step So it doesn't work there either. It's gonna work sooner or later. Trust me, let's try F sharp. We need a whole step. Nope, that one breaks right away because that is 1/2 step. We need a whole step. Let's try Gino whole step to a whole step to be half step to see. Now let's circle around. So we're on C. So we need whole step. Pull, step, pull. Step, half step gets us back to G. It works. G works. So what are scale actually is is books G have sharp t very up. So this is what our scale actually is. Now, when I put all these notes together, I rode. I put them from sea to sea, which there's no reason to do that except that we were used to seeing seat. So that's why I put it there. It doesn't have to be, though. So for the second part of the melody we are using the key of were using the scale of G major. And for this first part, we're using the scale of C major now. Hey, here's another big clue. Remember, in the previous video, I said it would be wise to use to end the melody on the tonic, right? And look at what we dio dio doubted it. Got it at, Uh uh, boom G. It ends on G. This one doesn't end on C, but it's based around. See, this one does end on G the second half dozen Dundee. So there you go. That's how we can figure out what scale is being used. You just have to dissect, take all the notes that you're seeing, which is what we have here. Put him in an order, try to find the pattern of whole steps in half steps. And then once you find the note that it works for and don't be afraid to circle around again, then put them in that order. And now you know what you're in Now, once we start talking about keys, I'm gonna give you a much faster way to do that because there's a much quicker way that when I look at this, I could just see right away that the second half of that melody is in the key of G um, without doing any analysis, there's something that just sticks right out at me. Um and we're gonna talk about that very, very shortly. But when it comes to just using scales, that's how it works. So with that being said, let's start talking about keys and what it means to be in a key in the next video. 13. 15 WhatIsAKey: So we've been talking about scales now and particular major scales, so we know how to figure out a major scale. So given any pitch, you should be able to find the major scale around it, right? And what that means is that if I said F if I said the pitch is F ah right, a major scale using that whole stuff and half step pattern, you should be able to do that. If you've been following along in the worksheets in this class, you'll you will have done that, and you might do a little more of it in the next worksheet because it's important to know the next big concept we need to wrap our heads around is how these scales relate to the key of the song and what exactly it means to be in a key. So let's talk about that quickly. We're going to talk about key signatures in the next chunk, and that's an important concept. But before we get into key signatures, I want to spend just a minute talking about what it means to be in key. So what we've looked at here, for example, is in this part, were using a c major scale in this part. We're using a G major scale. What we might do to figure out the key that it's in is a kind of one step back and look at the whole song and see if we can figure out ah, where that whole song is. So let me, um, pull up this whole tune and see if we could do it. So can we figure out one key that this whole song is in? Um, sometimes that's possible. A lot of the time. That's possible, actually. So the key is, is a little bit bigger in scope than just the scale the scale is more of like for for these four bars, I'm using this scale. And for these four bars, I'm using this scale. But they all might. All eight of those bars might be in a single key. So, um, an entire song might be in one key, but in different sections, it might go into different, uh, scales, right, So the key can be a little bit bigger in scope. Now the key can change within a song, and it does quite often, um, or in any piece of music in this one that we're looking at right now. I can see here that this is kind of this first part. It's kind of the key of G. So in this section, you know, it might look at it and say, There's some things that don't quite fit in the key of G but most things that do so they're using a different scale here than it goes back to some G stuff here. So two different scales, probably all in the key of G really here, back to using sees scales, a little bit of G scales here, kind of a d scale here. So something a little different and then resolving to a C scale here. So this whole thing, we could say it's it might be in the key of G all together, or we might call it in the key of C altogether. It's a little bit of a judgment call at that point, but the point is, it's using several different scales, and they can change all over the place, and the chords will be changing all over the place. The key is a slightly bigger concept that tries to govern the whole piece and doesn't change as often as you would think. I encounter some people when they're just learning this stuff that think that when a chord changes, it's the same as a key changing, which is not true. Chords change all the time. Um, your default should be to assume the key is not changing. But sometimes it does change and we'll look at cases like that. So, um, just remember, if there's a hierarchy Ah, the scale it's being used is a little bit lower on the totem pole in the key that were in. So key is kind of more of a big picture thing. That being said, let's next look at key signatures, how to figure those out and how important they are and how they work for us. Off we go. 14. 17 MajorKeyOverview: Now that we know a lot about scales and a little bit about keys, let's dive into looking in detail at the major key at a major key, if you will. There are many major keys. Um, there's one for each letter, right? So there is the key of C major, the key of C sharp major, the key of D major. So every letter and accidental all 12 pitches, something can be in the key of any of those. Now, just to kind of put everything in perspective, we have two different, uh, kinds of keys. So we're gonna talk about major keys now. There are also minor keys. We'll talk about those later. So there are major keys and there are minor keys. No, I think I talked about this a little bit in the couple lessons ago when we were looking at that melody. But I just want to refresh our memory about the differences between scales and a key. So think about it like this. I'm actually gonna add one more element to that. So their scales, keys and chords. Okay, so let's imagine ah hierarchy here. So we have cords at the bottom. We haven't talked very much. Maybe not even it all about cords yet. But we're gonna talk about court soon. We have cords down here at the bottom, and then we have scales above that, and then we have keys above that. Now, why I'm putting them in that order is that the key is the all encompassing thing. This is like the whole piece. We look at the whole piece and we say it is in this key with scales we look at because the scales tell us what key were in, but the scales could change and we could still be in the same key. That's okay. Ah, the cords will change a lot. They will change often, possibly every beat. The cords will change. But the cords There are many chords that can be in a single scale that made from a single scale and made and put into a single key. So there can be many chords in a key. There can be several scales in a key, but there's only one key unless there's a key change, which can happen in a song. But it's kind of a big event. If it does so that's kind of the main, the three tiered thing that I want you to keep in mind as we look at all this different stuff. Okay, Um, so I pulled up a song here. Ah, this is another one I found on the new score website. It's just a nice little C major song. Um, So before we talk about it, let's listen to it right Here we go. - Lovely . Right now this is in a major key. It isn't the key of C major. The biggest difference between major keys and minor keys is that this is a very kind of subjective thing to say, but it's generally true that thing's in major keys tend to sound kinda happy. And things in minor keys tend to sound kind of sad. So if you're listening to a new piece for the first time, you're just taking a blind guess. Is this in a major key or a minor key? I think about first. Does this sound? Is this a happy song or a sad song? If it's a happy song, the odds are it's in a major key. If it's a sad song, the odds are it's in a minor key. Now that's not 100% true all the time. You can do some kind of happy sounding stuff in a minor key, but, um, more or less it's It's a good rule of thumb to start with. So what do we see in this song? Let's just take a little, uh, walk through here into Easy for small. It's in 34 case or three beats per measure. We know that now we don't see anywhere any just scale patterns, right? Like the other. Like a couple of videos ago, I circled. Like all these little scale patterns, this one doesn't have any scales. It has these runs, but there's, ah, step in between them. Let me zoom in on this so C E. G. Right. If it was a scale, it would have a D and an at Friday b c D E f the A B C. Right? So this is skipping over some notes in the scale, so it's still playing all notes in the scale. But it's just playing a pattern where it's leaving some of those out. We'll talk more about this pattern shortly. It's a very important little thing, but hold on to that for a minute. Um, so it's playing notes from the scale, but not specifically the scale, as in all the notes in order. Right? Um, down here. Same thing. Skipping over notes. So there's some notes skipped over it so that it's it's basically outlining Accord is what it's actually doing. We're gonna talk more about cords in a minute. Um, so here we have it actually building cords, Same notes, right? So here it's playing the notes of the chord. One at a time here is playing them all at once. Right here. We're adding octaves to melody, but here's the same notes in the same active. So it's a C major chord. It's just adding another active, so it's adding that. But at the end of the day, the same thing there, right here it is again, and then we can't really find it here. It's a little bit different out there, and then it ends. So a quick little overview of what we confined in the major key Um, this is using a lot of these same three notes, and this is a chord in the key. So let's talk about cords. Ah, in just a minute, first I wanna walk through a couple more things about keys, in particular key signatures in a major key. This is a very important concept that we didn't talk about earlier when we talked about keys. And we have to get to know right away. So key signatures. 15. 18 WhatAreKeySignatures: So let's look at this piece whenever a piece starts. This is this elegy for cello and piano. I think I've used a few times in the class already. Whenever a piece start very beginning, we see three things right in a row. These three symbols, right? We see the clef, the key and the time signature. It's always in that order cleft key time so you can kind of burn that into your head. Cliff key time So we know what the cliffs aren't right. The cliffs tell it. Tell us the general range of what's going on that time we know what that is, too. So it's as 444 beats per measure. 4/4 notes per measure, I should say 34 There's 3/4 notes for measure, etcetera. This one is the sea is kind of a shorthand for common time, which basically means for four. Um, so it's kind of ah different way to write for four. The key is what we haven't talked about yet, Right? So clef key time is the order. Now what the key is is it is a symbol, and it can be a number of symbols that are in that spot right there. And they tell us the key of the music, the key that it's in, um, in a way that you can just look right at it and know exactly what Keith you are in. So let's look at, um, another one. Okay, here's another piece. Here's this fantasy piece. Okay? Clef Key time. There's nothing here, right? There's nothing between Chlef in time. That means the key signature of this piece is no symbol, which means it's in the key of C major. If there's nothing, it's the key of C major. That's the rule. Um, this piece happens to change keys, right? Let's look over here. Now we have clef key. We don't have time because is not the beginning of the piece. We don't need the time. Signature time signature hasn't changed. But now we have a key, and this has to sharps floating there. That tells us exactly what key were in in this case. It tells us we're in the key of D. Um two sharps tell you that you are in the key of D one. Sharp tells you that you are in the key of G. No sharps tell you that you are in the key of C. And here's here's another piece with one sharp. So that's in the key of G. This one, the C major song we're just looking at has no sharps and it so it is in the key of C could also have flats If there's one flat, then in the key signature than you were in the key of f. Don't worry about all these things. I'm going to tell you a trick to remember all of that stuff in the next video. So what the key does is Let's look at Let's look over here. Let's look at this one measure right here. Okay, so here's the key signature. It's got two sharps. Now those two sharps happen to be just kind of a floating f sharp and a floating c sharp. Okay, that's what those two are. That means all efs that happen in this whole piece are going to be af sharps. This is what's tricky about playing one of these pieces. Sometimes that you have to remember the keys injure always. So this is actually gonna get played as an f sharp. This is gonna get played as a c sharp because it's in the key signature. You always have to remember the key signature, right? So let's move forward. We can still change notes. We could still add stuff, see if we can find a natural somewhere. No, no natural is here. But you might see sometimes a natural. It's just add one. Let's say, uh, here que. If we saw this, this would mean this natural sign would be used here to tell you to ignore the key signature, right? Because this tells us all sees that happened in this whole piece are to be played as C sharps. That's what the key signature does. That kind of lays a template over the whole piece and says All seas are now C sharp. That's what the Keys minister says, this symbol says. Except for this one. Um, this one play as a c natural. A normalcy, not a C sharp, um, f sharp. So all things all f's are f sharp, regardless of the deductive. Also very important to know. So this is an f sharp. We're a bass clef down here, so this is an F sharp right? All EFS are f sharp, even. Let's do the same. Active here, There's an F and there's enough. My key signature says all efs up here are sharp on this top line, but it applies to all active. So this one is sharp as well. So when you're playing a piece, you have to remember the key signature all the way through. This is why playing in C major is easier because you don't have to remember a key signature . Um, but, you know, you get used to it, um, you learn to just kind of keep it in mind the whole time. So in the next video, let's walk through. First of all, the trick for remembering are figuring out what key signature it goes with. What key is, Ah, fairly simple pattern to it. So let's talk about that next 16. 19 IdentifyingKeySignatures: So you're looking at a key signature like this one. A crazy key signature. And you think Oh, man, what key is that? That is gonna be hard to remember. There are five Sharps there, right? Well, there's a secret. Here's the secret. First of all, the thing to remember is when you see Sharps, let's just talk about sharks for a minute. Then we'll talk about flats. Um, when you see the pattern of these, they're always in the exact same order they have to be. It's going to f sharp C sharp, g sharp d sharp, a sharp e sharp, and you're sticking out. There's no such thing as the sharp. Well, if you get in a crazy keys, there are so it keeps going. But they're always in the exact same order, which is why you can say five Sharps. Because if there are five Sharps in the key signature, it has to be these five. They have to be in that order or else something is very wrong. So it's easy to say, you know, it's got two sharps, and I know that's the key of D because those two sharps are going to be F sharp and C sharp the 1st 2 of this sequence. If there are three, it's gonna be f sharp C sharp in G sharp. If there are four, it's gonna B f f sharp, c sharp d sharp and the sharp. I'm having a hard time saying the word sharp today. It's very strange. Eso they're always in the exact same order. So you look at a crazy key signature and you want to know what key you are in. If you're looking at sharps, okay, then here's the trick. Let's go to a simpler one here. The trick is to take the last sharp that you see the last one in the sequence. So this only has one sharp. So it's fine. Um, so the last one is the only one. Take the last sharp and go up 1/2 step. So this is an f sharp. So that means we are in the key of G because ah, half step above f sharp is g taking another one. Okay, here we have one sharp and it's always gonna be enough sharp. If there's only one so half step above that is the key of G. Let's go to here. We have two sharps. Okay, so we have to. So we take the last sharp, which is this one in this case. So the last one is C sharp. We go up 1/2 step and we're in the key of D. And these are all gonna be major keys. The way we're figuring this out. Now, we'll talk about how to figure out minor keys later. So let's just all assume we're in the major Kiefer now. Okay, how about this one? This is crazy. There's a ton of sharps is gonna be hard to play. But the last one is this one, and it's a sharp. So this must be the key of B. So how does that work? Let's lay out some notes, shall we? So let's put let's write a B major scale. And I'm not even gonna pay attention to any of the accident. ALS I'm just gonna write b two b, right. Okay. Okay. There is from B to B. Right? And I happen to know that it is a proper scale. Major scale Because of the key signature. The key signature puts all the flats and sharps exactly where I need him. That's why it's the key of B. So let's check it out. So remember, are a crazy pattern, right half steps in whole steps. So be to see is 1/2 step that doesn't work right. But Nope, it's C sharp because they're right there. So b two c sharp is a whole step c sharp to D Sharp is a whole step right de sharp to e. There's no e sharp appear. So that's 1/2 step that works E to f sharp because of that is a whole step f sharp to G sharp because of that is a whole step g sharp to a sharp because of that is a whole step and an a sharp to be is 1/2 toe. So our whole stop half step pattern lines up perfectly right because of the keys, injure the key signature makes it so it basically you apply this key signature to this pattern of notes, and it's gonna bang them all into the pattern of the major scale exactly how we want it, right. Awesome. Okay, let's talk about flats. Um, let's just make a new. Actually, it's gonna change this key signature. Let's do something like that. It's got ugly. Really fast. Okay, so we could have flats in our key signatures, right? Same deal applies. They're gonna be always in the same order. It looks slightly different. Let's get a really big casings around here. There we go. So they kind of go on an angle down. Will the sharps kind of go on an angle up? Sort of. So the order of flats is different than it is for Sharps, but it is always the same. So there's an order for Sharps in order for flats. Order for flats is B flat, e flat, a flat, D flat, G flat, see flat, and then f flat near like, see flattened f flat. That's crazy. Um, yeah, it's weird, but if you get into these really weird keys that have a ton of accidental, then it can happen, So the pattern is always the same. Now, the trick to figuring out what key you're in is a different trick than for sharps. So for sharps, you take the last sharp and you go up 1/2 step in. That tells you the name of the key. For flats, you have a slightly different trick what you do for flats as you take the This is kind of weird, but you take the second toe last flat, and that is the name of your keep. Okay, so this is the key of C flat. That's super weird. Let's get rid of that. That just stresses me out. Just looking at it. How about this one? A much more standard key. This is the key of E flat Major, because the second to last flat is e flat, right? How about this one? We have two flats. Right. So we take the second to last flat last flat, and we have B flat. This is a key of B flat, major. Okay, how about this one? Oh, this is an exception to the rule. This is the one exception to the rule because we can't take the second to last flat here because there's only one right. So with this one, you just have to remember this one. This one is the key of F. Ah, there's one flat. It's the key of F. So to sum up this whole thing, if you're looking at a few signature with sharps, you take the last one and you go up 1/2 step and that tells you the name of the key. If you're looking at a key signature with flats, you take the second to last flat, and that is the name of your key. If it's only has one flat, your keys F. And if it has no sharps and no flats, your key is C. Those are the rules, So that is what the key signature is on any piece of music. There's always a key signature, and if there is not a key signature than there still is a key signature, it's just in the key of C major. Okay, with that, let's start talking about cords, specifically chords in major keys and how these work. This is where we really start getting into the fun music theory stuff. So I am excited. This is the sound of me rubbing my hands together, um, in like, evil anticipation. Okay, let's dive into court 17. 21 WhatAreChords: Alright, It's time to start talking about cords now. When we talk about cords, what we're really starting to get into here is what notes sound good together at the same time. Now I remember all the way back to the beginning, my kind of motto. When it comes to music theory, at least the basics of music theory is it's all about what notes sound good together, right? That's what we're trying to figure out. So cords are really where the rubber hits the road in terms of things getting more complicated. Um, things were about to get a little trickier, but not too tricky. Don't worry. That's my job. My job is the holder and threw it and make sure it doesn't get too daunting. Um, okay, So what is accord? Ah, cord is simply put, a group of notes. Any group of notes can be considered a cord, so let's just let's just do it. Let's put up to 1/4 note here and let's say I don't know. I'm just gonna blindly place notes. Here's, you know, let's throw a sharp in there. Be sharp that's through. Let's throw a C sharp in there, something like that. Okay, we up. So I've made here. Accord Accord is a group of notes at the same time. Let's hear that chord. Okay? It's not a particularly nice sounding court, right, But it is a court. It's a bunch of notes happening at same time. Cords can also be splayed out, so they they're not. They don't have to be played at the same time to be considered Accord. We'll talk more about that later. For now, we're just going to focus on notes played at the same time. So this particular chord is an ugly one, right? What we're gonna do is we're going to start figuring out how to assemble cords, and we're not gonna do it by just memorizing a bunch of chords, right? A bunch of notes that go together that's not particularly useful. In my opinion, the useful way is to figure out what makes accord. What is what makes a good sounding chord and teach you how to figure it out. Right? So just like we saw with scales and we saw the pattern of whole steps and half steps in cords, there are patterns. There are patterns to make ah couple different kinds of chords, and everything can be based around those couple of patterns. So that's what we're gonna focus on for the next couple of videos. So this particular core that I've drawn on the screen does not follow any of those patterns . It's accord because it's group of notes, but it didn't follow any pattern that makes it a good sounding chord so similar to scales. We have a couple of different kinds of chords that will encounter. We have major chords, we have minor chords. And then there's a couple others. Actually, there's something called diminished Chords and then called augmented chords something called Seventh Chords, Ninth chords, 13th chords. We're gonna get into all of those eventually. But for now, we're going to focus on major and minor chords in as they exist in a key. So we know what keys are. We know what scales are. We're gonna need both of those things in order to figure out how to build courts. So with that Ah, what I want to do next as I want to look at a little piece of music, we're gonna look at one that we just looked at a few minutes ago, but we're gonna look at the cords and what I want to do in the next video is just give us a quick little overview, a quick little run through spotting the cords, talking a little bit about the cords. And then what we're gonna do is we're going. I'm gonna go through a whole bunch of videos talking to you about how to find cords, how to label cords, how to know if their major a minor and how to see where they fit in the key and in the scale. Then we're gonna look at that same piece again, and we're gonna actually analyze it in a kind of a strict music theory kind of way. We're going to use this Roman numeral system that everybody uses. Um, it's gonna be great. So we're gonna look at the peace first just for like, a kind of cursory overview, and then we're going to go into the nitty gritty of how cord to work. And then we look at the piece again. Cool. So ah, let's jump and let's let's look at this at this piece 18. 22 SongAnalysis: All right, we're back. Teoh are friendly. The C Major Caden song. So this is in the key of C Major, as we know for two reasons. There's two things right away that tell us it's in C major. One of them is the title. Um, you know, that's kind of obvious, but probably right if they called it the C major song, right? Another thing is the lack of a key signature, or another way you can think about that is the key signature. So it has a key signature, but it is nothing. So that means we are in the key of C major. So what I want to do here is let's just identify the cords. What I want you to do is listen to this piece and I want you to see if you can hear when there's a new chord that change a new court, right? So when the chord changes, so just listen and see if you can hear the chord change. It might be hard to hear in these first couple bars, but once we start to get cords down here spelled out more, you know, like all played at the same time it might be a little more obvious. So just see if you can get a feel for when the court is changing. Don't worry if you're wrong, I'll tell you what's right. So let's just listen to the song first. And, um, listen for that and then I'll talk a little bit more about it. - Okay ? Now, how often did you hear a new chord happening? Um or, uh, let me rephrase that to be a little more clear. How often did you hear? Ah, change in the court. Not necessarily accord we hadn't heard before. But a change in the court The answer is every bar in this particular piece, the chord changes every bar. Now, that's not something that's not a universal truth in all music by any means. But in this piece, the court changes every bar. So this bar has is made up of accord. Now, this is a case where the notes are spelled out. But if you take these three notes whose 1st 3 notes and kind of the 4th 1 But let's just focus on these 1st 3 for a minute. If you played those at the same time, it would be a cord, but this particular one is spelled out down here. We start to get chords. So this is what I mean. Watch that. So here's three notes of the chord that's happening in this bar right here It is again. So it see E g. And then we hear c g right. It's all one chord. This is just another C. So it's another active. But it's all the same notes of this cord, even the baseline. See, e g. Right? So we're just using those three notes. See e g in this whole bar. Same thing here. We're going to be using three notes also, but they're three different notes. It's C F A A. Right, So one of the notes is the same cf a another see on C F. So we have three different notes, so it's a different chord here. We're back to the first quarter. Same notes again right here. We're on. Ah, third chord, right, A different chord. That's not this one or this one. Or that b d g e d G, and another beep right and active right there and be D G. So it's just there's a chord. Every bar but It's kind of spelled out in a few different ways. Um, here again, we have C e g. We've done this before. Okay, um, so now another important thing that I want to point out here is how many different chords are in this piece? Right. Let's do this. Let's just look, listen to this base, the left hand part here from about here to the end. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna delete the right hand. And let's just delete this just to make it easy to here, OK? So let's listen from right here to the end, I want you to try to pay attention to how many different chords we hear right? Eso there's one chord, every bar, and it be It's really obvious in this section, which is why I chose a section with the exception of right here, because this is a chord. And on this is a different court. So they threw a little curveball in right there. Right? So they throw in one additional cord there, and that's OK. You know, the composer could do whatever they want. Let's isn't from here. How many different chords do you hear? Okay, Um How many different quarters do you hear? The answer is three. And this is true of this entire piece. Even the stuff I deleted. Um, there are only three chords in this whole piece, and they keep alternating. If you thought for the odds are maybe you thought this cord was different. But if we look at the notes B d g, that's the same court. We're getting all over the place up here, here, here and right, So that's the same court. Now, once we have names for these, which we will shortly you'll see that the pattern goes this cord on something else and then this chord again, and then something else. And then that's the pattern over and over. So this let me just tell you this is a C major chord. So it goes. See, Major something else. See, Major Something else. And then again, see, Major something else See, Major or something else. See majors, etcetera. What's going back and forth that seem made record every other bar pretty much and this is a pattern of four bars. These four bars repeat for the whole thing. Even if we go back up to the beginning we'll see. See? Major Something else, Theo. Same something else as down below sea major again. Something else on. Then see Major something else. So this four bar pattern of chords repeats for the whole piece. Now they do different things with the court because there's a lot you can do with cords other than just playing the court. But you can do all this other kind of stuff. But the's four bars of the chord progression in these four bars we're gonna talk a lot about more about that little phrase chord progression. Shortly, the core progression repeats over and over and over. In this piece, it's just those four bars over and over. And those three different chords, right? This one, this one and this one are three different courts. So it's actually relatively simple. Its just three chords in a four bar pattern because one of them repeats over and over. Okay, so that was just kind of a teaser of what we're going to see in this piece. We're gonna do a full analysis of this piece shortly, but next, let's dive into what makes accord. And I told you this was a C major chord But why? Why is that a C major chord? Why those three notes in particular, and why three notes at all. So we're going to get into that right now, so let's jump into triads next. 19. 23 Triads: when we're building cords. The magic number to remember is the number three three is what gets us through our courts. Now here's what we're first going to start talking about triads. Triads. As you can probably guess from the name that starts with. Try tr I. Ah, it means chords with three notes. Okay, we can have more. Eventually, we'll see accords with four notes and we'll see chords with five notes, maybe even six notes. It can happen. Um, but a triad gives us the basic building block. Ah, for all courts. So it's got three notes and we need these three notes to really give ah to get enough information out of the cord for it to give us the sound that tells us of its major minor or all these things we can't have less. There. You can have a to note chord. It's called a die ad, and we often when we see those, we kind of think of them as triads with a missing note. Usually so we don't really focus on die adds very much. Triads is the way that we it's kind of like like a triad is like if you had um, imagine you have a very simple house. That's a triad you can add on to your house and build more. You can add another room and have four notes on your record, and that's going to give it a little bit different character. You can add, Ah, pool in the back. It's gonna add five notes to your cord, and it's gonna have a little bit different character still, Um, but you gotta have the basic house in order to add on to it, and that is a try it. It's the most basic thing. So I told you to pay attention to the number three, and that's not just because of Triads. Triads, as we talk about him, are made up of three notes. That's why we care about the number three. Now. There's another reason that we care about the number three also is because each note in A Triad is 1/3 apart. So this magic number three has two things. So that third apart business, let's focus on that for the next section. So for this video, the thing I want you to remember is that we're going to start with our most basic building block of chords, which is called the Triad, because it has three notes in it up next. What are those three notes? How do we decide what three notes to put in there? We can't just put any three notes. There's a pattern to it, right? I promised more patterns and this is it. So in the next video, what three notes. 20. 24 BuildingTriads: So, in order to figure out what notes make up the different triads, we kind of have to go back and look at our scale for a minute. So let's stick to see, Major, because it's easy to see and we like it. Some skin draw C major scale here. Okay. Okay. Okay. There is a C major scale. Now, remember, in the last video, I told you to pay attention to the number three because of triads and also because it helps us figure out what notes make up accord. And the reason for that is that we build cords using something called Turn Eri Harmony Trinh Eri. And what that means is that our cords are built on thirds. And when I say we build cords, what I'm talking about is the is all kind of western music. Um, any classical music, pop music? Anything like that is all based on, um, this turn Eri harmony idea, which is cords built on thirds. And if you're I mean, there's some See, there's some Indian music, a lot of Asian music that's not built on thirds. But that will sound quite strange to us. Um, most music that you know, possibly all music that you know is built on thirds. So let's look at it. We have a scale, and this is where the thirds come into play. This'd our first note of our scale. This is our third, and we go up. Another set of three things is our fifth. Those are the three notes we need The first, the third and the fifth. That makes our first triad. Okay, so let me write that over here. First note. Third note, fifth note. Hear that? Who's I can't claim all at once this way. But that is this note this'll note. And this note the first note of the scale The third note of the scale and the fifth note of the scale makes a C major triad because we used the scale of C. Let me say that one more time. If we start off with the A c major scale and we take the first note, the third note and the fifth note of that scale, that is what makes a C major chord. Okay, A seeing major triad, Another way of saying a c major chord. Okay, so the first to third and the fifth every other note. Right? Um, that gets us our group of three. Because 123 123 1st 3rd and fifth. So that 135 pattern is important for us to remember. Now check this out. Let's go over to our Caden song here. That's what we were seeing right here. This is in the key of C Major and they're playing the first note of the scale. The third note of the scale in the fifth note of the scale and then an octave. The first note of the scale again. 1st 3rd 5th That makes a C major triad. Now again, they don't play it at the same time here. But that's OK. So that's how we make the first triad. Let's do it in a different key, shall we? Let's do it in the key of G. Okay, so how do we make a G major record? Easy. What we're going to dio is let's write out a G major scale. Uh, let's do it up here. Okay. Now for counting out are half steps in whole step pattern here. You would know that I need an f sharp. Oops. Not on that note. but on this note, and then I get to the end of the scale. So I put an f sharp here. What I also could have done is not done that. Let's just be consistent. And now I could add a key signature. What I did this time is I just wrote from G to G and then added the right key signature. Either way works. Um, I could just manually put the accidental on it. Or I could add the key signature prime. Not both, though. So let's look at our how do we make a G major record? We have a G major scale. So we're gonna take the first note, the third note and the fifth note, and that's gonna make our scale. So first note, third note fist note. Okay, Now new vocabulary word. When we look at a cord like this, what we call this note is the root we've I guess this is not a new vocabulary work. We've seen this before because in the scale what we called the root of the scale down here is the note the scale is named after, right? Same word applies to the court. This is the root of the court because you can see you can almost imagine the scale within these three notes. Right? We're missing this note right here, and we're missing that note right there. But if you put those in, you'd have all the 1st 5 notes of the scale going up. Right? So this is still the route because you can see these in that order. Now, soon we're gonna talk about what happens when they're not in this order. What if there like that right now, you can't really imagine that scale in there anymore because there's a gap right here. So that changes things a little bit. That's called an inversion. Are we gonna talk about that shortly? But for now, let's not worry about that too much right now. So we know how to make our first triad a major triad by taking a major scale and taking the 1st 3rd and fifth notes of it. But we can do more with this. We can do more. What we're doing right now is we're using a whole scale to make one chord. There are more chords in this scale and in order to kind of pick apart the cords in that scale, we need to talk about something called the diatonic chord progression. Now, this thing, we're gonna talk about it in the next video. But this thing is one of the most powerful things that you'll need to know if you're a songwriter especially. But in any music theory, this is an extremely important concept. This is going to tell us all the cords possible in a given key. So in the key of C major, I can do a C major chord. Right? We know that, but I can do a lot more courts. Look over here. Remember these courts, right? Three different chords in this group and they're all in the key of C major. So how do I figure out these other two chords? This one is my root third and fifth of the C major scale. What about these ones and these ones? That's what a diatonic chord progression is gonna tell us. So let's dive into that right now. 21. 25 DiatonicChordProgressions: Let's go back to see Major on. Let's just put a scale on the screen here. Okay? Okay. Note that I got rid of that key signature Fergie major, that we were just looking at. We're back to see Major. So that's all correct. C major scale now for a diatonic core progression. What we're going to need to do is we're going to figure out every possible cord that can be assembled with this group of seven different notes. Okay, How can we arrange these in a 1st 3rd 5th pattern in a way that makes seven different courts, right? Because we can build a cord with each one of these notes being the root note, right? Any one of these notes can be a route. We've only looked at that one. And what we did is we took every other note. So let's do that. Something. Zoom out. Just a hair so we can see what we're doing. Okay, so let's put our 1st 1 here. We know this one. Okay? A major chord built on the first, the third and the fifth. Every other note. Now, let's just throw a big wrinkle in here and put a d there. Okay, so I put the second note. Now what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna build a cord off that using the same process of every other note that's gonna be this note, this'll note. And that note, right? In this case, it's the to the scale. Degree to scale degree four, and skill degrees six. But if we treat D as the root than its root 3rd 5th So let's put that here, De. It's gonna be f a 2nd 1 Gonna skip G. I'm gonna put in a okay, let's keep going. So we'll wait before we keep going. Let me explain that a little bit more in this court, this is accord with see as the root. This is a chord with D as the root in the key of C major. So let's let's parts that a little bit more. What this is gonna end up with is not a major chord. This is a minor chord s. So hold on to that for just a second. I'm going to talk about major and minor chords in a second, but let's just finish building out. All are possible chords. So right now we have a cord with the root of C accord with the root of D. Let's go to e so e going to skip f and use G because we always use every other note. We're doing this. There's G I'm gonna skip a I'm gonna put B. Okay, let's go to the next note F So here's f A skip g gonna put in a I'm gonna skip be I'm gonna put a C Okay. Lets keep going after f comes Jeep Here's G in a skip A gonna put a b e in a skip So I'm be I'm gonna skip, see? And then I have to circle around again. Here's see that I just skipped right, cause I was on B and now I'm gonna put a D But I'm gonna put an octave higher, right? So I just cycled around again. Or we could rewrite this scale to go up another active, and that would help, uh, G Let's go to a So here's a I'm gonna skip be I'm gonna put a C and then I'm gonna jump down to the bottom again. Here, See that I just used I'm gonna skip d. I'm gonna put a e Okay, up next is beef. It's right here on a skip. See that one hanging put a D and then I'm going to skip E and I'm gonna put enough, okay? And now that's all seven. Right? That's seven chords a route on CIA route on D A rude on E a rude on F route on G A road on a and a route on B. Let's do one more just for the heck of it. So we go all the way up to see so let's call that this. See, I'm gonna skip D. I'm gonna put a e. Well, we keep jumping forward here on the skip f and I'm gonna put a G. Now if everything lined up right this last chord because it's also a route on C and that's a rude, unseen These should be the same notes C, e and G See, e g. Um, so if you did everything right, this last chord and this first court will be the same notes, but an octave apart so that our that is all the possible chords in the key of C major. And we call this the diatonic chord progression. Remember? Diatonic means in a key. So this is all the chords in the key. Let's just hear it because it's kind of fun to listen to. I'll start on the C major scale meat, right? Um, you know, another way you can figure this out is you could just write a C major scale going up and then start on e but right, a C major scale from E t. E on top of the sea. So C E f g A B C D E, and do the same thing. Starting on g g A B C D e f. So it's basically three scales are one scale, but starting on three different notes, you know, and then going up and gives you the same result anyway. Okay, Now we need to figure out what kinds of chords these are, because I have, ah, variety of major and minor chords here and then one just kind of weird one. So this is when patterns come into play again. A while ago, when we talked about the relationships of half steps and whole steps, when we're figuring out the scale over here, I said the whole step, whole step, half step whole step, whole step, whole step, half step pattern was something that you had to memorize. Ah, and ah, engraving your head. And I also think I said that I'm not gonna ask you to memorize a lot of stuff, but that is the one that is one of the things that I'm gonna ask you to memorize. And this is the other. This is worth memorizing. And that is what is the quality of each of these chords of the quality is another way to say, Is it major or minor? Or one of the other ones? Because this always falls into a pattern. Also for in a major key, this 1st 1 built on C built on the key were in right the scale we used to make all of this . This is gonna be a major chord. Okay, so this is C Major. The 2nd 1 is gonna be a minor chord. So there's a D minor, the 3rd 1 It is also going to be a minor chord. So this is D E minor. The 4th 1 is going to be a major chord. So this is f major. The six or the 5th 1 is going to be a major chord. So this is G Major. The 6th 1 is gonna be minor. So this is a minor. The 7th 1 is just the weird one. This is what's called a diminished chord. Um, it's kind of you can think of a diminished court is kind of like a super minor accord. Ah, it's kind of ugly. Um, this is so this is going to be be diminished, and then we're back to major. So it's a C major. So the pattern to remember is major minor, Minor, major, major, minor, diminished, major. Okay, um, that is a pattern worth remembering because it always works. If you're in a major key and you take your major scale and you write it out in thirds in the way we did here so every note has 1/3 and 1/5 above it. Then you get a series of chords where the first one's gonna be major. The second one's gonna minor. The third one's gonna be minor. The second, the fourth one's going to Major, The fifth one's gonna be Major. The sixth one's gonna be minor and seventh one's gonna be diminished. And then a major again if you decide to write, Ah, the active cord on there. So that is the diatonic chord progression. It's that pattern of major, minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished major say I get good at saying it cause they think about it every day. It's a very common pattern. It's important to memorize, Um, and you should know it before we leave this one thing to point out here. What this has shown us is all the possible chords in this Keith. So let's say you're a songwriter and you're writing a song and you, you're playing a C chord you're playing, Ah, core progression on your guitar and you're playing something like See G and a minor right? That all works and see Major right, a C major chord, a G major chord. And in a minor court, those were all in the key. They're all going to sound good together. But you're like, What else could I do? I want to add a new chord for the bridge already something different in the bridge of the sun. You can look at this and you can say, Well, here are my possible options that are in the key. There's always more options if you want to go outside the key. But in the key, consider E minor. E Minor is totally in key. It's gonna work. It's going to sound good. Consider D minor in the key. It's going to sound good. Consider F. I wouldn't consider be diminished because be diminished. Doesn't pretty really sound very good special on the guitar. Um, but you could try B minor, Um, as a substitute for that one. Also, probably get some great, but these other chords this kind of gives you a road map. Like what else could I do? I'm using these cords. Everything's in C major. What else could I do? Think you d minor? You could do E minor. You could do F major. It shows you all your options, you know, by laying this out. So that's why it's really useful for songwriters now. For music theory, it's useful because it tells us the quality of all the cords. It also can help us figure out what key were in if we don't know. Um, and in some cases, we don't know. So enough on that for now. Be sure you understand this. This is super crucial information. Next, I want to talk about inversions. This is the thing we talked about a second ago, where we had Ah, a case where there's a weird gap here. And, ah, it doesn't look like a cord built on thirds, but it actually is. So let's jump over to a new video and talk about inversions. 22. 26 Inversions: consider the following. Here we have three different chords. Four chords total with the first and the last one are the same, right? Three different chords in the key of C major. Okay, we have one. That's with the route on C. We have one with the route on G with the route on F and then another one with the route on . See? Okay, so these are all in C major, so we could calculate this, right? We could, um, crawl. We could figure out if this was a major or a minor chord. And if this was a major minor chord, in fact, let's do it. So how we would do it as we would count up the scale from the root of this cord to the root of that court. Eso Let's do it. See, the next note would be D. The next note would be e So be the third note. The fourth note would be F, and the fifth note would be G. So that is ah, cord built on the fifth scale degree. Next to figure out if that's a major mind record, we would apply our pattern of the diatonic or progression. So remember, It goes major, minor, minor. Major. Major, The 5th 1 is major, and this is built on the fifth scale degree. So this must be a major court. Okay, let's do it for this one. So first thing we're gonna do is we're gonna figure out what note of the scale the root of this court is. Um, it's an f. So we're going to count up. We're in the key of C, so we're gonna count up from C to F, so C D E f. It is the fourth, the fourth scale degree. So this is a chord built on the fourth scale degree. So now we're gonna apply our pattern of the diatonic chord progression pattern and that goes major, minor, minor. Major is the 4th 1 for the 4th 1 is major, so this must also be a major chord. So I have a bunch of major chords here. I have C major chord, a G major chord, an F major chord and another C major record. Cool. Now, what I want to talk about here is inversions. Now that we know that these are major a minor, um, let's just hear this. And then I'm gonna show you. Ah, how to make it sound A little cooler. So here it is. Okay. Now, these cords are all in what we call root position. Meaning the root note is at the bottom. That's route position. They don't have to be in route position, though. You see that when we have a Siris of cords that are in route position and they're all stacked perfectly in their thirds and they look like perfect cords, which is great. They can sound a little jumpy. Like, listen, between these 1st 2 it sounds like the court goes from here, and then it jumps up high, and then it falls down, and then it follows down. So it would be nicer if there was a little bit more elegant motion in between the cords. It would sound like how music usually sounds because people are usually using inversions. So let me play that for you again and think about the jerkiness of this jumping from here to here and then falling down. Okay? Now, you might not hear it as jerky, because this is just the way you're You're hearing it for the first time. Let me fix it. not fix it. Let me change it to use inversions. So we're all all these chords. Aaron, root position here. I'm gonna take I'm gonna leave my C major chord in route position, but I'm gonna change my G major court so that it doesn't jump up so high. Now, I'm not going to change any notes. All the notes are going to stay the same. I'm just gonna change octaves, so I will take this d at the top to bottom. Okay, so it's still g b and D. I just put the d at the bottom. Now I'm gonna take this, be I'm gonna put that underneath the D way. Go still the same notes. But now we see this note stays the same, right. And this c and e just kind of falls down. So now I have. So this is now an inversion. And there's fancy names for which inversion we're doing. Um, whether the fifth is at the bottom or the third is at the bottom. In this case, the third is at the bottom. Um, so it has a name. We'll talk more about those later. I just want to get the idea of inversions in your head before we get locked onto, like, the fancy names for stuff. So this is now inverted, so we don't see the perfect stacking and thirds because if we did, this would be G. D. And then there will be a f here. Right now, it's stacked in thirds, but that's the wrong chord. Thistles the court we actually want. So it doesn't look like it's stacked in thirds, but it is right. The octaves air just shuffled a little bit to make it sound a little smoother. Let's fix this one. No, let's take the sea and move it to the bottom. Okay, so that makes a nice little motion. Let's try. It's try moving the aid of the bottom Also. Okay, now there's a lot more. A lot less motion between these three chords, so let's hear them now. Right now. That might sound a little more like what a pop song sounds like, because the notes are not jumping around so much to stay in route position. When you play on a guitar, you hardly ever play in strict root position. Ah, the guitar is kind of designed so that the shapes we use for our cords. They usually have the root at the bottom, but the way we stack the actives above are kind of different, so that notes flow together quite well. So these are called inversions, the way I've changed these so that the root note is not necessarily at the bottom. These are en route position. These two are not. And that the reason we would do that just because it sounds better, it's still the same court. We still call this one a g major still call this one an F major, So we didn't change any notes. We didn't change the name of the court or anything. We just shuffled around some octaves so that it sounds a little more interesting. Let's take this a and put it back and let's see how that sounds. It's gonna be a tiny bit different, right? So now it kind of goes up a little bit there and then back down. One of the reasons that kind of shows why we like it is imagine these air singers imagine we have three singers, each singer singing one of these notes, so this first singer is always going to sing the top note. So he's gonna sing a G, and he's going to stay on a G, which is nice. He's gonna go up to an A and then he's gonna go down to a G right? So this really nice melody of having the same note and then up and then down back to the same note. Very simple line. Let's look at the middle singer. Ah, she's gonna go on an E down to a D up to an F because they're always going to be on the middle note, and then she's gonna go down to any rights was going to start in on the same note, but go down, up and then back. Let's look at the third singer is gonna go debt, uh, here and then down to a B and then back to a C. Evan stay on a C. So a much simpler melody than just jumping around like crazy, which is hard to do with your voice and because, well, not because it's hard to do with your voice. But, um, it sounds better to not do that. So this is an inversion now. This makes spotting chords a little trickier because of the change here. But if we wanted to confirm that this was actually a gene major chord, what you can do is to start playing with the notes and try to get them tow line up in that 1st 3rd pattern. So if you see one of these in the what in the wild and you're like, I think that's a triad, just start playing with the octave. Ah, yeah, there it is. Somehow you're gonna be able to get that back into, Ah, 1st 3rd 5th pattern. If it is in fact, a try it. Okay, this will be important when we look at that piece that we were looking at earlier. This one, because we have a couple of those. There's one right there. There's another one right there. So we'll look at that again in just a second. I have one more thing to point out for you before we do that. So let's move on to our one last thing for this unit, and then we'll relook at that song 23. 27 RomanNumerals: All right. Next thing we're gonna talk about Roman numerals. Roman numerals are exactly that. Sound like the Roman numerals. You probably already know what Roman numerals are. The reason we're talking about Roman numerals is because we use them in music theory to know Tate. Ah, the name er the type and quality of the cord that we're looking at. For example, um, I've taken are same core progression here, and I've taken the inversions off just to make this simple for for a minute we'll do it again with the inversion zone, but ah, word we now have. Ah these chords in route position again, right? So it's C major G Major F major, and then see Major right bunch of major courts. Um, here's how we would use Roman numerals here we're gonna use for this first quarter. We're gonna put a big Roman numeral one because that's going to tell us this is the one chord we would call it, right? So it's the one chord we use a Roman numeral one to signify that, and, ah, weird thing. You may have never come across lower case Roman numerals. It's rare in the wild that you see them, but we use them in music theory. Now, here we're gonna use a capital Roman numeral. We use capital Roman numerals for major chords and lower case from the numerals for minor chords. So that shows us so by using Roman numeral. It tells us the scale degree of the cord. So is it built on the first scale of the key? The center, The second scale degree of the key, etcetera. And it also tells us if it's major minor buys a capital, these are all major chords. So what we're going to see here is a capital one causes the one chord. This is the five chord because it's built on the fifth scale degree of G. And it's major. So this is Ah, five chord. This one is a four chord because it's built on the fourth scale degree, and it is also a major, and this is again going to be a one court. Okay, let's add some minor chords in here. Let's change this one to a minor chord. Uh, e just have to go. Let's keep it in route position for now. What? What did I do there? Okay, now we have a what? This is a chord built on a is the root cause it's in route position. And if we counted from C up to A, we would end up at think about it. Say the answer out loud. I hope he said six. Ah, this is the sixth scale degree. So what we're gonna put year is a Roman numeral six, but a lower case, because this is a minor chord, and we know it's a minor chord. Because if we do our diatonic chord progression pattern of major, minor, minor, major, major minor is the 6th 1 that gives us a minor chord. Okay, so let's go back to looking at the hole. Diatonic chord progression sequence, shall we? Okay, there we have it. OK, so here is our diatonic chord progression in the key of C major. Right? We've seen this before. We know that the root of all these chords, we know exactly what it is because we're in route position. So it's gonna be the bottom note. So this is a chord built on C. Is the court built on d etcetera? We also know already just by looking at this what the quality of the court is this is gonna be a major chord because it's the 1st 1 in our pattern. This is a minor chord, another mine record, a major chord, a major chord, a minor chord, a diminished chord and then another major chord. Okay, so we know the root of all these chords and we know the quality of all these chords. Now, let's use Roman numerals on all of these. So this 1st 1 we're going to get the Roman numeral one. It's gonna be capital because it's major 2nd 1 we're going to use a Roman numeral to, And it's gonna be lower case because it's Meyer. 3rd 1 this is Roman numeral three and it's gonna be lower case because it's minor. Major F Major is gonna be four in the key of C major. So that's going to be a capital for this is gonna be a capital five, cause G major is the five in the key of C major. This is gonna be a six because and it's going to be lower case because a minor is the sixth chord in the key of C major, and this one is a member. This is our weird one. This is a seven chord. We're sorry. This is the seventh Ah, chord in the key of C Major built on Be So it's the seventh. And remember, this is a diminished chord And I said it before. That is kind of like a super major record are sorry, a super minor chord. So what we're gonna use for this is we're going to use lower case Ah, seven Roman World seven. And then we're gonna put this little ah subscript circle after it. That's that little symbol means diminished. So this means diminished seven chord, seventh chord diminished is what we see there. And then when we get up to the top here, we're going to use Roman numeral who want we never use Roman numeral eight, uh, seven is the highest Roman numeral we ever use in every news Roman world eight Always one. So this is a one court again hoops because it's a C major and we're in the key of C major now. Important thing to note. Here, let's take this F for example. This is an f major chord, right? So it's gonna be Roman numeral four. Um, but only in the key of C major. Right? If we were in a different key, these numbers line up a little bit differently. Let's do this. I'm gonna delete some chords here on. I'm gonna put us in the key of F major. Okay? The rest of this works. So let's go. Let's finish this out. So I'm going to do a diatonic chord progression in the key of F so f g A B. I'll put the key signature on it in a second. See de e and then f again those quite high in hell. Okay, And instead of doing a key signature, let's just manually put it on here. Um, so the key signature for F remember, that was one of our exceptions. That's the one that has one flat, and it's and it's b flat. So let's just Oops. So I gotta turn all thes flat. Oops. Cheerio. And there's that one. There's another one. There we go. That's it. Okay, Smell all my be used. Our flat. Okay, Now let's put Roman World on this. So now f is now going to It was four before in the key of C major. Right? But we're in the key of f now. So an F major chord is a one, right? Because now, in the key of F So now everything changes. So now this is f major. So this gets a one capital one. And now this is a G minor chord, because it's the 2nd 1 So you remember the pattern major, Minor, minor. So this is a G minor circuits of Roman numeral two. This is an A minor, and we saw a minor in the key of C major and it was a minor. It was the sixth chord. But now it's the third court Still minor, though here we have a B flat major chord That didn't happen before. We didn't see that in the key of C because it has this on it, and none of those are in the key of C. So B flat is going to be the fourth. And so it's gonna get a major four C is gonna be the fifth. Remember, that was one before, and now it's five because we're in a totally different key, etcetera. I think you get the point. So the point is ah, Roman numerals are related to the key. Um they only tell us the function of the cord as it relates to this. The key. Okay, so you can't just say the f chord is ah, four chord as a universal truth. That is not true. That is only true. In the key of C major. Um, the F chord is a one chord in the key of F. So, um, as we get more advanced in the music theory, we'll see how this Roman numeral stuff gets kind of wacky. We start doing some really wild stuff with Roman numerals after a while, but for now, let's keep it simple now, Now that we know how Roman numerals work, let's jump over to R. C Major qingsong and do a true technical analysis of it using Roman numerals. Cool is gonna be our first real analysis. This is like what my students would hand in as like their first big analysis. So let's try it 24. 28 Analusis2: So let's go through this song and and label all the courts. Now, one thing that's gonna make it easier for us here is that I've already told you kind of ah , hint here that there is one chord happening for every measure. With the exception of this very last one right here. Okay, there's one court, every measure. So we're gonna put one Roma numeral on every measure. Okay, so let's start at the very beginning. So we know in the key of C major, right? Cool. So if we look at this whole measure and we kind of had Teoh, even though nothing is spelled out as a cord and played at the same time like it is down here, we can still put a Roman numeral on on this by saying everything in this measure falls into accord. If it does, And in this case, it does, because we have C, E and G, right, and then another. See the baseline, C, E and G. It's all doing C, E and G, and we know that in the key of C major, if we see c, e and G, that is the one chord right? It's gonna be capital because gonna major. So here we have a one court. Let's move on. Here we have C f and A right and here CF in a C and C So it's all CF in a. There's only three notes in that whole bar. So what can we call that? Well, c f a. Don't stack up as a court. Let me just jump over here really quick. Let me just slide it forward. Give me some little workspace here. C f and A. There's our court. So we have a gap here, so we know it's not in root position. OK, how can we get it into root position? Let's try moving this note up. Inactive right there. Boom. It just falls right into to a root position cord when I do that. So now we know this is an f chord, because that is root position. Okay, lets go back and look at that. So this is an F court. So what is F in the key of C Major? We just spent a long time talking about that, didn't we? It's the forecourt, right? And it's going be major because major, minor, minor major for so this gets Roman numeral for Let's go on to this one C e and G Beautiful . We've just seen that. So we know that this is the same bar as that one. So this is going to get a room and a moral one. Cool. One more cord. Here we have a, B, D and G. Okay, another being that R, B, B, D and G. Okay, so let's go back over here and let's look at that one. She's right here when I say be D and G okay, not in root position. So and we know that because of that gap right there. So let's try to get it in route position. What can we do? Let's move this. Let's move the bottom note up. Inactive. Okay, we're getting close because now these two are in route position. Let's move this one up and active to another deep boom. There it is. Now that's a root position. So now we know it's a G. It's a G chord. So, uh, G is going to be what, in the key of C G is going to be the fifth scale? Agree, um, so and we know the fifth is major because of the pattern. So this is going to get a Roman numeral five capital because it's major. Okay, now the good news is we're done with most of the peace because it repeats. So here we can see a C. So this is gonna be one here. We're going to see an F that's going to before again. Here. We're going to see a sea. So that's one again, B D. G. So that's five again. Okay, so now we can probably assume this is going to keep going. So one, 41 five then it gets a little bit different here because we have these upper actives. But let's look at what the actual notes are. C E G C E G C O. And here's an actual chord in route position. See, E g. And has another active on top of it. So that looks like there's a gap there, but we get our three notes and root position, does everything we need, So that's gonna be still a one chord. Same deal here. Here, we can see our our route position up there with an F as the root. So there's four court again, same thing here. Here's our C. So it's a one chord. Here is our This one's a little tricky. This is our five chord, but it looks a little different. If you go here. It looks like an e chord, right, Because we see e g and be so looking closely at that, that is not a record. The last beat of right here is an e minor chord, which would be three in the key of C major. However, given that we've seen this pattern a bunch of times, I am fairly certain that this is a typo on the account of this composer. If we wanted to be strict, though, we would call that an e minor right there, because that is an E minor. But I think they probably meant to write that e as a D, which would give us a G my r a g major chord, the same one we've been having throughout the peace and for the rest of this measure. So it's just that one note that's off that turns it into an E minor chord. So, uh, we could do what we want with that. If we were being really strict, we'd call it any mind record. Um, but I think it's probably a typo. Let's move on here. We've got a root position, C major. So that's a one. And all these notes fit in with that. And even if they didn't now that we have just full chords lasting the whole measure, we could just look at those. So that's a C major here. Same as before. We have an F A and then if there was a see above it, it would be in route position. But that sees down here. It's perfectly fine. It's an inversion. So that's 41 again and then five again inverted but five nonetheless, there's one again. Four again. One again. Five again. One again. Four again. One again. Five again. Now we get to the end When we got this one weird court in here. So here we've got a one chord. So a C major here, we've got a five or a four chords, all right, cause it's f major F A C is what we expect to see. That the four chord. Now we have a one court again, as we expect, and now we expect the next court to be five by the pattern, but instead they put the five one beat early and then jump right back to the one. So it goes 151 So there's our whole piece. We analyzed it. Now this is a good piece to analyze, because this pattern of using 14 and five very, very, very common. Um, it doesn't mean it's bad to do by any means. Those air just three chords that work together really well. 14 and five. They work together. Great. So it's it's nice to write music, just using that. Um, it's gonna be fairly simple, but, um, everyone loves the sound of a 14 and five Awesome. We didn't analysis good job. 25. 30 WhatIsInsideOfATriad: Okay, so we've looked at how to find triads given a key. Um, So if I tell you, you know, we're in the key of G after a little bit of work, you could You should be able to tell me now, um, seven cords that work in the key of g their roots. And if their major or minor, right, because the process you would do for that is first, you would write out scale, figure out the key signature based on the Alternations of half steps and whole steps. Right, that would get you all the right notes in the key. And then you would build a chord on each of those notes by assembling every other note of the scale, starting on each note of the scale that would get you that diatonic chord progression, right. And then, using the pattern of, ah, major and minor chords that we looked at the diatonic chord progression pattern, you would be able to tell me if any of her which of those are a major and minor and the one weird diminished one. Right. So, you know, you might not be able to just do it in your head you might have to write it all down, and that's totally fine. Um, you know, you don't have to be able to do this in your head. Um, but you should be able to tell me those things, given a key that would tell us seven possible cords that work in that key. And if you're thinking I thought there were eight to remember that were that the 8th 1 was the same as the 1st 1 right? Just a knocked of higher. That's the way I did it before. So trying to get confused by that there are seven different possible cords, um, major and minor chords in the diatonic chord progression for any key. Now, with that, I want to take a look at other things inside the major triads. Things we need to know about them, for example. What if we don't know the key? What if we're just Let's look out over here? Let's just say what if I just did this? Okay, what if I just gave you that completely out of context? We don't know what key were in. We don't know anything. How can we tell if that's a major or a minor? court. Right? Um, we don't have enough information just by looking at that cord to use the diatonic chord progression because we don't know what key were in. We don't know what scale degree this is based on. We can tell it's in route position because it's stacked in thirds, right? It's got that nice alignment, but we don't know if so, we know this note A is the root of the cord. We know that for sure, but But if we're in the key of A, it's gonna be a major chord. But let's say we're in the key of G right then. It's gonna be the two chord because G would be one and a would be, too. And then it's gonna be a minor court. So how can we tell if this is a major minor chord when we're just looking at a cord completely out of context? So that's what we're gonna look at in the next couple videos is how to really see inside the cord and figure out what's in it. Aside from using the diatonic chord progression formula, there are ways to do it. There are ways to know that this is a major court, I can tell you that confidently, Um, for a couple reasons, um, one of them is just that I happen to know have memorized a C Sharp is a major court, but, um, there are more, ah, scientific ways of knowing that. So that's what we're gonna look at in this next section. We're gonna dissect Accord and look at what's inside it. So we know how to build it when we are out of context. Okay, so let's dive in. 26. 31 TheThirdHoldsThePower: Okay, so let's dissect this particular chord that we're looking at right here. Let's start with that. The first thing to know about this court is that there are three notes and those three notes have each have a name. We know the route, right? That's the name of that note. In this context. In this cord, that is the root. And we know this isn't route because it is in route position, and it's the bottom note. If you put a cord into root position, meaning that it's perfectly separated by thirds, then the lowest note in that stack of thirds is going to be the root note. Now, also, if you're in route position, you can find out what the third of the court is. So we call this one the third, even though they're all related by thirds. And we talked about that earlier. This the middle note is called the third of the Cord. And now don't get that confused with the scale. Degree three, right? We're not talking about scales here, so remember, if we're talking about scale degree, we would write this as a three with a little, um ah thing over the top of it. Ah, but we're not. We're talking about the third of the court here, and typically when we're talking about the third of the cord, we just spell out the word third. I think there's not, like a strict way we we say that or we know Tate the third of the cord. Um, but it's It's the middle note in a try it. It's the third of the court, and the third of the court is the one that holds the power. The third of a Triad is arguably the most important note in it. More on that. In just a second. This top one, we call it the fifth of the chord. So whether or not were in the key So this is an accord. We know that because this is the root, the root is a and whether or not we're in the key of a or some other key when we talk about the cord, this note is called the third, and this note is called the fifth of the court. Okay, um, now let's talk about this third for a minute. It is the powerful one. Here's the deal. When we look at a major chord and a minor chord of the set with the same route. They are going to be different by exactly one note. Right? Let me let me prove it. Um, this is an a major chord we're looking at now. Just trust me that it's a major chord for a second while I right another cord to keep a rest in between. And let's go like this. Make sure this is accurate. Okay. All right. This is an a major chord. It's if we see it stacked in thirds and the route is a This isn't a minor chord stacked in thirds. And the route is a How many notes are different. Just the third is the only one that's different. So let me put that in another way. Whenever you look at Accord, the root and the fifth don't matter. In determining if it's a major or a minor chord on Lee, the third does okay, so the fifth is an E In the major chord, the fifth isn't e in the minor court, the route is a in the major chord, the route is a in the minor chord. The third is C sharp in the major chord and a normal see natural in the my record. Okay, so there's only one note different between a major chord and a minor chord. It's kind of wild, right, because they sound very different, right? Remember, major chords like major keys tend to sound kind of sort of happy. And minor chords tend to sound kind of sort of that. Right? Um, let's hear these so you can hear it right? Can you? You can. It's it's hard to tell him. It's such like like blocky playing on the piano. It sounds like someone's like hitting these notes with hammers on the keys. But, um, this one has a happier quality sound, and this one has, like, a tinge of sadness to it one more time. Okay, I get it. Um, now, that's a very subjective thing. Teoh here. So if you don't hear it and don't worry about it too much, So the take away for this video is that when we're working with triads, the third has the power. In fact, let me do one more thing. Let's take away the fifth right now. I only have two notes of the cord, right? We could call this a diet, But more likely we would call it a major court and a major court to be specific, because the fifth missing doesn't necessarily ah, slow us down too much. We can deal with that. We still know if it's a major or a minor court, right, because we have the third right. But what if the third was missing what we call this? We, in this case, we do not have enough information to tell us if this is a major or a minor chord. We just don't know because we don't have the third right. So the third is really important. This one. We can still call in a major chord. This one we can't. We might call this in a five chord, meaning it's just a and 1/5 above it. That's not the most common thing, but in this case, that is what we'd have to call it something like that, or we would just not call it anything. We would say it's not really accord because it doesn't have enough information to be accord right. What if now this is where things get a little more complicated? Let's do actually only just undo those two things Get us back to our two chords. What if the route was missing, right? What if we were here? Let's do it here. Actually, What if the rule is missing? Okay, Can we still figure out that this is an a minor chord? We could given the context if we looked around and saw that we were in the key of a minor, there was a lot of a stuff happening we might be able to determine or decide that we can call this an a minor chord. But without the route, Um, this starts toe looking awfully a lot like a c major chord, right, Because this is 1/3 and it looks like the 1st 2 notes of a C major chord, in which case we would need a G at the top in order to understand it. So this is also not quite enough information to figure out that it's an a minor chord, but it might be enough information to figure out it's a C major chord. So it starts to get a little, um, wishy washy around here, right will encounter situations like that when we start doing some more analyses. But for Now, Um, let's just remember that the sea or the third of the cord is a note that holds the power to determine if it is a major or a minor chord. If we take away the fifth, we can still deal with that cord. Ah, if we take away the third, we can't. And if we take away the rude, the route things get a little more confusing, so keep that in mind. Now let's go on. And let's talk about how we can determine if these are major amount Excited. I haven't told you that yet. What I've told you is that we need to know what the third is to know if it's major minor. But what is the third? Um, what is the difference between these two chords? And how do we know this one is major and this one is minor? Let's let's go over figuring that out in the next video 27. 32 FindingThirdsByHalfSteps: So the diatonic chord progression thing that we talked about. It's kind of the nice and elegant and fairly easy way relatively easy way to figure out difficulties, major, minor. This other way. That about show you is kind of the brute force way I would think of it as, but it works when we're in a pinch. So, um, in order to do this, let's pull up our, um can a keyboard. Okay, so let's just look at the major chord first, okay? And what we need to do is figure out how to If we're on an A in this case, how do we find a major third above it? And the answer is, it's two whole steps. It's always going to whole steps. So for on let's find in a for on an A, here's a whole step to be right, cause remember, on a whole step, there's gotta be a note in between. So we're whole stepped on and then another whole stuff. There's a note in between there that puts us on a C sharp right, So C Sharp is major third, two whole steps. Always your key can also think about it as 5/2 steps, if you like by going 12345 including the first and last note. Ah, but to whole steps is a little bit easier to think about. I think Let's find the fifth. What is the fifth? So here's a whole step. Here's a whole step. Here's a whole step. Here's 1/2 step so that to find the fifth, it's always gonna be three whole steps plus 1/2 step. It's kind of wild, but this is why it's kind of a brute force way to do this. It's better to think about these things in terms of the key and all that stuff. But if you have to, you can always think of a third as two whole steps and 1/5 as three whole steps plus 1/2 step. But don't worry about that. Fifth. For now, we're gonna come back to the fifth in the next video. There's an easier way to know the fifth, but you have to know the major and minor third in order to figure it out. So hold on to the fifth for a minute. Let's just talk about thirds. So we confined the major third by two whole steps, so it's do it on another one's pick a random key. How about deep? Okay, here's D. Let's go to whole steps up. Years e is one whole step and the second will step is gonna be F sharp. And F Sharp is in fact the major third above deep. Okay, so two whole steps from any note gets you a major third above it. Now let's talk about minor thirds. The difference when a major and minor third is just 1/2 step and a minor third is 1/2 step lower thing than the major third. So it's just down by 1/2 step, so you could think of it as 1.5 whole steps. So let's do D again. So to get to with a minor third, gonna go whole step. So there's a whole step and then 1/2 step, so one whole step in 1/2 step gets you to the minor third. OK, so minor Third above D is half major. Third above D is f sharp. Okay, so it's just that one note difference, and it's only different by one note. Isn't that creative? Let's do one more So let's do Ah about G. Okay, so let's find the miners third above G. It's gonna be ah ha our whole step and then 1/2 Step B flat, right? Let's find the major third above G who will step whole step. Be natural eso. That's how you can find the major and minor. Third, when you're in a pinch cat, take any note. If you're trying to find the major third above it and you don't know what key urine or anything, just count up to whole steps and you'll be on the major third above it. No matter what note you start on. It's always true if you're trying to find the minor third, count up one whole step and 1/2 step above any note and you'll be on the minor third above it. Okay, now let's talk about fifths. How to find the fifth without in kind of a different way than counting whole steps. We can actually kind of count thirds to get us to the fifth, and that has to do with how these cords are made. Ah, in one other aspect. So let's jump to a new video. We'll talk about finding the fifths 28. 33 FindingTheFifthByThirds: okay, There's a trick to finding the fifth. If, um, you're in a pinch. And it has to do with one of the kind of very odd qualities of the major and the minor triads, just the triads in general. And that is that they are a kind of mirror images of each other. Here's what I mean. Let's just look at the major. 3rd 1st the major are sorry. The major Triad. First, the major Triad is a stack of thirds right, which means there are two ah, thirds in it. There is the one between the root and the third, right. And then there's the third. That's between the third and the fifth. You see that one more time because I use the word third a lot there, and I want to make sure this is clear. There is 1/3 between these two notes, and there is 1/3 between these two nights, right? Uh, same deal in a minor. Try it right. There is 1/3 between these two notes, and there's 1/3 between these two notes. Here's the mirror image part. This is a major triad. So this relationship of the 1st 2 notes above the note above the root, the root in the third. The relationship is a major third, right because it's a major. Try it in a minor triad. The route. The relationship of the third here is a minor third because it's a minor. Try it right, and if we want to know for sure, we can count half steps and figure it out based on the way we just talked about. But we have a major third year and a minor third here. No, the mirror image thing that I've been promising the relationship between these two is always going to be if it's a proper triad, is going to be the opposite quality of the relationship of the equality of these two. For example, if this is a major third meaning, it's a major triad in the relationship between these two notes must be a minor. Try it. Okay, so C sharp to E is gonna be a minor triad. So let's do it down here. Your c sharp. Let's do the same active. And now if we go a whole step and then 1/2 step that gets us to eat right, that's a minor third. But it's at the top of the cord, so it doesn't affect the quality because this minor third doesn't Neymar cord. This third is what names a record. So we call it a major court. Okay, but all triads are made up of 2/3 1 major, third and one minor. Third in a major triad. The major third is at the bottom and the minor thirds at the top in a minor triad, the minor thirds at the bottom and a major third is at the top. Why does it work that way? Um, it's actually fairly logical. If you kind of see it on online. Think of it like this. Remember that Between a major and a minor triad, the route doesn't change, and the fifth doesn't change. Right? So let's put the route over here somewhere and the fifth over here somewhere. Okay, so now let's put the third of a major third right around here. Okay, so this distance is bigger because it's a major third. So this is actually 1/2 step bigger than this distance over here. OK, but now if we move the third to be a minor third, it slides over there and Now this distance is bigger because this spot doesn't move. So the distance here is bigger than the distance here. So now you have the minor third at the top. We're sorry, the major third at the top in the minors at the bottom because the major third is a bigger distance. Maybe that was a little too abstract, but basically, here's what we need to remember. All try ads are to third's. There's a major third and a minor third in major triads. The major third is at the bottom in the minor. Third is on the top in minor triads, The minor third is at the bottom, and the major third is at the top. But they both have a major third and a minor third. It's kind of wild, right? Um, it's kind of cool to find these, like, weird, little symmetrical things in music. They're all over the place. Things were like, I mean, a lot of the the relationships between notes that we use that sound good are completely based in math. A lot of them are most of them, I would say, Um I mean the guy that we thank for figuring out a lot of this stuff. Forests is path a gris. I mean, he he kind of figured out a lot of this. So he you know, he's You may know him from such hits as the triangle. Ah, in the Pythagorean theorem. But, hey, figured a lot of this out for us, too. So, um, with that, we can figure out the fifth. If we don't know what the fifth is. Let's just do it. Let's go. Um, let's go up here and let's make Let's start on a E. How about that? Okay, I'm gonna put a core. I'm gonna put two notes here. Come with that. Good. Now let's finish out this cord. What do we need to do? We need to know if this is what kind of third this is first. So let's figure it out, E g sharp. So let's find it on our keyboard. Here's our E. So there's one whole step. There's another whole step that gets us to G sharp groups. So to whole steps is a major third. So this is a major third. So if we want to finish this court and put the fifth on it, we need a minor third above this G sharp. So that's gonna be Ah, whole step to there and then 1/2 step. That's gonna be a B. So let's add that note in beat. Okay, so that's so we found the fifth without counting all the way up in half steps and whole steps. We just did the opposite kind of third as the one that was on the bottom and that got us 1/5. Let's do another one. How about, um de I'm gonna say, Let's build just given this one note, Let's build a D minor Triad. Okay, so first I need to find the third. I can do that by counting up a minor third from De. So here's de. So here's a whole step on. Then I need 1/2 step to make a minor third, right? So that puts me on F. So let's put an F right there. Okay, so now I counted up a minor third above D to get toe F because I'm making a minor chord now to finish out the court. I need 1/5 and I can do that by counting the opposite up. So a major third up. So we're on F. Let's go up to whole steps. There's 12 G and there's another one today, and that gets us a D minor try. It makes sense. You'll have some of these to try in the worksheet that I'm going to give you next, so check those out. Um, practice them. Make sure your answers are right on that. You understand them? Don't be afraid to re watch videos. I know this stuff is getting complicated, but it's getting fun. Fun for nerds like me. So let's do another worksheet and then let's dive into analyzing some pieces. 29. 35 DimishedTriads: okay, There's a couple more things we asked you before we get to, um, the pieces that I just want to do. Ah, an analysis of we're gonna do those in the next section. But I want to cover a couple little odds and ends in this section. Diminished chords, augmented chords. But I don't think I've even mentioned yet, and there's good reason why haven't mentioned those yet, and I'll get to that shortly and then adding octaves, two chords and then just kind of how cords work on a guitar, which is worth a special mention, and you'll see why when we get there. So let's talk about diminished chords. We've seen diminished chords right here is our friendly diatonic chord progression that we know so well. Now this is in the key of C, so we have a C major chord because the route to see and the pattern goes major in the 2nd 1 is minor. Third one's minor 4th 1 is major. 5th 1 is major. 6th 1 is minor. 7th 1 has diminished. Let's talk about that little thing right now, So this diminished chord now in the key of C, the diminished chord happens on a be the seventh scale degree. Now, remember, whenever you're trying to figure out scale degrees, you can also go backwards. So if we were in the key of C, and we wanted to find where the diminished chord would be or we just wanted to find the seventh, we can always just go down 1/2 step from C, right? That works in any key. You could just go backwards and go down, but, uh, let's look up here. Okay? So what is this thing? It probably will make a lot more sense now. And hopefully you'll see why I waited until now to talk about it. Because what we just talked about was how all triads are. Ah, stack of two different thirds, right? There's 1/3 between the 1st 2 notes and 1/3 between the ah top two notes, right. And in major and minor triads, those were always gonna be opposite. So if the bottom one is a major triad, the top one is gonna be a minor. Try it. Right. So here we have a major triad between C and E, which means E and G is a minor. Try it right and watch this we could jump up to cords. Here's that same e and G again, right? And we know that because right here PNG was a minor triad right here. It must be also a minor triad, which means the top G and B is gonna be a major triad. Let's just keep going with this. Let's jump ahead to more chords. Here's that gmb again. Right? And we just decided that it was a major triad. So it must be a minor triad between B and D. Right? Anyway, I don't want to confuse you. I just I'm doing that to point out they all the kind of intersections between the different chord. That's actually kind of a beautiful system. So let's talk about this diminished chord. Let me just write it by itself. So we can really just kind of zoom in on it. Okay, here's what makes this special. This one breaks that rule of If one of them is a minor triad, the other one's a major. Try it. Okay, let's just go through and find the two triads in this B to D. Let's pull up our keyboard. Okay? Be t o D. Is So here's Ah, whole step and here's 1/2 step. That's D and that's be so whole step Plus 1/2 step means minor. Try it or minor third. Sorry. So this is a minor third between B and E. Okay, now let's find D and F. Now, by our logic, this should be a major triad. So we look at B toe f, right? So here's a whole step. Here's 1/2 step, so be toe f. We're sorry. D two f is also a minor triad. So this one is made up of two minor thirds. I just said, Try it again. Thirds What I should've said two minor thirds is what this is made up of that breaks the rule right that breaks the rule of all our major triads and minor triads. This has to minor thirds in it, Which is why I think when I first introduced it, I think I said, sometimes we consider it kind of like a super minor accord to kind of is right because it's made up of two minor thirds instead of one minor, third and one major third as all the other triads that we've looked at our so that makes an interesting little conundrum, right? And the reason that it happens is just because of the way the notes are laid out. One of those is always gonna fall right here, right on the seven scale degree. If we're in a major key for in a minor key, it falls in a different spot. We're gonna talk about minor keys later in a major key. It's always on the seventh, so we tend not to use that chord all that much in things like pop music and um, or traditional sounding music in classical music. We do you use it a lot because it has a good like we talked about tendency tones before it's got a good tendency. Watch this. Let's resolve it This what I want to do at the end of it is I'm gonna put let's like, Let's make it easy. A g major core a c major chord. Sorry. And so it goes. This is relatively dissonant because it's not a beautiful chord, but it resolves nicely, too. The key right to C major chord. So we we like it for that Now. The other thing about diminished chords that's interesting is that there is no perfect fifth in it. Now, the perfect fifth means a. If we counted up half steps, we would find these fifths are all what we call perfect fifths, meaning they're all the exact same number of half steps. Let's figure it out. So see to G. So 12345678 Or, if you want to think in whole steps one Teoh 3.5. Okay, that's not you don't need to remember. Is that because we have better ways of finding the fifth right? But if we did do that with this, we wouldn't get it. We would get what's called a tri tone here, or sometimes we call it a diminished fifth, which means it's 1/2 step short of 1/5 B to F is the tri tone. It's the kind of the ugliest interval. If you were in the Middle Ages and you played that at your church, you would get your head chopped off. They did not like I'm serious about that. They did not like their tri tones was the devil's harmony. So that's what the diminished chord is. There's there some other weird properties about diminished corns. But for now, I just wanted Teoh explain how this relates to our triads, which is all Triads are, either. If there's a minor triad, it's a minor third with a major third on the top groups. I shouldn't be pointing out that one. Will I do it? Here's the minor Triad. So minor Third, with a major third at the top or a major triad, the major third at the bottom and a minor third at the top. The diminished one is the exception. It's a minor third at the bottom and the minor third at the top. That's how the diminished Triad works. 30. 36 AugmentedTriads: Okay, so now we know that we have this triad that's made up of two minor thirds. It's called a diminished triumph. How it stands to reason, then that we ought to have a triad somewhere that's made up of two major thirds, right? Um, and we do. It's called an augmented Try it. So think of it this way. Diminished means it's slightly more. It compressed, right? It's slightly smaller. It's it's diminished. Think of like the literal meaning of that word. It's diminished. Um, so it's smaller. So it's two miners hurt because minors are smaller than major thirds right? Augmented is a term we use to mean, ah, slightly stretched apart slightly bigger than it ought to be, Right, So an augmented triad is gonna be two major thirds. It's gonna be a little bit wider and bigger than we expect it to be Now we've looked at our diatonic or progression, probably like 1000 times now, and never once have I said at this point is the augmented triad, because while the argument in Triad can't exist, it does not naturally exist in a major key. What that means is that without altering something, you'll never get it right. So sometimes we need to alter court based on some other factors in our composition. Sometimes there's a melody that it just you just really want to go to this note That's not in key, and that's totally okay. Remember that what we're doing is focusing right now on being perfectly in key. But in reality, when we look at music, were never or were very rarely strictly, always in one key at a time we go outside of the key. That's what gives our our music, extra color and flavor and stuff like that. So in order to make an augmented triad, we have to go outside of the key. But we can figure out exactly what it would be. Let's build one on C can build one wherever we want, so we need a major triad. So that's a major triad C T E. And now we need another major triad from E two. It's gonna be to g are. That's our augmented. Try it. You have to raise the fifth a little bit, Um, if to start on a major triad and then raise the fifth a little bit or a major third and then raise the fifth that makes our augmented triad. Sometimes we use augmented triads for modulation. And what that means is kind of like what I was talking about when I said Diminished chords . That means that we use it to get to somewhere else. Like, let's let's try this. Let me change all of this to half notes, Okay, there's my augmented. Try it and let's see if I can get it to resolve to something like, I think it's going to resolve well to an a minor chord. Okay, um, and let's let's do one more thing. Watch this. Okay, so what I've got here is this is just to see this is a C major triad. Nothing funny about it. Now I have a C augmented triad, and now I have in a minor Triad inverted right. If we take this and put it at the bottom, it's a minor triad. I'm gonna put it at the top. It's gonna sound a little bit better that way, because what we're going to hear is this note this g moved dramatically. That's what's gonna go g g sharp and resolve to a Okay, so that's what we're going to hear in this. So this augmented chord is a transition court. We're not going to sit on that cord for a long time. You know, it's not gonna be a real pretty sound, but it's gonna make this feel Ah, like the intended result. Like it's gonna feel like where we were heading. So this is just to stop on the road to get to here, but it helps us get to hear, because that dissonance of that g sharp is gonna push us up to that. A Let's hear it. Okay, Right. So you encounter augmented chords and jazz. Ah, lot, Um, just like diminished chords. Not so much in pop music or anything like that. Um, definitely in classical music, because we have these kinds of transitions all the time. But things remember about augmented chords is that they do not exist in the key. Ah, in a major key, you have to do something fancy to get yourself an augmented chord in a major key. But the augmented chord, as is, is two major thirds stacked on top of each other 31. 37 AddingOctavesToTriads: Okay, so we know that these air triads we know the diatonic or progression. We know all that stuff. Um, what happens when we add more actives to our triads? And specifically, what I'm talking about here is an octave that's already in the triad, for example, See, e G. What if I had another see on top here? Okay. Right. What do we call that? Because triads. I mean, there's three notes, and now we've got four. Um, we still call it a triad. In fact, we still call it a major. Try it in this case, because this is a major triad. That extra note doesn't change anything. Ah, it makes it sound a little fuller, but we still only have three notes. If we go all the way back to the first class I made on music theory, we talked about pitch classes if you didn't see that review it. But basically, what that means is that what we care about in triads are three different notes is a way to think about it that way. So as long as we're not adding a new note, it's still a triumph. So we could even do this now I got five notes, right, but nope. I really only have three different, uh, pit classes What we call it. But we have C, E and G, and then another c and another eat. There's only three different notes there, right? So and we can do that all day long. We can keep going Now. I've got a try out here and to try it here. But it's the same triad. It's just a nice big sound. Could even go down. Okay, Right now I've got let's even go down for here we go now Got three different triad stacked on top of each other. They're all the same. Um, still triad a single major triad. So we still call this giant thing. Ah, see, Major, because if we went through and analyzed this and we throughout all of the actives, we would end up with just the notes C, E and G. So just to reiterate on that, that only works. If we're adding an active that's already in the triad, we can't add and active from another triad into a new triad that makes a new court right can do that. But you'd be surprised at what we can do with octaves. Let me get rid of this silly court here. Cut. Watch this. Let's try to make a little melody out of this boring diatonic chord progression. Just going up to scale. But watch what I can dio. So let's take a G and put it up there. Right G is in the cord. It's right here, so I didn't add any new notes. Now let's find a note that will work well after this G. Here's an F So put it f there. I haven't e cause this is an e minor court, so it works quite well. There's an E Let's see now, F a c. I could go back up to an F G B D Go back up to a G A C E. If you go down to a knee with us, I can really add anything. Let's jump up to a C, maybe BDF. It's good under B and in the sea. So now we've got something that looks like there's this other line in here, but there's no notes that are outside of the cords that have just used octaves. Let's hear this. Maybe we should slow that down a little bit okay here. That it is again, a little bit slower, right? So we can add octaves and kind of make things feel like they're moving in different directions a little bit, right? This is just all these cords going up by themselves. But when we add these other notes, I can feel like, Ah, the cords are not necessarily just moving up or moving down in different ways. And that is why I think it's especially worthwhile to mention Kabul guitar works. Eso I want to look at that in the next video. And let's just go to it right now, but it has to do with this, so keep this in your head because we're gonna be talking about octaves. 32. 38 GuitarChords: okay. I get a lot of people asking me if triads only have three notes. How come when I play my guitar and I play, you know, Ah, g major chord. I'm strumming six strings, right. And it has to do with, um, the active thing that we just talked about, because when you strum all six strings, if you're playing the cord, right, you're actually only playing three different notes. So have a little example set up. So here I have Ah, four quarts G C. So G major C major a minor and e minor. Okay, so these air just written in route position. So let's listen to him in route position. Okay, let's get him in our head a little bit. So one more time. Now, when you play these on a guitar thes four chords using any like open chords your normal guitar chords, the notes that you actually play when you strum a guitar look like this, this is how it's all laid out. And this is just because of the way the guitar is tuned. So let's hear it now. This is going to plan on a piano, but you know, not a guitar but use your imagination. Okay, Still the same chords. But there's a lot of extra stuff in here, right? So let's look at RG cord G B D. Those are the three notes we need to make a G major court G B indeed, right? But then we have another G, another B and then 1/3 G. So we have three different G's in here, but we have all the stuff that we need to make the court. Ah, here's a C chord as played on guitar. See E g and then another c and another East. So this is our triad. And here's our extra stuff. An a minor chord A e a c e. So in this one, we only have one See and remember, um, in an a minor chord, What is the third? The third note of the court? The middle note is C right. And remember, what note holds the power, as I say, to determine if it's major minor, it's the third, right, So in this chord we only get one c. We only get the 3rd 1 time and we get, you know, to ease and two A's. So we have the route twice the fifth, twice on Lee. 1/3. You would think that we would want more thirds if that's the powerful one. And yes, sometimes that might be true. Sometimes it is. Sometimes it isn't. The thing is, this is just how the guitarist set up. So this is how we strum in a minor accord. Here's an e minor chord e be e g b e. So same deal here G is the third here. We only get one in this big chord. Um, but that's just the way the things set up. And that's not bad. That's not better off. Um, that's what we're used to hearing on a guitar. So when you strum a guitar and you're playing chords, even though you're strumming five or six strings most of the time, it's on Lee. Three different notes. If you're playing major chords or minor chords. Cool. Excellent 33. 40 AnalysisOverview: okay, in this next section, we are going to analyze pieces. Now, this one I have on the screen here, Canon and D is one that you've probably heard. Ah, 1000 times you've heard this song. Um, it's sometimes referred to as the wedding song because it gets played at ah ah, lot of weddings. So before we dive into that, I just want to explain what we're gonna what we're trying to accomplish with doing these, um, analysis when we do an analysis, what we're really doing is we're going through and we're kind of dissecting the peace were kind of pulling it out and looking at what the kind of skeleton of the peace is. What what are the kind of fundamental principles governing the peace? So what, we're gonna dio as we're gonna take all the notes on the page and we're going to try to put chord names on all of them. Now, some of those notes aren't going to get a cord name, and they're not going to fit into a chord, which is, um, one of the things we're going to explore in this section when we're looking at these pieces is a thing called non chord tones. And that means when there's a melody. Not every note of that melody fits into the court, and it takes a little bit of practice to kind of figure out what notes fit into the cord and what don't what are what we call non chord tones. So we'll look at that, Um, after we look at our first piece here because there are a couple in Canada de here, there's kind of a lot of them, like every piece. Every piece has a lot of non chord tones. If a piece consisted of Onley chord tones, it would be pretty morning. Um, so that's one of the things that I want to accomplish in this section. Another thing is just to get in your head that, um when we do an analysis of a piece, some of it, frankly, is a matter of opinion. You know, there might be situations where I might say, you know, this is ah, you know, four chord. But if it doesn't have all of its notes, or if it's in a weird context or something like that, they are debatable. And this is why there's a lot of books about music theory because people have different ideas about ways to analyze different things. There are a couple different schools of thought, and we're not going to, like, spend tons of time. Um, Elise, not in this class going into the different schools of thought on how to analyze pieces, but just keep in mind that it can, in some cases, not in all cases and frankly, not in most cases, but in some cases Ah, what we call accord is debatable. You know, it can be ah, seen a couple of different ways sometimes. So I say that so that you don't get in your head that if I analyze here, you know, Canada and D, and then you look up somewhere else and they give a different chord name to something. Um, that can be okay. You know, that's just a different way of analyzing it and looking at it, I doubt we'll have any of those in Canon in D because it's pretty cut and dry, but you never know. Okay, so with that, let's dive in and let's ah, analyze pocket bells. Canon in D 34. 41 AnalysisCanonInD: all right, Cannon and D. Now, before we analyze, we should always listen. Um, let's just get this in our head And, um, you know, just so that it's just a healthy practice to do, so make sure that we we understand musically what we're looking at before we dive into it. Analytically. So, um, let's take a listen. - So you've probably heard this song before of this song? It's arranged 100 different ways. Um, so you may have not heard it exactly like that before, but more or less, this is how it's done. Um, you know, a lot of the times we extend this section, you know, the other sections. This is, like, really commonly used in a wedding when, like the bride is walking down the aisle or something like that. Eso It's very popular for that reason, the composer is possible canon in D. So right away we know that it's probably in the key of D, and that is the first thing we need to figure out when we analyze it. What key are we in? Um, and we can look at our key senator. Let me zoom in on this. Let's just look at this first bar or this first line here. So two sharps remember the rule for Sharps, The rule is to figure out the name of this key. We take the last sharp and we go up 1/2 step. So the last sharp is C sharp. So if you go up 1/2 step, we're gonna be on D. So it is in fact, in the key of deep, which is convenient because it's called Canon in D. Now, this word cannon tells us something, too. But hold on to that for a minute. I'll come back to that, Um, it doesn't tell us anything about the notes, at least not right away. Okay, so let's look at what we've got. So here we only have two notes for this whole first passed through the kind of main theme. Let's call it over here. We have three notes, but really, I think we still only have two notes. This is a D. And that's a d. Ah, that's an A Oh, we have three notes here. Okay, well, let's look at the first part, though. Um, it's repeating, so let's compress these. So I'm gonna take this D and This is an f sharp, and I'm just gonna make see if it'll let me do this. I'm gonna put this d up a whole bunch and put him right next to each other. OK, so I haven't added a note. I'm just moving this note way up here so that we can see him right next to each other as we can see our thirds. Okay, here's an A. It's right there. Here's a B right there. Here's ah f goes right there. Here's a G because we're there. Here's a D Here's G. Here's an A Ok, so now we can see a little bit clear just on this staff what we're dealing with so we only have two notes, right? And we need three to figure out what these triads are. But in most cases here, we can make a pretty good educated guess. So here we have d and F sharp. Now these are 1/3. So if this was going to be a full chord, what we would need is either another note on top, which would be right there to finish the cord or the third. It could also be a note on the bottom to finish the cord right, because these 2/3 are either going to be the top 2/3 or the top third or the bottom third. If they're the top third, we need to add a note underneath. We don't need to add it, but we need to determine if the missing note is a B underneath or in a at the top. So let's make an educated guess here. I'm going to make an educated guess that the A is in the missing note, and this is why we know we're in the key of D. If the A was the missing note, this would be a D major chord. Now it's super incredibly likely that a song in The Key of D is going to start on a d chord t d major record, right? So I'm going to assume that that's a pretty safe assumption. Another good assumption is that there is a D in the base, meaning the lowest note is a D that points us to. This is probably a D accord. It's probably not a B Corps, so let's keep going now. This one we have 1/5 so we know what the missing note is the missing note is the one in the middle, right? What? We don't know if it is if it's major or minor, but, um, we can probably we can make a really good educated guess here that it's the one that's in key. So if I just put a C here and I look at my key signature, that means a c sharp. So now we know that it's probably the note that's in key, right? So we have that chord completed. Now I'm gonna go back and put names on all of these. I just want to find my missing chords first, thereby missing notes of the chord First, just for this first section up Next, we have a bee in a d. So 1/3 and by the way, notice how this whole pattern is going. You know, we had this third and then 1/5 on the third, and then ah, 5th 3rd and then 1/5 and 1/3 and 1/3. And on 1/3. But it's alternating between thirds and fifths, which is an interesting sound. Right. Okay, let's figure out what note is missing here. We have a G and a B. Well, let's see what's in the base. A B is in the base. So very well could be a B chord. Very well. Could be a G chord. Let's stick to my previous hypothesis that are based note is gonna help us out. And let's call it hoops. Ah, B chord. Okay, let's keep going. Here's an f n a c so we know the note. The missing note has to be in a because we want to make triads here, and it's probably gonna be the one that's in key. So we're just gonna leave it just as it is without messing with worrying about if it's 1/2 step whole step for right now. Our Sorry if it's a major third or minor third right now, we're just gonna put it in there and then we'll check it on the next pass when we put ah do our Roman numerals on this G B. And what so we have a G in the base. So let's assume this is a G chord and added D to fill out the Triad F. They're sorry D missing and a So we're missing an F. Let's assume it's just in key. And then g b we have g in the base. So let's assume we're missing the d to make a g triad And then our last note a in the base a c So it's a sumer missing e to make that in a triad. So that's one pass through the main theme here. All right, Now let's see what we've got. So in the key of D So we know by our diatonic chord progressions Ah, what are possible? Cords are right. Let's go over them one more time. So Okay, here's the staff in the key of deep. Let's just write out a really quick D major scale. Okay, Okay. I don't need to add any accidental is because I've put them here in the key signature, right? So R C s C sharp and our f is f sharp. So these are notes now, the pattern here remember, it's any triad built on D is going to be a d major chord. If it's built on E, it's gonna be an e minor chord. F is gonna be a minor chord. G is going to be a major chord. A is going to be a major chord B is going to be a minor chord. C Sharp is going to be a diminished chord, and we know what those are now and then d again is going to be a major chord. Okay, so here we have our route. So I've put all of these triads and root position, so it should be pretty easy to figure out D is our roots. So this is a D major chord here. A is our route. So that's going to be a major chord. Here be is our route. So that's gonna be a B minor chord. F is our route. So that's the third d E f f sharp, I should say, because of the key signature, So f sharp is going to be our It's our third scale degree, So that's gonna be a mind record. G is going to be a major chord. Therefore, scale degree de is our route. So it's our tonic. As we sometimes say. That's gonna be a major chord. G is going to be a major chord, and then a is going to be a major court as well. And that's the pattern of this opening section. No, luckily um, now that we've figured out the basic seem here the core progression of the basic theme. Let's talk a little bit more about this word cannon because that tells us something important about this piece. A cannon is a type of piece of music, um, in which things cycle around and around and around. Usually it means that there are two different things happening in, uh, somewhat different wings. So, uh, another way to think about it is you may have encountered something called around. Canon is basically the same as around and around. We often do it as little kids with the song Row, row, row your boat. Right? So we go like row, row, row your boat and then someone else starts right there. Row, row, row your boat, Row, row, row your boat While the first voice keeps going and they overlap off from each other, a cannon is very similar. This particular arrangement has most of the cannon elements removed. So we don't see that kind of row, row, row, your boat kind of overlapping sound. But what we do see is a repeating pattern for the whole piece. We build on that pattern throughout the piece. So let's take a bigger view here. Let me just zoom out. Okay, So this is what we've analyzed so far, right? This is going to be the exact same core progression. Okay. And then here again, same core progression here. This bar all the way to hear same chord progression. Again, this bar to hear. Same core progression. Again this far Teoh here. Same chord progression again, this bar to hear same core progression again. So we've effectively analyzed the harmony the cords of this entire piece already, right. We've know what the cords are for the whole piece. By figuring out that first part and then realizing that it's a cycle, this piece is transparent enough where we could actually just follow the baseline. Right? So here's d and then a on Let's jump to the next start of the pattern the A The next start of the pattern D A next sort of the pattern D A and the baseline is exactly the same for the whole piece. Just repeats again. Let's see yet. So we've analyzed this whole piece? No, Um, we didn't talk about non chord tones yet, and we have some right here. Let me just point them out really quick. Here's a fairly easy one. Here's a D chord. What are the three notes and a D major chord? D F sharp and a That's our triad, right? So here we have a D. Here we have a D that works that all fits into the cord. Here's an F sharp that fits into the cord. This e does not fit into the court. There's no E in a d major court, nor is there a G and a D major chord. So these two notes are not in the court. They are non chord tones. We're gonna talk more about non core tones in a minute. So what's left? Remember Roman numerals? Let's put Roman numerals on this sucker. All right, so remember that because all these chords are the same. The Roman numerals. We just have to figure it out for these first for this first kind of, you know, passed through through the theme. And then they're gonna be the same for the whole song are the whole piece. So let's figure him out for this section, and then we know the entire piece. Okay, This is a D major chord. What's the Roman numeral one? Because we're in the key of D. So it's going to be a capital one because it's a major chord and it's our first quarter tone court built on a What is our Roman numeral there? Well, let's temp over here really quick. A is what? 12345 So the Roman New World's gonna be five. And is it gonna be capital or lower case capital? Because five, by our pattern of major minor, minor major major, that means Major. So Capital Five here Ah, be Where's bee? In our scale? That's five. So six is B and it's six gonna be major minor. Gonna be minor. So here we have a lower case. Six up. Next, we have an F chord. Where is F? It's our third scale degree, and that means it's a minor. So a lower case three on F G is going to be Can you do in your head D E f sharp G four. It's gonna be four. And is that major reminder it's major. So here, we're gonna have a major four here. We're back to D. So that is a one right, A major one. Now we're back to G where we just were over here. Same chord. So this is gonna be a G. Ah. Are ah, Major for and then five. And that's going to be a major five. Same court as we had back here. So there we go. So that that would see 123456788 bars. We can put on the whole rest of the piece repeating every eight bars. And that is how this piece works. That is. The analysis of that gets you an analysis of the whole piece minus the non chord tones. So let's talk about those next. 35. 42 NonChordTones: okay, non chord tones. Now it's easy to see if we already know that this is a D major chord, and it's taking up this whole bar, which, by the way, remember that that's not always true. Ah, it's true in this case in this piece that we're looking at right now, that the cord applies to the whole bar. But I think it was true in an earlier piece we looked at. But it's not always true. Sometimes cords only last a beat, or sometimes even less. But in our case, the court is taking up the whole bar because that's what it's been doing. The whole piece, Um, and we know that this is a cannon and it's, you know, repeating the same pattern over and over. So we know that this whole bar we're calling a D major chord or a one chord, right? So how do we explain these two notes that are not in that court? Let's just use this bar right here as an example. There's a couple different ways, Um, first of all, we're going to call those non chord tones, so non core tone just means that it is a tone that's happening or a note that's happening inside of the cord That does not fit the cord. Right? If we didn't know what cord was happening right now, let's just kind of erase everything from our brain and say we don't know what cord this is . So how can we figure out this court? So we have a d in the base way. Have a D above now. We had e Does that belong in the cord? Does this f and this e and this de belong in the cord? This is G belong in the court. Probably not. Um, because we wouldn't have any assortment of thirds by adding all four of these notes, right? If we dig through here and we try to find thirds, what we confined is this D M S f sharp. We can also find this in this cheap. Okay, so that's a little bit better. Clue. Let's look a little bit deeper and say well off those 2/3. What's more likely right of D and F Sharp is 1/3 and E and G is a shirt. Ah, Third, what's more likely to be in the cord? That's taking up the space while one big clue is gonna be our base note. Our base note is a D. So the D in the F sharp are much more likely to be our chord tones, the tones that contribute to the cord and not the non chord tones. Here's another big clue on our big clue is where they happen on the beat. So, uh, in general and this is a big general. But in general, we want chord tones to fall on strong beats of a measure. Strong beats are the downbeat right here, the first beat of a bar and halfway through the third beat of a bar if we're in 44 time. So these are strong beats, so we want our chord tones toe happen on strong beats. That's not always true, but, ah, it certainly helps contribute to deciding that this is in fact, a D major court. Right? Our base notice d we have 1/3 of D here. We also have these two notes on strong beats, and e and G notes are on week beats, so it's a pretty safe assumption that this is going to be a D major court. Even if the pattern wasn't repeating, and we didn't know what it was. I would look at this and called us all a d major chord with two non chord tones now a little bit more about non chord tones. There's a whole bunch of different, um, terms for non chord tones. There are, like non core tone is like one big term. And then we have a whole bunch of smaller terms to call very specific tones, right, for example, how they behave. They get different names, and there's like there's probably about eight different kinds of non core tones. I'm not gonna be concerned with those right now. Right now. I want us to identify non chord tones. I don't want us to worry about the technical definition of Is this a passing tone or a neighbor tone or a changing tone? Those air the names of the kinds of non quarter tones. So to say that one more time, maybe a little clearer non core tone is a general term for tones that are not in the court . Inside of the term of non chord tones. There are a whole bunch of little terms to specify how that non cord tone is behaving like Is it walking up? Is it jumping up things like that? We're gonna look at those in a future class, but right now I want us to just focus on identifying on court tones. So these, by the way, are if we had to put one of those fancy terms on there, we will probably call these passing tones. Um, but door about that. They are non chord tones to us. For now, let's look at this bar and see if everything holds holds true. So let's just forget everything we know. We don't know. Um, what court this is or anything. Okay, we haven't a in the base, so right away, I'm thinking this is probably an accord. The odds are in my favor that this isn't a chord based on a So can I build 1/3 anywhere using this? Here's an A. That's good. Um, if I had what I really want is a c sharp and an E to finish out that chord. The next note is an E. That's good. The next note is another A. So no non chord tones have happened here, right? This is gonna be a non core tone this G because in a triad is made up of a C sharp e. So this isn't one of those. So this is a non core tone. It's happening on a week beat, so we can kind of just call it an encore tone. And that's okay. Ah, but everything else falls into the chord of a We don't have 1/3 here, right? We don't have a C sharp, but that's OK for this. This instance? You know there's no C Sharp, but we don't have anything that points us away from a right. We're just missing a tone. Let's do one more. Here we have a B. So again, my hunch is that we're on a B and I need to be proven wrong here. So here's a B. My notes of a B Triad are going to be D and F sharp because we're in a minor key. So are sorry we're in D major, but that means B is going to be a minor. Try it so B, D and F Sharp makes a d. R a B minor in the key of D major. That's the sixth scale degree, so it's a lower case. Six but it's gonna be a B minor chord, so let's try to find a B a D in an F. We have an F on a strong beat. That's good. We have a B on a week beat. That's okay. You haven't a on a strong beat. We have a non core tone on a strong beat. It's OK. It's not a deal breaker. Um, and then we have a G also a non core tone, right? Cause we won't be the n f. We don't have a d anywhere. Ah, we have a bee in an F, though, and we have a B in the bass. So even though this A is a non core tone on a strong beat, that's not concerning me too much because of this B in the bass. Same thing with this G. This is on a week beat, so I'm really not concerned about it. Um, but again, this B in the bass is kind of winning out, and we have to chord tones, so I'm feeling pretty good about it. Cool. Let's do one more. Uh, here's F and this is ah, lot like this first bar. We looked at where we're just walking right up to scale. Except here. We're walking right down the scale. So here we have an F f sharp, Remember, because our key signature if I scroll over here, is has an f sharp in it bass clef. Here's our trouble. Cliff F sharp to here. Here we have an f sharp so and f sharp in the key of D is the third scale degree. Okay, so that means we're on a minor chord and it's gonna be f sharp. Here's enough sharp and an A and a see those air are chord tones that we're looking for. Here we have an f sharp in a Those are chord tones. G is a non core tone. We have an f sharp, has a cord tone and then e non core tone. So again, just like this bar, you have chord tones on strong beats one and three. We have court own. We have the route in the base. We have non core tones and weak beats. Pretty safe Bet that we're on an f sharp. So those are just a couple clues, you know? And sometimes you just have to use your ear on this like does it sound like? Like let's go back to this particular case. Here's a D. We have a D and F. We could make a case that the cord is e and G. So it's maybe an e chord or if we went the other way, a C chord. So if this was the bottom third, we would add a note on top to make the other third, which would be a B. And if this was the top third, we would add a note on the bottom, which would be a seat to finish out the Triad so we could make a case that it was an e chord or a C chord. But use your year. Does it feel like a C chord, or does it feel like a D chord? I think this bass note is really going to tell you that it feels like a D chord, so sometimes you just have to use your ear. Those are what non chord tones are now in a future class. I'm going to get more nitty gritty into Ah, those ah, other terms for specifically what kinds of non quarter tones there are because when you're doing an analysis and something like a college class. You It isn't enough just to identify something as a non cord tone. You have to specify what kind of non core tone it is. Um, so we'll talk about that in the near future. But now you know what now? In court tones are and how to identify them. Great, let's do another analysis. 36. 43 MinuetInG Part1: all right. Up next. I want to look at Mini Wet in G. Uh, is by Bach. Now. Bach is so much fun to analyze because he likes to take us on little twists and turns all over the place. So we're probably going to go out of the key for at least a minute. Ah, and there might be other surprises in here. We'll see. So first, uh, as always, Let's listen so many wetting G. You've heard this before? Um, pretty sure you've heard this before, If not enjoy it, too. Cute little piece. Um, we owe three way, I think. I think. Okay, here we go. So let's look at what we know right on the surface. First of all, um, these repeats in this first ending second ending business, if that's new to you, if you haven't seen that before, we talked about this in some length in my first music theory class. For which is I think it's labeled as basically, like, how to read notes. But we also talk about, um I just kind of how to read a piece of music, and we talk a lot about how this works, so go back and review that if that tripped you up, how they first ending and second ending works and these repeat signs work. Um, okay, what else do we know from the title? We can tell that it's probably in G. Okay, that's good clue. He called it N G. Maybe that's worth mentioning that titles of pieces don't always tell us something about the analysis of the peace, um, much more common in classical music of the 17th 18th centuries. Um, they put titles that said something about the piece like Mini Wet in G tells us what kind of peace it is. It's a min yuet and what key it's in. It's in G. But as you get into your the 19th and 20th centuries, composers started putting much more. Let's say fluffy ah titles on pieces. So the titles of more modern music. I don't often tell us anything about the piece, but in this case it does S o N G. It's probably in G and it is a min Yuet a mini wet does tell us a little bit about the piece, but for our purposes, let's just say that Ah, it means a short kind of light peace. Um, that's typically in an A a B B form. Meaning this is the a section up to here. So a and then we hear a again. And then the B section is here that we hear be again. So a BB more on forum in the future. Okay, so let's zoom in. Now this unlike the last one, this isn't not strictly repeating, and we've got a lot more non chord tones. We've got non chord tones in the base which came confused us even more so this is gonna be a bit more involved. We've also got some accidental is that we're gonna have to deal with some out of key notes . So we might have to break this this ah analysis in the two videos, but we'll see. Let's just dive in. So, looking at our key signature, we can confirm that it is in fact, in G because we have one sharp. Remember, the rule is take the sharp go up 1/2 step in. That's your key. So this is an f sharp. So g is our key. So all efs are sharp. Okay, so let's just dive in and look at this first line. So in the key of G. So, uh, let's start with, um, the most common. The most likely thing to happen is that our first chord is going to be tonic. A one eso. Let's see if that's true. We have a G in the base, so it's pretty good indicator. We have a d above so the notes of a G major chord. Let me just jump over here. This is still left over from our last piece that we analyzed. Let's change this key to the key of G and let's just outline our cords here. So our here's our one chord are two chord It's gonna look like that three chord It's gonna be a B minor are four chord B A C major or five chord Gonna be a d major are six chord Gonna be an e minor Our seventh chord It's gonna be an f sharp diminished And then our our tonic again are one court again at the top. Okay, now let's just keep that opens. We can use that for a reference. So RG cord are one chord G b and D. So looking here we have G and D so we don't have the third, but that's OK. This is in the cord. That's good knot in the cord. But remember, we could very easily call that a non cord tone. Let's come back to that a second. Here's a B and A C So the notes in this bar that air in the cord are this one thing one and this one. So were in the time of 34 So deciding what's a strong beat in a week beat is a little trickier here, But RG bass note goes all the way to here. And then we have a new bass note so that could change the way we see things. Um, so let's call strong beats in 34 All are down dates. Really? So one is the strongest beat and then two and three. The end of two is definitely a week. Beat in the end of three is definitely a week beat, so I'm pretty comfortable calling this whole bar G ah one court with this A and C being non core tones. Also, we have a non core tone in the base, and that's okay. That's totally allowed. Uh, it's walking up by step G a B. So Ah, I think I'm pretty comfortable calling this note a non core tone to We would call that a passing tone because it's just moving in between these two tones. It's just to step along the way, and that's okay. So I'm happy to call this whole bar a one chord. Let's look at our next court. We have a B, A, D and G now interesting here because let's just run on the assumption that are based note is telling us what court it is. Okay, if this was a B accord built on be, let's go over to our little worksheet here. B, D and F Sharp is what we would expect, right. We have a B, D and A G, and we have a G on beat two and beat three. This G is taking up a majority of the measure, right? So that's probably not right, because we would expect an f sharp if this would be. Let's see if we can find something else that works. If this was not the root, do we have a cord that all all of these notes work in? We do. What if g was the route. If G was the route, we would need a B, which we have down here. And then we would need a D. So this whole bar fits in no non chord tones to the key of G. Let's go over here to the court of G, which is our one court again. So we're still on a one chord, right? Awesome. So still one chord. Let's move on to the next one. Can we have a C? But let's just start under the assumption that this is gonna be a C major chord. So if it was a C major chord, what we would need it would be a four. Chord is the 4th 1 We would need an energy. So we have a C and E. It's good. Another See, that's good. D is not in a C chord, and E is, though, and the f is not remember. These are weak beats. See is in the base pretty comfortable calling this a four chord for the whole bar. Okay, moving on back to this thursby, which is familiar from right here. So since we called that a one chord, let's see if one chord fits here 1/4 BG. I need a B and a d. Here's a G. Here's a B down here then I don't have a D, but I have another G. So I still have no non chord tones here, So that means this is pretty comfortably a one chord. Let's go on to the next one here. I have in a okay. What would a bee if the route was a. That would be a two chord would be a minor chord, and we need a C and e See what we've got. A. C. It's very good. Non core tone in a D. C. Be would be a non core tone in a So are non chord tones. Here would be D and B. Now that's a little suspect, because those are on fairly strong beats. Um, is there anything else that works? So if this was, let's if these were chord tones, we'd have ah, b and A D. And we need an F to complete that which we don't have it all. And we or we would need a G to complete that, which we don't have it all. So, um, I'm pretty happy to call this in a chord because we have this A in the base. We have non chord tones on relatively strong beats, but ah, we don't have anything that completes these two notes as a cord. So pretty safe to call this an accord, which would be another two. Can I go back to a G? Uh, is this a one chord? G B and D is what we would expect. Here's G and B non core tone. Another be non cord tone and chord tones. So similar situation. Here we have the court non poor tones on kind of strong beats. Not as strong as the downbeat, though. Just right here. And we have this baseline. So I'm gonna call that a one court. Okay, let's go to the last bar of this system. And now we might. We have three bass notes, and that might tell us we have three different courts here. But let's find out the D in an f. So let's look over here. If the root was de, that would be a five chord and F is in it. So d f A a is what we would expect so d f and now we have a bee in a G and that looks to me awfully like a separate cord. So if we called that and Di in an F, that would be a five chord. And now we call this A B and I have a G and an A. What could that be? One of those notes is probably not in court tone. Does it make sense that it would be a be that was a gene and a There's no G or A in his B chord. What about if we use the G Now? I have a G and A B, So can we call that a an encore? Doan. I think we can. It's on a week be so being G. And now here we have a G and A B so the same thing. But upside down right now that this be is up here, This'll g is down here and then another g. So here's what that tells me this could be a five, and then this could be something based around B and G. Probably Aggie pretty comfortable calling that a one So five unjust, this beat and then one for the rest of the bar 37. 43 MinuetInG Part2: let's keep trucking. So this next bar is going to be kind of the end of that first phrase. So here we have an interesting non chord tones situation. We have a D and in a. So the reason I skipped right over this is that if you listen to this part, you can really hear that this feels like this be feels like a non core tone, and then it resolves toe A, which is the core tone. So I'll play that for you in just a second. But that makes this a D chord. Okay, for this for the 1st 2 beats, this might be something different. But listen to how this feels like it resolves down to a This is like a ah hanging note, and then it falls and lands on A I'm going to start from this bar over here, right, because dot um, like this just kind of glides down into that note. So that feels like a non core don't to me so d and a really feel like our note here. So in the key of g d n A. Makes a five chord, it's good way to end a phrase now we have a D chord there. Sorry, a D and a seat. That's an interesting thing. Still a D. Let's for now, call the C a non core tone. But in the next big section of this class, we're gonna talk about seventh chords when we talk about seven. The cords when we learn seventh chords keep this particular case in mind because this is one of them. For now, let's call this see an encore tone. But really, it's 1/7 more on seventh chords. Very shortly. What do we have here? Be a B Now this a is really quicken and passing, so I'm willing to right off the bat. Think of that as a non cord tone. So let's see if B and D work together in some way, maybe with a G. While we know that G B and D is a one chord, right? So let's call that a one chord with a as a passing tone works again right there. There's another a also a passing tone, right? So I'm pretty comfortable calling that a one chord. Let's move on now. Here we have another one where we have three bass notes that could be an indication that there's more than one chord in the bar. Here's an A and a B. Now those are a second apart, right? Those are, Ah, whole step apart A and B So they're not in any chord together any court that we know of yet together. So this is one of these is a passing tone, see on a week beat and then D. So this looks like the third we have is being D. But the A in the base works well with the sea because that makes 1/3 A and C. Let's keep on. Let's suspend judgment on right here until we look at the rest of the bar. Here we have a G and A D right on top of each other, so that that looks like a one chord. Here we have a B and G that also looks like a one chord. So that means could this be mirroring the thing we saw up there where it was a 51 situation ? So that means a Let's look, let's see if this works as a five because we saw this pattern before right of five on the first beat and then one on the rest of the beef on the rest of the measure. So what a five makes sense here. That would be D. F in a f sharp sorry d f sharp in a If there's an a, that's good. Here's a D at the start of the next one d f sharp in a It kind of does work, and it's hard to explain why, without talking Maura about seventh chords. So this sea is in the cord. Ah, if it was 1/7 chord, So trust me on that, uh, we're going to get into seventh chord shortly. But because of that D or that c, we're gonna call this be a non cord tone and call this another five chord. That's a little bit of a weird one. Um, I'll talk more about that when we get into seventh chords, but that means this is five. And then this is one for the rest of the bar. Moving on. I'm getting really excited about getting up to right here because then things look interesting right here, So let's keep going until we get there. Here's G Miller G. That looks a lot like one see and an E that looks a lot like it could be a C chord, something based on see. Let's look over here. That could be a four chord. Pretty likely that would be a good choice. So we'd have a one chord and then a four board and then another. See, that works really well in with a four chord D right at the end of the bar. Let's call that a passing tone. So here we have a one and then a four. Now the sea carries on all the way over here, so that means we count it as though it were played when we're analyzing something. So here see an E again so still a four chord very well. Could be F sharp. Looks like a passing tone. Let's see how that plays out. D and G Uh, that could work out to be a one court again because our one chord is G, B and D. So here's a B. Here's a G. Here's another G, and here's a B so waken call that a passing tone if we want moving on A. This is just like over here except different notes. But similar pattern. So in that case we throughout that note as a non core town. Let's call this in a oh, and then we have a G at the top, another interesting one. And I say that that's interesting because it's those are a whole step apart. A and G right? Let's see what happens when we look at the whole bar. Here we have an A and a C that leads us to think about it. Could be a two chord could also be Here's an A C, 1/7 chord or a seven chord diminished chord Possible. Let's see if it works as a two chord. Slightly more likely a C. We would look for an E if we don't have we have another. See, though, since a is in the base. Okay, calling that a two chord, Um, taking us back here. Ah, you know what could be happening right here? We could very well be on a one chord here that this is our passing note because here's g on , Then this becomes a cord tone in the new chord so we could call this one with this as a passing tone. That's weird, but I think it makes the most sense on then we're back to, uh, are accord. Here are two chord. All right, now something interesting here we have a totally out of the key note. This is a G flat. That makes no sense, right? G flat. Um, but it kind of does. It kind of does make sense. Let's not think of it as a G flat. Let's think of that as an f sharp. Same note, right? Have sharp is in the key of G. So if this was an f sharp, we have d We're sorry b and A and, well, let's just look at just those three notes F sharp A is 1/3. Where do we have an f sharp in a Here's an f sharp. Have sharp a have that on a five chord, actually, so f sharp A D is a five chord five is very common chord, so we could call that a five chord and then a one chord G B and then another be so another one chord that totally works. Let's just finish out this section these last two bars and then we'll do will break to a new video for the second half of the piece. Okay, Be a another major second. So probably G is what we want. G and B makes a one see, an a a C e is accord a C e. That could be a two. So that could be a two. And then back to de being a probably d in a because that would get us to a five chord. So that's a interesting bar. But what happens there is that what we're doing is setting up kind of a turnaround. We're setting up to go back to the beginning because of our repeat here. So cords sometimes start moving around a little bit faster to get us back to the, uh at the end of a phrase. So what do we got here? D f sharp. So that would be a five g one g. So five one very, very, very common to have, at the end of a phrase, off 51 progression. We'll talk more about that in the future when we talk about how cords relate to each other , and particularly the circle of fifths and how that works. Um, but very common to have a 51 at the end of a progression. And that's what we have 51 and then we go back all the way back up to the beginning. Okay, so let's assume we repeat that whole thing and go on to part two. But let's break to another video, and then we'll look at part two. We've got a lot of really interesting stuff here. We've got these C sharps. I can't explain those by switching the two a. D flat or anything like that. So something interesting is happening here. And I'm gonna tell you right now just to pique your interest that we are modulating to a new key. Ah, we are temporarily going to be in the key of D major right here. So we're gonna switch keys very briefly. Then we're gonna end up back in G. So interesting stuff of a little bit of a key change there. Okay, let's break. And then we'll dio the second half. Off we go 38. 45 MinuetInG Part3: Okay, let's finish this thing out. So let's start in this bar. Since we haven't done that one yet, we have here a D. It's probably the same as this bar, because it's the end of a phrase, but let's double check. So we have a D and then the same thing as we had here. So in F sharp, So it's probably a five and then g g so 151 in that Bart now on to the next part G be so probably a one for probably this whole bar. But let's look at it. So what we expect is a G A B and a D for a one chord. So another G non core tone B is in the cord. G is in the court, so only a is an encore tone. It's on a week beats and passing pretty happy, calling that a non core tone f sharp and in a that kind of feels like it could be based on . Have sharp let me say we'll show you why f sharp a right. But that's our seventh. That's are diminished chord, so not incredibly likely. So if it waas a diminished chord, we would expect a C in this. I don't have one. Okay, so let's look at what else it could be based on an F sharp in an A That third of an f sharp in a is gonna happen somewhere else. Also, all right, it's gonna happen, actually to cord back a d f sharp. A. That's a five. Right? So does a five work meaning Do we have a d basically and we do on a strong beat. And in f sharp on a strong beat eso and another deep So actually kind of a mirror of this bar right where that is our only non core tone. So let's call that a five moving on. Almost some fun stuff. Here's an E and a G. Okay, that could be possible. Um, let's see what an E and G King can give us. Here's an E and G. So it could be a four chord if there's a sea somewhere nearby, little C A C. But we still could call this a four chord if we're going to call this something different, right? If this is a separate cord, this is where we kind of just have to make a judgment call here. So let's see what this is G e and an F This is more likely to be in our cord. Could It sounded downbeat. So let's look at what e and G could be N g o. But I just answered my own question. E and G is right there. Andy, Andy is right there. Right? So we're still on some kind of e and g? Probably that four chord. Even though we don't have a C, here's another E g. Right? So non core tone, non core tone, we can pretty comfortably call that a four chord. All right, here's a good, accidental D flat wolf. What are we gonna do with that? Well done. A another A. So the odds are that our route here is gonna be a Okay, So what notes do we need for a We need an A C in Anne. And what would a bee in this key A c e frank? It would be a minor chord, right? Cause it's a two. So that would be an a minor. Now, let's just think about this for a minute. Um, does that make sense that it's an accord? A C E. We don't have an e way, Haven't a and we don't have a C. We have a B, D and A, but we have so much A for this whole bar and then an octave lower oven. A really points to a what if this was our see What if we pretended that was a C? Then we have a C. Remember, this is a D flat, also in another seat, but it's not a C. It's a D flat, but check this out. What can we call that? D flat thistles? A minor chord. What would it take to turn this into a major chord? Raise that see by 1/2 step, which would be technically C sharp. What we could spell that as D flat. So this could be a major to court, right? It's not in key, and we know it's not in key because we have a note that's out of key and that that makes the cord out of key. But this is a major to cord. Now, how does that make any sense at all? It does kind of Let's just hold on to it for a second. I'm gonna call this a major to cord. So how we would know Tate, that is just with a capital to, um that would tell us that it's out of key, because capital to doesn't happen in a major key. Right? Lower case to happens in a major key capital to doesn't exist. But if we put a capital to here, we know something fishy is happening, right? Because it's out of key. That's okay. Let's see if we can move on a little bit more and explain that capital to Okay, so let's just move on. I'll come back to Capitals yuks. I think I know what's happening here. Here's an A a B C sharp. Just kind of the same is up here. It's what I'm willing to call this. I'm gonna call that a c sharp. So here we have more C sharp. We have more capital to write because a C sharp and E is what that capital to is gonna be in a major court out of key. Okay, so more of that major too. Now, what's that? Where we heading with that? Look at all these C Sharps coming. We've got a lot of C sharps happening here So we're in something different. Let's just keep going. So here we have a B and E G. Okay. What could that be? Let's see if the next chord helps us out. A DNF? Not really. So that be in a G? Could be right. There could be a one chord. Is there a D nearby? Oh, there it is. So we could call that a one chord with this f as a passing tone as a non core tone. Now we have our c sharp again and an e so that all fits in with right here. So let's call that that major to again. Okay? Trust me, we're almost there. Here we have a D in an f sharp. Where does that work out? Here's a DNF sharp on a three. The in N F sharp could also be a five. Is there anything that points us towards a right there and right there So that these two beats make a five chord and now we have our goofy c sharp again. What is happening with the C sharp? I think we're just about to find out in the very next chord. So let's call this our major to again. And now we have a huge d chord. Okay? And let's just for a minute call that a passing tone. This d chord tells us what was happening with that C sharp. Here's why. What we just did is we modulated. We went from the key of G to the key of D. Check this out. Remember how I just said a very common way to end a phrase is to go 51 right? And in the key of G 51 is going to be D major as the five G as the one. Right. But what if we were moving to a new key? The key of D major? What if d was going to We were modulating changing keys. What if we were changing keys to D Major? We would need the five above d major pretend for a second that were in the key of D major. Okay, what would the five b of the major one, 234 Remember this court in this quarter with same five? It would be in a major that would be the five of D. So what we just did as we had exactly that we had a cord that was off five to the key of D , and that helped push us to the key of D major. So right here, this is going to sound like one, even though it's five. Because of all of these c sharps and all of that major to business, it's going to make it feel like this is five. Because right here we are in the new key were in the key of D right here. We didn't change the key signature, which sometimes you don't Let's hear this. And let me just prove to you that this sounds like one. This is the tonic. Let's start from right here. And I'm listen for this moment feeling like home, right? Right. Um, that is tonic right now. Now, why didn't we change the key signature if we changed keys? The reason is we're not going to stay here very long. We call this a tanase ization. Meaning we temporarily made the tonic. We transition keys briefly, and we're about to move back to G. Okay, that scroll down and look at the rest of it. So here we're on D. I'm still going to call this for our purposes. Five. Even though it feels like one, once we get into more advanced music theory where we're talking about modulations, there is a way that we would know Tate this specially to show that it's a Tanase ization, as we call it. For now, I'm just gonna call it five because we're really not going to stay here very long. Okay, that's going to make the next couple cords better explain related to D. But let's keep him related to G because shortly will be back. Okay, so let's look at this next bar. Ah, we have a B and A D. So how can we talk about B and D? Here's a B in D That could be a one. It's called out of one on D F sharp. That could be our five again. That could be our one again. All right. Uh, c t e. If we had a G, I'd like it even more. Here's a C and G. So this all of this minus that note that's our 1 9/4 tone could be a C. And we would call a CIA four record perfectly OK, be and D again. Could be a one chord passing tone. Here's a G again passing town. Here's a one so we could call this whole bar a one chord. Or we could call this beat a one and this beat a one and this beat something with A and C sharp, which could are sorry. See natural now A and C natural. There's no sharp on that. So a C could be a two chord back to normal. Or it could be a four chord, probably more likely a four record. In this case, this could be 141 Or we could just call it all one. I think maybe one for one is good de Ah, we have a d in the base. So let's see if it works as a d accord. The A passing to F number the three notes we need for a d major chord R d f and a. So there they are with two passing car actually, is one passing tone in two different spots. Okay, so we're still really leaning on d right now. Um, so it is Thomas sized. This kind of still gonna feel like the tonic, the one. But let's see how we get back to G. Here's d again d f A f A lot of D major tones here in a couple passing tones. So still on five. Here's an E and a C. I think this is gonna be a lot like this cord this bar. I mean, so it b and A C could look like what? Here's a C and e could be our to court again. Could also be, ah, forecourt again like four. A little bit better See ease or anything that points us to a G right there So we could call these two beats and, you know, see if we want. So let's just call this one beat. Ah, four chord on. And then here it's called out of one chord G and A B and then a f sharp in a could be our seventh chord are diminished chord Very possible. Also five chord a d accord more likely a deep board. So it's called out of five and now we have a G member. While what I said before is that to get into a the end of a phrase, we like 51 right? That's what we did up here all of this major to got us to a 51 progression where D was our new one temporarily. So now if we just harp on D enough, it's going to eventually feel like five again and lead us into one. So I think that's kind of what we're doing here with all of this five that's happening around here. So here we have G, M, B and D. So that's a one chord, B and G. Does that make sense as a five chord? It does not. But it does as a six chord, also as a one chord. Let's stick to calling that one to both of these one D and F sharp five court again and then one. Now we're back to G. So this these three bars here are so are getting us back to G. G. Is the key were in. So it doesn't take any accidental is to get us back to G, right, because that's what key were showing in our key signature. But it takes some to get us away, so you'll hear that this bar feels like tonic, right? It feels like one because of all these accidental zc sharps getting us there and then by here, G feels like one. Right? So what he did is kind of like a kind of a little sleight of hand on us, right? Cause pulled us away and convinced us that this bar is home is tonic is one right? And then it kind of threw us around a little bit again here with all this five and convinced us that this bar, this G is now tonic and home and one right. Let's check that out. Let's listen to this last section, um, and notice how this will feel like tonic. And then this will feel like tonic two totally different chords Thing way. Do you hear it? Do you hear how those two points both felt like tonic? That was because he's this modulation on you. Now, if that doesn't make sense, if you're confused by this whole modulation business that I said here in the tanase ionization thing, don't worry. Um, that's a little advanced, and we're gonna get mawr into that in the next class. We'll be talking about changing keys and how cords work together. But, um, I think it was cool that we encountered something more interesting in this piece. than just everything being in key because nothing is ever always just in key. It's pretty rare. Um, but that's what makes this music kind of interesting. Is all that kind of pushing and pulling around the journey that he takes you on. And that's what music theory can tell us is it can kind of show you how he took you on that little journey in this piece. So, uh, the second half is a bit challenging, and I like it. It's really fun, actually. So, um, there we go. A full analysis of men. Ung. Um Now, one last big topic for this class is seventh chords. I promised to seventh chords when we looked earlier This piece. So in the next section, we're going to do seventh chords. Off we go. 39. 48 7thChordsOverview: So far, we have looked at triads, notes or chords that have three notes in them. But there are more kinds of cords now. Earlier, I told you that, uh, the way we listen to music, we in kind of the quote western world, Um, listen to music is that most of our harmony, most of our cords are built on thirds. And that is true. I'm not going to change that. Ah, statement that I made. However, we do have cords and a lot of chords, actually, that we we add notes to spice things up. But there's still based on these triads of made up of three notes. Um, we're gonna add more notes, and you can think of these other notes that we add as things that give it a little extra color. Right. So we're gonna add another note to all of these cords now, and that note doesn't change whether or not it's a major reminder record. It just makes it, um, you might be able to say, Ah, little more major or a little more minor, you know, it changes the the color of it as we like to say. So what? We're going to do in this last section of this class as I'm gonna cut, I'm going to just kind of introduce that, um, so we're gonna talk about seventh chords and seventh chords are not chords with seven notes , The records with four notes. I know that's probably confusing. Um, but ah, it will all become clear in just a minute. So when we add this fourth note to all of these cords, um, we kind of end up with a new diatonic chord progression. But the key to remember is that it doesn't actually change the, um, major, minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished major pattern that we already know. It doesn't change it because we're not changing the quality of the cord. Remember, the quality lives in the third of the court, and we're not going to change that note by adding more notes. So whether it's major or minor, ah still applies. The pattern doesn't change. We're going to just give it a little more fun to it, which is a weird statement, but I think it's accurate. So, uh, let's dive in and talk about seventh chords. There are four different kinds of seventh chords and why there are four will become clear right now, but let's jump to a new video and then let's dive into the four types of seventh chords. 40. 49 4Typesof7thChords: So first, let's look at why we call these seventh chords. Remember that we refer to the names of these notes. The numbers we use are in relation to the cord are always the route the third and the fifth because that's their scale degree. Um, when we start and then even here, we call it a root third and the fifth for the court. So remember, we're going up every other note. Let's look at our keyboard real quick here. So on this, see if we laid out the C major scale again, which is all the white notes to here. We would build this first chord by going every other note the route, the third and the fifth. So here's the second. So Route 2nd 3rd 4th fifth. And if we kept going up another level, we would skip the six and add the seventh. And that's why we call these seventh chords. Because that's no we're gonna add. So we're gonna go every other note up to the fifth, and then we're gonna go one more, that's all. That's all we're doing is we're just gonna go one more. Um, but it adds an interesting little wrinkle So let's just do it. I can easily make turn my diatonic chord progression here into all seventh chords by just adding another third on top. Okay. Okay, there we go. Now we have a diatonic chord progression in the key of C major with seventh chords. Now, what do we call these things? Before we had seventh chords. Remember that? We decided if our triads were major minor, based on the 1st 3rd and the 2nd 3rd right? But now we have another third, so things get a little more complicated. So it ends up that we have four possibilities. And they are, um, a major triad like we have here with a major seventh at the top. So a major triad at the top. That's option one. That's called a major seventh chord. We're going to go into more. We're gonna go into more detail on all of these. Ah, in the subsequent videos, I just want to introduce them. So the other another option is a minor triad like we have here with a minor third on the top. That's called a minor seventh chord. Okay, here we have another minor seventh chord. Here we have another major seventh chord, a major triad with a major seventh at the top. It was called a major seventh chord. Here we have kind of the oddball. This is a major triad with a minor seventh on the top. We call this a dominant seventh chord. We're gonna look more of that in just a minute. Here we have a minor seventh or a minor chord with a minor seventh of the top. So another minor seventh chord And here we have are diminished chord with another or with a major seventh on the top. This gets a special term because it's a diminished chord. So we're gonna talk about that one a little bit later. But for now, let's just call it a diminished seventh chord because that's what it is. And then we have another major seventh chord here, the same as down here. Now there's one I didn't talk about right. I only talked about three. The three I talked about where the major seventh, the minor seventh and the dominant seventh, the other one would be a minor triad with a major seventh at the top, and that one isn't going to concern us a lot Right now, what we call that is a minor major seventh. It's a total weird term, but it doesn't occur. Um, in the diatonic chord progression in a major key. It doesn't a minor key, so we'll address it when we get to minor keys. But, um, it's not exactly a lovely sound, so it's kind of like that augmented chord. We don't deal with it a lot, so let's cross that bridge when we get to the other ones. For now, I want to focus on the ah these three, the major seventh, the minor seventh and the dominant seventh. So first, let's look at major seventh chords. Um, and I'm going to use one of my all time favorite examples of a song with a major seventh chord in it. Let's jump to a new video for that and talk about a major seventh chord 41. 50 Maj7thChords: we can think of major seventh chords as kind of like super major. I like to think of him that way. They are the prettiest cord. If we had to use the word pretty to put on Accord, we would do it for a major seventh chord. It is just It's the cord that will make you fall in love. So let's check out why. Let me just go out here and let me just right like one a long one that it's just gonna resonate. Let's do a C major seven to right here. So I'm just gonna make a major triad, and then it's gonna go up another, uh, third to get there. Okay, Um, let's just hear that. Here we go. You see, there's, like, a little bit of dissonance in it and that dissidents comes from the distance between this note and this note, because that is a major seventh. Let's look at that on a keyboard. See, Teoh, See would be here. That's an octave, right? We love octaves active sound great, but this is just one short of the active. Uh, right, if we played those two notes just by themselves is not a particularly pretty sound. Okay, right? That's what it sounds like. Let's hear that again, Right? It's not a great sound, but when you fill in the cord, it makes this really beautiful. Kind of like a little bit tortured because of the dissonance, but also happy because of the major. And it's just a pretty sound, right? Let's let's hear a little bit higher. One. Let me do an F. We were sticking to the key of C Major. An F major seven also occurs. Then maybe I'll do another see major seven, but an octave higher. Just get another sense of it. Let's listen to all three of these, right? So that we call a major seventh chord. Now we know Tate this, um, by if we're just gonna write out the name of it, we can either write em a J and then a sub script seven or sometimes with a capital M and then seven, or sometimes we write, you might. Sometimes you're looking at, like jazz music. You might see this triangle thing. Um, so, like eff triangle means major seven. You don't see that very often anymore, But sometimes in like older jazz notation, you see that? Let me play you an example. This example a little bit is gonna, you know, show my age a bit, but I don't care, because it's just a good example of a major seventh chord. Um, in a pop song, we don't use major seventh chords and pop songs a lot. Um, so it's not super common. You would find them in jazz music. You definitely find him a lot in classical music. You find them reasonably often, um, pop music? Not so much. But there is one example that is just such a gorgeous example. And it is under the bridge by red hot chili peppers. So check this out. I'm gonna play this tune and I'm gonna holler Ah, right before the major seventh chord. It's basically after the riff right where the drums come in. And it just has this, like, this feeling of like, a sigh like a ah, you know, like because ah, it's just such a pretty sound. So he plays a e major seventh chord. Um, he pointed up. Sometimes I feel like I don't have a Sometimes I feel like my only friend is the city. I live in the city of Angels. Lonely as I am to be Oh, you hear what you think. It's like such a nice little sound, right? That is a major seventh chord. Okay, let's talk about minor seventh chords in the next video. 42. 51 min7thChords: the minor seventh chords have a similar kind of prettiness to them. But, um, kind of encapsulated in a minor chord. So it's more of ah ah, sorrow kind of sound to me, but not like a tragic sound. You know, it's like, Oh, man, that's sad kind of sound. These are really weird explanations I'm giving you, but I'm trying to like paint a picture for what it sounds like. So let's make one here, Uh, let me get rid of our C major. Try and stuff here and let's do Let's stick to the key of D or Sorry, see? But let's make a d Ah, minor seventh chords So D. F A makes a D minor chord in the key of C major. So in a minor seventh chord, we have this minor triad, and then we have a minor seventh at the top. Now there's two ways to think about this minor seven in the same way that there were two ways to think about the major 7th 1 would be a minor third at the top another way, which is the way I pointed out before, which is to think about, um, a literal interval of on minor seventh. So let's look at that Down on the keyboard, we saw that interval of a major seventh. With all the way to here. It's 1/2 step shy of an active is the interval of a major seventh Theo interval of a minor seventh is Ah, whole step shy of inactive. So from C to B flat were on a d here. So let's go from D. Here's the active. Ah, whole stepped down is gonna be test. See? So d two c is, ah, whole step shy of the active. That is the interval of a minor seventh. So that's what we add above the D to make the minor seventh. So let me lay out a couple of minor seventh chords here, and it's just here. Um, I don't have a cool red hot chili peppers type example of a minor seventh court, although I'm sure there are plenty. Um, we do some other stuff that occurs in C major. It's doing a minor seventh, Um, do another deal through the same treatment we did before. Here. You Let's just hear these side by side so you can get a feel for what they sound like, right? You know what else? We should do it. I don't think I did, is we should just play this. So, um, it's kind of jumping backwards, but I don't think I played this for you yet. This is gonna be our diatonic chord progression with seventh chords. So you're gonna hear a major seventh minor, Seventh minor, Seventh. You're gonna hear a dominant seventh here, which is the one we're gonna here in just a second. And the next video. Let's just hear this. Let me do this. Let me first slow it down a little bit for us, okay? Check this out. Here's I'm going to do. I'm gonna delete this seventh from this. So we still just have our normal diatonic chord progression. And then over here, I'm gonna put the seventh version in, so we'll hear it first as just the triads going all the way up the progression and then we'll hear it with sevenths. OK, And a little bit slower. Here we go. Goal. So you can kind of get a feel for how the sevenths don't radically change the cord. They just kind of, you know, add a little color to it. So this is the minor seventh court. Now we've got one more to talk about, and that is the dominant seventh chord. This is kind of a weird one, So let's jump to another video and then we'll talk about it there. 43. 52 dom7thChords: remember when we did that last analysis? The one that lasted two videos? I said a couple of times that a great way to end a phrases to go from five toe one right? And if we look at this, our core progression all laid out, here's our five and that's one. Now that five is the only place in the core progression that a dominant seven occurs, right, which is really is very interesting to us because that means that that dominant seven gives us an extra helping hand on moving toe one. Okay, so 575 dominant seven moving to tonic or one is one of the most common things to do ever in all music ever, 5 to 1. So what is a dominant seventh chord again? It's a major triad with a minor seventh, right? So if we look at G toe F on our keyboard, here's G. Here's an octave higher of G. Go down one whole step that gets us to F, and that's what's happening right here. Okay, so let's look at that. Let's draw that out over here. Okay, so here's a G major and then let's go to one right after it. Okay, now, 17 So, first of all, the way we notated dominant seventh chord is a little confusing. What we do, is we right? Just the letter seven. Um so to call something. Ah, seventh chord. If you don't say major, seventh or minor seventh, you just say seventh. It assumes dominant seventh chord. In other words, to call something like G seven, which is what we're looking at here is a shorthand way to say dominant seven. So that could be a little confusing. If you just see the letter said or the number seven and nothing else, like a major or a minor with it, then it means dominant seven. Okay, It's a shorthand that we use. Um, sometimes you might see d o M seven, but very, very rarely. Almost always. You just see the number seven, And that means we're looking at 1/7 chord. So here we have G seven and then one listen to how smoothly thes go into each other. And then after we hear this, I'm gonna show you an even smoother way that it works. Listen, right. It feels like this wants the land down here. Now, if we change our inversions a little bit here, we can make this even better. Add another see at the bottom. Listen to this right. It sounds even better. I like to use the analogy here that when you play a dominant seventh chord, it's kind of like throwing Ah, box of light bulbs in the air and then you're just waiting. And then when you hear this cord, it's like they finally hit the ground. You know, it's like you're insist this incredible suspense right here because you're waiting for this to happen. There's even an old story, um, about Mozart. There's a story that Mozart's dad to wake him up in the morning. So apparently they had this, like, three story house, um, in Vienna, I think. And when Mozart was a little kid, his dad would sit at the piano on the first story and Mozart slept on the third story. This is the way I've heard this, and his dad would just very kind of quietly play a dominant seventh chord and then stop and wait, and then Mozart will come running down the stairs on do that because he just needed to hear it. Resolve that G seven chord is just rude if it doesn't resolve to the one or the tonic right now, the reason that I did this inversion of r c major court. So that's still a C major chord C e g. And there's another see in there I just inverted it and thats okay the reason they did it is because what we like to hear in this is we like to hear this f fall down to this e and this be resolve up to this seat, right? Those are the kind of, um, tendency tones in this chord that want to go a certain direction. And then to really hit home, we put the root at the bottom again, has to make it really feel like it's resolving. And that gives us that really definitive 51 sound. So those are dominant seventh chords. We see him all the time that the ends of pieces, Theo ends of phrases, Um, whenever we're trying to re establish the key, whenever we want to say, Hey, the key is C in this case will play a bunch of G sevens and then a C, and that basically says, Hey, we are home when we get that seat. You hear this at the end of a symphony a 1,000,000 times when you hear the timpani go. Bum, bum, bum, bum, bum, bum, bum, bum bum! That's them going 51515 on 5151 And that's the end of the piece. Um, that's how those old symphonies end like, ah, lot like most of the time. So we're gonna talk more about this and in the next class in the future, we're going to be talking about how cords function, what chord progressions lead to each other. What chords work well together and things like that. So hold on for that. But for now, consider this a preview to that. So one thing I said just a second ago is that you are rude. If you did not resolve this Ah, 57 chord to a one chord. But let's imagine Ah, that you didn't What would happen if you didn't? And specifically, uh, could you make a whole genre of music devoted to that 57 chord that dominant seven chord not resolving. And the answer is, of course you can, and people have done it for many, many years. It is called the Blues. The Blues is full of non resolving, dominant seventh chords. Let's take a quick look at that in the next video. 44. 54 BluesChords: So what we're looking at here is a normal, uh, nothing fancy blues core progression in seat. Um, and there's some weird stuff in this, and this is how blues works. The blues is you pretty much take every chord you're gonna play and turn it into 1/7 chord , and you play very specific court in the key of C. This would be a one chord. Let's ignore the sevens for just a second. This would be a one chord because it's a see. This would be a four chord because it's an F to be one chord, a one chord, a four chord four chord, a one chord, a one chord. Ah, five chord, a four chord, a one chord and a five corps. This is called the 12 Bar Blues. 12 bars long. It's a pattern that repeats over and over and over. Now that's not all blues that uses the 12 bar blues pattern, but a lot of it. A lot of blues uses 12 bar blues pattern. So now let's look at the seventh si seven. Remember, that means dominant seven. If we go here, let's make a C seven, so we need a major chord and then for it to be a dominant seven. We need a minor seventh at the top here, right? So if this is a C and this is a C, then this is our down at seven. So in that is a B flat, so let's think about that for a second. That means that a C seven c dominant does not occur in C Major cause that B flat is not in C major but in a blues progression. We throw it in there because it makes it sound like the blues. Trust me, that is what the Blue sounds like. Same thing with F F dominant seven does not happen in the key of C, but all of this stuff has notes outside the key, and that gives it that blues sound right? Ah, we go to G seven that actually is in the key of C cause that's five right? That's our normal Down at seven. But see seven and F seven are not. Ah, the seventh is not in the key, but it's what makes it sound like blues is to just turn every major chord into a dominant seventh chord. Um, that's why blues sound so cool. So what we're hearing here is played a little bit differently than what's notated on here. So right now we're hearing a C seven. Now we're hearing in F seven. Now we're hearing a C seven b a g seven 777 So that blues progression was played a little bit differently than this one who wanted to be technically correct. Now that I think about it a little more, this one isn't perfect. The way it's written, the one we heard was better, but it doesn't matter. The cords were the same. The cords that they played, you could hear like there's a little bit of grit on those chords. They weren't just like happy major chords, right there was like a little grit to them. And that was all those seventh notes in all those courts. So the blues is built around unresolved seventh chords. It's kind of funny, but it's what gives it that characteristic sound 45. 56 WhatNext: Okay, so we are very close to the end of this class. However, we are. Oh, so not very close to the end of all music theory. Understanding. There is so much more. So, so, so much more. We just learned seventh chords, right. Check this out. Um, oops. It doesn't stop it. Seven chords. Here's 1/7 chord. Right? But what about 1/9 chord and 11th cord? 1/13 cord so we can keep going. Ah, we've got a lot more things to do. We've got a lot more chords. Um, we've got minor keys. We haven't really looked at minor keys very much at all. We have the circle of fifths. Ah, that's gonna be really important. And one of the big biggest things that we haven't looked at yet is how cords work together . We've talked a lot about that 51 relationship, but there are a lot of patterns you see in how composers and songwriters use chords together. And that's something that we're going to see when we look at the circle of fits. We saw it a little bit in our diatonic chord progression. Here, let me get rid of that crazy 13th court. Um, but there's a lot more to it. So I'm mentioning all of this because there's only so much I can fit in one class. Right. Um, this class has turned into a very long class, and I'm glad you stuck it out to the end. You are doing awesome, but there are more classes to come. I'm going to keep making these suckers because I really love making him. Ah, and people seem to enjoy watching them. So I'm gonna keep making him. So please check back. Ah, look for the next class in this sequence, they typically take me about two months to make. But I'm having such a good time with these that, um maybe it will be up sooner. And don't forget that if you jump into the very last segment of this video, So what I think is gonna be two chunks from now. Um, there will be, ah, little, uh, coupon to get you into the next class. Uh, cheaply. Um, when that next class is posted. So I haven't made that class yet, but once I do, it will be there. Um, if you're watching this soon after than it probably is made by now. Okay, so I just want Teoh. I just want you all to know that there is just a lot more to do. We've made great great progress in this one video. We've covered a ton of stuff. If this was ah, one of my typical college classes, we'd be about halfway through the first semester. Ah, at this point, that's about as far as we've gotten in this class. So that's a lot. That's a lot of material. That's 2.5 months of material. Ah, you know, at a college level. So if you're if you're hanging in there, you're doing great. If you're not hanging in there, please go back and watch the videos again. Ah, post questions. Do whatever you want to do to help you understand it even more. That's it for now, Uh, I got one more little video for you. I'll see you there 46. 57 ThanksBye: All right, everyone. So that's it. This is the end. We've reached the end of this class. This is part two of my big comprehensive music theory curriculum number, Part one. If you haven't checked out part one, please go back and do it. Part one focuses primarily on reading music. Um, this is the first class that really gets us heavy into music theory. I'm gonna start making the next one right away. Like, literally as soon as I shut the camera off here. Um, I'm gonna be making starting into the next class in this sequence because they're so fun to make. So thanks for hanging out. Thanks for watching this class. Um, I really appreciate everyone that that buys these classes and sticks it out and really makes it to the end. Um, I love hearing your criticisms, feedback, anything you think that could make this class better. Please let me know. Um, I take all of your comments. Really? Seriously. So without further ado, thanks again for watching. We'll see you in the next class. 47. SkillshareFinalLectureV2: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.