Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 6 - SATB Composition | Jason Allen | Skillshare

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Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 6 - SATB Composition

teacher avatar Jason Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Welcome & Overview


    • 2.

      Second Semester Theory


    • 3.



    • 4.

      Review: Counterpoint


    • 5.



    • 6.

      Types Of Motion


    • 7.

      Chordal Dissonance


    • 8.



    • 9.

      Cadences in Bass Melody Counterpoint


    • 10.

      Starting Intervals


    • 11.

      Rules Summary


    • 12.

      Non-Chord Tones


    • 13.



    • 14.

      Example Analysis


    • 15.

      Summary No. 2


    • 16.

      Writing SATB Lines


    • 17.

      SATB Notation


    • 18.

      SATB Ranges


    • 19.

      Voice Crossings


    • 20.



    • 21.

      My Country Example


    • 22.



    • 23.

      Establishing Tonic Area


    • 24.

      Establishing Dominant Area


    • 25.

      Perfect Authentic In 4 Voices


    • 26.

      Imperfect Authentic in 4 Voices


    • 27.

      Half Cadences


    • 28.

      Plagal Cadences


    • 29.

      Deceptive Cadences


    • 30.

      Leading Tones in V-I


    • 31.

      Voice Leading to V


    • 32.

      Harmonic Rhythm


    • 33.



    • 34.

      Example Piece


    • 35.

      Whats Next


    • 36.

      Thanks & Bye!


    • 37.



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About This Class

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These classes I'm making for Skillshare use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

Recently I was named as a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year award because of my in-person university classes. Now I'm taking those classes to Skillshare in an online format in order to reach more students and give them the joy of Music Theory.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own.

This class is a Comprehensive class - it will have many parts, going through my entire annual curriculum.

This class is Part 6: SATB Composition, and it starts what would be the second semester of a college music theory class.

Throughout this class, I'll be providing you with many worksheets for you to practice the concepts on. If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. Also in this class, I have several complete analysis projects that we will complete together - just like in my college classes.

In this class, we will cover:

  • My approach to Music Theory
  • Tools of Counterpoint
  • Types of Motion in Counterpoint
  • 18th Century Counterpoint
  • Chordal Dissonance
  • Cadences in Bass/Melody Accompaniment
  • Cadences in 4-Voice Accompaniment
  • Non-Chord Tones in 4-Voice Accompaniment
  • Suspensions in 4-Voice Accompaniment
  • Example Analysis Projects
  • Writing 4-Voice (SATB) Lines
  • SATB Notation
  • SATB Ranges
  • Voice Crossings
  • Doubling
  • T-D-T Phrasing
  • Establishing Tonic Areas
  • Establishing Dominant Areas
  • Resolving Leading Tones (in 4-Voice Accompaniment)
  • Harmonic Rhythm
  • Texture (in Song)
  • Worksheets and Music for Practice
  • ...and much, much more!

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. Start here.

Dr. Jason Allen is an Ableton Certified Trainer and a Ph.D. in Music Composition and master of Electronic Sounds. His music has been heard internationally in film, radio, video games, and industrial sound, as well as the concert hall and theater. His 2015 album, Aniscorcia, reaching the CMJ Top200 Charts and radio broadcasts nationwide. In 2014 he was named a semi-finalist for the Grammy Music Educator Award.

He currently is a professor at Augsburg University and the CEO of Slam Academy in Minneapolis.

Praise for classes by Dr. Jason Allen:

  • "Without a doubt the best explanation and east of use that one can get. It leaves you enough room to go explore. The classes go by quickly, so you can be on your way to being proficient. What are you waiting for!"

  • "Amazing - Seriously Loved It! I took all his courses and have to say I'm so happy! Learned loads! Jason is an awesome teacher!"

  • "I have never had any formal training in music at all. Trying to learn all the notes and how everything translated was a serious challenge. After going through this class, Dr. J has totally brought down the barriers. The content was very useful and was easy to grasp for me."

  • "I like these courses because you can get up and running quickly without having to spend hours of time wading through TMI (too much information!). Jason hits the high points but shows you what you need to know. Thanks!"

  • "I've watched many other videos on scales and chords before, however, this one has been the best. I now understand minor scales and chords and even how to analyze songs. It really gave me the confidence to start producing music because I feel like I have some structure and guidelines to follow. AWESOME!"

  • "Clear and Informative - Jason has a clear uncluttered style (with the important dashes of humor) of presentation that is focused on the important key aspects of this course. Recommended for those starting out!"

  • "Dr. Allen does it again with his music theory series. This course really opened up everything I learned from the 1st section, and now I understand more about the composition side of things for music. I highly highly recommend this course to anyone!!! Really opened my eyes to many things I wasn't aware of."

  • "The Best Teacher Ever, who makes you understand the ins & outs of Music Theory by all means without giving what you don't want to know."

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jason Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen teaches... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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1. Welcome & Overview: - ALS notes of the chord and where the other ones are don't necessarily matter. Uh, except for invoice leading. And I said that in the previous video. So let me explain that just a little bit they matter to the extent that this voice needs to have a nice line. My country tis of thee. And we just had the soprano in the base. Let's hear that just to bring it back in our head. Okay, now I want to look at a four voice setting of that same thing. Here we go. I just did the 1st 2 measures for us because I don't want toe over. Well, you. So here's what it sounds like with the full four voices in it. Right? So it's much thicker, right? It's much thicker. It's my honor. Them throughout. This arrangement is about two chords per bar. OK, now let's look at another arrangement. This one is for a piano and voice, but you can see in the piano we still have an s a t B looking structure like look right here, right. We still have four voice looking things that we write like this for piano all the time. It's all the same rules that we've been working. Everyone welcome Teoh Music Theory Part six. In this class, we're going to be diving into what I call second semester college music theory. So in this, we start to expand on the rules a little bit more. Ah, and all of the previous music theory stuff. We were just kind of really learning the rules. Now we start to expand on the rules and my favorite thing about this period in music theories of this class and probably the next one to is that what we really see in this class is the music that were studying go from something with kind of more of an ancient feel. So something that's like Gregorian chant, kind of Ah, you know, two voices singing these two lines and a counterpoint kind of thing. And by the end of this class, we get to something like this what we have on the screen here, which is a song that you might actually sing with the piano accompaniment and something that's more familiar to you. So over the course of this class, we're going to go from that to voiced thing. Ah, the Contras Firmness and counterpoint, and we're going to take it all the way into, uh, something much more modern and get a sense of, ah, pop song out of it. And it's very logical, actually. Throughout, this course will go from we'll start with that counterpoint idea, and then we're going to expand it to a four voice counterpoint. And then, at the very end, we're going to start talking about squashing that four voice counterpoint into, ah, an accompaniment pattern on adding melody. So it's really fun to see how you know these rules slowly evolved into what we now know as modern music. And you're going to see a lot of that in this class. We're gonna go in kind of a journey through that that, uh, transformation. So I hope you decide to join us in this class. Uh, it's gonna be a lot of fun. And ah, we've got I think 76 or seven worksheets in this class for you to test all the things on. Um, by the end of this class, you'll be well into second semester college music theories. So dive in and it's gonna be a lot of fun. We'll see when the inside Yeah, 2. Second Semester Theory: All right, everyone, welcome back to ah, music theory. Um, I took a little break there for a little while, so I made five music theory classes and then took a little pause and made some other classes. And now we're back in it. Back in music theory, I thought we'd start, um, by just kind of talking about where we are in the kind of structure of music theory and how music theory is usually taught. So if you're in a college class, you would be required to take four semesters of music theory. Most of the time. Some colleges do it different, but the kind of traditional way of doing it is that have four semesters music theory, and this would be the start of second semester music theory. So in this class, ah, will be covering. You can kind of think of it like, ah, deeper understanding of using the rules that we've learned in the first semester of theory . I like to think about it in, like, kind of broad terms. I think about it like this. In the first semester of music theory, you learn the rules right? In the second semester, you learn to use those rules and you learn to bend those rules a little tiny bit. Um, kind of an advanced use of those rules is what you learn in second semester theory. In third semester theory, you focus on exceptions to the rules and really bending the rules. In fourth semester theory, the rules kind of fall apart. You work on, Ah, the the way the rules crumble. Who hence, once composers start getting weird? That's kind of what four semester music theory is all about. And that's why it's my favorite, because the rules are a lot of the rules kind of go out the window. And it's interesting that those four things kind of not not 100% but more or less. They follow along with, like, history. Right, so in in, ah, second semester music theory where we are now, we're kind of around the 18th century. In third semester music theory. You're kind of around the 19th century and, um, fourth semester music theory. You're really in the 20th century, um, or 21st century are both, um, so, you know, in the 20th century, that's where the rules kind of get really weird, and people just started throwing them out altogether and making up their own rules. Ah, and it's really fun the 21st century, where we literally, like exist as musicians. Now, um, the rules kind of fall back again into kind of where we are now. Depending on what style urine. We'll talk about that later. That's maybe somewhat controversial to say, but in the early 20th century, that's when things got really weird and we'll get there. Ah, it's gonna be fun. It's my favorite class to teach. Ah, in like the real world, the non virtual world, his 20th century music theory. And that's the fourth semester. So we are now at the start of the second semester, where we're going to talk about diving and deep to using the rules that we have in things like 18th century counterpoint, a melodic embellishment, writing corrals. Ah s a T B composition. That's the choir sort of cadences, voice, leavings and stuff like that. So, um, we're gonna go through a lot of different stuff and not just this class. Probably the next four or five classes will be second semester music theory. That's where we are so probably around class 11 or 12 will be jumping into third semester music theory. Um, okay, so I just wanted point that out. Kind of give you kind of a barometer of where we are. If you're using this course as a study tool for, ah, as kind of toe augment a college class you're in or class you're hoping to take, Um, we're diving into the second semester of music theory now. Okay, s. So let's move on and let's get to it. Let's start with our tools we use in this course. If you've taken the last five classes, you know what this is all about. But, um, in case you're joining us fresh and new right now, let's let's jump into talking about that. 3. Tools: okay, if you are just joining us for the first time in this class Ah, let's talk about tools you're gonna need, um we'll do this quick and simple because for those of us that have taken a bunch of this class Ah, you've watched me do this same lecture five times now. So, um, two things that I want you to have access to at the ready one is some good old fashioned staff paper. Um, that's paper with the five lines. Have some next to your desk or wherever you're watching this, Um, and a good pencil or pen pencils. Probably better so that you can use it to take notes. Um, as you're learning stuff, it's handy to have staff paper and write notes on actual staff paper. It could be much more efficient for you that way. The second thing I want you to have is if you're at a computer, which I guess you have to be to be watching this class. Ah, get this program called muse. Score. Go to muse score dot org's probably right here. Right there. Mu scored out orig and download this program. It's a free program. Ah, what it does is it lets us play stuff. Let's, um, add some notes. We can add notes. We can play them back. Oops. All right. We could make cords. We could make whole songs. We can make whole symphonies with this. Um, this is a great program. Um, this falls under what we call music notation software. It lets us know Tate to music, which is to say, write it down in traditional notation. That's kind of what we call this. The five line staff. Um, Yep. It's just a great program, and it's totally free. I believe it exists for our Mac PC, maybe even Lennox. If that's your that's your thing. Um, yeah, music or dot org's Get it, install it, launch it, and I'll be using you score throughout this whole class. So, um, you'll be able to see what? Aiken, What I'm doing. And you can recreate those things to here on your own, your stuff? The main reason I like using you scores so that you can hear it right. Like looking at a bunch of notes only does. It's so good. You need to know kind of what it sounds like and what the effect is of that thing. So this is a great way to do it. Um, that's it. Those are mean tools. You score software and pencil on paper. Now, in order to get some good staff paper, you can go on Amazon. You can go anywhere, and you can find all kinds of great staff paper. But just to keep things nice and simple and inexpensive, I'm gonna give you a pdf of staff paper in the next little segment here, So download that. Pdf. It's just gonna be a blank piece of pap staff paper. Download that print off, you know, 10 15 20 copies and keep it next next to your desk. That's all you need for staff paper. Just download this thing. I'm going to give you and print it. Um, so that you have something you could scribble on if you want to get fancy staff paper. Uh, Amazon is great. I like the archives brand, but there's Bunches of different ones. Cool. Okay, so coming up next is your pdf ah, of the staff paper, and then we're going to do a little bit of review 4. Review: Counterpoint: Okay, let's do a little review on counterpoint. Now, if you got through the other the last couple of classes and you were like, Oh, I'm so glad to be done with counterpoint, cause this counterpoint is just killing me. I got bad news for you. Counterpoint does not go away. However, um, memorizing of a bunch of rules kind of does what we're gonna be focusing on going forward is using counterpoint, and I think you'll find And at least this is true for me. And I think it's true for a lot of people that going forward, kind of what we're gonna find about counterpoint is that we don't need to focus on, like memorizing rules, Aton, because from here on out were using those rules. And the result of using those rules is something that sounds good. So what we're going to be focusing undoing is making stuff that sounds good. And if it sounds good, it's probably using the rules correctly. Ah, lot of the time you'll hear something funny and you'll be like, Oh, that's probably because I did something weird with the counterpoint. Counterpoint should start to be, ah, in your ear as they say now, meaning like you can almost start to recognize things that are going wrong in a counterpoint and things that are going right. So ah, super quick review of counterpoint we talked about before and kind of five different species of counterpoint. The first species means we have two lines, which we always do encounter. Point. We have the country's firmness line with CF. That's the one that is given to you. It's gonna be all whole notes and you cannot change it. And then you have the counterpoint. That's the one year writing. So against the count countries firmest first species counterpoint. The biggest difference. Um, they're the biggest thing that separates it from the other species is that it's a 1 to 1 relationship for every note in the county's firmest, we write one note in the counterpoint, which means it's gonna be all whole notes, pretty much second species counterpoint. It's a 2 to 1 relationship, so we're going to write to notes for every note in the condos firmness. So that means if our contours for miss is all whole notes are counterpoint is gonna be all half notes in third species counterpoint, we have Ah, 4 to 1, not 3 to 14 to one. Which means if our countries for miss is all whole notes, our counterpoint is gonna be all quarter notes Right now, in four species counterpoint, what we have is half notes with suspensions. So if the or if the country's for Mrs all whole notes, the four Species Counterpoint line would be primarily half notes but tied across bar lines so that we get all of these suspensions. That's kind of the big thing about four species. And we also have this fifth species of counterpoint which is sometimes called free counterpoint, in which we can kind of mix and match weaken dio different rhythms here and there. That's kind of the main thing to keep in mind as we go forward. If later as we start talking about S a t v stuff for corral textures, um, we might find it's useful to do, um, kind of quick review on some of the specific counterpoint rules. But let's leave that for when it comes up in contact so that I'm not just throwing more rules that you, um if you're still dicey on some of the rules of counterpoint. You can kind of relax a little bit. Um, you should know them if you're really going to go forward. So if you want to get deeper into that, go back and review those last couple of classes in which we focus strictly on counterpoint . But we'll do more review as it comes up in context. Um, while we're using this stuff so that being said, Let's dive in. 5. Overview: Okay, what we're gonna be doing in this first big section and a lot of this particular class actually is focusing on 18th century counterpoint. Now, what this is is the best way to think about it is as another species of counterpoint. Um, it's a variation of kind of elements, of all the different species we've learned. So there are not strict new rules other than a few little things. But there are, um, kind of elements of each one. And really, you can think of this as, like, this is what happened when, you know, a composer sat down with textbook, learned all the rules and then started using them. You know, they started using him to write, you know, hymns and patriotic songs and things like that. And they said, these rules air cool, but boring. Kind of. So I'm gonna kind of change some stuff up. Ah, and make it sound good and interesting. So they started doing a couple things that gave it a little more flair, so to speak. And we call that 18th century style, um, because that's primarily when it popped up. So let's talk about a couple of the things that we're going to find that are difference is kind of the big picture things to start. Um, we still do a lot of note. Two note counterpoint. So for every you know, one note in the country's firmest, the ah counterpoint has one note or two notes or three notes, however, um, the the Let's Let's the Contras firmest. Let's continue to call it a Conte's from us for just another minute, and then we're gonna change that word. But the Contras, firmest has is not strict. Whole notes. Ah, it's typically half notes or even quarter notes. So the the rhythms of the counterpoint change up a little bit, kind of like fifth species counterpoint or free counterpoint that we saw before. So we don't have that strict note two note movement because the movement of the rhythmic movement is kind of shifting around. Often the intervals that we use the same rules still apply for continents and dissonance. Ah, stepwise motion. All those rules still apply, except composers are gonna be using more seventh chords here. Ah, and what that means is that our definition of continent and dissonant is going to change a little bit because 1/7 Chord is primarily a constant court, even though it has some dissonances in it. And by using 1/7 chord in these pieces, it gives the piece more forward momentum. I think that's one of the things that composers were trying to get away from. Is that in traditional counterpoint? Uh, things don't push forward like they do in a song, Not till the very end. You know, at the very end of those counterpoint examples, we looked like our that we looked at. It felt like there was a good like, Okay, that's the end. But in the middle of it, it didn't feel like it was pushing anywhere. You know, they just kind of spin around in circles in a way. And what composers really tried to do with this in this 18th century style is make the whole piece of music feel like it was heading in a direction like it was moving forward, um, leading toward the end. So seventh chords help with that. The last big thing we're going to see is this idea of a contours firmest is going to start turning into what we now think of as just a baseline. Um the baseline is what holds down the cord. It gives us usually the route, but it doesn't have to be of the cord. And you can think of it a lot more like how the baseline of a pop song works. So it becomes less of a Contras firmas and more of, ah, baseline, with the counterpoint on top being more of a melody line. Right. So we're going to kind of see that evolved from more traditional, like two notes against each other, evolved into something more like a song where the Contras firmest becomes something like a baseline, and the counterpoint becomes something like a melody. So keep an eye out for that kind of the transformation of that. Um, it's kind of interesting to see how it kind of parallels with, um, a song, you know, like it's it's turning into a song, I guess. Um, but, you know, as of like, two or 300 years ago, So that's kind of the main difference. It's I like to think of this. 18th century is kind of Ah, an in between moment. Um, before we get to actual, like songs. Ah, but after counterpoints, we're gonna kind of see in this section how Ah, we get two more sung like stuff, but we are gonna see melodies coming out. We are going to see voices coming out. We're going to see people singing, um, in this section a lot. So that being said, Ah, that's kind of our big old review So let's move on now and kind of dive in. 6. Types Of Motion: Okay, let's start off by looking at, um ah, traditional melody harmonized in a fairly simple 18th century style. And what we're going to see in this example is that a lot of the rules, from what we know about counterpoint, still apply. For example, um, looking at this without even hearing it, you can see that the counterpoint is a 1 to 1 relationship. For every note in the baseline, there's a note in the melody. Um, now I think, probably going forward most of the time. I'm going to use those words instead of counterpoint and counties. Firmness. It's just a little bit more relevant to the kind of music that we're talking about here. Once you hear this song, you'll say, Oh, that's a melody And the the lower part is a baseline. It sounds very much like that and less like a counterpoint example, but it still is a counterpoint example. So, um, in a way, it's really similar to first species counterpoint. Um, every note has a paired note in the melody and bass line, but it's not whole notes. The rhythms change so but that's OK in this kind of music that we're doing now. So, uh, let's hear this. And you might recognize the melody. Ah, Um, okay, that's my country. Tis of thee, um, kind of American folk song him or something like that. So let's treat this just like we treated. Um, the traditional counterpoint. So the first thing I want to do at is look at our intervals. So let's label are intervals. Same way we did before. Okay, After an f is an a a d to an f is 1/3 B flat. Don't forget that key signature A B flat to a G is a six. Ah, see, to an e is 1/3 oops A C to an F is fourth, which is a dissonant still but sort of will come back to that a C to a G is 1/5 and F to an A is 1/3 Oops a D two and a is fifth a B flat. Teoh B flat is an active A C to an A is a six. See to ah G is 1/5 ah d two and F is 1/3 B flat to a G sixth. A si to N F is another fourth a C to an E is 1/3 and in F two and F is an eight. Okay, so there's my intervals. Now, let's look at the kind of motion we have here. Um, remember that we have a few different types of motion. Um, contrary motion is the one that we like the most, um, that gets used more than anything else in traditional counterpoint. In this kind of counterpoint, we still lean on contrary motion as much as possible. But we also have a stronger use of oblique motion. Remember, oblique motion is a situation like right here where one note stays the same. So it's kind of odd motion because only one voice is moving. That's called a bleak motion. So let's do this. It's called that Ofer Oblique emotions put it at the bottom here. So between these two notes, or actually these four notes, I suppose it's oblique motion right here. We have contrary motion. We're going up and this one's going down. So let's do this. Oops. So let's call that contrary motion. Okay. Between these two b two c g t e. We have contrary motion again. Great. Here we have another case of oblique motion. This voice is going up. This one is staying the same. So we call that oblique motion here again. This voice is staying the same. This voice is going up still Oblique motion. Hear this voice is going up and this voice is going up by different intervals. So we call that similar motion. Remember, this is all stuff we've covered before, but sort of a refresher. So similar motion means they're going in the same directions, but by different intervals. G to a is a whole step. See, toe f is 1/4. So not exactly parallel parallel would be if they were moving at the same exact interval. And we like to avoid parallels as much as possible. So a to a and then f two d That's oblique motion again A to B flat D to G. That's contrary motion B flat to C B to a another. Contrary motion A to G C. To see another oblique motion. Lots of oblique motion here a up to B g B flat are sorry. See up to d and G down to f That would be contrary again d down to B flat f up to G another contrary motion. G down to f B flat up to see another contrary motion. C two c after a That's another oblique motion and then f up to see or sorry see upto f e up to f. That would be similar motion, same direction, different intervals. Okay, what have we learned by doing this so much oblique emotion. And if you remember in the past when we looked at the different kinds of motion, oblique motion was rare. We didn't have it very often. It wasn't bad. It wasn't good. It was just kind of something you could do on occasion. And it was Ah, not something you were supposed to do very often. Here we have it all over the place. Why? Why is that true? The reason is we're getting more kind of sing song here. We're getting more melodic and in melodies where you have words. Ah, you repeat notes. It's something that you do. And if you want a baseline Teoh follow a cord. You also do it in the baseline fairly often. So it's just kind of a effect of making this more Ah, musically memorable. I guess that we get a lot more oblique motion, and that is allowed in this kind of counterpoint, So that brings us up to speed. Now let's move forward and talk about Kordell dissonance. 7. Chordal Dissonance: Okay. So in this kind of counterpoint, we have a new kind of dissonance that comes up and we call that Kordell dissonance. Now, what that means is that it's a dissonance that results from Accord and in particular, from 1/7 chord. Now, remember I said earlier that one of the new things that we're gonna be allowing now in this style in this century is seventh chords. We have seventh chords. That makes it a dissonance, most notably a particularly gnarly one in our 57 chord. So let's look at it. So we're in the key of F here, right? So let's do todo That's two dotted half notes, so we can really see this. Okay, so here's my f major Triad. Neat. Right now let's make a 57 court. So a five chord and the key of f is gonna be seat See, e g. And let's add that seventh. Okay, now that creates a dissonance. It's allowed in this style, but ah, we actually have a few dissonances. Here we have 1/7 a minor seventh between the sea and the B flat. We have a major second. If we inverted that and had a b flat to see so kind of the same, but slightly different. We also have a tri tone or a diminished fifth aguan and forth in between the E and the B flat. So both that seventh and that tri tone are dissonances that would have not been allowed before. But we're gonna allow him now, as long as they resolve in a very particular way. So that being, um, let's let's break it apart into the seventh and then I'll leave a spot to resolve that. And the ah augmented fourth the tri tone. So this seventh tone, not the interval, but the seven scale degree here. Um, I'm sorry. It's actually the fourth scale degree. Let me rewind here. Ah, in the key of f this B flat is four, right? F g a b flat. So this is four. So this four in this case always needs to resolve down to three. Okay, that's the key to the resolution here that four has to go to scale. Degree four has to go to scale to Geet. Degree three in seventh chord. Now in the augmented Triad scale. Degree seven. This E right here, right has to go up to tonic. Hey, now what that leaves us with is now 57 Chord wants to result Toe one. Right. So we want this to be a tonic chord. So this see for going toe af could stay a c. It's probably best way to do it, and this B flat could go down to an A making the, ah, major third of our tonic chord. Okay, so the seventh of the cord, which is the fourth of the scale, has to resolve down to the third. So just remember, four goes down to three and seven goes upto one. And those air tendency tones those air tones that I think we've talked about tendency tones before. Um, four usually leads to a three. A seven usually leads to a one. So let's go back to looking at our actual seventh chord. Let's just get rid of these for now. So how does our actual seventh chord want to resolve? It wants to resolve, like so this B flat we know has to go down to a Let's put on a there. This e has to go up to enough. Okay, so those are going to collapse in on each other. Now from here, we can resolve the rest of the cord. This because we want this to be f A c, right? Same as this. Here. So this could stay a c this beef. Are this g kind of got absorbed in there? We could say it's doubling. Um, we'll have a more detailed explanation of what actually happens to that G once we start looking at S a t B voiced stuff, but for now, let's just say that, uh, it got swallowed up in this thing. We don't need all four notes, necessarily. Um, yet more on that in the future. This could work. The problem with this is that, um we now have a tonic chord that is not in root position. And if we really wanted to be a good cadence, which we'll talk about more later, we want something like that. So we want this, see, to drop down to f, and then we want to get rid of that. See? How can I get rid of that? See? No, there we go. So that looks kind of funky, but it actually works. Okay? We have f A than a low F we could get a C in there. Actually, we could probably cheated in there. As long as it feels like this B flat goes down to this A and this E goes up to the F. So let's hear that. Let's start back here. Right. So that sounds like a pretty fine resolution. Okay, so that is called a Kordell Dissidents dissidents as the results of 1/7 chord there. Okay, as long as you resolve them right. 8. Cadences: Okay, let's talk about cadences. Cadences? Ah, we may have talked about cadences already, and if so, this will be a bit of a review. But I want to go into a little more detail on them because, uh, we have some new things to think about with cadences and cadences air gonna be kind of a thing that we come back to a few times in this class. So what is a cadence? Cadence Actually in music has two different, uh, definitions, and they're very different from each other. So when we talk about a cadence, we could be referring Teoh Ah, either the end of a phrase, the way the peace comes together at the end. Or we could be talking about a thing a Drumline does when you see a marching band going down the street and they are just playing like the There's a marching band and the the whole band isn't playing. Just the drummers are playing, um, and they're playing these rhythms and it's cool. That is called a kids that they're playing. They are playing cadences. Um, that's not what we're talking about here. So leave the drum thing out of it for now I love listening to cadences, but ah, whole separate Ken worms. What we're talking about is the word kings, as it refers to, meaning the wrapping up of a phrase how it ends. So there's a whole bunch of different kinds of cadences I'm not gonna go through like every goofy Caden said. It could be. But what we need to know is that, um, there are things called authentic cadences and unauthentic. Cadence is something that goes 51 at the end, so there's a five chord and then one chord, and then that's the end. There are perfect, authentic kittens is in which case it goes 51 in route position. So let's look at what we did over here. So if this was the end of a phrase, we went 51 route position on both those chords. That would be a perfect, authentic cadence. It's authentic because it went 51 It's perfect because it was in route position. Ah, half cadence, eyes, any cadence that ends in five. So if this was opposite of this, if we went, you know well, let's look back here. So here's C and E. So that's a five chord with no seventh. So imagine this was the end of the piece, and it ended on a five chord. It would be very unsettling. We call that 1/2 cadence, other types of Keynes's that we won't really need to deal with all that much in this class . But you should know about something like a plague cadence. Ah, Playgirl cadence is when the A piece of music ends from 4 to 1 rather than 5 to 1. You've probably heard a Playgirl cadence before, um, in any kind of any kind. But in many, many hymns that end with a choir singing men Ah, the almond cadence is almost always a Playgirl cadence. So if you imagine hearing that Ahmen sung in any kind of traditional setting, it's probably for one. And those are the main kind of cadences I want to talk about Now. There's a lot of different other ones, um, but authentic cadences, perfect, authentic cadences and half cadences. That's what we're going to deal with going forward. And so for now I want to talk about making some of those cadences with just this kind of base melody texture that we've been working here with here 9. Cadences in Bass Melody Counterpoint: okay when we're working with a melody baseline situation like this. And even if we have more voices in between like we'll see later the top and bottom voices, which is what we're looking at now the base and what we call the soprano later. But for now, let's just call it a melody. Um, we really want these two outline the cords, especially in the cadences. So what that means is that the baseline should imply the majority of the cadence, meaning if we want this to be a authentic cadence. So it's a 51 feel. The best thing to do would be to have us in route position, so we have 51 That's an important feature of this kind of counterpoint. You could also do some kind of 71 if it made sense with the cord. So this went 71 that would make the baseline be very influential over the cord. We don't want this on the fifth of the chord, for example, because that's not going to really push it. We really want those tendencies in the baseline and the melody line for the cadence. Now this particular case wouldn't work. This e is in the baseline or is in the cord, but it's also in the melody. And that would make for, um, a gnarly parallel octave situation right there. So we don't like that. So this is 51 and that's great. That's gonna make for a great, perfect, authentic cadence, because it's gonna be root Position 51 And having that 51 in the base is important in this style. Um, same deal with the melody, the melody we generally want, um, to be while the melody is very influential over the way we hear the harmony. So if we want this to feel like 51 we want something with a tendency to be happening here so that seven is great. Um, this could also be five one situation, although we wouldn't want it for the parallelism there. But five. What else could it be? So we have a five chord in this key is C, E, G or B flat. That would be allowed now to So e puts us on the leading tone and that goes up that works. C is going to make us the 51 that's gonna work. Well, that's also tendencies tone see e g works less strongly here. Um, it doesn't really influence the court, Aton, because that's just gonna make 1/5 with the baseline CG. So it's just gonna feel like 1/5. It's not going to really give us any kind of real pull towards that cadence on the B flat. Ah is gonna make for a leap of 1/4. And that's not our real strong tendency either. So we want to We want to make sure we have those tendency moments leading into the baseline , especially when we only have two voices. We have more voices. You can get away with a little bit more because you can put those tendencies in the other voices. But when you only have to like this, you want those to really push the kittens, uh, forward. Cool. So that's what um, that's why we're talking about cadences right now in the case where we only have two voices put those tendency tones in the cadence both in the last, the second to last chord and the last chord to really make it feel like a cadence 10. Starting Intervals: Okay, let's go back a little bit and look at how to write something in this 18th century style using two voices. So what we're looking at here is what we're going to call a soprano and bass voice. And I think I kind of explain this before. But let me re explain, it is to make sure we're all on the same page, what we're going to be doing eventually what we're building up to is having a four voiced counterpoint here. So to get started, we're gonna work on two voiced counterpoint, and that's gonna be really similar to the Contras firmas and counterpoint that we worked on before. But I'm going to use the words soprano and bass because soon when we have these four voiced things were going to be calling them soprano alto tenor bass off all four of those. So when we're doing just a two voiced thing, we need to have some special considerations here. So how to start this kind of counterpoint when we've got to voice is basically what we need to do is start with a really strong sense of tonic, and there's a couple ways we can do this some good, Some less good. Um, so let's look at them. Um, so in the key of f here, let's just switch to 44 just to make my life a little bit easier. Exciting to do this and half notes are sorry Whole notes, so we can start a counterpoint a lot of different ways. The easiest way is going to be yuks to use the tonic scale degree in an active. So that's gonna be very clear where that were implying one right, cause we're going to start on a one chord. And if we if both voices are on one than it's pretty clear that we're on one. We could also do something like this where we have one in the top voice and the third in the lower voice. This will be a 16 meaning the It's an inversion, right, because they're tonic is not in the bass voice. Um, we have 1/3 in the bass voice, and that's OK. It's still implying a one, right, because we have f in an A. So we have the 1st 3rd of the tonic triad. Ah, it's not as strong to imply one this way it can be done, It can have a tendency to for this f to sound like it wants to resolve down the E. That would make, um ah, fifth between the A and E. But as long as you move forward correctly and really emphasize this af you're OK, it's not as good as just starting off on one, but it can work. The next way we can do it is the opposite of that. So oops, F A. This way. So we have an F in the base tonic first scale degree, one in the base, the third on the top. This is much stronger to me than this. Um, but both of them can are both of them are acceptable. Let's put it that way. Ah, this really gives us a sense of tonic. It's also one of my favorite sounds. I think I've talked about this in, um, another class, an earlier section of this ah theory class. But I love this sound. Check it out. Maybe not even that they're just that just having a big F and then, in a way above it, just his big third. I just love that sound. I don't know Why? Ah, it's just took a weird little quirk of me. Anyway, back to this. So this is a nice sound. It's gonna really reinforce tonic. Quite well. Let's look in another one another way. We could start off. We could dio an F and a seat. So this is okay, but not great. Ah, why? The reason is we don't have 1/3. So we have an f in a sea. We have our our tonic root note and then the fifth above it. All right, If you remember, just having 1/5 doesn't give us the quality of the cord. It doesn't give us really the flavor of the court, so we're kind of stuck in this open fifth. It's acceptable, but it's not great. Um, it really doesn't enforce tonic really well. It can give the sense of it just gives kind of a hollowness that isn't awesome. So do that in a pinch if you really have to. But it's not a great way to start your piece because it doesn't emphasize tonic quite as strongly as these other ones do. There's one other way we could do it that is probably the least strong to emphasize tonic, and that would be something like this. What do I have here? I have the third of our tonic triad and the fifth of our tonic Triad, but not the root. Um, that can work, but it's really not a great way to start. Ah, this kind of a counterpoint, Because what are we gonna here in this? What we're actually gonna here is not that this is 1/3 and that this is 1/5 rumors is the first thing we're gonna hear in the piece. So more likely, what we're gonna feel when we hear this is that this is a tonic, and this is 1/3 above that because we're going here in a in a sea. We're going to interpret this right away as being in a minor. Um, so that's not the best way to start off our peace. If it's an f right, cause all of a sudden we're gonna feel like we're on the third scale degree or everything's gonna feel off so we can cause problems by doing that. Um, saying that this is acceptable is a little weird, because remember, we're being a little blurry with the rules now, so, Yeah, it's acceptable. You can do it, but it doesn't sound good. So why would you? Um, that's kind of where we're heading here is like, what? Sounds great. Um, so I would not recommend that if you want to. Just purely reinforce tonic. Go with that. If you want to have a little more color in it, try this one or this one. But this one is less good than this one. If you want to be a little different. Different with it. Tried this. Ah, but all of those were gonna emphasize tonic. This one will emphasize tonic in a way, but is not the preferred way to start. Cool. Okay, that's how we get ah started and come up with our first interval for this kind of a soprano base. 18th century, 2 to 1 style counterpoint. 11. Rules Summary: Okay, let's wrap this up before we do a worksheet and just kind of do a quick summary of the rules. Kind of Ah, check, check, mark thing. You know that you can go through your counterpoint and say it doesn't do this. This is this. So Ah, first, at the beginning of your counterpoint, does it imply? Ah, tonic. That's kind of our first thing. So in this particular counterpoint that we did earlier, we have f an f. It's in the key of F. So, yes, that implies tonic right away. That's great. So, yes, to does it imply tonic at the beginning. Uh, number two does it close with one of our standard types of cadences. Perfect, authentic imperfecta, authentic things like that. So what we really want is a 51 going here. So here we're in F. We have an ff octave. We can call that one pretty confidently. So five of that would be a C chord. So here we have C and E, which is a C chord. So that does imply of 51 cadence at the end. And this is going root of that five to route of that tonic which me of the one chord. Which means we have a perfect, authentic cadence here. So very strong Keynes at the end. So check mark to that. Number three. Does it form constant harmonic intervals or chortled dissonances? So, um, we have primarily harmonic. Ah, constant intervals. Here. We don't have any chortled distances in this particular counterpoint example, because, remember, Kordell dissonance are based on the seventh chord, which I don't think we put any seventh chords in this one. So those chortled dissonances are allowed, they could be in there. They result from the seventh Court number four. Ah, Is there a balance between perfect and imperfect? Continence is more perfect. Continents is are things like octaves. Ah, thirds things like that in perfect our force. Fifth sometimes, um, sixes can be in perfect. And we do see a good spread of those throughout this piece. So let's get number five. Does it avoid parallel octaves and fifths? Now, this is an old one that comes back. We don't get rid of the problem of parallel octaves and fifths so we can look at our types of motion down here. We don't have any parallel emotions, so we're okay. there. But in this style of counterpoint, we still have to worry about parallel octaves and fifths number six. And this is kind of a new one, but it was kind of in an old counterpoint rule, but we have a little more emphasis on it here. And that is, uh does it sound good? Does it have a good melodic contour and baseline? So do we like the way that Do we like the way that this melody comes together? Does it sound good? Could you sing it? You know, we didn't worry about that as much in early counterpoint earlier counterpoint types, but we are gonna worry about it now. Um, it was always important that it sounded good, but now we want to think about Is this a nice melody? You know, does it Would you walk away? Would you walk down the street singing this? And I think yes. So those are kind of six big rules that we're working with here in this 18th century counterpoint style. Okay, uh, moving on. Let's do a worksheet on this. Ah, and then we'll move on on start talking about Ah, melodic embellishments. 12. Non-Chord Tones: Okay, let's talk about melodic embellishment than what that means is non chord tones. We've looked at these before. They first popped up in second species counterpoint in 18th century style. We've got three main ones that we use, and they're the same three main ones that we used in second species. Counterpoint. Um, but there's one big thing that's different about them. So first, let's talk about what are those three different types of non chord tones. So a little bit of review. They are passing tones, neighbor tones and continent skips. Ah, let's go out here and just do so Let's say I've got so I'm in the key of D here. So let's put just like a big old d somewhere. Okay, here's the D. Now let's go. Ah, uh, D e f sharp. Okay, easy enough. So, passing tone. This is a continent. This is a D two a. D. This is a D to an f sharp here. Ah, third, another continent. This is a D to an e. That's a second. That's a dissonance. So But we just passed through it. That's a passing tone. That's okay. So, passing tone Ah, neighbor tone something like that. Here we have a constant d two D Here we have a continent d two d here we have d to be. It's still a dissonance, but now we got it by just going up and back down like a neighbor like we went over there. Now we come back, going over, borrow some butter coming back. That's what you do with your neighbor. You borrow butter. Um, Okay, so there's that, uh, continent skips something like this here. We have a constant skip. So both notes are continents, but we've got a bigger interval in between them. Here will be another one. So a big skip in between them or a leap even in between them. Ah, but both continent intervals. So those are the kind of three types of ah, melodic embellishments or non chord tones that we're looking at. Here's the big difference in this style. Um, they could be anywhere and in the previous style and in second species over the other species that we looked at that had to be on a week beat. They always had to be in a week beat, so either the second or fourth beat or in between beats if we were working on eight notes in the later species. But now the dissonance can happen on a strong beat. So look at this little excerpt here. Let's just hear it. Okay, That's nice. Let's hear that. A little bit slower to see if we can, um, really kind of pick out where the dissonance is. Okay, listen for a dissonance. Um, okay. Did you hear it? It's not a real strong dissonance, but ah, let's go through and look at our intervals Really quick. Here. Gonna go all the way back here and just grab that. Okay, so I'm in the key of D here. So I have a B in a dino. It's important to note that I'm not starting at the beginning. This is an excerpt from middle Middle measure of a piece. So I'm not gonna worry about making the beginning. Ah, one of those perfect intervals. But the interval of a B to a D is the interval of 1/3. Could have kept that That's OK. Now, here I have a to a D, which is 1/4 and let's just keep going. Then we'll come back and address that here. I have G two a. D. That's 1/5 F to an A. That's 1/3 F to F sharp. I should say to Ah, be that's 1/4 and e to a C. That is the sixth. Okay, so here are my intervals. Now it's make these little more straight because that's how I roll. Um, okay, First of all, let's look right here. Fourth is the dissonance, right? And this is now on a strong beat because we're moving in kind of quarter note style. So the week beat is the eighth note here in here. So this is a strong beat, and it resolves here this a goes down to G to a constant. So we have a dissonance on a strong beat. That was a no no, no in prior counterpoint styles. Now it's OK, um, and in fact, you would find in a lot of pop music that we do that now. We like to have ah, dissonance on a strong beat and then resolve it to a week beat. It's a very common thing in ah lot of music now, so this is kind of where we first started to get that sense. It's kind of fun to see how this evolves. Right? Um, but now notice. Here here we have a dissonance. A similar dissidents on a week beat so they could still happen on week beats. I don't have to be on strong beats, but weak meats and strong beats are dissonance can now be allowed. Right? So here we have a passing tone. This fourth is a passing tone where the dissonance lands on a strong beat. Here we have another passing tone where the dissonance lands on a week beat, right? So to sum up, we have passing tones, neighbor tones and constant skips. All allowed same rules with those apply as before. Except in addition to being on week beats, they can now have the dissonance on a strong beat. Now that you know where this dissonance is and how this note this dissonance resolves on the weak beat to this fifth. Let's hear it again at this really slow tempo. Uh, right. You hear that? Uh huh. So this is dissonance resolution on the weak beat. Um, probably doesn't sound all that strange to you because you hear it a lot in modern music. 13. Suspensions: Okay, let's talk about suspensions. We know what suspensions are and how they work from fourth species. Counterpoint. Remember, four species. Counterpoint is kind of all about suspensions, right? We have suspensions on nearly every note. What we're doing in 18th century style with suspensions is, uh we can mix them in with everything else so you can have a suspension. Pop out wherever you want in a way, but we tend to reserve them for cadences. So, ah, at the end of a piece, we might have a nice cadence that takes advantage of some suspensions. The other thing that's different here is that we don't really have to worry about all of the preparation. Um, that went into suspensions before, before we had preparation, suspension and resolution. Now we don't have to worry about the preparation. Um, and we can just go right into a suspension, but it does still have to resolve. So let's look at an example. Ah, here. We have a nice couple of suspensions. Let's hear it. Okay, lets label are intervals here. So we start with so in the key of f here. So have after a That's 1/3 here. We have eat G. That is 1/3 here. We have d to G. So that is 1/4. So a dissonance here. So that's gonna be a suspension. But that's OK. Here we have de toe f. That's gonna be 1/3 here. We have see toe af So that's going to be ah, fourth. So that's a suspension. Here we have C t E. So that's 1/3 and then f two f. So let's call that an octave. Okay, so are available. Types of suspensions are the same. So we have 43 suspensions, 76 suspensions, 98 suspensions. Those air all possible. Ah, and then in the lower voice, we can have a 23 suspension. Um, so let's look at what we've got here. So right here. We have a dissonance between these two notes in this spot. So that's a dissonance resolved to Ah, third Right there. Okay. And then we have another dissidents here resolved to 1/3 there. So this is a 43 suspension, and this is another 43 suspension resolving to inactive. So if we wanted to label that, we would write for three up here and then the same thing here. So that would be a 43 suspension for three suspension because of the interval of 1/4. Resolving to 1/3 4th resolving to 1/3. Okay, So really similar to the way they worked in the past. With a couple of exceptions, a couple of changes, Um, and that gives us suspensions. Now, remember, this is the cadence. This is the cadence at the end of a piece. So I might not do this in the middle of a composition. But if you heard this and you thought, Oh, that sounds like a lot of hymns that I've heard. Ah, lot of hymns and this way, and you would be right. That's exactly what we're talking about. Is that him? Style of music, which really came into dominance in this eight with this 18th century style. 14. Example Analysis: Okay, let's do an analysis. Ah, using some of these rules focusing specifically on melodic embellishments. So I have here Ah, example from from some back and ah, let's take a listen quick. Okay. Ah, So first things first. Let's look at the's. A natural is here. So we have some out of key notes. How can we explain those? Ah, they can actually be explained pretty easily if I tell you that we are. Look at our key signature that looks like were in the key of e flat. But we're not were actually in the key of B flat minor. Now, why b flat minor and not C minor. The key signatures shows c minor, but ah, what? This excerpt is actually from somewhere in the middle. So I think we're in the middle of a modulation here. So you can tell we're in B flat minor because of that resolution at the end to the B flats . So even though the key signature at this point is showing C c minor, we're gonna analyze it according to the resolution that we see at the end of this phrase, which is B flat. So let's analyze this from B flat minor, which means these a sharps. Give us that, er, Sharis these a natural. Give us that leading tone up to be flat, right? So a flat is what's in B flat minor. But leading into the cadence, we want to push those up to an A natural to give us that leading tone to really nail home B flat. So ah, let's analyze this. Let's first go through and let's just Neymar intervals and then we'll figure out what are non core tones are next. Okay, so we have 1/5 and then yeah, 1/6 and then 1/3 Hoops. Third, second, third again. Third again. Third, fourth, fifth. Ah, sixth, seventh. A second, 1/3 leading towards the end. We have a it's called 1/9 and then in AIDS. Now remember, I'm gonna call this 1/9 because it's going down to the active, so I wouldn't want to call this a to and then in eight after that, because that looks like if you just look at the numbers that there's a huge leap up, but there's actually a step down. So that's why I would call this nine rather than calling it too. So it's just so that when I look at the numbers, I can see easily. That nine is going down to eight, which is accurate here. Okay, here I have 1/4 third and inactive. Okay, so there are my intervals. So which ones? Our dissonant. Let's just go through. And let's start with this too. Okay, so how can we justify that? What kind of non cord tone is this? This is a neighbor tone going up and down, right? So we would call that a neighbor tone. So right here. That's right, neighbor Tone, we on to our next one is this fourth. We can easily just call that a passing tone. So let's just put a P or PT No one works this seventh and the site we can call that. Actually, we can call both of those passing tones if we wanted to you because And this is now allowed tohave ah, passing tone on a strong beat like that. So it's kind of a double passing tone, So let's just call it a passing tone and another passing tone on both of those. And then at the end we have this nice suspension. We have a 98 suspension here, 98 suspension, and then we end with a 43 suspension. Here's we have a 98 to a 43 hoops 43 suspension and then to the active. So that explains all our non chord tones here. These notes that are technically out of key because of the leading tone. We don't have to do anything special for them. We can just call them, as as they are, UM, which is Diatonic Lee, 1/3 in both cases. 15. Summary No. 2: Okay, let's do a run down. One more time of the rules of this 18th century to tow one style. Um, these air kind of our six million rules, they're different than just the rules I talked about before in regards to just, uh, non chord tones. So, uh, rule number one follow the guidelines of first species counterpoint. So start their start with all the rules of first species counterpoint. Um, so that means our type of motion that we looked at back here. Ah, oblique. Contrary motion. Similar motion and parallel motion. Those there are four types of motions. Those still apply. Um, keep in mind the principles of good melodic writing. You want a good melody in there? Um, and make sure the beginning and endings of the peace, uh, imply tonic and a nice cadence leading into tonic. So, like a 51 cadence, number two, um, Kordell skips passing tones, neighbor tones on the off beat, and occasionally on the down beats are Okay. Ah, number three. Uh, the perfect fourth is a dissonance, um, and can be used as a passing or a neighbor tone in a 43 suspension. Um, so remember that the four is a dissonance that needs to resolve either up to 1/5 or down to 1/3 usually 1/3 especially if it's a suspension. It's got to go down to 1/3 um, number four. Avoid similar motion into perfect intervals unless the upper voice moves by step. So we have similar motion. We don't want it to go into a perfect intervals. I don't think we I talked about that one too much. But, um, like this is not something that you can readily dio. Unless it's a cadence, you can get away with it. So we have similar motion into a perfect interval, so you can do it in a cadence. But it's not something that we want to do all the time. It's a rare thing. Ah, parallel Active number five parallel intervals. Still not good. Ah, that follows into number one that we talked about a minute ago, which is rules of first species counterpoint. But it's worth reemphasizing. Avoid parallel. Ah, perfect intervals. Ah, and number six occasionally include dissident suspensions. Ah, especially when heading towards a cadence. So watch out for your cadences. Dissonant suspensions. Totally. Okay, um, as well as some of those non chord tones on strong beats that is allowed in 18th century style of counterpoint. So those are our main rules. Everything we've covered s so far. So let's do one more worksheet. And then we're gonna head into the full s A T B composition to writing for four voices. Off we go. 16. Writing SATB Lines: Okay, we move now on to s a T B composition. Now, a couple things to know about This s a T B stands for ah, soprano alto tenor bass Know what that means is? So far we've been talking about these two voiced counterpoints, and now we're going to get to a four voice counterpoint because what we were doing in the two voiced counterpoint was kind of a soprano and bass meaning the low and the high. Now we're gonna fell in the middle with two other voices. So those four voices from low to high, the lowest voices, the boat, the base, the above that is the tenor above that is the alto. And above that is the soprano. Um, it's easiest to think of this as singers and acquire. And that is how acquire works right in a choir. You have, Your Sopranos. They sing the high stuff. You have your altos. They're not as high as the Sopranos. You have your tenors. They are typically the higher male voices. And you have the basis which are the lowest voices. So s a T B composition. Doesn't necessarily Onley mean we're working with a choir. We use this style and this kind of notation system for S a t B. Also sometimes in piano music and a lot of different kind of music, actually, So when you look at S a t b, don't get hung up on the name of it. It doesn't always mean we're working with acquire. It can mean that that's just the kind of counterpoint we're doing. And in fact, it's quite common to write music for a keyboard. Using S a TV style, especially when we're working with these kind of hymns and this 18th century style. We've just got four voices now instead of two. Ah, you can substitute the word line for voice if you want, and that's kind of we're talking about. It's not necessarily actual human voices. It's the ah line. We have four lines instead of the two lines we were working with before. So that being said, let's jump in and first talk about a notation ALS thing that we have to figure out if we're gonna be writing for four voices. So let's go to a separate video and talk about that 17. SATB Notation: Okay. One of the tricky things we have to deal with here is that when we do, this s a T b style. We do it on two staves just like this. So we've got a trouble. Cleft staff and a bass clef staff. So it looks a lot like a piano staff. Except we have to get four different things on these two staves. Ah, this is just how we do it. We write this essay TB style with two staves. So we've seen ah, things before where we had a single staff to show multiple things. For example, let's say we were doing this and we wanted to write another line in there. We could do this, okay? And that's okay, right? This shows two different lines moving up. But this actually only shows really one thing. So what we're actually showing here is really only one line. What we need to do in this style of music is show that these are two different unique voices, if for no other reason than what happens if we wanted the lower voice here, toe actually do Ah, half note here, Right? Like what if the rhythm was different? I can't do it right. It doesn't. I can't show two different rhythms on the same staff. Um, but that's what we're gonna need to dio. So in order to do that, let's go over here. Ah, we use the stem direction. The stem direction shows which line is which. So let's go like this. And then what I have to do is make sure my stems from other voice are going the opposite way. Now that shows what I want to see. That shows me that this top line is the soprano this online. Underneath it is the alto. We do the same thing for the tenor and the bass not paying attention to, Ah, what notes I'm putting in. So I'm probably making something fairly horrendous, but I'm just trying to show you the staff things. So the bass part like so So that's what we want to see. That is four voices soprano, alto, tenor and bass. So Ah, whenever you're writing, that's what we need to see. We need to see the stems going in the right direction, or else we don't know what's what. So the rule is that soprano part is always in the trouble cleft staff with the stem going up, the alto part is always on the trouble. Cleft staff with stem going down. Tender part is in the base class staff with the stem going up. And the bass part is the base staff with the stem going down now. Ah, one last bit about that. If you're using Muse score or any other notation system, there's a trick to actually doing that. Let me show you what it is. Um, First, enter your soprano line like normal, and you can enter your tenor line like normal way Have this actually makes sense. Cases, soprano and tenor line like normal. Now what you need to do is find a setting in your software called the Layer. Um, and finale. It's called a layer. I don't remember what it's called Sebelius in Muse score. It's right up here to see 123 and four. So I need to put Soprano. I need to always enter with the first layer selected and tenor. I need to enter with the first layer selected for the alto. I select layer two and now I've got completely separate. I can actually even do a different rhythm if I wanted, and that's okay. I'm on layer to so I can add my base part and do that if I wanted, and that's totally okay. So the trick is make sure you start on layer one and then you switch to layer to for the other one. When you go back to layer one toe edit, um, you might. It gets a little confusing when you start editing this, because if I want to move this note around, I would automatically switch to me later to That's nice and finale. It just won't let you edit something if you're on a lot wrong layer. So use these layering things to go between the two, um, stabs and hurt between the two voices and that will always flip your stems correctly. Now, if it doesn't do it correctly, or if you enter something on the wrong layer, um, you score, you can always click on it, then go over to the inspector here and then right here, stem direction. You can say down or up, although that would be incorrect. But if you want to manually do it, you can do it that way. Okay, so it's all about these layers, you won't need three and four, at least not for a while. We have to pay close attention to the direction of our stems when doing this kind of thing . 18. SATB Ranges: Okay. So, like I said before when we talk about S a T V composition were not always talking about working with singers, but sometimes we are. So we do have a convention for the range that we can give to each of the voices. Now that means the highest and lowest that were willing to write for them. Ah, and this is the range. Let's go here. Let's add half note. So for the soprano, the lowest we write a soprano is a C below the staff in the highest is a G. Now, if you have a singer or a choir that you're working with, they might say, Oh, you can go higher than that. You could maybe go to an a flat or something like that and that's okay. Um, this is kind of ah, general guideline for the range that is the range of the soprano. Generally speaking, eso it's a good safe range to be thinking about for the alto. We go from G below that up to a deep oops. Actually, if I wanted Teoh, let's do. My voice is correctly here. Someone switched to layer to because before Gogi to a cat so that is the range of the alto G to D again common range. You know, there are exceptions for sure, too that all the time for tenor gonna go back to layer one here. Our tenor range is about a low c on the bass clef all the way up to a G. So this note. So the top range of the tenor is actually an octave higher than the low range of the alto. It's right about it's right here would be the same know if it was written on trouble clef and be right there. So that's quite a range and then for the base and go over to layer to the base is typically an e up to a d. So those are our common ranges basis e up to D. Um, you know, what I do here is just kind of a trick. I think of the range for each of these as pretty much stay on the staff. You know, like, if you're soprano, if you're like on the staff and not above it or below it very much, you're pretty safe on your soprano part, right? For the alto. If you're pretty much on this staff with airing a little bit underneath it. You're pretty safe, right? Stay underneath the soprano. That's an important thing for tenor. Stay on the staff. Go a little bit above it, Ere on the side of being above the staff a little bit. And you're safe for the base. Stay on the staff and you're pretty comfortable. So I just kind of think about staying on the staff for the tenors. You can go a little bit above for the alto. You go a little bit below. Otherwise, as long as you're on the staff, you're pretty safe. So those are ranges, So keep that in mind if you ever are working for singers, but also, when you're writing soprano alto tenor bass type things, Uh, that is kind of a rule of thumb for what we want each voice to be able to do 19. Voice Crossings: now, I've accidentally written something really bad here. Ah, and so let me take a minute to point out what I did. I made a huge voice crossing. Um, let me explain that over here. Then we'll come back to it. Let's say let's right out. Just Accord. Let's go over here. And let's just make a nice sounding core. Nice, big, like C minor kind of chord. Okay, now, I entered all of these in as layer one because they're the same rhythm. I probably should have entered them in as separate voices. But this is all I'm gonna write right here. So it's OK. Okay. What is wrong with this? This has an error, and it's something called a voice crossing. What that means is that the order of the notes s a T B from top down to bottom. Ah is out of sync. Let me show you that. So this is our highest note of the cord. Right? Thistles are second highest note of the cord as it should be. The alto. This is our third highest note of the cord, but it's actually not if our tenor was written on trouble. Cleft. The same exact note is right there in between these two. So this is a voice crossing because the tenor has crossed over the alto and it's singing. Ah, higher note than the alto voice crossings Air bad, um, generally forbidden if you're being in strict style. Now, if you're writing a piece for acquire, there's like artistic reasons where you might want to do it. But ah as well, that kind of focusing on the rules right now. Ah, voice crossings are in. No, no. So watch that. Watch out for that. Especially when you're going in between staves. It's really easy to dio there was a couple over here that I did ignore that for a second. Um, like right here where this G is way up here, you know, it's crossing the soprano part from the previous court, actually, So this is a different kind of voice crossing where, um, the previous note. I'm crossing over it with the other voice, so it's a little bit different, but, um, what we really want to be concerned with is this kind of a case where we've got a note in a voice that's out of order where this should be. There is kind of OK, but this brings up another issue that we're gonna talk about later, because in this case, thes soprano are sorry. The alto and the tenor are doubled their on the exact same note, and you can have double ings, but you've gotta pay kind of special attention to him. So what would actually be better here eyes that that would kind of fix it. Now I've got C C E g. I still have my cord. Um, but now I don't have a voice crossing, so watch out for voice crossings. 20. Doubling: all right, since we just mentioned the existence of something called Doubling Ah, let's spend some time and talk about what doubling is, um, doubling, as in to double something is something that we have to do very often when we're working in these four voiced settings. Because our triads, unless you're working with the seventh chord, which you can but are not always and you could say most of the time are not our child, only have three notes, but we have four voices, so some note in this cord has to be doubled. For example, in this particular case here, the route is doubled. We have two different seas, right, and then an E and G. So the route is being doubled by the tenor or you could say is being doubled by the base. But in this case, I would say the bases doubled. Doesn't really matter. Um, but what does matter is that the root of the cord is the note that's being doubled in this case. Okay, so there's a lot of rules for how to double something. How to decide what note gets doubled. So let's talk about, um, let's go over just kind of the general rules first, and then we'll look at an example in the next video. Okay, so Rule number one about doubling never double the note that has an accidental on it or is a tendency note. So if you have a leading tone in Accord, don't double the leading tone. Um, if there's a note that's kind of exceptionally dissonant, and we want that dissonance in the cord, but we don't want to emphasize it by doubling it, right? So let's say you're in a minor key and you've got that Ah, a leading tone in it. Like in this case. Like if we were doing a four voice thing here, I would not want to double that. A. Because it's a tendency tone going up to this B flat. It's a leading tone. Um, that would be that would not sound very good to double that note. I still want it there. I just don't want to double it. Okay, uh, next rule. If you're in route position, if you're making a chord in route position, double the route. Pretty safe. Bet. Um, so foreign root position. That means that the root of the court is in the base. So the bass note is what's gonna get doubled somewhere doesn't necessarily have to be in the tenor like this. You know, we could have a setting that something like this. That kind of works actually works kind of well, so in this case, we're still obeying that rule. The route is the note that's doubled. We have two different seas, and then we have the the G and the e. Okay, so if we're in route position, double the route. Okay, Next rule. If you're in first position meaning the third is in the base. Ah, let's do one of those. Let's just make one. So let's stick to our C minor chord here. So that's gonna put an E in the bass groups way Go. So let's just fill out the cord really quick. So we haven't e. C and A G. Okay, so what are we gonna do next? The rule says in first position. You can double any chord member as long as it's not a tendency tone. So as long as it's not a leading tone or it has an accidental or something like that on it , um, doubling whatever's in the soprano is generally a good idea. So since I have nothing left to do here except the soprano, let's put Ah, see here because now what I've done is I have whatever is in the soprano here is doubled. And that's not us really strict. Rule that you have to double the soprano if we're in first position. First position are sorry. First inversion, you can kind of get away with doubling anything as long as it makes sense with voice leading, which will talk more about later. So this case works. Have E C G C. I have the route doubled in this case. Okay, if we're in second position meaning the fifth is in the base, let's just do that and see if that works. Ah, the rule here for second position is double the base double whatever's in the base. And if we're in second position or second inversion, I mean, um, it's gonna be the fifth, so we're gonna double the fifth. So here's the bass note. So what I have here is I have the route doubled. That doesn't work well, we want a double the fifth because we're in second inversion. So the best so I need to find something that I can move to a G Probably the best way to do it. Leave that. Now. I have two G's two of the fifth, which is what I want to do in second inversion. So those are our main rules. If you're doing like a diminished triad, um, normally you would double the base in a diminished try, and you would normally double whatever you have in the base note, which is usually the third. But we'll talk more about that later because I think diminished triads. How you voice those has a lot to do with, um, the voice leading. So when I use that phrase how we voice something, what I'm talking about is this how we're stacking the root third and fifth of the chord, What gets doubled? That is called the voicing of it the order of the notes. And that's what we're gonna be working with. Okay, s. So that's what doubling is and how it works. It's something that you have to pay attention to because it's going to affect the sound of it kind of a lot, um, in this style. So let's come to a new video that's looking an example song 21. My Country Example: okay. Earlier, we looked at a two voiced setting of my country tis of thee, and we just had the soprano in the base. Let's hear that just to bring it back in our head. Uh, okay, Now I want to look at a four voice setting of that same thing. Here we go. I just did the 1st 2 measures for us because I don't want toe over. Well, you So here's what it sounds like with the full four voices in it. Right? So it's much thicker, right? It's much thicker. It's, um it's got a bit more color to it. Um, it sounds better. You know. I don't know how it's to say it just sounds nice. So let's look at how we did this and where are doubling Czar. So for this, we need to figure out what every court is. So we are in the key of F now, So our first chord is an F F A. C F were in first position because the route is at the bottom, which means we have we should double that note. So there should be another f somewhere, and it's right here. So we've doubled the route. Very good. Let's look at what notes we have here. We have de a d and F So we're in a D f A. The D minor chord in the key of F that is a six. So that is also in route position de a d f. So we should double the root again, which is deep, and we have okay, we have all the notes of the chord and where the other ones are Don't necessarily matter. Uh, except for invoice leading. And I said that in the previous video. So let me explain that just a little bit they matter to the extent that this voice needs to have a nice line, right, and this voice needs to have a nice line, and this one needs to have a nice line. So I wouldn't want this one to be up here because that makes it all jumpy and weird. That's what I mean by voice leading. So the notes, the other notes, as long as I use all the notes in the court where they are, don't matter, except to the extent that they matter that we make a nice line for each voice. But the double note we do have to pay special attention to So that one Rex Okay, What we have here a B flat, B flat a D and G G B D is how we could spell that in thirds, which would be a G minor G B flat D. So in the key of F, that's a two chord. Ah, so let's look at what we did. So that is not in root position because we have this be in the base. So we have Here's our route. So we're in first inversion and we remember in first inversion, uh, we can kind of get away with doubling anything, as long as it doesn't have an accidental on it. So here we double the third with the beat to be flats in the base, and that's okay. That totally works. It's going to hear C, G, C and E. So that's a C major chord in the key of F. That's our five chord, Uh, and because C is in the base that is in route position, so that means we need to have another see somewhere that's right there. So we're doubling our route because we're in route position here we have C, e D and F or Sorry, C g. De and so here. If we were gonna analyze this cord, we would have to come up with something goofy for it because this is not a triad. What's happening here is we have a kind of double passing tone here, so e to f to G and then C to d. E. So we would call these two notes passing tones. So I would still just call this the five chord which we had here and still have here but with the double passing tone here. So we wouldn't really need to call that any particular cord. We could get fancy, but the best way to do it would just be to call it a five chord with a double passing tone and not worry about these too much. It's a quick court. It goes by really in passing. We still have the five, the dominant sonority in the base here with the C in the G. So let's call it that and not worry about it too much. But let's look at where it lands, which is C C E g. Another five chord, right? But this one voiced a little bit different than it was over here. So this is a five chord still in route position because our C is on the base. So that means we need to double the sea again, which we do right here. And then we have e and G up top. So contrast this one with this one same chord. Both have correct voice leading This one has the doubling in the alto part. This'll one has the doubling in the tenor part. Same note. But although other voices are much higher in this one because they've moved up through that passing tone, let's hear it one more time nights, right? Nice, good sound. So pay attention to those Dublin's. 22. TDT: Okay, We're going to shift gears a little bit now just for a few minutes and talk about phrasing . This is something that we pay more attention to in this style that we have in previous styles. And it has a lot to do with the kind of ah song like structure that we're heading towards. So we're starting to think about ah, memorable melody, You know, more so than we had when we were just doing Ah, 1st 2nd 3rd and fourth species counterpoint. So we start to think about something called the phrase of the phrase you can think about ah , as analogous to a sentence in language. Hey, so a phrase eyes kind of like a single sentence as a beginning, a middle and an end. Um, and it can end well. It always ends with some kind of cadence. And you can think about that. You can think of that as the punctuation at the end of a sentence. You know, if it is a perfect authentic cadence, then it's kind of the same as having the period at the end of a sentence, right? I went to the store, period. Perfect authentic cadence. Right there or it can have an imperfecta, authentic cadence or even a deceptive cadence. In which case, it would be like having a question mark at the end of a sentence. Right? So something like, Did you go to the store perfect or ah, in perfect cadence at the end there. So, uh, there's no a lot of I remember. Ah, lot of students ask when we start looking at phrases, how long is afraid like how many bars? And there's not a clear cut answer for that. That kind of depends on the style of music. It depends on this song in particular. If you really wanted a number you could say between it's either four or eight bars is kind of the ballpark we're looking at, but you can have odd numbered phrases. Um, you could have much longer phrases than that. You can have short phrases than that. Um, it all depends on kind of the peace and how you're looking at it. Another aspect of phrasing that we need to think about is something that we're just coming to call the basic phrase. The basic phrase starts in what will call a tonic area that means like in this example we have on the screen here for in the key of F. We're going to start around F. And when we're talking about in something called an area, I would call this whole measure in the area of F. There are three different chords here, but they all work in F. The other area that we need to head to is the dominant area. This cyber column is in the dominant area, so if it's not in the dominant area area area, it's probably in the tonic area. So in the basic phrase, we have an opening area that's in the tonic area, a bunch of stuff that happens around tonic. And then we have a middle area that's a bunch of stuff that happens around dominant. And then we have a closure area that's again in tonic, with a little bit of a cadence at the end of it. So tonic, dominant tonic, sometimes abbreviated T d T tonic, dominant tonic. And that is the structure of our basic phrase. So one more time basic phrase means we're going to start something and tonic area. We're gonna move to a dominant area, and then we're gonna come back to a tonic area with a cadence at the yet that is what we call the basic phrase. Now, as we work with the basic phrase we need to, there's a couple things we can do to talk about. Ah, establishing tonic the tonic area and making that really feel like it's a tonic area that moves away in the middle section of the phrase to a dominant area and then establishes the dominant area and then comes back to that tonic area. So let's talk about that in the next couple videos establishing tonic and dominant areas. 23. Establishing Tonic Area: Okay, So when we're talking about expanding a tonic area, what we're talking about is kind of there's kind of two levels of analysis that happened. And one of them is where we label each chord. Right? Like what we did here, Another layer of analysis that we sometimes do. And sometimes we call it contextual analysis. Ah, is just to kind of look at broader picture. Ah, what's happening? And in that you can say, OK, this whole thing is tonic area. Um and we would say this whole thing is dominant Eric area in this case, this is sometimes called Shang Cherian Analysis. Schenker ah is a little different than this. It's it's much more detail than that was like a crazy, small way to summarize what Shank Erion analysis is. If you want to get in mission Cherian analysis Google it, um there's all kinds of crazy symbols that using *** urine analysis and frankly, I gotta hate it. Um, but a lot of people really love it. So we're not gonna talk about Shin Cherian analysis, but I do want to talk about when we're working in a tonic area. How can we establish tonic and make it feel like it's kind of this general tonic area. There's a couple different ways. First of all, use tonic a lot, right? That makes sense. Ah, use tonic and inversions of tonic Use use one used 16 use 164 Stepping through Ah, 12162164 can be an effective thing. Like all three of those cords in a row. It doesn't have to be just that, but that's one way you could do it. Use cords that don't have strong tendencies. Ah, so chords like 162 and sometimes four, um, are good for establishing a tonic area. All those cords can work well, um, and even five. Now, you might think that sounds nuts, because how don't we need five to establish, um, the dominant area? And we do. We'll need that to establish the dominant area for sure, but five can work to establish the tonic area. If it's just in passing 51 you know, like 151 That can be totally fine to establish a tonic area. In fact, that five can really help establish the tonic area by pulling us back to one fairly quickly . As long as we don't dwell on five too much, you just want toe, avoid any strong poll two dominant and then stay in dominant without going back toe one. Um, well, look at more examples of how that works in practise shortly. Um, but let's jump to a new video. Let's talk about dominant next. 24. Establishing Dominant Area: case over Dominant. Obviously, we're going to use the dominant chord. Ah, lot inversions of dominant. Don't forget about passing tones like this to connect to dominance in a row and then unlike when we're in the tonic area and we can use five to establish toe help establish tonic. Um, like I was just talking about that doesn't work the other way around. So we generally want to avoid one as much as possible. When were in the dominant area of a phrase. The reason is think about this phrasing thing of this tonic, dominant tonic area thing as kind of like a polarity thing. I don't know how there's gonna be a better way to explain that. It's basically you're in one or you're in the other, and when you're in the other, what you're really in is the absence of the 1st 1 hold. Can I explain that in a more transparent way? Um, let's go back, Teoh. Early on, in one of my very first theory courses, I explained tonic by saying, Tonic is like home right When we're in the tonic, we are home. We're comfortable that peace can end there, and we're all pretty happy about that. Dominant and especially in this case, what we're talking about is something in a dominant area. Means were not home. We could be anywhere else in the world. But we're not home, right? And so where we are when we're talking about this dominant area is were anywhere that gives the sense of not home, right. We could be anywhere else in the world anywhere on the planet. Um, but it's not home. So what we want to do in this dominant meant area of a phrase is give the sense that we're not home, but we're going to go home eventually. So if you even hint at so if you give a big one chord, you're going Teoh give the sense of home and we don't want that, we want to prolong it. That's what this whole middle dominant area is about. It's about prolonging that sense of home because in the next section we're gonna go back to tonic, and then it's gonna feel like home again. And it's gonna be a very rewarding feeling. That's why we like this phrasing of tonic dominant tonic because it gives us a sense of home. We've gone on a little trip away from home. We can suspend that feeling of home, create a little drama with that and income back home. So that's what the dominant area is meant to do. We really wanted to play around with five, maybe a little bit of four. You can maybe squeak in a two chord in there, um, and then use a lot of passing stuff to get passing tones to play around with it as much as possible before heading home later in a future class. Once we start talking about Sonata Form, that is kind of like what we're talking about now, but amped up like a lot in that we'll talk about how to expand the dominant section to be, you know, 10 20 minutes long if we really wanted to, Composers have done it. But for now, Ah, we're thinking more small scale, so you don't need to expand it for hours and hours. Ah, we just want to stretch it out over a couple bars. So or maybe even just one bar like this. We've got some passing tones and we just push through it Cool. Okay, let's do a little work sheet on identifying kind of Tom Tonic, dominant areas, and then let's move on to talk more about cadences 25. Perfect Authentic In 4 Voices: Okay, let's jump back to Talking about Cadence is a little bit because we talked about cadences earlier in this class, but we really focused on Ah, the soprano and bass voice. But now we've got four voices to work with. So, um, let's look at how that plays in. So first, let's start with a perfect, authentic cadence. Now we remember what that is. That is a 51 cadence. So we would use this at the end of a phrase. If we're thinking of that tonic, dominant tonic phrasing, this would be at the end of that second tonic. So when we talk about ah, perfect, authentic cadence, we kind of split it in half. Let's think about those two words a little separately. Perfect. Ah is referring to the 51 progression. So a perfect kittens means 51 authentic means that it's ah in both chords. Aaron Root position. And it also means the soprano is going from 2 to 1 or from 7 to 1. So let's just let's just do that really quick. Okay, so we're in the key of D here. Let's do Ah, five. That's gonna be an a chord. Oops. I got to do my, um, voices correctly like that. Back to voice one over the voice too. So a a E c. So I've doubled the A. That's OK, Lauren. Root position a cord. Now let's resolve it. Teutonic I did exactly what I wasn't supposed to do. They're which is not pay attention voices. It's really hard having to get into. Okay, So what do we have here in our five chord? We have the route were in route position, roots on the bottom, and we have the leading tone of the key in the top. So a c were in the key of D. So we have a c. So this is the Sopranos gonna go from 7 to 1, right? And the bass note is going to go from a to D root to root in those two chords. So that means perfect authentic kings, that bottom and the top uh, also allowed in a perfect authentic Keynes's A 2 to 1, which would be if we had an e in the top here, resolving down to one that's a 2 to 1. Now, that particular case doesn't work in this case. Uh, because that gives me to ease and two A's. I left a note out of that court so I could make this work by kind of redoing everything. I could do that, but then this is a big leap. It's not great. Let's go back to how he had it. Okay, so if I re spelled everything, I could make that to tow one work, but 7 to 1 works also So perfect. Authentic cadence. Now what's happening on the inner voices, the inner voices we have a little more freedom on. Remember that the rule for perfect, authentic kings says nothing about the inner voices it only talks about. The bass notes have to be in route position, and the top has to be 7 to 1 or 2 to 1. The inner voices just have to be chord tones and not break any other rules. So we can't have any parallels between here, and you might be spotting a parallel right here. But this is not a parallel fifth or active. This is a parallel sixth, and that's OK, so that's allowed. This is not staying the same. This is a note moving up at a different interval than that. So no parallels there. So I just have to pay attention to all those other rules with this. But rules for the perfect authentic kings. The inner voices just have to be good voice leading. Ah, chord tones. Ah, and work not create any voice crossings or anything like that. So relatively easy on the inside voices. 26. Imperfect Authentic in 4 Voices: Okay. Next, let's look at another four voiced cadence type. Um, I have the same two chords 51 and D here, Um, and let's pick it apart and see what's different exactly here. So when it comes to the cadence, we still have root Position A and D. So we still have 51 So remember back to what I just said when we looked at perfect, authentic cadence. The authentic refers to that. It's a 51 cadence. The perfect refers to, Ah, the bass note and the soprano note. So here we still have 51 So it's still inauthentic cadence by that logic, right? And that is true. It is still inauthentic kittens, But is it perfect? We have 51 in the base and in the soprano. What we need tohave is seven toe one or 2 to 1, so one is deep. That's my closest D. So I don't have a 2 to 1, cause this e two D would be considered separate voices. So I have a 2 to 3 and I have a 7 to 1. But that's not the soprano voice. That's not the top voice, so I don't have a 2 to 1 or a 7 to 1, So this is not perfect. This is, you might say, in perfect. And in fact, that's exactly what it's called in perfect, authentic cadence. Sometimes we abbreviate this toe I A see if you're doing an analysis and you see I A C, that means imperfecta. Authentic cadence. So the rule for the imperfecta authentic cadence is that it's still 5 to 1. The base is still in. The cords are still in route positions who are bases still 1 to 1. But we've done something different with the, um, soprano voice we've done. We've taken the soprano voice and not had it land on tonic. That's really kind of what's happening here. Soprano here is ending on the third. It's not ending on tonic like it did here. Um, we could also stretches a little farther. And if either of these chords were in an inversion any kind of inversion that works with voice leading, ah, it would also be in imperfecta authentic cadence. So that means they don't have to be in route position. Um, if these were not in root position, it would still be in imperfecta authenticated. That's allowed for this kind of a cadence. Now, sonically, the difference is that a perfect, authentic cadence is a much stronger cadence. And very much, says 51 This is the end. An imperfect, authentic kidding, says 51 This is the end. I think that was weird way Teoh. Explain that. But maybe it kind of works. Let's hear him. Let's hear a little slower. Uh, okay, here's the in Perfect. You know, it's kind of subtle, out of context. But if you heard it in a whole piece, you might say, Oh, that was perfect. Or that was in perfect. You could probably hear it. So there you go. Perfect, authentic cadences in four voices and imperfect over the four voices. The Inner Two voices, same deal as over here. I've got some flexibility with them as long as we don't break any of the other rules. 27. Half Cadences: Okay, let's look at another kind of cadence now. Kind of separate from the other two. Um, before we even dissect this, here's the one I want to look at. Now I want to just hear it. Let's start by hearing it and let's start, actually, by hearing the one before it. So here is our imperfecta Authentic cadence. So 51 Then I'm gonna let it play. And so we could just hear this and just think about what your initial reaction is to it. Okay, What did that feel like to you? What did that Keynes Ah, make you feel like was happening in the music? Hold on to that for just a second, and let's figure out what chords we have. So we're still indeed. So we have E e, g and B, so E g B would be our triad in the key of d E is the to. This is a minor to cord. It's in route position. Okay, it's weird. Let's let's look at the next one. We have an A and E and E and A C. So a C E would be our triad, and that's going to be a C sharp I should say, And that's going to be, Ah five. So we have 25 How can it be a cadence if it doesn't end on one? Right? And and isn't that what it felt like? It kind of felt like it was leaving you hanging, right? It It had this sense of like, This is not over, right? This is not a cadence because it's not over. That's here over time would be a terrible way to end a piece. Ah, that is called 1/2 cadence. Half kittens means we don't get one. We get to five and then we leave you hanging. It happens. Sometimes. It's a good way to in a piece to kind of give the illusion that we're heading to the ending and then, like, take a right turn and be like, No, there's more. I'm going to keep going crazy and doing some more fun stuff. Um, we call it 1/2 kids. The rules for 1/2 gains are actually really simple. Half cadences, technically, only one note Ah, half cadence is not to five the way I just did it. Half kittens really just means that five is the end of the cadence, the cord that comes before it could be a lot of different things. Um, so it's not strictly to five. It's kind of five by itself being used as a cadence with something before it. Um, it could be it could be, too. Like I've used it. Could be one. You could have 15 as 1/2 cadence. You could have 6545 Both those air. A little tricky with Boyce leading, but you can do it. Um, 1235 would be awkward, but you could do it. Um, the real key is that it's a five and usually fives in route position, but it doesn't have to be, But usually it is because that's what kind of really makes it feel like five and gives us that half cadence kind of feel. So that's another kind of cadence. It's not perfect or authentic, right, because it's not 51 and we don't have the soprano motion or the base motion that we require . Um, you could kind of say we have the base motion we require because ah, in this case, anyway, it's to root position chords. Um, but really, the what we need in a perfect, authentic kittens is a 51 in the base, not just to root position chords. So this is not Ah, 51 in the base, So that is 1/2 canes. 28. Plagal Cadences: Okay. I want to talk about two more types of cadences, and this next one is one that we use actually to prolong the tonic area. So it's not necessarily the ending of a peace, although in a certain kind of music, it is the ending of a piece. Um, but it's one that doesn't go to five at all. We don't use five in this cadence. Eso It kind of keeps us around tonic a little bit more, but still has a credential quality, as we say. Which means that it feels like it could be the ending of something or the peace. So here it is. Let's hear it first. Okay, that is not 51 actually. Let's take a look at what we've got. Got G, G, B and D. We're still in the key of D here. So what is a g g is for? So this is four. And then we go toe one d f a. D. So we have a 41 here. Um, we call this a playgirl cadence. Now, why play Guell? What is the word plague? Allow actually mean? You know, the answer to that is actually Don't really know and I just looked it up. And all the definitions of the word plague ally could find had to do with this cadence. Um, except for one which said it comes from the Greek word for oblique. Um, that makes sense. Um, in a way. So what? A Playgirl cadences as Indians 4 to 1 root position. A key component here is that we can go in our soprano voice one one. Because this note cause tonic is in common in both courts. Now, if you've heard this before, Ah, which you have, I'm sure you've heard it play go kittens before somewhere. But if, um, you've done any work with hymns or anything like that, this is sometimes also called the Ahmen kittens. This is in most him, music. Um, this is referred. Teoh, this is what you sing the words Ahmen to its, um And at the end of a him Think about it. Ah, right. That that almond is not 51 Try to sing almond to this. Ah, it works, but it's just not the same. This is what you're used to singing. And I don't know what that I don't know why Historically, that is why plague locations became the Ahmen kittens. But it did so when we sing on men typically Ah, that's how we do it in a him. So there you go. It's called up legal cadence, and the rule is really just that it's 4 to 1. Ah, perfect. So root position and keep the tonic between the soprano notes. 29. Deceptive Cadences: Okay, last bit on cadences, and then we'll move on to something else. Ah, this next one we're going to talk about is one that it's not really It's not gonna come up for another little bit. We'll be talking about it soon, but, um, since we're talking about a lot of cadences, I thought now would be a good time to introduce it. Ah, well, see it. Make another entrance later. But this is called a deceptive cadence. And what that means is that we're going to go 51 but one is not gonna be one. Ah, we're going to go five something else. So we're not going to resolve five correctly, basically. So it's deceptive, right? Like it's kind of like, Whoa, what just happened there? And one of the most typical ways to do this Ah is like this. Listen, right, that wasn't 51 That was actually 5 to 6, cause check it out. 51 would be that de a d f. That's one. That's D If I just move this one note up to a B. Now I have B d. F with a D in the base. So now I've switched to the relative minor right. It's really, really close to the tonic chord. It's really close to one. It's only one note different. Um, so that is a huge, deceptive thing. Imagine you're going along in a song and you're hearing all this stuff in D Major, and then you get to a big Five chord and you're you're totally expecting to hear one after that five chord. But instead of that, you hear this kind of right turn right? It's just like, Whoa, that's not one. That's six. Um, that's why we call it deceptive. So typically, we do this five in ah, kind of the perfect, authentic way. We've tried to set it up as much like a perfect court as we can just to really kind of establish it as five before moving on to our next court. There's a couple of different chords you could do here. Six is the easiest one. Um, and I think most effective in a deceptive cadence. But you could do a couple other things here, too. Um, the point is, in a deceptive cadence, you're going to go five something that's not one. That's kind of what the definition of a deceptive cadence is. Is it? Ah, you could say incorrect resolution of five with every up deceptive cadence 30. Leading Tones in V-I: okay up next. I want to talk about Ah, little bit more about voice leading as it relates, particularly to the 51 relationship, because we do it so much, um, that it can facilitate a little extra explanation. So let's dive in a little bit deeper to that 51 and talk about voice leading and what we need to do, and we'll talk about what to do in minor. So ah, let's start with that. Let's talk. Start talking about minor. So let's switch over to D minor just cause I'm in kind of a d mood. Okay, So ah, let's make a 51 shall we? Let's make a perfect authentic cadence just to get us started. So we're going to go make sure I'm in my right voices who shot back to where we were. Let's go right here, Cam and voice one. So let's start at the bottom and we're going to go a Hey, stop it. We're gonna go a to D. All right, and then let's go to voice, too. Let's do an e t f look contrary motion there and check out what I did is not awesome. I did the wrong voices I need to do the top voice invoice one. So let's just delete that. And remember, when you're doing this, the top voice needs to be one. And the lower voice of each staff needs to be voice to our altar stems. We're gonna go backwards. That's annoying. Okay. Ah, to do our leading tone there and let's go either. Okay, so we have one thing wrong here because we're in D minor right now. Remember one of the rules of our perfect authentic cadences that the ah soprano voice the top voice has to go either 71 or 21 So we have 71 here, right? But what's wrong with it? Here's what's wrong with it. It's not a true leading tone until we do that. So when we're doing this kind of voice leading, if it's going to be a perfect authentic cadence, it has to be a major five. And if you're in a minor key, that's going to require an accidental If you're making a perfect, authentic cadence, major five. That's what it has to be because leading tone one the two. If we were doing this going to down to one that would be okay, but I still need a major five. So I'm going to need a sea somewhere. Probably there, and it's gonna need to be sharp wherever it happens to be, Um, let's take this back up to where it waas and raised that again. So now I have my leading tone up to one, and the other rule of my perfect authentic cadence is a 51 in route position, which I have. Let's just hear this really quick, right? So we resolved to a one in minor, and that's OK for in a minor key that can totally happen. Other things to keep in mind on a 51 ah, 51 shares a note. So always try to keep that in the same voice in the same note. We don't want to cross this over, so let's see. Let's do it wrong. What if we did this and then that? Okay, this would be bad for a number of reasons, but let's walk through one of them. Ah, the biggest one, while the one that I'm talking about right now is that this a does not continue on to hear this. A switches voices when doesn't need to like. This is what voice leading is all about, right? That word voice leading it's getting. It's finding the path of least resistance from one chord to the next, the smoothest possible way. So the smoothest possible way for this to get to the next note is furthest to go to stay on the same note. So always try to do that in a 5 to 1, find the common note and keep it in the same voice. Now, if we were looking at an imperfecta, indicated he might have something like this. This is fairly common tohave, an imperfect, authentic kings where we have the leading tone in the Bix on order for this to perfectly work on a just a couple of other things. There we go. Now it works again. So this is an imperfecta because we don't have root position. Five. We have a 56 chord here, which means that 1/3 is in the base first inversion, so the third is in the base, but it's raised correctly so that it's a major five chord, and that's going to give us our leading tone in the base. So imperfecta authentic cadence. We still have to tow one up here. Let's hear. So you still get that leading tone? One feel. Try to latch your year onto the base note so it still feels pretty good that way, right? I still have my A my common tone in the same voice. It's a different voice than it was before, but it's in the same voice. I've doubled my A here, and this one has to move because I don't want to double the fifth of this court of my tonic chord. Uh, because then I'd have I only have three notes in this chord, and I'd have to doubling that have d a a d if I didn't move this note. But in at least one of the voices, it stays the same. So that's OK. That's what we want to do. So a couple things about, ah, the five chord and resolving it. Let's jump to a new video and talk about some other resolution possibilities that happen and some voice leading things that can happen with the 51 chord. The 51 core progression 31. Voice Leading to V: Okay, let's look at a couple scenarios that can happen. Ah, in a minor key with our 51 progression will stay in D minor. Um, a couple of these air. Okay, a couple of they're not OK, but you're going to come across these. Ah, when you're trying to figure out your voice leading. So I want to just walk through a couple of them. So first, let's look at, um, this example. So my top voice, it's gonna plunk these and really fast. Okay, so here we have 51 with our leading tone. We do not have a perfect, authentic kittens here. Why look close and think about it for a second? What are the two things we need? We need 51 route, position five and root Position one. We do have that. The other thing we need is 71 in our soprano voice. This is in the alto voice, So this is not a perfect authentic cadence. It is, however, worthy of being called in imperfecta. Authentic kids means it's close to a perfect, authentic cadence. It's still a root position. 51 It's just not perfect. Um, but what I wanted to point out with this one is we have parallel thirds. You're going to encounter situations where you're gonna want to do parallel thirds to go between these two. And it is okay. Um, parallel thirds air. Okay. Right. It sounds fine. Um, so pale authors are allowed. Don't be afraid of those. We don't like to have, like, long strings of parallel thirds, but, um, in a 51 relationship, parallel thirds are okay. And a couple of peril thirds in a row are Okay. Okay, Let's look at another one. Ah, let's do it right back to backs. We can hear these. Eleanor wrote will be kind of fun. Okay, what we have here, let's hear it. Okay? Anything sound odd about that? This one actually has kind of a no, no. In it. Um, I'd say a reasonably good No, no. Like something we really don't want to. Dio, um it doesn't sound really obvious to us, but it has a parallel active in it. Do you see where it is? It is here A to D and a T. The voice leading is kind of fine inside of it, but it's not great. We don't have an a at all in this chord, which, if you remember, if you're making a triad and you have to leave out a note, the fifth is a probably the best one to leave out. But when we have four voices, there really shouldn't be a reason we have to leave it out in this kind of a context. Who here? We have sub d d d We have three DS and enough. So we have parallel octaves and we're missing a note. So that's a no no parallel octaves, especially, but were tripling our tonic, which there are some cases where, you know, tripling the tonic and then having 1/3 somewhere in there can be Okay. Um, I wouldn't say that's a definite thing. You should never do there some voice leading times when you just got to do it. But this isn't one of them, so watch out for parallel octaves. Let's do another one. Yeah. Okay. What we have here there is something wrong with this one. It's something that you already know. Ah, we're not supposed to do. See if you can see what it is, but I have a wrong note. Hold on. There we go. Um, sorry. Now, see if you can see what is wrong with this one. The answer is our old friend, our old enemy. Actually, our old nemesis. The parallel fifth. Right here. So this is 1/5 and this is 1/5. They move in parallel. That is not okay. Let's hear it. Just for fun, right? Like it doesn't sound terrible, but it's a rule, You know that this is a rule of voice leading. Ah, If people were singing this, it wouldn't be. It's not the smoothest voice leading. Um, so we sternly avoid parallel fifths. One more. And this one is something that you'll come across if you have a little more freedom. If you're doing more like, kind of a composition thing and not just harmonizing something, sometimes you'll have some freedom to get away. I'll show you what I mean. I'm going to do this over two bars, actually. Oops. Okay. What's wrong with this one? It's not the rhythm. It has nothing to do with the rhythm. I'll tell you why I did it that way in a second first. Let's see. Is it a perfect authentic cadence? Do I have actually, I'm going backwards here. So I'm going 1 to 5. And in this case is a little bit different because what I want to show you here is how you can get from 1 to 5 without causing any major parallels. We don't have anything major leave wrong here, but it doesn't have the smoothest voice leading. That's really the only major thing that pops out at this one is that this jumps up by third . This jumps up by 1/5 this jumps up by 1/3 and this only goes up by a second. So everything's moving up and which is not good. Um, we want something moving down and something moving up in an ideal world. So everything's moving up. Um, not everything is super smooth. So when you're doing this kind of thing, one thing that we do sometimes groups is we teach a little bit by adding in another in version of the court. Check it out. Oops. Voice is so hard to keep that in mind. And down here, I'm gonna do this. Okay. Now do I have here have one one in a different inversion. And then five, I smoothed my voice leading out here to make a nice kind of a neighbor tone, but it's not a non core tone, but it it makes a nice melody. Here we jump up and then we stay on and then these stay now in this kind of a case, Technically, yes. This is parallel fifths. It actually is parallel fifths. But, um, we would call this a repeating fifth and this kind of okay, in this kind of case, it's OK, um, so a couple examples of things you might encounter with voice leading this one The real reason I wanted to show you this one is so that you can see that in order to facilitate smoother voice leading you can sneak in another inversion of the chord in between two chords If you have the compositional freedom to do it Meaning you could be a little flexible with the rhythm and that can help smooth over the voice leading. So watch out for those things. Let's hear all of these in a row just for fun. So we're gonna hear 515151115 kind of weird. We kind of modulated a little bit. There It almost felt like this was one at the end. Weird. Okay, but that's enough of that 32. Harmonic Rhythm: okay up next, we're gonna talk about for the rest of this class. Actually, we're gonna talk about harmonizing melodies, and we're just going to kind of touch our toe in the water of this because this is a very big topic, and it's gonna use everything that we know about Ah, counterpoint. Ah, but in a very kind of more accessible way. I think so. We've started to see so far how harm how what was just a to voice counterpoint? What the contours firmest on the counterpoint kind of evolved throughout this class to get into this kind of s a T V corral texture. What we're gonna be looking at next is how that texture gets applied to, you know, singing with voice and piano, for example. Um, it's all the same kind of stuff. The rules keep evolving a little bit, but if you've got a melody like like Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer and you want to create an accompaniment to it, we're going to get into next How you would do that with all the rules that we already know . Um, plus a couple more? I suppose so. Let's start talking about that now. Ah, and then it's going to be the main subject of our next class, I believe. Um, so first things first. Ah, harmonic rhythm. This is one of the first things you need to think about when you're going to be harmonizing a melody. So you've got a melody like Rudolph the Red Nosed Reindeer. What's gonna be in the accompaniment? Is it going to be someone strumming a guitar? Because that implies a certain rhythm? Um, the harmonic rhythm is kind of like how the notes are going to move along. I have two examples for you Hear the same song, the same melody done with slightly different harmonic rhythms. Ah, this is Holly Lucia, which is originally by Leonard Cohen. This is, ah, cover by Jeff Buckley. And I'm just gonna kind of talk over a little bit and way wasa secret call so you can feel his harmonic rhythm is there's about a chord, every bar. But what he's doing with that court within the bar is pretty much a six is your final major . So there's a 68 feel happening. 3451456 So his harmonic rhythm here is kind of eight Notes. Um, that's okay. Let's look at Justin Timberlake doing the same song. It goes like my on a major King Kong, You hear? Really, He's just playing one. He's doing more studies, and in that he's just playing the same chord. So he's not arpeggio eating at the way that Jeff Buckley was doing. So those are two different harmonic rhythms. It's not the tempo. The tempo is slower in the Justin Timberlake one, and that's OK, but that's not what we're talking about. What we're talking about is the way the cord is moving throughout the song. Um, what's happening to have all the notes that are not the melody? Um, that is what makes up the harmonic rhythm. And that's something you have to think about when you're gonna harmonize a melody. Is that harmonic rhythm? Let's talk about one more thing, and that is the texture 33. Texture: okay, if you've taken any of my composition based classes, I have a few of them out. Then you might already know what I'm talking about When I talk about texture. Words to describe texture include things like thick and thin. Ah, dense or thin Um, and then slightly more technical words like Hama, phonic and polyphonic. Let's talk about those last two first, so I m. Hama Phonic basically means there's one thing happening. It means for every note in the melody, there is accompaniment happening as well. So the cord. If you imagine someone with someone singing and having a guitar, they might only be strumming at the same time that they sing like in the exact unison. Um so, like in this song would be like strum, strum, strum, strum, strum, strum, strum, strum would be I heard there was usi grid cord that would be mono phonic texture. Um, for every word in the melody, there is a chord that happens in the same rhythm. Um, polyphonic would be that, Ah, they happen a lot. It's more of a spaghetti strand thing, right? There are, um, almost like multiple melodies happening at once. In a way right you can have. There's the melody that's being sung the main one, but you can find these other voices inside. There, inside the accompaniment. You hear more melodies that don't come to the top and don't aren't as in your face as the main melody is, but it's more. It's in the background, but it's still another voice. It's a lot like what we've been doing with voice leading and that you have these many voices in there. But one is kind of going to come to the front, whereas so far what we've done is we've tried to kind of equalize out the Four Voices. So An S, A T B structure. We've had four voices that you hear and are treated roughly equally. This is gonna be the same thing. This polyphonic texture. It's kind of the same thing, except there's gonna be one that's like the soloist, like the Justin Timberlake voice and then three others that are the accompaniment voice. We're going to kind of let there be like a rock star. Uh, those are just a couple types of texture. Um, I like to and I think I did this in the composition class But I like to draw pictures of songs using just like a pencil and scribbles because you can with the texture and say this is a thin texture. So it's just kind of a straight line, and this is, ah, thick texture. So it's like all you know, like tons of, uh, scribbling stuff. It's thick, Um, more on that shortly. Ah, up next. Let's look at an example. Peace, uh, something that will kind of walk through the different kinds of texture, different kinds of harmonic rhythm and hopefully be a little less abstract and goofy about this, and it will make a little bit more sense. 34. Example Piece: Okay, let's look at an example. I have three different arrangements here of the same song. Ah, the song is Danny Boy, um, Irish folk tune that you've probably heard before. So what we're looking at here is a model phonic texture. OK, so every note has a rhythm to it. Every word in the melody has an accompany mental note. Now, this arrangement is written in S A T B setting. So soprano alto tenor bass s A T b, um, And in Onley, very few occasions will you find the voices moving independently like here. So on the word side, the Sopranos gonna hold it. The alto is going to sing side and then move down on the same word and then hold it. Ah, and the other two are gonna be the same. So the alto has an extra note there. That's okay. Uh, it's still a model phonic texture. Because every note has an accompaniment Note. They all move at the same pace. Okay, so that's texture. The harmonic rhythm is how often the chord changes, and that's probably I haven't analyzed it yet, but it's probably the same in all three of these arrangements. Um because the melody implies accord. So the cord shifts probably at the same rate. Let's hear this one, uh, and give you a sense of mano phonic texture. No. 11 kind of warning here is that whenever you listen to this kind of a piece with S a T B, the synthetic voices of a computer are just awful. And there's no good way to make the computer actually sing. Um, you can't make it sing the words. So you just hear these this weird, like synthetic ah sound. It's totally bizarre. But let's hear it anyway, just to get a sense of the harmony. Ah, okay. And then it repeats. So ah Hama phonic rhythm. The harmonic pace is about. Usually I would call this two chords per bar. So in most bars we hear one chord for the first half of the bar and a second chord in the second half of the bar. There are some exceptions, but that's the majority of the harmonic rhythm throughout. This arrangement is about two chords per bar. OK, now let's look at another arrangement. This one is for a piano and voice, but you can see in the piano we still have an S a T B looking structure like Look right here, Right. We still have four voice looking things and we write like this for piano all the time. It's all the same rules that we've been working with. So let's take a listen to this arrangement, right? So it's not exactly how my phonic, it's not extremely far off like Let's look right here at the melody. We have a chord here. We have a cup, we have one in between. Note. And then here's another melody. Note. Another chord, chord, chord, chord, chord So it's close. But on some of these, we've got a lot more kind of filler notes, right? So it's not exactly how my phonic, Um, now when I say chord, chord, chord, chord, chord That doesn't mean we've got a new court, so it doesn't mean it changes the harmonic rhythm of the peace. The harmonic rhythm just means how often does the chord change? Not how often do we use notes within the cords or even some non chord tones? So it's a bit of a subjective term, but let's hear this one and see what we think. Okay, many repeats. So here you can hear it's close to Hama phonic texture, but we've got all these extra filler notes in here, so I would actually probably call this polyphonic texture. Um, it's a bit thick. Ah, meaning that there is a lot of notes happening in the accompaniment. Harmonic rhythm is the same to my ear, Um, meaning we have about two chords per bar. Some cases we only have one. Ah, some cases. We have a little turn at the end of the cord, like right. Heard the end of the bar, like right here, there's, ah, another chord slipped in right at the end of the bar. But more or less, I would call this Ah ah, harmonic rhythm about two chords provide, and what I want you to get out of this is that What's interesting here is that the texture can totally change. Depending on your arrangement, you can arrange something. What ever texture you want. That is total creative freedom, the harmonic rhythm you have some control over. But largely it's dependent on the melody, because when the melody goes to a note that implies another chord, you kind of have to go there it unless you want to change the melody. Right? So a lot of these air gonna have the same harmonic rhythm because we're using the same melody, but different texture. Because they're different arrangements. Let's look at one more. This one looks quite a bit thinner. Like look down here. We've got, you know, just this kind of little baseline here doing this little accompaniment pattern. It almost looks unfinished, actually. But that's okay. Let's check it out. Oh, no. - Okay . So much thinner texture here, right? Less notes happening. Um, just not a lot happening in the accompaniment. And that's totally okay. It's just a thinner texture. It's totally cool. Ah, what about the harmonic rhythm? This one is interesting. I still hear it as two chords per bar, even though we only get something at the beginning. So we've got one chord here, but I can still get a feel of a second chord in the second half of the bar in most places. So the melody by itself is implying this second chord, even though the accompaniment isn't doing it at all. So we could still hear that chord come out. I can, at least so again that this harmonic rhythm idea is a little subjective. Um, but I think I still hear it just using the melody alone. Maybe it's only because I've just heard two other arrangements where we did hear it much, clearly, much more clearly. So it's in my head s so maybe it's not fair to say that, but I think it's I think it is. I think, uh, even if I just jumped into this one by itself, I'd still here that that second chord per measure. So harmonic rhythm. Still two chords per measure, but totally different texture. Uh, coop. OK, uh, let's move on to some wrap up things. 35. Whats Next: Okay, everyone, where we're wrapping up. Ah, this part of the giant music theory class. But this is not the end. Ah, it's never the end. Well, it will be the end someday. Um, so what comes next? Next, we're going to dive full bore into, um, accompaniment. So writing accompaniments to Melies and what that's going to involve is a lot of discussion on harmonization. Ah, meaning what chords to choose. Get with a given melody. A given melody could imply a lot of different chords. And there's couple things you can do to decide what chords to use based on a melody. And a lot of that has to do with that harmonic rhythm. Things were definitely coming back to that. Eso harmonization, texture, different styles we can use writing for piano. Um, also some new harmonic ideas like, ah, different things we can do with seventh chords, some kind of turns we can use for them. Ah, and we're gonna go in deeper into that deceptive resolution. Are that deceptive cadence idea by having ah, cords that don't resolve in the way that they're supposed to, we're going to get even a little more flexible with those rules. So that's what's coming next in the next music theory class. Ah, stick around for that. I'm going to start making it as soon as I wrap up this one, so I hope to see you in that. 36. Thanks & Bye!: Okay, that's it. Um, that's the end of this course. Aside from one little bonus thing I'm gonna give you after this. So one thing I dig about this point in music theory is that we're really starting to see how this historic idea of music theory turns into music theory that we know. Ah, Now, music, you know, things like Gregorian chant sounding stuff has now evolved into something that we would actually listen to on the radio. You know, you might be someone that listens to Gregorian chant. Nothing against that, but ah, we're starting to see those rules evolved into music that is a bit more modern. And as we keep going, we're going to keep seeing this music evolve into music that's even more modern. And eventually, you know, in not too long ah, we're going to get into, you know, the Beatles and popular music. Essentially, um, you can almost see how we would get there from where we are now. Ah, and you know, talking about the Beatles and ah, many other songwriters and even some or current songwriters than that is a part of music theory. That does happen. There are interesting theoretical things to discuss about those songs that were written, you know, 30 40 years ago and even songs that are being written today. So we'll get there, just hang tight, and we will get there. Um, were about, you know, three or four weeks into what I would call second semester music theory. At this point, we're going to keep trucking through second semester music theory and try to get us into third semester music theory. And not too long. Um, so please keep taking these classes stick around. I'm gonna keep making them a song as people get taken, so Ah, well, keep pressing forward. Thanks for hanging out. I hope you had a good time. Ah, check out some my other classes, especially if you're into it. Um, my composition classes that I have out now, those ones Ah, start with a little bit of grounding in music theory, but they get into just straight up writing music which these classes don't necessarily talk about too much. Although at some point, there will be an overlap. But if you are this far in music theory, you have totally enough music theory too. Ah, start writing music on your own. So check out those classes. Ah, they are here on the same website. So took him out with that. Ah, I'd be due for well until the next class oaks. You there. Bye bye. 37. SkillshareFinalLectureV2: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.