Essential Camera Settings for Video - Frame Rates, Shutter Speed, Aperture + ISO | Tomas George | Skillshare
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Essential Camera Settings for Video - Frame Rates, Shutter Speed, Aperture + ISO

teacher avatar Tomas George, Music + Audio Production Instructor

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Welcome to this Class

      0:33

    • 2.

      What are Frame Rates

      7:32

    • 3.

      What is Shutter Speed for Video

      6:18

    • 4.

      What is Aperture

      4:15

    • 5.

      What is ISO

      6:15

    • 6.

      Thanks and Bye + Class Project

      0:36

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About This Class

In this class, you'll learn Essential Camera Settings for Video

You'll learn the essential techniques of recording videos on your digital camera

In this class you'll learn all about:

  • Frame Rates
  • Shutter Speed for Video
  • Aperture 
  • And ISO

So by the end of this class, you'll understand the Essentials of Digital Camera Setting for Video

Meet Your Teacher

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Tomas George

Music + Audio Production Instructor

Teacher

Hi, Tomas here. I'm a UK Music Producer, Audio Engineer, and Composer. I've been producing and writing music for over fifteen years.

I have an MMus Masters Degree in Music Production and a BA(Hons) in Music Composition.

I really enjoy creating and editing all types of music, but I especially love teaching it online.

See full profile

Level: All Levels

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Transcripts

1. Welcome to this Class: Hi there. Welcome to this camera settings class. So in this class you'll learn the tools and techniques so you can make the most out of your digital camera. So this class is for any video makers who want to learn the essentials for setting up their camera. So this class is just under 30 minutes long and teaches you the essentials for setting Got be a camera for video. So in this class, I'm going to teach you all about frame rates, shutter speed for video aperture on I s O. So by the end of this class, you understand the essentials off setting up your camera to help you make great looking videos. 2. What are Frame Rates: hi there, and welcome to this video will be going to be talking about frame rates. So to understand frame rates, we need to first understand what video is. So video is a Siri's off images or frames playback one after another that creates motion. So it's kind of like one of those old flip books that you see when you have a collection of images you flicked through them and that creates motion. So the amount of images or frames we have per second is actually our frame rates. So if you recording at 24 frames per second, that means you have 24 still images per second. So when we recording video would normally have a selection of different frame rates, we could choose. This could be 24 frames per 2nd 25 30 60 120 or 240. Normally four cinematic movies. It will be at 24 frames per second. But for TV and the news, this will normally be at 30 frames per second. Just to make things a bit more complex also depends on what region you're in. We have NTSC region and also Powell region. So if you're in the NTSC region, you'll be recording in 24 frames per second, well actually 23.976 frames per second. And if he in the pile region, you'll be recording video at 25 frames per second. This can be a little confusing, but make sure you check to see what region it in to see if you're in the NTSC region or the Pal region. So North America and Japan is in the NTSC region on Europe. Selfish Asia and parts of Africa is in the Powell region. So the reason we have NTSC and Pal is all to do with lighting Sophie. In the NTSC region, you will have your lights at 60 hertz, and if he in the power region, you will have your lights at 50 hertz. So if you're filming with the wrong format, for example, NTSC in the power region, you may get some flickering lights. This went normally happen with led lights but can happen with non video lights so I don't get too technical. But really, this is all stew of maths because the power region is at 25 frames per second and the lighting as at 50 Hertz on the NTSC. The lighting is at 60 hertz, and then the frame rates is 24 or 30 and 30 obviously goes into 60 on. Basically, if a film of the correct format, you shouldn't really get any flickering lights. So if you are traveling or filming in the wrong format, I do recommend seeing if you're in the NTSC or PAL region, then sticking to the recommended frame rates for them. OK, so we talked about the different frame rates before. On one rule is if I'm going to be filming audio or dialogue, I will be filming in 24 or 25 frames per second. So remember 24 4 NTSC region on 25 4 Power Region. However, if I'm filming anything that doesn't have dialogue, for example, B roll footage that there may use ah, higher frame rate this way, I can slowly start in post and create some interesting slow motion. So the more frames per second you have, the more you can slow the footage down. However, you still want your FBS or frames per second to match your project frames per second. This is also known as your base FBS So you might be thinking, Why don't you just film everything in the high frames per second? Then you have the option to slow it down or not. Well, there's a few reasons that you shouldn't really do that in the 1st 1 is to do of maths, so you want to be able to divide your frame rate by your project frame rate. We may get some skipping issues. So, for example, if your film at 30 frames per second at 24 frames per second timeline, this just won't add up. You have 1.25 frames recorded for every frame shown. So this means in your footage you're going to skip a frame every second or two, and it just won't look natural. But if you do want to play back at 30 frames per second footage in a 24 frames per second timeline, you can slow the footage down. So I only film in a high frame rate if I'm actually going to plan to slow this down. So you have to be very intentionally of frame rate. Think about when you're filming. Are you going to slow this down in post? And if not. I recommend keeping it at 24 frames per second. Like I said, and the thing with talking anything with dialogue, I will record this at 24 frames per second. Also, you want to have you a shorter speed twice that of your frame rates. And if you're shooting in a higher frame rate and you're not slowing it down, you're not going to have any of that natural motion blur. So if you're going to be shooting at 24 frames per second, I recommend having your show to speed at 1 48 of a second or 1/50 of a second. And if you're shooting in 25 frames per second for Power Region, recommend having your should speed at 1/50 of a second. Also, if I'm going to film something that doesn't have talking normally, film this at 30 frames per second and then slow it down to 24 frames per second, it just makes it look a bit more dreamy. Also, doing this will get rid of a lot of bumps and shakes. I'm sure you've seen this 1000 times before. It just makes the footage a bit smoother and like I said, a bit more dreamy. You can slow your footage down even more if you film in a higher FBS. So could film, for example, at 60 frames per second, or even 120 or 240 frames per second. If you want some super slow motion, however, your base frame rate is normally where your camera will record as highest quality. For example, I'm filming in 25 frames per second right now in four K. However, if I wanted to record in a high FPs sickness camera, I couldn't record in four K. So depending on what camera have, sometimes if you use a higher frames per second, you will have a lower resolution. Also, remember, if you're gonna be filming at a higher frames per second and someone's going to talking and you plan to slow it down, then the voice will get slow as well and will not sound natural at all. Okay, so now let's have a look at some examples that are filmed at higher frame rates, which have then slowed down in post. So, for example, I have this skipping footage here, which was filmed at 100 frames per second and have slowed it down to the base frame rates or the project frame rates at 25 frames per second. Because I'm in a power region and I shot this with the power format, the base frame wrote is 25 frames per second. However, if you're in on NTSC region, you may want to choose the base frame rate off 24 frames per second, okay and have also film this clip off me running at 25 frames per second. And if I slow this down to 25% you can see it isn't very smooth at all. I've also filmed it again at 100 frames per second on a slow this down to 25%. You can see a lot more of the individual frames. So if you do want to slow down any fast motion, I do recommend filming in the high frame rate than slowing it down in post rather than filming at the base frame rate, then slowing it down because your footage will jump a bit like this. So using a high frame rate and slowing this down, it could be great for fast motion for example, like me hit in this ball with this. But you can also slow the footage down to make the shot look a bit more cinematic or to get rid of any bumps or shakes. For example, here I film this clip at 50 frames per second, and I've just slowed it down 50%. That gets rid of a lot of the bumps and shakes and makes the footage look a bit more dreamy and cinematic. So here are a few more clips that, filmed at 100 frames per second on have slowed it down to 25% off the original clip length . So remember, if you do want to use any slow motion videos, don't fill in the footage at your base frame rate. Film the footage at higher frame rate and then slow it down and post. Okay, so that is an overview. Are frames per second. It can be quite complex. First, I recommend finding out if you're in NTSC or Power Region and then filming at your base frame rate if you're going to be talking. So if you in the NTSC region film at 24 frames per second on, if you in the power region. Film. 25 frames per second. If there's going to be talking, then if you're going to film anything else, for example, B roll. You can always use a higher frames per second if you want to slow this down in post but plan before you record. Think about what frame rate you want to record it. And if you're going to slow it down and post that you can create some really creative, interesting shots were frame rates. So thanks for watching this video and I'll see you in the next one. 3. What is Shutter Speed for Video: should to speed. So in this video and the next few videos, we're going to be talking about getting optimal settings for filming video on either your dear Salon or Mirror list camera. So the first thing I recommend is using manual mode on your camera, not using auto and not using shorter priority or aperture priority. So, really, to fill the best possible video, you will have to use manual mode and get away from these auto settings. Okay, so let's talk about shutter speed when we talk about shutter speed. We're talking about the electronic shutter on your camera that opens and closes the let in light on your show to speed is how long that electronic shutter is open for, and this is measured in fractions of a second, so 1/50 or 60th of a second. Also, the lower the shutter speed, the more light you're letting into each frame On the brighter, the image will be so when you lower your shutter speed. This means the electronic shutter would be open for longer, and this allows your camera to not only let in more light for each frame, but also introduces mawr motion blur so If you have a really slow shutter speed, let's say 1/20 of a second and you're filming at 25 frames per second. You'll have a lot of motion blur whenever there's any movement in your video. However, if you have a much higher shutter speed, things will look a lot darker and there'll be a lot less motion blur. So if you're should to speed, it's too low. Things will look really slow and choppy, and if you show to speed is too fast, things will that really crisp and two and natural. So for a video to look natural, we want to make sure there is some motion blur. So, for example, if you wave your hand in front of our face, you can see that it's and blow when we move it. So where we used shutter speed, that's double a frame rate number. This will give us a motion blessed similar to our eyes will see in real life. Just remember, though that should speak for video is different. To show to speed for photography in photography, you can adjust your show to speed to help properly exposure image. However, when filming video generally, you want tohave, you're sure to speed number double that of your frames per second number. So if you're filming a video at 25 frames per second, you want to have your show to speed at 1/50 of a second to give you a nice blend of sharpness and motion blur. However, if you're in an NTSC region such as North America and you're filming at 24 frames per second, I recommend setting your show to speed at 1/50 of a second. Also, of course, Double 24 is 48. However, most cameras won't allow you to choose 1 48 of a second on 1/50 will still be fine. Also, it comes down to your stylistic choices on what kind of video do you want to make? However, if you want your video to look natural, like I said, I recommend having your shutter speed number twice that off your friends per second number . Okay, so once we've set a shutter speed, we don't really want to change this unless we're going to be changing frames per second. Okay, one. Well, I just want to quickly mention is to never have you a shutter speed lower than your frame rate. For example, if you're shooting at 25 frames per second and never recommend having your shutter speed lower than 1 25th of a second, because if you do that, you will essentially broke up your footage on introduce a lot of strange motion blur that you won't be able to fix in post. Also, if you're filming at our higher frames per second, such as 100 frames per second, he still wants a have. You are short of speed, double that number. So for this example, what you'd want to have a show to speed at 1 200 of a second on that will retain a natural amount of motion blur on will still give you that movie like quality. One thing to know if you're shooting outside at, say, 100 frames per second than 1 2/100 of a second for your show to speak could still be too bright so you could increase your shutter speed number even higher toe let in less light to help properly expose your image, because at these fast shutter speeds there is little motion blood anyway, so won't really making video look any different. Alternatively, you could look at using a variable nd filter, which is kind of like sunglasses for your camera. We're going to be looking at Indy filters in much more detail later on. Okay, so let's have a quick look at an example. So there's two cameras here for Camera one. I will be changing the shutter speed on for camera to the shutter. Speed will be fixed so you can still see that the fidget spinner is spinning. I'm also using this on shutter priority mode on. I've put the air so on auto, so this basically means when I just the shutter speed, it will automatically adjust. The aperture and I are so settings on the camera, and we'll try to properly expose the image even when I quickly change the shutter speed. Or the image will just get much brighter or much darker. But in camera to this is all in manual mode. Also, when you're filming a video, you won't be changing your shutter speed like this. I just want to change his shirt to speed for this example, so you can visually see the difference between slow and fast shutter speed. Okay, So I'm filming this clip at 25 frames per second on when I spend this fidget spinner, I'm going to start off with a shutter speed at 1/50 of a second, which is the same show to speed setting as camera, too. So this has some natural looking motion blur, similar to what it looks like with my eyes. But when I increase the shutter speed, it looks like the fidget spinner is actually slowing down. But it's not. So let's compare this to Camera two, which has, like, a said, a short to speed of 1/50 of a second so you can see on camera one. There's a lot less motion blur, but when we decrease the shutter speed, you can see there's a lot more motion blur, and it looks like it's going a lot faster than on the higher shutter speed. But that's not if we compare it to Camera two, so slower shutter speeds will give us more motion. Blur on higher shutter speeds will give us much less motion blur. However, we still want to have some natural motion blur, which is why we have a show to speed double that our FBS number, which gives us the most natural motion blur. So for this example, because we're filming in 25 frames per second, most natural motion blur will be assured to speed our 1/50 of a second. Also, remember, if you're going to be filming slow motion and you're going to be recording with a higher frames per second, you will want to double that number as well. For you should to speed, to get the most natural looking motion blur and also to get that cinematic video look. Okay, So now let's have a look at another example to the frame right here is at 25 the shutter speed is at 1/50 of a second. As you can see, this footage looks quite natural. But if we speed this up, you can see there's much less motion blur, and it just looks quite unnatural. Now let's slow the shutter speed down and you can see there's were way too much motion blur . If you slow it down even more, you can see it looks really unnatural. So let's put it back up to 1/50 and here it looks natural again. Okay, so that is an overview off shutter speed. Just remember to put your camera in manual mode, and generally you will want to have your shutter speed number. Double that if your friends per second number. So thanks for watching. And I'll see you in the next one. 4. What is Aperture: aperture Aperture plays an important part for photography and videography, So aperture allows us to control the amount of light that enters that camera on also allows us to control the debt for field for our shot. So aperture is basically the whole in a lens, and this is where light travels into the camera and then into the sensor off the camera. So aperture basically effects How much light hits the sensor off the camera. So to help us understand aperture, we must first think about the human eye. So cameras are really designed like human eye on in the I. We have the iris, and this controls the size of the people by shrinking and expanding on, aperture is essentially the pupil on the larger the people, the more light that falls onto the retina. So the larger the aperture of the lens, the more like that enters the camera. And in photography and videography, aperture is measured in F stops on F stops describe how open or closed the aperture is so the smaller the F stop number, the wider the aperture is on. The larger the F stop number, the smaller the aperture is so for example, F 2.8 will have a large aperture than F 11 as well as controlling the amount of light passing for your lands and into your camera. The appetite also affects the depth of field for your image. On the depth of field is the area of your image that's in focus so you may hear narrow debt for field, which means a small area of your image isn't focus. You may also hear wide debt for field, which means a large area of your images and focus. So a large aperture or a small F stop number such as F one point for have a small area of the image and focus, and we'll have the foreground and background out of focus, So this could be used for for isolating the subject or to get that call blurry background effect. They often see a lot of videos, and a small aperture or ah, high F stop number will have more of the image and focus noel lenses, though what opened as wide as F 1.4 and all lenses do have a limit. Also, it's normally the more expensive lenses that open up to a wider aperture such as after 1.4 , and the more budget lenders normally start around F 5.6. So something like an F 1.4 could be used for an artistic effect or the blur at the background. Or you could decrease the aperture to say F 22 to get more of the background of focus. So if you want to shoot a landscape and you want to get more of the image and focus so, for example, the subject on a mountain range behind them, you could use a small aperture or a larger F stop number such as F 22 to get a wider depth of field. OK, so now let's have a look at an example. So him shooting with the ice Oh, in auto just so can quickly change the aperture without the image getting to over or under exposed. And also the shutter speed is at 1/50 because I'm shooting at 25 frames per second. Remember, we want to have the shutter speed double that number off their frames per second number. Also, right now, the F stop number is at F 5.6, and you can see some of the background in the distance. It's not completely and focus, but you can still see it's there. So let's now increase the aperture two F 2.8, which is the widest. It will go on this lens, and as you can see, it really blows at the background and isolates the subject. So even though this lens doesn't go to F 1.4 or F 1.8, we still get a really blurry background because the subject is so far away from the background. So let's now decrease the aperture to a much smaller aperture. Let's choose F 22 and now you can see a lot more of the background of focus. So if you're going to be near the background, then it may be difficult to get that blurry background effect even if you open up the aperture white. So if you want that blurry background effect, I recommend having the subject far away from the background. So if you're going to be shooting indoors and in a small room and you want that blurry background effect, I recommend using a lens opens up even wider than this. Maybe F 1.4 or F 1.8. However, if you're outside or someone like this where the subject is so far away from the background , you can blur the background out with an aperture like this, which is that F 2.8 aperture also effects over settings on the camera such as eso. So using a large aperture will let in more light. With this, you may not need to have such a high I s o number. We'll look at I s o or I. So next and generally you want to have a low iron, so number Okay, so that's aperture allows you to affect how much light hits a sense of your camera and also the depth of field for your image. Thanks for watching. 5. What is ISO: Iso or ISO. So we've looked at shutter speed and aperture, and they control the amount of light physically hitting the sensor of the camera. And ISO controls the amount of light the camera needs to properly expose that image. So before digital cameras, you would have film and the film would have numbers on the box, such as one hundred and two hundred and four hundred. So these ISO numbers still apply to the digital world, but now there's a lot more numbers available to you. So back then the ISO was the film that's sensitive to light. And now with digital cameras, is the sensor on the camera that's sensitive to light. Most digital cameras will have a base level ISO of 100 or 200. Ideally, we want our ISO to be to get the best possible image. So at 100, this is a low ISO and has a low sensitivity to light. Depending on the conditions though we can't always use the base level ISO or the image or video, maybe underexposed or too dark. So I recommend first adjusting your aperture to try and properly exposure image. However, if your image is still under exposed than they're recommend increasing your ISO. So when you increase your ISO, you're basically adding digital light to your image. So using a higher ISO can be useful if you're recording in a dark room or if you recording at night. Also increasing our ISO does have some side effects. And the main one is digital noise. And digital noise is something you introduce when your ISO number is too high. And the higher the ISO number, the more digital noise you have image or video. Higher ISO values will also decrease the accuracy and the dynamic range of your colors. So you really need to experiment with your camera and see how high you can push it ISO of damaging the quality of your image. Also, some modern mirrorless cameras allow you to increase your ISO number much higher with only a small amount of noise, especially compared to say, a phone camera. And that's because of the sensor size. The sensor on the phone camera is much smaller than a sensor on a DSLR mirrorless camera. So basically a larger sensor can handle higher ISOs better than the smallest sensor can. So generally speaking, the bigger the sensor, the larger your ISO can go of other images looking too noisy. And the other thing to mention, when doubling that ISO from 100 to 200, the camera needs half the amount of light for the same exposure. And this brings me on to stops. So you notice a pattern here, 200, it is double one hundred, four hundred is doubled to a hundred, eight hundred is double 400 and so on and so forth. Going from one of these numbers to the next one is called stops. And stops work indoors and harps, increasing one ISO stop will double the ISO number and will half the amount of light needed to expose our image. And if we go down and start from say, 200 to 100, this will half our ISO and we will need double the amount of light to properly expose our image. And stops also apply to shutter speed and aperture. Okay, so now let's have a look at a few different ISO examples. As I mentioned before, it generally you want to have your ISO as low as possible so that we have the least amount of noise and we can get the highest quality image or video possible. However, that's not always possible. And there are situations where we might have to increase our ISO. For example, higher ISOs may be needed for slow motion or higher frames per second footage. As you will need to increase the shutter speed when you increase the frames per second. And when you increase the shutter speed, your image will get darker and you may need to increase your ISO to properly expose your image if it's too dark. So this footage here, I've increased the frames per second to 100. And I've increased the shutter speed to 1 200th of a second. And now to properly expose the image, will have to increase the ISO. Also, if you're filming at night and you don't have any video lights with you. You may want to increase your ISO to properly exposure image as there just isn't enough light. Here, for example, you can see this image is underexposed. However, we can properly exposed the image by increasing our ISO. Also, if you're filming in a room that's dark or not properly lit. Here again, you may wish to increase your ISO. So here again, this image is just too dark. So let's increase the ISO to properly expose our image. However, if you're recording a talking head video like this, I recommend using some video lights or at least sitting opposite a window so you have enough light, so you don't have to increase your ISO number two high. However, if you're recording and locations where you can't control the light, increasing your ISO can help you properly exposure image. So here we are in a well-lit room, and this image is properly exposed. The aperture is at the highest. It can go through this lens, which is F 2.8, and the shutter speed is at 150th of a second, which is double our frame rates because I'm recording at 25 frames per second. Ok, so the ISO is at 200. But if I turn off the video lights, you can see the image isn't properly exposed anymore and we need more light. So let's increase our ISO. And now you can see the image is properly exposed. Really in situations like this, you just want to turn off the video lights and decrease ISO. But now let's have a look at an example outside while we can't control the light. Okay, so outside again, and this time it's a lot brighter. Even at the ISO at 100, the image is still overexposed. In situations like this, we would either lower the aperture to properly expose the image or use an ND filter. So if you don't want to lose that shallow depth of field by decreasing the aperture, you will want to use an ND filter. And this is basically like sunglasses for your camera to help you properly exposure image. I also recommend using a variable ND filter, which means you can select how dark you want the ND filter to be. And this can be really useful for recording video upside as every situation can be different. Ok, let's have a look at another example. So here we are outside again. And for this shot, I want to have a wide debt fulfilled because I want the viewer to be able to see the trees as well as the subject. So if this we want to decrease the aperture, but this will make our image darker. So we will need to increase the ISO to properly expose our image. Okay, so that's ISO or ISO. Remember, ideally you want to be shooting at your base level ISO, but there are situations where you may wish to increase your ISA. Remember, that may add some digital noise. Also remember the larger the sensor, the better it can handle higher ISO values, which is why investing in a good camera with a large sensor can really help you if want to film in low light situations. So thanks for watching and I'll see you in the next one. 6. Thanks and Bye + Class Project: Thank you so much for watching this glass. Hope. Now you're a lot more confident that setting up your digital camera for recording videos. So for your class project, I want you to actually set up your camera for video, using the correct frame rate and shutter speed. I then want you to properly exposure image with aperture. And I are so after this, I want you to take a photo of your camera settings, maybe with your phone or another camera, and then post this photo as a class project and then write a short sentence to tell me exactly how and why you set up your camera for recording video the way that you did. So thanks again for watching this glass. I hope you found it useful and I'll talk to you soon.