Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 10 - Diminished! | Jason Allen | Skillshare

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Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 10 - Diminished!

teacher avatar Jason Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Introduction & Overview


    • 2.

      Tools We Need


    • 3.



    • 4.

      The Master Example File


    • 5.

      Two Types Of Diminished Chords


    • 6.

      The Whole Diminished Chord


    • 7.

      The Half Diminished Chord


    • 8.

      Finding Them In Key


    • 9.

      Spotting The Difference


    • 10.

      Ear Training Quiz!


    • 11.

      Expanding Tonic


    • 12.



    • 13.

      vii VS V7


    • 14.

      What To Watch For


    • 15.

      Doubling Options Major


    • 16.

      Doubling Options in Minor Keys


    • 17.

      The Tendency Tones


    • 18.

      Resolution Options


    • 19.

      Unequal Fifths


    • 20.

      Summary Of The Rules


    • 21.

      Expanding Tonic With VII dim7


    • 22.

      Harmonizing Wtih vii Version 1


    • 23.

      Harmonizing With vii Version 2


    • 24.

      Harmonizing With vii7


    • 25.

      Mystical Properties Of VII7 Chords


    • 26.



    • 27.



    • 28.

      4/2 Chord Refresher


    • 29.

      Using ii4/2


    • 30.

      Using ii4/2 In Minor


    • 31.

      Secondary Dominants


    • 32.

      Passing 4/2 In Minor


    • 33.

      What Next?


    • 34.

      Thanks & Bye!


    • 35.

      SkillshareFinalLectureV2 (2)


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About This Class

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These online classes I'm making use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

Recently I was named as a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year award because of my in-person university classes. Now I'm taking those classes online in a new format in order to reach more students and give them the joy of Music Theory.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own.

This class is a Comprehensive class - it will have many parts, going through my entire annual curriculum.

This class is Part 10: Diminished Chords and Tonic Expansion. It continues what would be the second semester of a college music theory class (according to the typical American academic system for learning music theory).

Throughout this class, If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. 

In this class, we will cover:

  • Tools of Music Theory
  • Identifying types of diminished 7 chords
  • Whole diminished chords
  • Half diminished chords
  • Training your ear to find diminished chords
  • Expanding tonic with leading tones
  • The viiº6 chord
  • Doubling in the viiº chords
  • Tendency tones
  • Unequal fifths
  • Resolutions for viiº7 chords
  • Expanding tonic with viiº
  • Harmonizing with viiº7
  • Mystical properties of the whole diminished chord
  • Pivot chords
  • 4/2 Chords as tonic expansion
  • Using ii4/2
  • Neighboring 4/2 chords
  • Passing 4/2 chords
  • ...and much, much more!

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. 

Dr. Jason Allen is an Ableton Certified Trainer and a Ph.D. in Music Composition and master of Electronic Sounds. His music has been heard internationally in film, radio, video games, and industrial sound, as well as the concert hall and theater. His 2015 album, Aniscorcia, reaching the CMJ Top200 Charts and radio broadcasts nationwide. In 2014 he was named a semi-finalist for the Grammy Music Educator Award.

He currently is a professor at Augsburg University and the CEO of Slam Academy in Minneapolis.

Praise for classes by Dr. Jason Allen:

"Without a doubt the best explanation and east of use that one can get. It leaves you enough room to go explore. The classes go by quickly, so you can be on your way to being proficient. What are you waiting for!"

"Amazing - Seriously Loved It! I took all his courses and have to say I'm so happy! Learned loads! Jason is an awesome teacher!"

"I have never had any formal training in music at all. Trying to learn all the notes and how everything translated was a serious challenge. After going through this class, Dr. J has totally brought down the barriers. The content was very useful and was easy to grasp for me."

"I like these courses because you can get up and running quickly without having to spend hours of time wading through TMI (too much information!). Jason hits the high points but shows you what you need to know. Thanks!"

"I've watched many other videos on scales and chords before, however, this one has been the best. I now understand minor scales and chords and even how to analyze songs. It really gave me the confidence to start producing music because I feel like I have some structure and guidelines to follow. AWESOME!"

"Clear and Informative - Jason has a clear uncluttered style (with the important dashes of humor) of presentation that is focused on the important key aspects of this course. Recommended for those starting out!"

"Dr. Allen does it again with his music theory series. This course really opened up everything I learned from the 1st section, and now I understand more about the composition side of things for music. I highly highly recommend this course to anyone!!! Really opened my eyes to many things I wasn't aware of."

"The Best Teacher Ever, who makes you understand the ins & outs of Music Theory by all means without giving what you don't want to know."

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jason Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen teaches... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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1. Introduction & Overview: everyone welcome Teoh Music theory Comprehensive part 10 if you can believe it. We've made it to number 10. Um and we're gonna keep going. Um, we're just trucking right through all of this. So in this class, we're gonna be talking primarily about diminished chords. Diminished chords are this thing that we've kind of danced around all the way up till now. But in this class, we're gonna focus in on those chords and some of the really powerful properties that they have, even like some weird mystical properties. But I'll save that for later. We're gonna be talking about the different types of diminished chords, particularly diminished seventh chords, how they're used in pieces, how to use them in your own pieces, how to spot them, and especially how to use them as atomic expansion. Which is what we've been talking about for the last couple classes is expansion of the different areas. Um, you might not think of diminished seventh chords as a tonic expansion, but you'll be surprised by the end of this class will be using all over the place to expand tonic like it's nobody's business were also in this class. Gonna look at some other tonic expansions that we haven't looked at yet. In particular, the four to cord, Remember, that's 1/7 chord with the seventh on the bottom. It could be a really fun way to transition between two chords and also gives us a neat little taste of something called secondary dominance that we're gonna be learning about very, very soon. Not in this class, but very near. So I hope you decide to join us in this class. It's gonna be another great one. Um, I'm really excited about it. We had a good time filming it. And I say we because you will see a cameo from Scully, the dog in this class guaranteed she gets some real face time in this one. Um, so, uh, look forward to that. Um, and please join us in the class. It's a great one from G flat would be there, But it's not, um why can't that be right? Right. That can't be right, because this is not spelled as 1/3 right. We need this to look like 1/3 and it looks like a second. So right now what we actually have written here is these notes are actually an augmented second. What I need to make is a diminished third. Now, Yes. You're thinking that's a stupid, like semantics issue, because it's going to sound exactly the same. But it's gonna be written different, right? And I'm going to say yes, but that is important in music theory. What are you going to change? Our notes are gonna be be natural. It should be flat in minor. But remember, we're gonna boost that leading tone up to make this court work. B D is fine, is natural. F is natural, so nothing needs to change here. Right? So let's see how our resolutions worked if we just do the same thing, Okay, so I just resolved the same chord for different ways. Um, but I didn't resolve the same court four different ways. I decided which note in this core, because it's perfectly symmetrical. Can I was going to be acting like the leading, uh 2. Tools We Need: Okay. So as things sometimes go in the magical world of making videos, I just shot this entire video explaining the tools that we need and then realized my microphone wasn't working. So here we go again. Um, the tools you need. So, um, now I have to remember everything I just said in the previous one and try to say it the same without screwing it up. I guess it doesn't matter if I say the same. Here's the deal tools you need, Um, if you if this is the first class you're taking with me than, um, stick around, I want to tell you about the tools that we're gonna need If you've watched all my other music theory videos skip this one because I'm not gonna say anything new. I say the same thing and pretty much all of these music theory classes. Um, when I talk about things we're gonna need. So, um, we're gonna need two things. Okay, First is in good old fashion staff paper. Ah, this is the five line staff paper. Just like what we have here on the screen except without any notes on it. Just these five lines here going all the way up and down a piece of paper. You can buy this on Amazon. Your local music store maybe might have some if they sell instruments. You know, your local instrument selling this store is what we're looking for here, Um, or if you can't find any, Um, if you can't find any nice paper, then I can give you some. So in the next little video, I'm gonna not a video, but the next segment in this class I'm gonna give you a pdf that is a piece of blank staff paper. So what you can do there is just download it printed out, print out, I don't know, five or six copies of it so that you have a couple of pieces of paper to work with. The reason we want a piece of staff, paper or some staff paper handy is that you're probably gonna want to take notes, right? You're taking a class that's typical behavior is to take notes. So when you're taking notes, normally you might just write on a piece of paper that has lines going across that you know , normal paper, but were taking music notes, so we should have music paper. It will be a lot easier to just jot down what I'm explaining rather than, uh, you know, scribbling out the five line staff every now and then doing that so staff paper will be handy. The other thing you need is going to be, um, a piece of music notation software. So a piece of software, a program that will let you put in notes and then here the back. I'm gonna be using this program called Muse Score. Now, if Muse score is totally new to you, you can peruse this website. Look for a class on how to use mu score. I've made one just for you, so check out that class if you're totally new to it, um, and want to get in a little deeper, but you don't have to. You don't have to take that class. Um, what we're gonna be doing is really surface level. Just gonna be putting in notes, talking about them and then listening to them and how they work throughout this class. So you don't need to get super deep into music or however, it is pretty impressive program. And if I haven't mentioned this, it's totally free. So it's a free program, which is why I like using it in these classes because I'm not asking you to buy anything else. Um, it's It's a free program. It's on Mac Windows. I think it's on Lenox and all kinds of other weird stuff to if you are into that, Um, there are other notation software programs. Namely, there's one called Finale. There's one called Sebelius was one called Noriko. There's one on the iPad called notion. I'm sure there are several others. Any of those will be fine. If you've got one of those, use it. That's fine. Ah, you don't need to switch over to some melts All we're really doing here. This isn't a class on using music or right. This is a class on music theory. So as long as you've got some software that you can put in notes, play them back, that's all we really need to do. So feel free to use whatever software you want that does this, but I'm gonna be using you score, and I'm gonna be giving you some music or files on occasion. Ah, which are just kind of bonus stuff. You don't need to get music or just open those files whenever I give you a music or file. Also give you a pdf of it so you can always see it no matter what. Okay, so in the next segment, I'm going to give you that Pdf that has thes staff paper on it so you can print that off. Ah, and keep that handy. Keep that by your desk or your phone or whatever you're watching this on on, then we'll go into a quick little review. 3. Review!: Okay, quick little review. Um, so we're on class 10. We've been doing this for a long time now. Um, you've taken a bunch of classes on music theory with me. Ah, the reason I like to do just a tiny bit of review is just to make sure we're all prepared for going forward with the content that we're gonna do in this class. So for this class, here's what you should review. Um, like what I've said in previous classes Review your work sheets, but in particular, um, we're gonna be working a lot in this class with, um, leading tone cords, which basically means, um Well, that means a couple things. I'll save that for a minute. Um, but one of the biggest things were going to be needing to use that we've already learned is counterpoint and voice leading. So review the worksheets from previous classes. In particular classes five and six, um, class seven. A little bit. But if you go back to the worksheets from five and six, give those look over, make sure you're comfortable with all that. Then you should be good for this class. Obviously, everything that we've done builds on itself to make the new content. Let me say that again. This class builds on everything we've already learned. So everything is important. Um, the reason I'm pointing out just those handfuls of worksheets because that's the the hardest stuff I think about. What we're gonna do in this class is the, um how the voice leading elements work in these leading tone cords that were going to be looking at and things like that. So take a look at those, um, but also be sure that you don't have any big holes. If there's anything you thinking, I hope he doesn't cover this one thing because I'm really not very good at it. You should probably review that thing. Um, because sooner or later we're gonna cover it. Um, Or if we don't, there's a reason we covered it the first time. So brush up on that thing that's making you nervous. Otherwise, um, check out those worksheets and let's press on 4. The Master Example File: okay. There's one last thing I want to point out before we dive into the main content of the class. I started maybe around the fifth music theory class I started including this like master example file. So what I'm gonna dio, um, is and let's just do it right now new you file and we're going to call this music theory part 10. Let's make a grand staff started in C major. Okay, this is going to be all are examples. Hangman's gonna keep adding to this file and make all our examples in this one file. So I'm gonna give you this file so that you can download it and work with it throughout the entire class. You'll see everything that I do you can follow along with what I did in the music or file that I'm about to give you. Obviously, I haven't made it yet, so I'm gonna make the whole class, and then I'm gonna jump back, and I'm gonna put that music or file as the next segment right after this one. So and I also put it in there as a pdf file for those of you that are not using music or, um, And this is just like a fun little thing that I thought was a cool, uh, learning tool. If you don't want to download this and follow along, that's fine. If you just want to follow along with the videos and the talking in the worksheets, that's cool, too. Um, it's just kind of a nice thing I thought it was Need. Some people seem to like it. I haven't heard from anyone that really hated it, so I'm gonna continue doing it. So, uh, here we go, Uh, in the next segment, the master example file, which is that thing I just explained, and then we'll dive into the content. 5. Two Types Of Diminished Chords: okay in this class, in theory, 10 we're gonna be diving deep into diminished seven chords. And there's a lot we can do with these. I know that we've kind of avoided these a little bit so far. So this will be kind of a time where we look just, like, really focus in on what we can do with these diminished seventh chords that have some unique properties. Um, in these things that we call voice leading cords, we also sometimes call them leading tone cords. And we'll look at some other voice it in cords as well. Um, but before we get into that, I want to talk a little bit about diminished seventh chords and, uh, the kind of two different flavors of them. And I shouldn't even say diminished seventh courts. I could just say diminished chords because these don't always occur on the seventh scale degree. They they in a major key, they usually do right, and in a minor key, they usually appear on the second scale. Agree. But, um, what I'm talking about here is diminished. And then subscript seven like, uh, not necessarily on the seventh scale degree, but 1/7 chord that is diminished 1/7 corps that is diminished regardless of where it is. That's I guess what I'm saying here. So these cords can exist in two different ways. Um, they could be what's called a whole diminished or half diminished. Okay. And a whole diminish just for ah terminology. If you just say a diminished chord, usually you're saying whole diminished. You don't have to always use the word whole, um, diminished means whole diminished. You say half diminished, then you mean half diminished. Obviously, you don't mean hold diminished. So we usually sometimes we only differentiate with the word half. And if you just say diminished, we're talking about whole diminished most of the time when we talked about diminished seventh chords. So far, we've been talking about whole diminished chords. So, um, let's look at the two different types of them on go from there 6. The Whole Diminished Chord: Okay, so let's start off by talking about the whole diminished seven chord. So let's go all the way back to the very first class we had and talk about how we make triads. Okay? Was it through the screw fast? Because this will get us to making our diminished seventh chords really fast. Okay, remember that the distance between these two bottom notes in a major triad is gonna be a major third, right. The distance between second ones is going to be a minor third. Okay, if we make this 1/2 step smaller way, have a minor triad right now are minor thirds at the bottom and our major thirds at the top . Okay, if we do, if we get rid of the major third altogether by lowering this 1/2 step, we have a diminished triad. Okay, we have minor. Third, minor third. Okay, Now let's add the seventh. We need 1/7 above G flat. Now, we gotta think about this a little hard. Okay, um, only half steps. Is that three? Right, Cause if we can't see too c sharp c sharp as one c sharp to d as to de Sharp is the same as e flat, right? So that's three. So if we can't e flat e natural, that's one e natural toe f that's too f to G flat. That's 3 3/2 steps in this counting method. Let's go up G flat to G. That's one G to a flat. That's too a flat to a natural. That's three. So our seventh to make a perfect minor third from G flat would be there. But it's not, um why can't that be right? Right. That can't be right, because this is not spelled as 1/3 right? We need this to look like 1/3 and it looks like a second. So right now what we actually have written here is these notes are actually an augmented second. What I need to make is a diminished third now, Yes, you're thinking that's a stupid, like semantics issue, because it's going to sound exactly the same. But it's gonna be written different, right? And I'm going to say yes, but that is important in music theory. So, um, we need to spell this as 1/3 somehow. So 1/3 above G is a beat. Okay, so how do we make this be look like in a I can get 1/2 step closer by calling it a B flat. But if I go down another half step, I got in a right, but I need that minor third. So here's what we're gonna do. Point, We're gonna put this symbol on it. I don't know that we've seen these yet In this class, this is called is gonna be a shocker is gonna This is called a double flat because it is a double flat. This note now sounds the same as an A. It's a B double flat. So it's down 1/2 step because of the flat down, another half step because of the other flat. Okay, it's a double flint that gives us now are full diminished seventh chord because we have a minor threat here. Mine insert here. A minor start here, and that's it. But actually, there's another minor third if we went, if we kept going, be double flat to see is a minor third also because it doesn't look like it. But if we spelled this as an a Theun see, so it circles all the way around. This is like a perfectly symmetrical cord. It's all minor thirds all the way up to the active, and it can keep on going right. If we added the active, we'd have to do a weird re spelling for it to work. Um, and we don't typically do that. I just wanted to point that out, that it's this perfectly symmetrical thing. So that is a full diminished chord. It's even all minor thirds all the way up, and it usually results in something goofy like one of these. Let's hear it. All right. It's kind of angry, right? A little angry. Okay, no. With that in mind, let's talk about 1/2 diminished chord are actually wait before we go away. Let's remember how we write that. See? Diminished seven. Okay, so what I have here is the court named the route symbol for diminished, and it's a seven. Okay, so the symbol that we use for a diminished chord is the one we've been using. There's a slightly different symbol for 1/2 diminished court. Let's go to a new video and talk about half diminished chords 7. The Half Diminished Chord: you know, the half diminished chord has a little bit of a cheat in it, so it's still a diminished chord. So let's make that back. So I'm back to a C major chord that now into a sea diminished triad. Now let's add our seventh has to be there. But what is it? It is in 1/2 diminished chord. It looks like this. So what do we have here? We have a minor third, a minor third and a major third. So we cheat. We cheat our way into a major third here, and that makes 1/2 diminished. So let's think about our terminology Here hold diminished means everything is a minor third , it's all of it. The whole thing is a minor threat. Hence whole diminished. Half diminished means that half of it is a minor third. So it doesn't really work that way. But half diminish means that most of it is minor. Third, But we've got this exception right there. That also makes an exception back up to the see if we did it that way because B flat to a C is not a minor 3rd 2 major second eso that part of it doesn't work either. So what else? What is special about this cord? We find this chord in jazz a lot. You may have seen it before. Um, you may have seen it written. Ah, in a number of pieces, but just not called 1/2 diminished chord, but called something else. If I did this, if I raised the fifth what do we have? Have a c minor chord. Nothing weird about that. Try it. It's just a C minor triad with 1/7. So what would we call this? We would call us a C minor chord A C minor seven, actually. Okay, if I lower this, we get our half diminished chord. But sometimes we would call that a C minor seven flat five. So you may have encountered before this Norman Claytor of minor seven, flat five. Show you what that looks like. What that would look like is either C minor, seven flat five like that, or you might put the flat five and parentheses and smaller script above it. Like like where the diminished symbol was before. So that would mean the same thing as just calling it see, half diminished. Seventh. Oops. So see half diminished. Seven is notated almost like this. Except we put a slash through the O. Let me see if I could do that. There's not a good, uh, letter to do that with, um, let me see if I can cheat and just make a slash. Usually looks like that half diminished. Seven. There's a line going through the diminished chord. Now that I think about it, I think the line it's usually going the other way like that. See, you have diminished. Seven. That looks more right. So you have two minutes. Seven, uh, the same as a minor. Seven flat five. The only difference between 1/2 diminished and a full diminished seven is this. Seven is 1/2 step lower and 1/2 diminished. Sorry, I take that pack 1/2 step higher in 1/2 diminished, uh, and 1/2 step lower in a full diminished 8. Finding Them In Key: Okay, So where did these occur? In a key. Okay, so let's look at C Major for starters and see if you see what are diminished. Chord is this might be a tad surprising. So in C Major well, we don't to spell out the whole scale at this point. You know what the scale of C Major is? Um, if we build a diminished chord on the seventh, that's where diminished court shows up. So that beyond be okay, That's our diminished chord. And then we out of seventh to it. Is that 1/2 diminished or a whole diminished? Let's figure it out. Minor, third, minor third. So try. It has definitely diminished. Cool. Now is it half or whole? Question is, is this a minor third or a major third? Think about FTO. A look at your piano count. Half steps. Do whatever you want to do to figure out if that is a minor third or a major third. It's a major third after A is a major third, so that means that this is 1/2 diminished. So the half diminished occurs naturally in the key in a major key as our seventh, the seventh note of the scale. If we build a cord on the seventh of the scale and we build 1/7 chord, um, that spot, we will get 1/2 diminished seven. Diminished seven chord, 1/2 diminished seventh chord. Okay, so that one occurs naturally. If we want to get a whole diminished in a key, there is a spot where we soar to get one. Let's switch over to a minor. If we were in a minor key and we built Accord on the to, let's see what that gets us oops, it's gonna get us the same chord, right? Because the two in a minor key is the diminished chord. But it's actually the same diminished chord as the seventh in the major key B d f A b d F a . Right, so that's going to be 1/2 diminished also. But if we build 1/7 if we build accord on the seventh scale degree in a minor key altered by, uh, the harmonic or melodic change to the court to the scale. In other words, if we build a leading tone chord in a minor key, so we're in a minor key. We're in a minor. We've switched over to either the harmonic minor or the melodic minor. Doesn't really matter in this case, because what we have is a raised seven in both those cases whoever raised seventh, right, that's going to give us that nice leading tone in. So we build a triad that is all in key of a minor except the G sharp, which is that leading tone that we've inherited from the, uh, melodic minor or harmonic matter. In this case, what have we got? We have minor. Third, minor, third, minor third, right? So d two f is a minor shirt. So where is our weird double flat or whatever that we were expecting, right? It's not here because just kind of lines up in our favor g sharp to be b to d de toe f because we started on a sharp. We don't have to get into those double flat, and you won't always have to get into those double flats. It's not something that, like whenever you see a double flat, don't assume you are in a you know, full diminished chord. That's not exactly true. Sometimes they're not there, and sometimes we use double flats for other things we'll talk about in the future. Um, so in this case, we didn't need one here. But this is a case where the full diminished seven chord can pop up in nature, as we say, naturally, in the key sort of. 9. Spotting The Difference: Okay, let's play a little game. Um, it is important to be able to spot some of these both visually, by the notes and by year. So I have a bunch of diminished seventh chords on screen. They are all either half or whole. Okay, let's hear them. I'm going to tell you that the 1st 1 is half the 2nd 1 is whole. So let's just play those two. In fact, let me do this just to make it a little bit less crazy. Let me insert a measure here, Okay? Now, what we have is a hole diminished and 1/2 diminished of the same key case. So you can just listen to the the differences between these two chords they're both see diminished. This one is a whole diminished. This one is 1/2 diminished. Okay, they sound a little different. It's weird hearing them back to back. Okay. No. What is this one? Okay. Did it feel more like which one of these two? So think about it for a second. Let's do it again. Okay, Now look at it and see if you can tell if it's a hole or 1/2 just from it remember the quick way to tell is the interval from here to here? Inverted. So if we invert this interval, what have we got? We have a minor third right? D flat to e natural, uh, is an incorrectly spelled minor third, but it's a minor third. Um, if we spelled it as c sharp, it would be a minor third. That means we have here a whole diminished. Okay, let's go to this one. Anything. Okay, let's look at our notes f sharp to e flat. Now we have Normally we never have different kinds of accidental on the same chords. Um, we haven't really seen that at all, I don't think, but, uh, you will in these kinds of chords, and you will in this class going forward, we're going to see this quite a few times, so f sharp to e flat. Let's just change in our heads, Theo F sharp to a G flat. Okay, so that we're dealing with flats and flat G flat. T e flat is a minor third, right? So that means this is also a hole. Okay, let's go to the next one. What about this one? It's okay. A to B If we inverted that, we don't have a minor. Third, we have a major second. It means that must be 1/2. I find the sound of 1/2 a little less aggressive in the sound of a whole. It's probably because of that minor seven flat five things like we're kind of close to Ah, minor. Seven. Okay, it's going to the next one. These higher ones A really harder to hear. Okay, what do you hear? Or C? Okay. A sharp to G natural. What is that? Interval? Let's think of our A sharp as and as a B flat. It was a G up to a B flat. That is a minor third. Okay, one more we have here for an interval. D sharp, C sharp. If we invert that, we have a major second, so that must be 1/2. And this one was a whole. Did I say that? The whole, um Okay, so there's the answers. Let's just listen and watch. What's what. Okay. All these unresolved ing diminished seventh chords are starting to give me a headache. But that's okay. That's what they do. So here's what I'm gonna do. I thought it'd be fun to do a little your training test. Okay, so I am going Teoh in the next video, play a bunch of diminished seventh chords, and I want you to write down half or whole for each one. Okay? You'll hear me go through it a couple times. I'm just gonna black out the screen and play them, and then I'll show you on the screen. The answers. Okay, so I'll explain it again in the next video, But we're just gonna do a cuckold. Your training quiz. I do these on my riel theory classes all the time. They're very important. 10. Ear Training Quiz!: Okay. You ready? Here's our little your training quiz. I'm going to give you a clue. The 1st 1 you're going to hear is going to be Ah, whole diminished. The 2nd 1 you're going to hear is 1/2 diminished. Okay, so just so write down hole and then half and then take guests as to what the next ones are . There's about 10 of Okay, I'm just gonna black out the screen, and we're gonna listen to 10 diminished seven chords. Your job is to guess whether their whole or half this is going to be hard. Okay, so don't worry about facing this, but just try it. Here we go. - Okay . How did you do? Good. Bad. Um, let's give it another try and go through your answers. And this time, double check them. See if the match up to what you're thinking now that you've gone through it once or if you want to change it. Okay. Here we go. Through it one more time. - Okay ? How did you do? I hope you said something out loud because this is a pre recorded video. If you didn't know that, so I can't understand what you're saying. I can't hear you. But, um, I'm hopefully you said I did. Awesome. I think I get it. If you did say that, I would be genuinely surprised, because this is quite difficult. Um, you're gonna want to keep practicing these. Okay? So don't worry about nailing this right now. This is something that takes some practice to really be able to hear these because it's a very subtle difference. Right. Um okay, let's bring the screen back and play through it one more time. This time, I will show you the answers. Here we go. - Okay . Um so get in the habit, if you can, of practicing hearing these on occasion, you're gonna want to be able to hear them sooner or later. And like I said, it takes practice. So thanks for me. Thanks for indulging me in this little ear training quiz. They're important. Okay, let's move on. 11. Expanding Tonic: Okay, So Ah, what we're gonna be working in here is how the diminished seven chord can substitute for a dominant court. Okay. And we call this a dominant substitution. And you may have heard this phrase before If you're involved in jazz at all, I don't like you talking about jazz, but, um, a lot of the times when you're in jazz, when you're soloing, people talk about, you know, using a dominant substitution or when you're comping chords. That's something that happens a lot. Dumb sub Throw down seven there, bro. Um, that's how people talk in jazz. Not really at all. I don't know. I just did that. Okay, um, but what we want to do is talk about, uh, how these cords can substitute for dominant. Another way to put that is that we want these cords, these diminished chords to be able to expand our tonic area. Because if you remember the dominant sonority, the dominant chord is quite a good one to expand our tonic areas. Well, right, cause we could go 515151 And that really helps strengthen the one area right, because it's always pushing back the dominance pushing back toe one really hard. So how does that work? How does it work? That a 57 chord can be, Ah, taken away and we can put in a seven court? Let's remember what was the main thing about a 57 chord, a dominant seven chord that made it push to tonic. Let's do this. So we're in the key of C, so let's go G E e. There's are 57 chord right dominant seven court, and we wanted to push, too. Here, basically. Or let's add another octopus there just for fun, because that will help with my point. Um, what is it about this cord that pushes to this court? There's two things we talked about before. There's this 5 to 1 relationship that we really like, right? That's a good sound that we like. However, there's also this leading tone issue, right. This is B is the leading tone in the key of C, and it pushes up to leading him to the tonic, right? So leading tone is one of the main elements that helps us get from dominant back to tonic. No, let's go to our, uh, diminished seventh chord in this key, and it's built on the leading total, right? So it's a lot of notes that are different. But we still have our main leading tone to tonic, right? So what's missing here is, Well, let's hold on to that for just a second. Um, we'll come back and talk about what's missing in just a minute. The thing I want, you remember right now is that both the 57 chord and the leading tone chord are both the 57 chord and the diminished chords are all about the leading tone in terms of their pull to tonic. Okay, leaving terms are where it's at in both courts now. It's true in minor also, by the way, because remember that in order to make the minor diminished chord. If we're in the key of a minor, we need to build it on the leading tone pulled from the melodic, a harmonic minor right? So far in the key of a minor, we're gonna build a court on G sharp in order to give us the leading toe right. That's what we need for the court to work, and the leading tone is what pushes us back to tonic anyway. Right? So, um, even in minor all about the leading tone here. Okay. So, um, I won't talk about one other thing really quick. Um, we're gonna talk about the, uh, six inversion, and then we'll come back and, uh, do a little death match between the diminished seven chord and the 57 chord. So, um, first we need to talk about this seven diminished six inversion. 12. vii6: okay. One of the problems we have with diminished chords is that they're ugly, right? That's actually kind of a big problem we have with diminished chords. Um, one thing that composers have done historically, too, make them slightly less ugly is put them in first inversion. Here's why. Uh, let's look at this one, Okay? Actually, let's look at we're gonna do this with just a Triad for now. So this is a diminished triad. By the way, I don't think I mentioned this before. When we have just a triad, we say diminish, try. There's no such thing as 1/2 diminished when it comes to Triad. It's just diminished because we need that seven to differentiate between half diminishment , full diminished. So if it's just a triad in the seventh, isn't there? It's It's just diminished. So let's look at just the diminished here. The problem with this cord in terms of why it's ugly, that's pretty subjective, that it's ugly, but I'm just going to say that it's ugly. Um, is the B toe f the tri tone that's in there? So what we want to do is try to mask that a little bit and The best way is to do that. Now that be toe F is here. It's not between the bass note, so the bass note is going to be the third. Which masks that sound a little bit. Um, let's try resolving it. Let me just show you what it sounds like to solve it. Let's add this upper active so that our leading tone will complete. And then let's do one like this also. Okay, so which of these two sound better to you? I was awfully fast. Uh, let's change the speed a little bit here. To me, this one sounds a lot better. The resolutions are more clear, and this one just kind of feels like someone smashing their hands on the piano a little bit and doesn't really feel like it's as intentional is I wanted to feel So that's why we like the six inversion. So we'll see those a lot. Um What? We would call that right here. We call that in this case, a seven diminished six and would use a tiny six. I wish I could make a tiny six. Also, it is so seven diminished six. So remember that the symbol for diminished is just the oh, the little line underneath. It is just what this font is doing. That's not part of it. So ignore that part. And six should be small to note the inversion the same way we were doing it before. Okay, eso 70 minutes. Six. Okay, let's go. Uh, next let's get to 1/7 chord. Diminished seven versus 57 in a deathmatch. 13. vii VS V7: Okay, here's what I want to do. I'm gonna take our 70 minutes six. Put it right here. Same exact thing. And then ah, right here. I'm gonna make a, uh, five chord. Okay, so here we have a seven diminished six toe one, and then a 5 to 1. Okay. The question is gonna be which one of these air stronger, which is a stronger pushed back to tonic. Okay, here we are. Okay, now, this is very subjective. I get it. But there is an answer. Um, we could add the seventh and do the same experiment. But I'll tell you, it won't change the answer. Um, but let's do it anyway, because it sounds fun and sounds like good practice for putting in her seven. So on our 17 minutes six, it's not gonna be a 70 minute six anymore. It could be a 70 minute seven. It's actually gonna have diminished, but in a major key. But that's OK, so we have b d. F. And we need to get an A in there s so we could just squeeze it in right there. Remember, it doesn't look like a triad here, but that's OK because we're in an inversion. Eso If that be was down inactive, it would be. And that would be all the correct notes for my half diminished. Now for my 57 here we had the f. Okay, let's hear what we've got now. Okay, which is stronger. Um, no. Before I tell you the answer, let me tell you the two things that I'm looking for. I'm looking for number one, a leading tone in that court that's pushing back to tonic. Okay. And both cords have it. Here's the leading tone in the diminished seven of Teutonic. Here's a leading tone in the 57 of Teutonic, so they both have that. The other thing we like is the 51 relationship scale. Degree five. It's calorie five is in the cord. Ah, it'll help push it back to tonic as kind of a second layer. We haven't hear skill agree five toe one. Okay, so 51 It's the other thing we like. What does the diminished seven have? Not a five. Okay, so that means that the 5721 is a stronger Ah resolution is a stronger companion, Let's say toe one than the diminished seven is OK, This is actually not entirely intuitive. I would have thought, um, long ago. I guess that, um the diminished chord would be a stronger companion, I guess, to tonic, because it is all around. More dissident. More dissonance means more resolution, right? But it doesn't exactly have the right kind of dissonance to push us to tonic. It does have dissonance enough to push us other places. We don't talk about that shortly. So the point here is that the diminished seven chord can substitute for 57 In a lot of situations when you might in a piece of music, you might want to Let's say you're writing a piece of music and that's what we're talking about with substitutions. If you're writing a piece of music and you might want to put a 57 there, you could instead put a seven diminished seven in there. Decker. Brick, Um, as long as it fits with your melody and all that good stuff, Um, but it will not be as strong as the five is. Okay, So if you want a really strong resolution, then you want 571 If you're okay with a slightly weaker resolution could be diminished. Seven. Tow What? So if these two are going head to head, who's stronger? 57 wins. 57 is the stronger of the two. Um, but both of them push Teutonic quite well. 14. What To Watch For: Okay, let's talk about doubling with the diminished chords. So now we're not talking about doubling the diminished seven court, because, remember, we're for working in four voices. Ah, we won't have to double anything, uh, in 1/7 chord. Right? Because there's four notes, four voices, Everything works out fine. But in three voices, we do have a doubling issue. Um, and let's look at what that is. So the diminished seventh chord always wants to resolve to one or 16 Okay, in a major key in a minor key minor one or minor 16 So 1 to 16 is where we're ah, one or 16 is where we're always heading with a diminished court. Unless you're doing something really deceptive and strange. Uh, so let's go, Let's do it and see again. So here are diminished triad. Okay, now what we have here, the reason that doubling is really tricky is because of the resolutions that we have to deal with related to this interval. Right? That's a tri tone de obelisks in musica is what we called it. We meaning people. 300 years ago, 400 years ago, the abolition music, the devil in music the tri tone. So that has a very specific resolution. And not only is this a try tone, but what we really want to pay attention to is that this is scale, degree seven and skill degree for so seven and four make a try tone. But, uh, they also have very specific resolutions that they want to go to. Uh, namely, the seven wants to go to one and four wants to go down to three. So we really want this interval to collapse inward. Right? So he goes up to C F goes down to E. Now that leaves this D high and dry, right? That's problematic. Uh, so, um, in four voices weaken do some tricks to kind of help that remember what we were just talking about? If we did, this hasn't won six. This would happen. So the f goes down to e. The baby goes up to see opens outward, and then this d King go to should really go to a g here. But maybe putting it as another see can work well also. So let's look at some options in this section. 15. Doubling Options Major: So when we are working with a diminished triad, we want Teoh in the best situation. We want to be working with a, uh six. Okay. And when we're doing that, that frees up Ah, the our rule of what note to double becomes a little bit easier. Let me explain that again. Let's go back. What do we we remember about rules for doubling? We remember that. Ah, the bass note of accord. The lowest note is a good note to double. Typically, right, um the root of the court is a good note to double. Typically, the leading tone of a key is never good to double. Okay, so that those are contradictory because our route is our leading tome. So we do not want to double that, so don't double the route. Let's put it up here now. Our lowest note, which is the third, uh, is perfectly happy to be doubled. Okay, um, that's the best way. In a pinch, you can double the fifth. Ah, the F. But it's not as good as doubling the third. So double the third. Especially if you're in Ah, first inversion. So let's look at that in a four voice setting. So what we would want to dio is we would dio de and let's just do it exactly how I did it. Here be I'm gonna switch to my second layer. Uh, f here. I did my layers backwards. Okay. Later, too. Do you be later? One f and okay, now let's try to resolve that with the rules that we just talked about. Bees have to go up to see. Okay. And let's do that with the right layer. Okay? If we had another B and since the B has to go to sea, we would then create parallel octaves. Right? So it's good that we're not doubling the root cause that would lead to another problem. Parallel octaves. Um, what was our other direction that we saw over here? So f has to go down to e. That's the other one. So f down to e. And that's beyond their one, I think. Okay. And the D is kind of free, too, to do what it needs to do. It doesn't have to resolve stepwise so the D can make a little bit of elite. So let's take well, what's are missing Note. Ah, see, E G are missing notice G and in a pinch, we could add another. See Orrin E Actually, so d is going down. Ernest. Sorry B is going up to see so best here. It would be this e could work out well for us. So it's tried that and then down here, we probably want a C. So go down to see. So how did that go? C E C E. It's not awesome. One thing we could do to make it a little bit better is this could trump all the way up to G. I don't think that would be terrible. Let's hear it. It's a little bit of a jump, but I don't think it breaks any rules. See any rules broken here? Um, going up or going down, down and thirds up by a leap. I think it's fine, so but even going here would be fine. We've left out the G, but we're in kind of a tricky situation here. That's probably OK to leave out the G cause. Remember, if you're gonna leave out a note, leave out the fifth. Um, let's hear this. That sounds perfectly good. I think this might even sound better to my ear. Um, so that's kind of our ideal way. Okay, so let's look at it again. But let's look at it in minor this time. 16. Doubling Options in Minor Keys: Okay, so for a minor key, let's try the same thing. So I'm gonna copy this on and groups move it to this bar and let's just try turning it. Miners, let's start with the C chord. Grab a flat. Didn't want to put a flat there. Want to put it here. So this e needs to be flat, make it an e minor, and he needs to be flat. So that's now a C minor court A c minor. I say a minor C minor is what we're trying to make here. And in this chord, uh, what are we going to change? Our notes are gonna be be natural. It should be flat in minor. But remember, we're gonna boost that leading tone up to make this court work. B D is fine, is natural. F is natural, so nothing needs to change here. Right? So let's see how our resolutions worked. If we just do the same thing D t flat B two c. So I still have my leading tone Teutonic d t r f t e flat. So that results down this in minor thistles. Probably Our biggest difference is that this after e flat the four scale degree to the third scale degree is going to be less strong of a push, but still a good push. In other words, here that is a strong resolution. It's falling by 1/2 step. That's something we really feel. And we really want to feel this FTE flat is falling by a whole step. That's less of a, um, expectation to to happen. So that doesn't mean you shouldn't do it, though. It's still the correct thing to do. Okay, but in a weird situation, if you had to cheat on that, you might be okay. But this is not a weird situation, so don't cheat on that. Okay, so that's correct. And then d down to see that work. So it's here. It still feels like our directions are right. We're still kind of fanning out, right, so everything's working pretty well. Let's try this G situation that we tried before. It's a little more Gothic sounding to me, which is kind of cool in the minor key, but I think this is a matter of taste. Both of those can work 17. The Tendency Tones: Okay, next, let's talk about dealing with, uh, sevenths diminished 7/7. It's tricky to say, um, and resolving those, and we don't really care about doubling of those because we don't really have to Ah, in four voices, however, we do have to deal with, um resolving and largely the same rules apply. But we have to add the seventh in there. So let's go here. So let's make us a diminished seventh chord and let's do it in route position. Okay, so let's stick to the key of C s. So we're gonna go be de. I could put that f there. But that's not going to be a great sound, because that puts our tri tone right at the bottom. I don't want to necessarily just go Deby, because that feels like that. I got that third at the bottom, and it's fine. It's fine to do that. I don't love that sound right now. Um e with the seventh at the bottom. Then I have 1/7 at the bottom, so I guess it's going to the third. I live with it. So be the F. And I want that, too. In a oops you score is being a little weird right now. Go away. Okay. Oops. Did I lost that note? My A Okay, so I'm gonna be in a major key here. I'm gonna do the d f a. Is that 1/2 or whole diminished? It is 1/2 diminished because we have the seventh, An interval of 1/7 between the B and the Okay, So let's resolve this sucker. So when you're doing this, remember what the rules are. So step one, uh, scale degrees seven. Has to go upto one. So be it. Scale degree seven. Here. So that one I didn't do my voice is, did I? That's silly of me. Um, let me just convert this to be using the right voices, okay? No, I'm My notes are in the right voices here, so be has to go up to see scale. Degree seven has to go upto one. So let's move that there. Okay, Step two. Ah, Scale. Agree. Four has to go down. Scale degree three. So that means in the key of C f. Has to go down to e. There's f and we're gonna move that down T OK, so that makes him parallel emotion That looks great. Ah B two c f to e. We land on our third. Now we want to go back and deal with his Kordell seventh situation. That means scale. Degree six needs to go down to five. So scale degree six in the key of C is a So that's our seventh, right? So I called the coral seventh and then he's good under five, So it's gonna go to RG and in a minor key, it's gonna be the same. Except this is gonna be a flat six, but it's still going to go down to five. So now scale Degree to is what's left of this Congar Oh, to either scale, degree one or three, um, are my options so I could go up to one are sorry up to three. Or I could double one. And that's totally allowed here because check this out. I could do that. That's okay to do. Technically, that's a unison of voices, but it's fine. Let's hear it. Right, towns. Okay, sounds good. If I didn't want to do that, E could take it up to three. Uh, this is gonna be kind of the similar sound we have over here, so that's OK and kind of more into this. Uh, it makes a thinner chord here, so it sounds nice. It's we're going from stick to thin, which isn't a great sound, always, but for the mood I'm in right now. That's the sound I like more. But if you want to stay on a thick, thicker cord, that'll do just fine. So don't forget our tendency tones. The thief thing you should do is walk through those steps. Step one resolve. The seventh are the not the seventh, the seven scale degree, which is your leading tone up to tonic of the next chord. Resolve scale degree four. Down to scale degree three. Step to third result of your Kordell Seventh. That will be, ah, scale degree six down to five. Or, if you're in a minor key, it'll be flat. Six down five and then, ah, with the leftover note, which is scaled, agree to you can go down to one or up to three. That is the most typical perfect resolution 18. Resolution Options: Okay, So we looked at this, and we called this the most perfect way to do things. But the world is not always full of perfect things. Right? So let's try it another way. Uh, another way that will also work. Maybe not perfectly as well. Ah, but we'll work. So the main difference here is I'm going to set up my diminished chord a little bit different. And I'm gonna, but my tri tone at the bottom. Okay, you can do this. It would leave my d up there. Ah, and my A up there. Okay, so I have the true night own at the bottom. I don't love this sound, but it can work. So let's look at how the resolution works. Um, now, I didn't change this at all yet, so let's see. Let's go through our steps and see if this works. So stuff one, uh, are leading tone has to go up atomic. Right? Scale. Degree seven up to one. So that works. Step two. Our scale Degree four has to go down to three. Okay, so that works. So the tri tones kind of collapses in on itself. That's what's supposed to happen. So that is all good. The coral seventh goes down to 1/5. So 6 to 5 that works. And then to go toe one or three. In this case, it goes up to three. Okay, so that resolution all works. So let's hear what we've got. Okay, that works. That's okay. Um, it's a little gnarly or having the tri tone at the bottom, but it's, uh it can work. It's allowed. Let's hear these two back to back. This one is just a tad bit angrier, right? It's just got a little more anger to it because we really feel that tri tone hitting us. 19. Unequal Fifths: Okay, so there is a new thing that can pop up here. Um, so I want to do this again. We'll do it in a minor key. Okay, So what we're gonna do is we're gonna spell this as our leading tone to try tone, and we're gonna take We put our third in our seventh up here now in a minor key, or someone's gonna be flat, making it a full diminished, Uh, cool. Okay, so here is our in a minor key. Uh, diminished seven. Full, diminished, raised leading tone, right? Doesn't look like a raise reading. Too late. A raised leading tone. But just remember, in the minor key, this should be flat, so we've raised it. OK, now, let's look at our resolution here. So, uh, seven up, seven upto one four down to three, that's all. Good. Now, up here. If I did ah, six down to five. That's correct. Okay. And if I went d with my two down to one, Okay. This is no good in this case. Way have to go. Teoh. Here up to the third. Here's what This is a, uh, voice leading rule that we haven't encountered yet because this is pretty much the only place you will encounter it. And this is something called unequal fifths. OK, so basically, it's a variation on parallel fifths that we have here. Um, if we went and it's true over here too, if this went down to see, we would have parallel fifths, beat a CTG. Right? So that wouldn't work either. But here you might think that it might work Waas Just so I don't confuse you If you're following along on the file, you might think that what might work, because these are different fifths, right? These air not a perfectly parallel interval thistles. A tri tone on this is a perfect fifth. Okay, so this goes from a tryto to a perfect fifth. But this is a diminished fifth, and this is a perfect fifth. It's an unequal fifth, but it's still 1/5. So this councils or parallel, it's called unequal Fifth. Uh, and, uh, we don't like it. Let's hear. Sounds fine to me, But this is one of the old ancient rules. Um, that if you're really being strict about voice leading, this is an unequal fifth, and it's not OK, so keep that in mind. 20. Summary Of The Rules: Okay, let's review this really quick before we wrap up this section The main rules that we have here. So first of all, um, if you're dealing with triads, try to work with that diminished seventh chord in first inversion. That's always gonna be your better bet. Uh, if you're in seventh chords, then you don't have to Ah, you can work in route position because the voice leading works out pretty well. Um, when you're doing the voice leading, always go through the steps of figuring out Does the leading tone resolve upto one? Does the scale Degree four resolved down to the third Does the Kordell Seventh, which is the sixth resolve their the six scale degree resolve down five ah, and then can to move to one or three scale, agree to move to one or three. Might not be able to move to one because it might create parallels. Um, but it could almost always move to three. Uh, let's hear the differences and what we did so well over these first ones are, ah, triads, I think. And then these ones air seventh. Let's just hear the different ways back to back that we voiced this same core progression 7 to 1. Although a few of them are minor. But I still think it will be interesting to hear a while back to back. Okay. Interesting. Right? I think in this case you can really hear the difference between the half diminished in the whole diminished here. Right? This it just got Just got a lot more grumpy right there. Um, so interesting, I guess. Okay, let's move on, Teoh. Next topic using our diminished seventh and leading tone courts. 21. Expanding Tonic With VII dim7: Okay, so we've looked at, uh, when we first started this class, we looked at how these, uh, leading tone diminished. Seventh chords can be substitution for dominant, uh, in order to expand the tonic area. So we're gonna look at that a little bit more in this section. Um, specifically, how they can work to function the same as Dummett. So what we're gonna how we're going to do that is we're gonna look at simple core progression of one, 25216 This is something we've looked at in an earlier version when we were looking at, uh, expanding the tonic area right 1 to 16 with the five in the middle. So we're gonna look at ways we can replace that five with various kinds of leading tone diminished seventh chords, that is to say, seven diminished seven either half or whole, depending on it for minor or major. Uh, okay, so let's dive in and do it 22. Harmonizing Wtih vii Version 1: Okay, So I'm gonna throw a double bar line in here Onley. Because if you're following along, you'll be able to spot this as where we started that next section. Okay, so that's where we are. Um, okay, I'm also gonna switch over to quarter notes here because I'm gonna do three chords per bar here. So let's also actually, just for the sake of monotony, switch out of C Major. And let's go to D Major just to do something a little bit different. Okay, so let's make a one 25 toe 16 So I'm going to start with root position one, and then I'm gonna end with 16 Okay, so that puts the third at the bottom. Uh, let's do this just for fun. So I'm gonna fill that court, and in just a minute, let's fill this first chord in first, okay? And I'm just gonna voice it like this. We're gonna look at a couple different ways to voice this. Okay, So now, in order to make the five between, remember what I just said. I'm gonna make a five first, and then we're gonna look at how we can replace that with a, uh, leading to in seven court. So my path of least resistance to making a five chord here is in the route to go D Wouldn't it be cool if I could go? E f. Okay. So what is my, ah, five chord in the key of D? It's an A. We're going to a seven chord. So, um actually, no, Let's not do a seven court quite yet. We'll do one of those soon. Ah, so if I can If I haven't e in the bass oven accord, what have I got? That's the fifth, right? So this is gonna be a 64 record for just gonna do a five chord without the seventh. So 564 That's what we've got here. So what can I do here in my Oops. I want to put this in the second layer and then in the first layer, put a c e. C. I am a somewhere, right? There will be a good spot, right? The lovely spot. Okay. And then after D Wouldn't it be cool if I could put an e there? I don't see why. No. Okay, so we're doubling the bass notes of the chord, which is just fine. Let's hear what we've got. Oh, I let me fix this to set. It looks pretty. Okay, so 15 toe 16 and let's hear. Beautiful. Right? Just beautiful. Um, now, let's check out a couple properties of this. We got a little voice exchange happening here. Maybe you noticed it. Maybe didn't. Her voice exchange means we're going to go. Ah, between two chords and kind of flip flop the notes. Here we have d that goes up here and f sharp that goes down here. So what that means is that essentially, what we could have done is gone 151 and voiced the second quarter the same as the first chord 151 where everything went up and then back down or down and then back up right back to where we started. But we didn't. We went the other way, and, uh, that made a voice exchange, which is cool. Okay, De switch with the F sharp switch with f sharp. Okay. Voice of changes. It could be great. Now I want to try to keep that same thing going. So let's copy this and let's switch this 564 chord to a diminished court. Okay, so I'm gonna leave my first chord the same unaltered. I'm gonna see if I can leave my third chord the same unaltered and just switched my notes around here in order to make this a leading town seven card. They were to do that. I mean, the kid d So I'm gonna need C sharp E g. Those are my notes. So let's see. Does e work? Yes. Does see work its already sharp? Yes. Does a work? No. A needs go down to a G is gonna be the closest note possible. And then does he work? Yes. So that's it. Now I'm on a leading tone. Seven chord. Let's hear it. Ah, I just had to change one note. Okay? And that took care of it. Now we're on leading tone. Symbicort, I still have the voice exchange, right? Everything works the same. So let's hear these two back to back number. This is a five chord. This is a seven chord. Okay, so a little more grit in this one, not a ton. But we do have this tri tone in here between C and G. Here There's our tri tone. Um, so we would call this all the tonic area. Each one of these bars would be fully in the tonic area. They don't switch to the five air, the dominant area here, because it's quick, it's passing, and it's just using it to extend tonic. All right, same thing here. We're just extending tonic. We're passing right through the diminished seventh chord. Okay, let's go to a new video. Let's look at another way to do it. 23. Harmonizing With vii Version 2: Okay, let's take this Our 1st 1151 and let's put it over here again. But let's set up everything a little bit different. So we're gonna go one this time are five in the tenor are certain alto and our tonic in the spread of Okay, so we're going approach this middle cord from a little bit different angles time, and we're still going to go to a 16 Okay, so, uh, this is gonna be the same. I'm gonna need to adjust. This'll here. Okay. And let's leave that. Okay, now, let's make a five chord in the middle. I can still do a 564 That's still my best bet here. This note can stay on a he nice passing right through here. F sharp e d. And this note can go down Back up, So D c d one 71 Okay, let's hear. Ah, uh, K Sounds good. We're still walking right up into that court. So different voicing. We still have the voice exchange happening, jumping right over the passing chord. So d two d de sorry. It's between voices now. D d f sharp toe have sharp. So it Waas Ah, voice exchange between the base and soprano Right now it's a voice exchange between the base on and alto Uh, s O. D. To this d f sharp to this f sharp eso We've just switched the voices that are using the voice exchange, but it still works, and we still go to a 564 in the middle. So now let's see if we can convert that. So we already know. We really only need to do one thing, right? We need to take this a down to G or for my notes toe work. Okay, so let's hear. Okay, Cool. It works. So now that we have, ah, four different options, what we're really doing here through this whole section? If this was a piece of music that did this four times, it would be a kind of weird piece of music, but, uh, it would be all the tonic area, we would call it. Okay, so let's hear it from beginning to end. Imagine this as just one big expansion of the tonic area way Great. Now the goal here isn't for you to pick your favorite. You can't pick your favorite If you like that's totally allowed. Um, But what we're really getting at is when you find yourself here or here, or here or here. These are your options, right? So, uh, our goal here is to give you options so that when you are trying to harmonize something, you don't always have to do a five chord. You can do this seven chord, and it can sound just as good, if not better, given the context of what's going on. 24. Harmonizing With vii7: Okay, let's try it again. Now, let's do it with seventh chords. Okay? So this time I'm gonna set us up a little bit different. Okay, so I have root Fifth Root third, and we're still gonna end up on that 16 Although we're gonna a little different. So this time we're not gonna end up on a 16 because we're going to use neighboring motion instead of passing. Remember, passing motion is like this way passed right through that chord. This time, we're going to use neighbor motions room go up and down, right. Uh, and we're gonna hit a 57 chord in the middle this time. So in order to do that were actually down. Gonna dip down and come back up, and we're gonna do it with the 565 So we're almost there, their seventh at the top. Okay, so let's see what we did in our soprano voice. We went scale degree 343 are based Voice went, uh, tonic. Seven tonic. Right. So once having one tonight sound Ah, right. That gives us the full body of the seventh corps there. Like I'm talking about chords like their wine but that's okay. That's how I roll. Um okay, so let's switch this now to diminished seventh chord. So what we're gonna have to do here is we're gonna go see this. Know needs to be a B flat in the key of D in order to make our seventh chord 1/2 of proper half, two minutes straight. And they were gonna have e and e case are seven eyes up here, so seventh resolves down. Leading tone resolves up. Everything is correct here. Four down to three. Everything works. But don't forget that you need this accidental on here in order to create that proper interval for to work right? It's quite significantly crunchier. Right? Let's hear the two back to back. 25. Mystical Properties Of VII7 Chords: Okay, let's take a little break from voice leading and talk about some of the weird, mysterious properties of the diminished seventh chord. Um, this is a tad bit out of context from what we were just talking about. But I wanted to be sure to fit this into the class somewhere because it's really fascinating and can be really fun. Um, and kind of weird. And so this is where it landed. Um, Okay, so check it out. I'm gonna make a So what I've made here is when the key of C I've got a diminished, fully diminished seventh chord. Okay, so that means I I'm building it on C. So I'm not in the key of C. Actually, technically, this would be this would need to resolve to a D flat, right? If this is the leading tone, But don't worry about that for just a minute. I'm just gonna look at the cords by themselves and not worry about their resolutions. So here's my fully diminished seventh chord. What's this? Ah, this is where things just get really weird. Okay, um, I'm gonna build one on C sharp. Okay. So c sharp about ah, third above C sharp is e natural. Uh, a minor third above the natural is G natural and a minor third above you. Natural is B flat foot flat on that. Okay, now, let's so I built one on C C sharp. Now let's build one on D de minor. Third above. That is F natural minus what, Above that is a flat and a minor. Third above a flat is C flat. Okay? No. Ah, The magic here is that these are the only ah fully diminished seventh chords. There are only three. There are not 12 like you would expect. And like every other court has, there are only three of them now. Why haven't I pointed this out already? Well, because we haven't looked at them in the right way to see that there are only three. This concept that's happening here doesn't matter. When it comes to the voice leading and everything we've done so far, this doesn't change anything that we've already talked about. This is just like a weird little, like, mathematical thing. Um, OK, so it's going in a new video, and I'm gonna walk you through. Why? There are only three 26. Symmetry: Okay. The answer is symmetry is a perfectly symmetrical cord, right? It's just minor serves going up. And if we put another month and third at the top, it's gonna be a seat. In this case, it's gonna be there again, and it's going to start over now. What that means is that let's keep going and make another monitored. So I made one on C. I made one on C sharp. We went on D Let's make one on D sharp. Okay, so let's go to a new measure. Okay. D sharp. OK, A minor third above D sharp is going to be sharp. A minor third above f sharp is going to be a a minor third above a is going to be C. Okay, go. So this looks sufficiently different. Okay, so, um, let's do this. Let's listen to this cord. Our first diminished seventh chord. Okay, Now let's listen. This one, it's the same, except it's a little higher. So if we re spell this, uh, starting any flat, so e flat d sharp, g flat, f sharp, be double flat A. I see. I see. So it's cycled around again. Right? So this is the same court as this. And if we keep going, we'll get the next one will be the same notes as this. Just spell different. If we go another one, it will be this one again. Then if we do another one, it will be this one again. So what does that mean? Um, it's really cool, actually, what that means. It means that any note, any of these notes can be treated like the route. Uh, and any of them can be treated like the ah, 3rd 5th or seventh as long as you not. You can't switch it around within cords. But, um, I could use this cord and say, this is the leading tone and do my resolutions correctly. Or I could use this court and say thistles the leading tone and use my right and do my resolutions correctly, right? This is a really powerful thing that composers have been using for years. They can use this cord as a key change. Pivot. Right. So let's go into one more video. Then I'll tell you how to do that. 27. Pivots: Okay, so let's resolve this cord. Okay? I'm gonna go here. Okay? So let's say D sharp is my root of this court, so that's a leading tone. So we're going to go up to in a So I need to resolve it to an e major. Okay. Um, no, we're not doing four voices here, But just remember that your voices would need to be correct, right? That's fine. Now let's take it and let's say, scaring this and let's say no f Sharp is my route, right? And so I'm just showing this chord in first inversion, right? It's fine. Um, actually ah, not first inversion. It would be in a different inversion inversions get a little more complicated, but let's just say F sharp is my route. So I need to resolve up to G if I'm gonna treat This is the leading town. And then we would go to B and D Natural and I'll just do it. I'll put the D down here the fifth down here just to keep it all confined nicely. So it doesn't do a big leap. Let's hear that, right? That resolution works fine. Let's do it again. And let's say this time, see is my leading tone. So I'm going up to D R. Sorry. A is my leading tone. So I'm going up to B flat. So I'm notes, will be B D. F is where so CFC easily Or if a is a leading tone, it's gonna push up 1/2 step always. So that pushes up to B flat. Get that phone works. And I've got one more in here, which is, if see was by leading tone, it would push up to D flat. That would be D flat, F and flat. I'm just spelling major chords here. So you know this point some? Well, I was going to say this might sound better putting this d flat at the bottom, But then my seventh doesn't resolve upwards my earth. And but this is my route. So my route has to resolve upward. Okay, so I just resolved the same chord for different ways. Um, but I didn't resolve the same court in four different ways. I decided which note in this core, because it's perfectly symmetrical. Can ah was going to be acting like the leading time and the weight composers have done this over the years is they might be working in a specific key. They get here where this is the leading tone. But then they resolve it as though this was the leading tone and keep going right, because and that was your key change. Smashed into one single court. But they made it resolved differently, and then they were often running. It's kind of an amazing cord, right? Uh, let's hear all the resolution, right? It's a very magical thing. It's It's kind of crazy. Um, leading tone diminished seventh chords. There you go. Okay, let's move on. 28. 4/2 Chord Refresher: Okay, so we've been talking about using the leading tone seven chord to, uh, expand atomic area. A couple other kinds of cord is that we want to talk about in order to expand the tonic area that we haven't talked about yet. Uh, in particular, the neighboring for two and the passing for two cord. Um, now, especially when we get into the passing for two cord, this is going to really kind of open a door that's going to lead us into, uh, some of the future big topics that come up in music theory. So I will leave you in suspense on that for just a second while we talk about, uh, neighboring 42 chords. So before we get into the nitty gritty, let's just remind ourselves what a four to cord is. Four to cord is going to be CRB in the key of C major. Yeah, maybe I'll put another double bar line here just to separate the craziness of that. We just did from what we're about to do, which is less crazy. Um, so four to cord is going to be a cord in which the seventh is in the base. So be in the see e g. Okay, so all the same notes in these two, this is a root position. This is a 42 Remember? We call it a 42 because if we count up, we have to and then a four. And we just always counted highest number down. So four to to So that is the four to court of which we're talking about. We're talking about accord in which the seventh is in the base. Okay, so let's dive into this concept of neighbouring for two chords. 29. Using ii4/2: Okay, so let's go back to the kind of format we were doing before. So let's do a one chord and let's do it by going see e g. I see. Okay. I should probably pay attention to my voice is okay. Let me convert this to using the right voices, I suppose. Okay, Um so this is a neighboring cord. So we're going to go from accord to another chord. What? We're gonna call the neighboring court and then back to the first court. It's a neighboring, right? We're going over following a couple sugar come back. So we're doing so let's take this cord. Let's put it again right here. So now we just need to fill in what goes here. So, uh, what we're going to do here is what we're gonna call a neighboring for two cord is going to be a two chord. So OK, so we can do that by sustaining the same note because of let's think about it to court, right. Key of C 2/4 D. What is 1/7 of D c? So if we're putting 1/7 in the base, that makes a nice, smooth seven. Right? So now we conduce Do an upper neighbor throughout all the rest of it. Oops. Cash these voices the death of me. Okay, so what I did here is we have the bass note. That's essentially a pedal going through. Then we have upper neighbor Upper Naimur, upper neighbor. And does that make a d chord? Uh, remember, to is minor in this key, um, in a major key. So what we expect to see is D F a C way. Right? So because we're treating where we have this really nice moving Ah, neighbor cord, it does extend tonic, right? Something else we're doing. We're really just staying and tonic because it feels like, especially with this baseline that were just nudging up and back down, Um, so a great way to extend tonic user using a 242 chord. Um, which sometimes we could just call it a neighbor for to end for two. You could call it OK, uh, let's try the same thing in a minor key 30. Using ii4/2 In Minor: Okay, I'm gonna copy this and just move it over here and switch us up to C minor. So I need to change my ease to E flats. Okay. Now, um, the two chord in a minor key is what? It's diminished. So if we add 1/7 we're gonna get 1/2 diminished court, so we could still do our pedal. We can still do the upper neighbor, and that's all it takes. So Ah, I just had to apply our key signature. Really? So are key. Signature of C minor has three flat B flat e flat in a flat. So that only affected this note. Really? And that got us into our two diminished court. Half diminished. But everything else works that's here right now. That's how might sound familiar to you. This is very common passage to use in, like, late romantic music. Um, sounds like I don't sound like a lot of different composers. To me, this was a very it's, like, just resonates in my head from, I don't know, maybe Tchaikovsky. That's not exactly the late romantic, but you point. Maybe even like Mozart Requiem. That's way not late. Romantic, But, um, it's Ah, it's very sad. Painful, but still all tonic area. It's nice. I could listen to that all day even though, like you, I'm not in that mood. I'm not like side by any means, but, um, we're okay. So that is Ah, the neighbor for two chord. Now it's like a passing for two chord. 31. Secondary Dominants: Okay, so what we're gonna do here and this is where things are going to get a little weird Here is our do a passing for two chord. Now, what we're gonna do here is we're not going to pass through tonic. Um, I'm sorry. Let me say that again. We are going to pass through tonic. We're gonna use tonic as are passing, uh, for two chord, But we're not gonna end and tonic We're gonna end on, uh, for So let's plug into four here, and then we'll go back. We'll fix this to be what we want it to be. In fact, let's change our arrangement a little bit of our notes just to make it work a little bit better. Okay, so what I have here now is root position one and then a 46 Okay. So whole hang on your like a wire. 46 this is, like, totally random you're doing. No, it's not. Just just chill. Um, ok, now here. I'm gonna put a one for two. Okay. I'm gonna put my seventh year keep my fifth where it waas and everything else Where? Okay, So what happened here? Root position one root position. One of the top three notes. But we went down 1/2 step here. That means we What we really made here is a C E g B A 17 chord with the seventh in the base . Totally bonkers, right? Doesn't make any sense. How can we do that? Right. Totally weird. But check it out. We pass right through and landing on the four chord A C f. Let's hear it. Right. You've heard that before. You've heard that in a bunch of stuff and this is what they're doing. Um, here's why this works. So we're calling this a passing for two because we're passing right through it and we're landing on the four chord. Now, let's go way, way, way back to our good old circle of fifths. Okay, In fact, let's pull it up. Okay, so here's a circle of fifths. So we're in the key of C now. The five of our key of C is G right? That's why it's circle. If it's so, if we wanted to go do a progression, that was five toe one, we would go g as 1/7 chord toe one. See? Right now, check this out. If we did, if we were in the key of F and we wanted to do a progression of 5 to 1, we would go see seven. Two f. Right? So what we did here is we went C two C seven toe f. We just snuck in a 51 in the key of F, but we shoe horn that into the key of C. That's what's happening here. We made f sound nice and normal by doing 1/7 court above it and then landing down into it. Right. Um, this is called a secondary dominant. Now, don't get worried about secondary dominance yet. We're going to spend a lot of time on secondary dominance when we get to it. Um, and we're not too it quite yet. I'm just kind of using this passing four to cord as an extension of tonic to just kind of see that little idea in your head. But, uh, secondary dominance are Superfund. They're gonna open a whole new world for you of stuff. Ah, that's coming. So stay tuned for more on secondary dominance. For now, we're just expanding the tonic area because, remember, we land on a 44 itself expands atomic area. So this whole passage is just extending the tonic area by pushing to four. And then we can do whatever we want, but four still feels like tonic area. Quite a bit. Um, it might feel like the predominant area also, but in this context, it's gonna feel like the tonic area. Okay, let's take one more look at this in a minor. 32. Passing 4/2 In Minor: all right. You know the drill. Let's copy of this. Let's put it here. And then let's look at what it would be in minor. So let's take our ease and make him flat. Do you really believe that's fine? And then we're gonna end up still on flat. We're gonna have to throw this B flat in here if we really want it to be in key. So it's gonna change our seventh chord, Teoh A minor seventh chord. But that's OK. And then on r four chord, it's gonna be a flat. Could be a minor four chord C f. Okay, let's hear. It still works. Great as a great great sound. It's super fun. Um, her life. I'm really digging it right now. Let's hear both together. Nice. You know, it's like storm troopers. Um, So what we have here is root position one in C minor to a 14 to in C minor that we can call a passing for two. Leading us to f minor, the four in the key of C minor. Fascinating. Right again. Kind of a secondary dominant situation happening here. Secondary dominance are ah, a little trickier in minor keys but would really want to do is make this dominant. Make this function like the dominant, which would be to make it major, do that to it. Now it's really gonna feel like it resolves here. Let's hear that, right? That is a secondary down it. But I get ahead of myself. Uh, let's save secondary dominance for a rainy day. 33. What Next?: Okay, we're at the end. Um, can you imagine that? You just watched essentially an entire online class about one chord about a diminished chord. Ah, it's a complicated court. It really is a complicated court, and there's a lot you can do with it. Um, even just look at that thing that we looked at, like, two segments ago, where there's just a few of them and they can go any direction. You know, it's it's crazy. And then it can be used for all these other purposes that we've looked at as well. So what comes next? Uh, the next class. We're gonna be looking at a little bit more around phrasing. So that has to do with, like, melody, obviously, and putting together how melody influences harmony and things like that. And then, uh, in the very near future, possibly in the next class, we'll see. Ah, we might be getting into the secondary dominance thing. Um, that's really more of 1/3 semester thing, but maybe we can get to it. We have probably about two more classes to go before we hit third semester college music theory. So we're trucking through right? There's a lot of stuff in this and it gets really complicated. And you're probably already feeling that that it's getting kind of complicated because it is, uh, this is some serious stuff. There's why there's a reason why people continue to write books about this and new one comes out every day. Um, because it's complicated. OK, but I'll leave that at that. Ah, couple more little things I have for you and then we'll wrap it up. 34. Thanks & Bye!: All right, We have reached the end, um, of music theory, part 10 if you can imagine. Ah, so many videos have been made on music theory by me in the last year or so, but I'm glad that you're watching them with us. I love seeing the conversations happening in the class. Um, sending messages, Do whatever you want to do. Um, thanks for being a part of this class. This has been amazing. Really? To see people. How many people are sending me a message saying something like, I've always wanted to get in a music theory, but it was too intimidating, or I could never wrap my head around it, but I I really love the way you do it. Um, it's great. It really motivates me to keep going and eso you know, I'm not I'm not trying to solicit, you know, he's really, you know, nice messages to tell me how much you love me, but, you know, I e don't mind reading them by any means, so send them if you want to send them, at any rate. Thanks for being a part of this class. Thanks for being a part of this great experience of this whole music theory online thing. And as long as people keep taking the classes, I'm gonna keep making them. So, um, with that and leave you with one more thing as per usual. After this lecture, there's gonna be another little ah thing that's gonna ask you to sign up for my mailing list. Please do that if you like, um, and also give you discounts. Teoh, get into any of my other classes for the bargain basement price. So please check that out, jump into some of those other classes, learn more about music, technology and all kinds of good stuff. And, uh, including my muse score class, by the way, which is now out. Um, with that Ah, I'll bid you farewell until music theory part 11 which I will start filming As soon as I stopped filming this one, which is happening right now by 35. SkillshareFinalLectureV2 (2): Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.