Color Characters 103: The Coloring Workflow | Scott Harris | Skillshare

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Color Characters 103: The Coloring Workflow

teacher avatar Scott Harris, Painter and Illustrator

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Digital Canvas Pre-Production


    • 3.

      Line Preparation


    • 4.

      Stage 1: Local Color


    • 5.

      Stage 2: Variations


    • 6.

      Stage 3: Forms


    • 7.

      Stage 4: Light 1


    • 8.

      Stage 5: Light 2


    • 9.

      Stage 6: Highlights 1


    • 10.

      Stage 7: Highlights 2


    • 11.

      Stage 8: Highlights 3


    • 12.

      Stage 9: Dynamic Lighting


    • 13.

      Stage 10: Contrast


    • 14.

      Stage 11: Cast


    • 15.

      Post Production


    • 16.

      Skin Enhancement


    • 17.

      Secret hair Painting Technique


    • 18.

      Line Colouring


    • 19.



    • 20.

      Post Production Effects 1


    • 21.

      Post Production Effects 2


    • 22.

      Full Workflow Timelapse


    • 23.



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About This Class

Welcome to Color Characters 103 - the third part of a 4 part character coloring course that will teach you all you need to know to color characters well.

Hey, this is Scott! Let me tell you why this is the best character coloring course ever made, and how I'll be able to help you reach your art dreams and goals, whether you're just starting out, or you know a bunch already.

What exactly is Color Characters?

Color Characters is a 6 Module, learn-anywhere video course where you learn to become adept at coloring and painting professional characters. I’ve hand-crafted the Color Characters course to be the only course you need, to learn all the core fundamentals and advanced techniques to coloring and painting characters well. If you’re an absolute beginner or you’re already at an intermediate level, the course will advance your current ability to a professional level. The course is a comprehensive 6 module guided video course, where the only limit to your progression is your determination and engagement in the rewarding assignments.

Whether you want to color and paint character concept art for films and games, illustrations, comics, manga, Disney style or other styles, this is the course you need to get you there.

I’ll teach you to color and paint with confidence and without fear. I’ll teach you to color and paint well. You will know all the core theory, workflows and practical application for professional level Character Coloring and Painting.

Finally, Learn Character Coloring and Painting Well

Whether you’re a complete beginner, or intermediate at character coloring and painting, you’ll learn things you never knew you never knew. Seriously. Inspired by masters and built on the theory of giants, Color Characters is one of, if not the most comprehensive character coloring and painting course out there.

Clear, Easy to Understand Lessons

Crystal clear in fact. Learning character coloring and painting effectively means having information presented in a logical and coherent way. The Color Characters Course is modular by design, easy to grasp, and allows you to learn in a well paced, structured way. Engage in the course chronologically, then revise each module at your leisure. Grasp concepts faster than you ever have before – there’s no fluff here. You'll also find that Coloring and Painting is grounded in very solid and complete theory. Learn rapidly.

Assignments that are Rewarding

Bridging the gap between theory and practice, each module’s assignments have been designed to both reinforce theory, and feel rewarding. I’ve taken the core of Color and Light theory, and purpose built each assignment to help you rapidly progress, and you’ll see the difference in your own work almost immediately. Art is about doing, so let’s get started.

What's Your Style?

Whether you want to learn to color and paint characters for games, comics, cartoons, manga, animation and more, this course has you covered. I'm not teaching you a 'method' or a 'way' to color and paint, I'm teaching you to be a fundamentally good character colorist and painter.

Meet Your Teacher

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Scott Harris

Painter and Illustrator

Level: All Levels

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1. Introduction: Welcome to module three and welcome to the Coloring and Painting Workflow Overview. Module three really is the core of the course because we're looking at the color and painting workflow itself. Workflow really is how we apply theory in a practical way, in a logical order that is hopefully clear, easy to understand, and also easy to remember. In this module, we're going to look at three stages of production, reproduction, production and post production. Reproduction is really where we're going to be prepping ourselves for the main painting process. And we'll look at painting and context elements such as a value check layer as well as the 50% gray canvas and also line preparation. The production phase is the bulk of our work. Here you will see something that should look quite familiar. Pretty much the stages of the form lining principle. That's a few little extra things as well added in there. Then post production looks at the things we will do to really finish our work very professionally. Something to keep in mind is that the production phase here really is the bulk of the work. It's pretty much 90 to 95% of the work. And you'll find that pre production and post production are real quick, quick to implement. As you're moving through this module, keep in mind these four pillars of three dimensionality. You know there are quite a few stages to the form lighting principle, but if you keep these in mind, you'll be on a steady footing to always getting a three dimensional look. Form shadows, ambient occlusion, shadows, reflected light and highlights. I've put light peaking in brackets there to remind you that you really want to have a single highest point of light per single element. For example, hair one point of highest light, Face one point of high light, and so on and so forth. Keep these four pillars of three dimensionality in mind, even if you are looking to create colored work of a particular style that may not implement all the stages of the workflow. That brings us to the final point here, which is coloring styles, a wealth of coloring styles out there. And this workflow is universal whether you want to do very simplistic coloring or you want to do very high end and advanced digital painting, whether it's realist art, comic art style art, animated style, or what have you. This workflow can scale up and scale down. You can learn one workflow and you can be efficient and effective at painting and coloring. Well, what's more, this workflow is universal not just to characters. You can use this workflow to paint environments, backgrounds, creature designs, and so on and so forth. So don't worry about style for now. Let's get straight into the workflow and I'll see you in the next lesson. 2. Digital Canvas Pre-Production: In this lesson, we are going to learn about the gray background layer and the value check layer. To help us with that, we have Arme mage over here. Now when we are painting, we want to try to avoid painting on a white background or a black background. And the reason for that is that we perceive color and value and relative brightness in context. When we're looking at Karmi right now with this white background, we're interpreting her coloring and her lighting in the context of this white background. She looks okay. Her values and things are fine. That's because she was actually painted with a gray background. Now to add a gray background, we simply create a new layer and then fill it with a five value gray, or a 50% value gray, right? Which is really just a middle value gray. When we do this, it is a much more balanced background and much more balanced context. Allowing us to paint with an even hand, if you will, toward our colors and toward our values. That's the first thing that we'll want to do when we're starting our workflows. Make sure that we're painting on a gray background. I've brought in Mi for another reason as well. That is to discuss the value check layer. Now the Value check layer is exactly what it sounds like. I'm going to ad a layer here. I'm going to call it VC for value check. This layer sits right at the top of the layer stack, right at the top of all the layers as its name implies. It's a layer we're going to use to check our values, right, to make sure that our light and our shadow have even stops, enough stops between them that they're contrasting. And that the various elements that we're painting have different inherent values. For example, the skin should be a different value overall to the hair. The hair should be a different value overall to the hat, for example. And also that the light and the shadows inside the skin, the light in the shutters inside the hair, and the objects and elements do have enough value difference so that the viewer's brain can see the difference between those values. And as such, then perceive the forms, the three D forms. I've created a new layer on top. And what we're going to do is we're going to go edit, fill, and we're going to fill it in black. Now, it doesn't matter what software you're using. Generally speaking, all the recommended software will have the capability to do this. You simply select the entire layer, you fill it with black, then you set it to the layer mode called saturation, right? The saturation layer mode, as you can see, it presents you with basically a gray scale view of the work. Right now, you won't paint with this on, you use it just by turning its visibility on and off. Just to check your values and make sure that things are working in the right value sense. Okay, that is the value check layer. That is the gray background layer. So that we can paint in context, the good even context with a gray background and we can check our values with a value check layer. Once again, it's a black field layer set to the layer mode saturation at the top of our piece. That is the value check layer and the gray background layer. I'll see you in the next lesson. 3. Line Preparation: When you finish the character illustration, you'll want to prepare your lines for coloring. In this lesson, we're going to look at some things to keep in mind in order to make sure your lines are ready for the painting or coloring process. The first thing you want to keep in mind is to just go around the piece and try to clear up any edges. Needing up the lines now is it's something you want to get over and done with. Clear up any edges, any rough or scruffy parts, anything that is overlapping in a weird way or anything like that, go through the image and clear up those rough and scruffy edges. Now you'll also want to make sure that your line work is on a separate layer. You want to have the lines on a completely separate layer. This is particularly useful when you want to modify the lines, and it also helps in the general painting process to not have the lines on a single layer. For example, if I hold control and I click this thumbnail, you will give me a selection of all the lines on the layer. If I want to paint the lines red, for example, modify them red or over paint them, I can do so. And you can see there that we have a nice red line work painting. Now what can happen is you may forget to actually draw your entire cleaned piece on a separate layer. Now if you've done that, we have an example over here. We have a lines on a background layer here where these lines are in fact on a white background. Don't worry, all is not lost. You'll see here that when the layer mode is set to normal and the lines on background layer is loved, if I try to paint some red behind the piece, you don't see anything. However, if we set the layer mode for lines on background to multiply, you're effectively telling to multiply all the underlying color. You can then effectively color the piece. The downside of this, however, is that you have very little control over your line coloring. If you did have ambitions to change the lines in some way or to move elements or tweak elements of the lines, you're in a little bit of a tight spot. Always try to remember to draw your lines on separate layers, especially your final lines. All right, let's take these away and I'm going to show you another thing that you can do to prepare your lines for color. Digital is very sharp, it's very crisp, especially with the line odds. When you think about traditional drawings, even ink drawings, the graphite or the ink will often fall into the small little grooves of the paper at a very zoomed in level, creating a softer line effect that you don't see on digital. Digital just looks very, very sharp. What you can do is you can mimic this natural look in your line coloring by duplicating your line's layer, which I've just done there. Going to the filter menu, going to blur and gogan blur, and most software has a gogan blur of some sort. Then manipulating the amount of blur on that second lines layer, we effectively duplicated the lines layer. Here we've got two lines layers. The top lines layer, we're adding a blur to, and we're blurring all the lines. What you want to do is get a good degree of blur. You can see if we blur too much, it looks strange and poofy. If we don't blur it all, it looks very sharp. We want to get a good degree of blur just to soften those edges and then slightly modify the opacity of the blurred layer so that the effect isn't too strong. What this does is it creates very natural, smooth looking lines. And it also allows the color falls that you will be doing to have a nice, smooth transition into the line, rather than this very harsh black line, flat color with a very sharp edge between the two. You'll see here as we toggle the visibility of the layer on and off, just how much effect the softening has on the piece. This particular piece is the piece we'll be moving forward with through the workflow to indicate and do the examples of the entire coloring workflow. There you see the line softening effect once again, right? That is it for line preparation. I will see you in the next lesson. 4. Stage 1: Local Color: Welcome to this first stage of our coloring and painting workflow which is laying down the flats. Now what do flats refer to? Well, flats refer to flat color. We're laying down just flat color, no gradients, no weird edges, just single flat colors. You can see here that we're using the Inker Flatter tool or equivalent brush in the current software you're using, to just do a solid blob of color and fill in a particular area, That's what flats are. And we're going to fill in the flats for each region independently. We'll label this layer skin. And we'll progress throughout the piece, doing a layer for hair, a layer for the bubbles, a layer for the shells and the tentacle and so on and so forth. So we're going to be laying down flats now. Our file has been prepared for this coloring process. We have a value check layer here at the top. We have our lines in a group which includes our softened lines layer as well as our normal lines layer to give it that nice soft edge. Then we will have our layers underneath the lines for building each of our flat layers up. Now we've also included the gray background because we want to make sure we're choosing values in the right color context or in a normal color context where we don't have a white or black being too contrast in how we select the values. Now on that note, when you're doing flats, you can flat in any color arguably. But I'm going to make a recommendation to you. Let's say that we want to do the skin and we might be prone to choose something like this and say, well, that looks like a reasonable skin tone. The problem is that's quite a lit skin tone. When we're doing flats, we want to make sure that here in the color area, we want to have a range of high values and a good range of low values. So that when we're doing the shadows and the ambient clusion shadows and the car shadows, we can use those lower valued ranges for those when we're doing the high lights and the reflected lights and the other lights, we can use the higher valued ranges for those. We want to make sure we have a broad range of values in our piece. If I were to choose a value for the skin tone, I could start at what I would like it to be if it were under true lighting. And then move it down into a bit more of a gray area and just my hue a little bit warmer there. That's about the value that I'd use for the skin tone and the color moving onto the flatting. The way I personally do this is I use the Inca flat brush. It's got a hard edge and it's pressure sensitive as well. For size, I literally go in and color the surface by hand. There are other ways to do this, but what you want to keep in mind is you want to keep in mind that you want to have accuracy of each of the regions. I'm going to go ahead and color in the entire skin surface here of the face. What I'm doing is I'm paying attention to staying in the lines and not letting any of this skin value and this skin color bleed out onto the hair. But if it does, I'll just switch to the erase tool and erase it so that I only have the skin on this layer. I'm just going to come in here and fill this using the precious sensitivity to get into those little corners. What I'll do is make sure that any area that I have gone over, skin tone that shouldn't have that tone, I'll come over and erase out. For example, the eyebrows are going to be part of the hair layer. We'll just erase out the eyebrows. The eyes are going to be part of the eye layer. I'll out the skin from the eye layer here. Similarly in the mouth, we've flattened out the face. Now, there are other ways to do this. Let's go to our lines layer. One other way to do this is to use the magic wand tool or a full selection tool. The magic wand tool here in Photoshop will basically try to guess what area inside a shape you are selecting on the lines layer, the sharpened lines layer. I'm going to click in this area and you can see the software has made an approximation of the space inside here. Let's create a new skin layer and see what happens when we fill in based on this selection to use the brush here. And I'm just going to brush in over the selection. We will de, select the selection. As you can see, there are quite a few little gray areas that haven't been filled in. Now if you want to use that selection method, you can go in and fill in those gray areas as well. What you can do as well, let's undo all of that. We've got our selection again. If your software supports it, you can go to the Select Menu Modify, which will modify your current selection and select the Expand option. You then choose the number of pixels you want to expand the selection by. In this instance, let's go with four. Let's do a full, again, deselect it. You can see there are still some gaps. It's a little bit more accurate than the first selection, but there are still some gaps. There's even another way you could approach this, delete these skin layers. We're not going to use selections, we'll create another skin layer. What you can do, I know a professional artist that does this, is just simply color the entire skin area in like this. Go throughout all the areas that are skin. Just do all the skin and then come in afterwards and actually just erase what is outside the areas. You're not really focusing about staying in the lines, you're worried about erasing everything that outside the lines. That's certainly a viable method as well. You may be asking about the paint bucket tool if you've used a paint bucket tool where you select a paint bucket tool and you then just fill an area. The thing with the paint bucket tool is that it needs to read the information on the lines layer. It doesn't really work for us because if I were to use the paint bucket tool here and do a full sure it's filled in, it's used the same technology as the selection tool to try and guess the area that you're trying to fall, but we've placed that color on the lines layer that we definitely don't want to do because now we're having our lines in the skin on the same layer. And then we can't modify things on the lines layer properly anymore because there are pixels being fold in on that layer that are part of the skin. The paint bucket tool is not really an effective tool for us. I would certainly recommend just using the anchor flatter brush going in and filling every region. Something to keep in mind is that flatfulls do take quite a bit of time. The flatful process is one of the longest things to do. It's the easiest thing to do. The most basic thing to do, really, you're just coloring in flat color. But it does take quite a bit of time, especially when you want accurate flatfuls. I've gone ahead and flatfiled the entire piece so you can get an idea of what the flatful step should look like. Here, I've given the right values and the right colors to areas that are white. So I gave us some blue hair, it's got a skin tone, got pink shells, the blue bubbles. She's hiding a knife behind her back or something like that. She has the tentacle with the little suction cups on the tentacles. The suction cups on the tentacles and the little patterns on her shells actually share the exact same color in value. That's one of those examples where smaller detail areas can often share a layer. They don't even have to share a color. They can share a layer. Now let's go over to our value check layer and see the values here. We can see that though the colors are all different, we also have differences in the hair to the skin, for example, the skin to the shells, the shells to the tentacles and the skin to the tentacles. This is very important, almost more important. In fact, it is more important than the colors you choose themselves, right? You want to have these separate values because when the viewer is viewing the piece, they're primarily actually viewing the values first and the colors second. Okay? And that is the on flatfolls, you have been provided this file so that you can work on this step by step as you go through. But I would also recommend, of course, using your own artwork, preparing your own lines, doing the flatfolls on your own artwork, and moving through this workflow on your own artwork. All right, that is the flatfolls. I'll see you in the next lesson. 5. Stage 2: Variations: What we're now going to do is we're going to add color variations to our existing flats. Now if you're worried about messing up your existing flats, you can just simply put them in a backup layer, copy all layers, put them in their own folder. And I have a new layer here called base flats backup. It's not a bad idea to do that, but generally speaking, when you have more experience, you won't really worry about it too much. Because what we're going to be doing is we're going to be selecting each of these separate elements that have got flat falls and we're going to give them some color variations. And the reason we're going to introduce these variations, as you will see, is so that we get a more varied surface base color before we hit the lighting. And what it does is at the end of the day, it allows our work to be a little bit more vibrant and have a broader range of color and just look a little bit more appealing, a little bit more believable. Now, something to remember as well is that whilst the flatting process does take a long time, as mentioned in the previous lesson, and adding these color variants, mind you, is going to be quite quick. The reward for doing this lengthy flatting process really is that you get to do the rest of the steps of the form lying principle relatively quickly. Whilst the flatting process does take a long time, you can actually do the rest of the lighting workflow quite quickly, comparatively speaking. Nevertheless, let's get to the color variations, which is what this lesson is all about. What we're going to do here is we've got the skin layer selected. I'm going to hold control and click the thumbnail. And that's going to select all the layer contents. Alternatively, you can click the lock alpha pixels button, which will lock all the invisible pixels on the layer. What we're going to do is we're going to grab the soft op flow brush or a very soft airbrush. In your application of choice, I'm going to click Color Pick this skin value that we've used here, the skin color. What I want to do is I want to introduce perhaps a slight value change. Just a little bit of a value change and somewhat of a different hue change. Generally a hue that would make sense on that surface. For example, I've moved into a pinky ranger. I'm going to gently add in some extra soft areas of this pink color. Now truth be told, you probably won't even notice these colors that much once the lighting is in. The main purpose here is that we get a surface variation going on these flats. The flats aren't so dull and boring here, I'll just add little bits of this new salmony color into the skin areas. Just randomly, I don't really think too much about lighting necessarily when I'm doing this. And I'm just adding some variety to that flat. I'll move through the piece, doing this for all the other elements as well. We'll select the hair here, control H to hide those selection lines. And I will just get a little bit of a different variant. We won't change the value so much, but we definitely want to change the hue, right? So we won't play with the value too much. Because if we play with the value too much, we're moving into territory of doing the shadows and the lighting. And we don't want to mess with that stuff at this stage, We just want some variation in the flats here. You can see I'm adding a bit of a turquoise into the hair. This is, I don't want to say it's a secret technique per se, but it's not used very often. And not many people know to do this to their flats, to just proceed onto doing the rest of the lighting workflow. And it's a nice way, some extra professionalism into your work. All right, let's head to the bubbles. You can hew up or hew down. When you're doing this, it's not the end of the world. Just make my brush smaller. There I am using the soft flow brush or a soft airbrush. And I'm just dabbing a little bit of variant of, a bit of a gradient, if you will. We'll do the shells next. We'll move the shells into a purply range. The effect really is quite subtle tentacles, you can see while I'm doing this, even now, before we've even hit the lighting, how quick it is to move between the elements, now that they're all on their own separate layers, it really is something really good for workflow efficiency to have these separate layers, everything on a separate layer, we won't worry about those small details. We can do the blade handle for sure, color picking that base value, giving it a slight value adjustment, but mainly a hue adjustment and just introducing just some extra types of color in there, some extra colors. All right, and I think we won't worry about the R's in the blade top that much. That is, adding color variations to our flats for the purposes of a end painting really enriches the end painting. See you in the next lesson. 6. Stage 3: Forms: We're now going to take a look at the shadows stage of the workflow. And this is by far the most important part of the workflow. This is really the lesson you want to take notes and you really want to pay close attention to everything that we're going to be doing regarding the shadows. Now you might notice that the characters irises have been painted green and the lips have got a nice soft edged lip color to them. And I've done that actually rendering all the shadows. All the shadows have already been rendered. So that I can show you at the end of the lesson what that's going to look like. But you can go ahead and flat fill these areas as well, just each on separate layers. You can put your irises separate layer or on the R layer, it's fine, and the lips on a separate layer. All right, before we get into the actual process of it, we're going to just take a quick look at some notes as to what we're going to be doing per zone, for the skin zone, for the hair zone for the bubbles, for the shells, et et cetera. The first thing that we're going to be doing is we're going to be putting in general big shadows. General big shadows, emphasis on the word general. We're not going to do any hector crazy thinking about planes that much. Going to be doing general big shadows. Then we're going to do ambient occlusion shadows. Then we are going to do the form shadows. Then wherever we need to, we're actually going to plug in some Ac and some cast shadows as well. Now we will do an occlusion stage near the end of the workflow. And cast shadows stage. A proper car shadow stage, if you will, at the end of the workflow. But it's important that where we recognize areas that need additional occlusion or that need some car shadows to read Well, during our shadow stage that we put it in now, it'll save us some time later. Let me reiterate again, this is the most important part of the workflow. That's the one thing. The second thing is the forms need to read at this stage. That means the work needs to look reasonably three D has to have a reasonable level of convincing Three D at this stage, stage two, really after the flats and we hit the shadows before we move on to the other workflow stages where we're doing lighting and high lights and so on. The third thing is you want to really, really over invest at this stage of the workflow, over invest in the shadows. You can underinvest in all the other steps afterwards. Because if this reads well, the foundation of the image is set, okay, you really want to work hard here. Let's go ahead and get into this. And I'm going to be soft shading this particular piece. That means I'm going to use a soft brush and we're going to focus on a very smooth style of rendering. That is the style of the piece is going to look quite smooth and gradient nicely gradiented. Now that's not to say that this workflow only applies to that style. Once again, this is a universal workflow. If you want to have a rough painterly look or a watercolor look or what have you, we're going to cover those particular lo in module four. But really you just want to focus on the workflow, right, and the fact that we're doing shadows. So don't worry too much about style or the look of the workflow that can always be changed. All right, is going to be a slightly longer lesson than usual. I'll do my best to keep things as clear and concise as possible. Let's get right into it. What we're going to be working on in particular is we're going to be working on the skin here. What I'm going to do is I'm going to create a layer above the skin. And I'm going to call it skin lighting. Now when we say lighting doesn't mean light, it just means the entire form lighting principle that we want to apply. We're going to do that all on this layer. What you can do is you can either click your skin layer and control on the thumbnail. And click to select the area so that we only painting on our new layer within the selection of the skin only you could do that. However, if your software supports clipping masks, which most of the software does, you can just hold out and huber between the lines here between skin lighting and skin. And it'll say to the skin lighting layer on paint on the areas that the skin layer covers. Right? Which basically locks all of our pixels to the skin. You can see here, it's only painting on the skin no matter where I move the cursor. Right now what we're going to do is we're going to switch to our soft op flow brush or a soft brush of your choice. We want to make sure that the flow is quite low. Now you will see when you look at the full demo of this painting from start to finish, that I actually started at 100% flow and I had to make an adjustment about maybe one fifth or one sixth of the way through, and that can happen sometime. Really pay attention to your flow setting. Keep it low. 70 to 80% is fun. What we're going to do is going to hold Alt and we're going to color pick our base skin value here. All right, skin color and skin value. We're going to drop the value down here in the color pick area. We're going to drop the value down. If you want to, you can play a little bit with the hue saturation. This is really just subjective creativity. You can do it as you feel and get a shadow value going, right? We've color picked and we've got a shadow value and what we want to do is just spray it as hard as we can on a spot. Go up to our value check layer and make sure that there's adequate contrast, that there's a clear distinction between the light and the shadow and it looks like there is. In this case, that's great. We're going to move onto that first step that I said in the class notes. Bring those up. Number one, general, big shadows. What I'm going to do here, it's just delete that. I'm not worried about painting the lines because I've got my clipping mask. I'm going to say to myself, well, where is the light coming from? We're going to keep things simple. We're going to say there's a light on the left side, the main key lights on the left side of her. What I'm going to do is make my brush really big and just gently spray in some big shadows. The right side of her body is probably going to be more shadowed and more in shadow than the left. Just some general shadows get them down. Not too dark. I'm pressing very lightly. Anywhere I think needs a little bit of a general shadow, you can see. Now we've got a lighter left hand side and a slightly darker right. These are just your general big shadows. All right, next we're going to move onto our ambient occlusion shadows. Really ambient occlusion shadows once again show the turning of the form. We're back at our skin lighting layer, same value. We've got the same value there and the same color. What we're going to do now is ask ourselves, wherever a ambient occlusion shadow may occur. Right, usually at the edges of the shapes, we will lightly spray in an ambient occlusion shadow. At the edges of the shapes. The edge of the head here, it gets ambient. Same thing at the edge of the ear. Don't be shy with the value. You can see me adding it in here. At the edge of the shoulders, I play with the brush sensitivity, the pressure sensitivity of the brush to make sure that I'm keeping it nice and smooth as it gradients into the light part of the skin. Right? I'm adding in these ambient occlusion shadows to the edges of objects. All right? Wherever the forms turn, that is, wherever a form is rounded or returns to another side, it's a good idea to have an ambientclusion shadow at its edge. I'd like to think that this is actually fairly straightforward, so we're going to just add these in quite quickly. I'm going to move a little bit more rapidly for the sake of your time, we're going to get these ambientcllusion shadows in. All right. Now you want to try and avoid having too harsh of an edge. You don't want to have like an ambiclued shadow like that, where you haven't been trying to control the gradient. Just try to keep it nice and smooth. And if it isn't smooth, just go over it again a little bit softer. And keep it in there, keep it nice and smooth. This edge of the form here is going to get an ambient inclusion shadow here, this side of the arm. Now you'll want to do this a little bit more carefully than I'm doing it here. This is still correct. It's not incorrect, but I am expediting my speed for your sake. All right. Those are the ambient inclusion shadows. We've got them on the edges and that's really nice. I do tend to use the term ambiclusion little bit more loosely than its strictest meaning, but I'm sure you understand what I mean when I say, let's get those shadows on the edges. All right? Now, once those are in, we then move doing our next shadowing stage, which is the form shadows. And this is the very important stage, all right? This is also requires us to really have invested time in just having a good general understanding of the planes. Okay, While you're working, always assess, do you feel the value is dark enough? I tend to go too dark, so I wanted to drop the value a little darker. I think I'm going to just leave it as it is because I tend to go quite dark. Excuse me. That is easy to fix digitally. That's the great thing with digitally. You can really fix everything if you do make mistakes. But anyway, we'll keep that value the same. Now what we're going to do is the form shadows. The form shadows of the shadows that fall on the form in the areas where the light isn't touching. So what I'm going to do is we're going to do the form shadows here on the face. And I'm going to start painting in shadows in the eye sockets, lights coming from the left. I imagine the side of the nose would probably have a bit of a shadow there. Keeping it smooth, keeping the gradient smooth. I want to have a darker shadow as we come to this right side of the face here, because the lights are not touching there underneath the nose. We're going to add another shadow here. Here's where we can imply a cast shadow. It's one of those instances where we can actually, let's get a car shadow going so that the nose is casting a bit down. Then we can put a little ambient occlusion shadow here on the edge of the nose as it goes into the eye socket shadow of the left eye. You can see we keep those edges nice and soft. It's very important to do this. It's better to have very soft edges that you can harden, rather than trying to soften very hard edges, which can be very, very tricky. Since the head is really round, I'm thinking, let's have more shadow here. And we will want to have a shadow under the bottom lip here, a little bit more under the chin over here. Similarly in the ear, you can put some little car shadows. We want the holes in the ear to be quite dark. We'll stick to the face. On that note there, we're going to move into our adding slight occlusion shadows to the face. What we want to do is darken that shadow value a little bit because some areas need to be a little bit darker. For example, here by the nostril, the inner parts of the eye, the eye socket, mind you, then these little areas under the hair, just where the hair connects. There's going to be a lot of ecclusion happening there. We're going to just enhance those shadows. This little gap by the ear as it goes next to the head. Similarly by the ear lobe, as it connects to the jaw. We want that to be nice and dark. And also these dark areas inside the ear itself, really, this is the process that you want to be working through. Do the general shadows and then work the ambient occlusion. So the car shadows that you need in the occlusion, shadows that you need in this area, you may notice little areas of gray or whatever the background color you have is peering. Don't worry about that. You can't sit and try to get those types of things Super perfect. That's why we have post production which allows us to clean up some of this stuff. Don't worry about that. I can come in here and enhance some of these ambient occlusion shadows. Let's add in that neck shadow. All right, which is going to cost a little bit as well. We'll just add the shape of the casting of the neck shadow, keeping the edge relatively harder here so that it appears to be casting correctly throughout the shadowing process. I'm thinking about the ambient occlusion. Shadows are where the form shadows are where there is going to be shadow. For example, here with the clavicle connects collar bone there, it's going to be a little bit of shadow in there. For example, here where the arm and the shoulder connect to the torso. We want the shadow to be darker. We want to make sure those edges are not too hard. We'll add that shadow in. Similarly with the breast managing our brush pressure, managing how we do it. If you feel you've overshadowed anywhere, just hit for the Rays tool. Make sure it's on the soft brush here and you can just come in and erase it lightly. You want to work the shadows exactly in that order. General big shadows, ambient occlusion, shadows on the edges, form shadows and constantly working them, looking at it and assessing the surface area you're doing and making sure you're painting those shadows in. Just going to enhance those shadows there. I would work on every single surface in this particular way right now. Don't worry too much at this stage if you feel like you're not grasping it. Because there are plenty of demos in this course that you will see the exact workflow playing out, particularly the ones we've done so far from the flat to the flat color variations, to the shadow stages doing the big general shadows, then the edge, ambient occlusion shadows, then the form shadows. We're asking ourselves where on the form do these shadows fall? For example, here we might do a big form shadow there for this breast. Here we can put one here because there's not going to be light. And perhaps between the breasts some shadows there. Maybe there's too much there. So we're going to erase that and keep things soft but accurate as possible. All right, what you want to end up with, let's move over to those layers there. Is you want to end up with a piece that looks something like this. All right? You want to have a piece that looks something like that. All the shadows have been placed on every zone and it's fine if it's a little dark because we also have the lighting stage to help us lighten areas when we're adding actual light to the piece. And you can see the hair particularly requires a good number of passes of the occlusion stage, where you're really darkening the little shadows in the hair. Note the general shadowing of the hair. Right? We've got a lighter area on the left and a dark area on the right. Same thing with the skin. Lighter on the left, darker on the right, and similarly applies to everything else. Okay, that is the shadowing stage over, invest, nitpick. Add the details that you want to add and make sure as you're adding in each of these stages that you're saying to yourself doesn't look three D. One of the big reasons why it may not look three D is you may be placing the shadows in the incorrect place. The solution to that is to go back and study the planes. You really have to invest time in studying the planes, all right? But it won't take too long. I can promise you that you only need a general planes understanding. That really is the end of the shadows lesson. But let's just do a comparison between the flats and the shadows. There are the flats, those flats don't have color variants because we have our backup layer. If you remember from the last lesson, here we have the shadows. Once the strong foundation has been laid, you will see in the following steps, how easy it is, how easy it is to make it look great and super threedy. And really a nice example of forming principle, all right? But work the stage. Believe me. Work the stage. Take my advice. Work the stage. All right? I'll see you in the next lesson. 7. Stage 4: Light 1: In this lesson, we're now going to take a look at the general lighting phase. If you've invested the time in doing your shadows, this phase will be relatively quick. You still need to think about the planes. And we're still going to be working on our lighting layer and we will do so throughout the rest of the piece. Let's get into it. Let's start with the skin for example. We'll go to our skin lighting layer here. And we will color pick the lighter value of the skin, not the shadow value, the lighter value. Then we'll do a hue up, then we'll increase the value. We'll then check by doing a bit of a test, check the value of that light and see if there is enough contrast to make it a viable light looks a little bit too light to me. I'm going to drop the value down slightly, undo that, give this value a try. That seems reasonable. You don't want it to go too high because we still need some value room for highlights. Now we're going to move to the skin lighting. There it is, of course, clipped to the skin layer. You can also use a selection if you wish. We're going to light any areas that need additional light, and we're going to use our understanding of planes to determine where the light would hit if it were shining from the top left side. I'm just going to move in here using a biggish brush. Light areas, pressing very softly and bringing additional light to the piece. For example, here, the left hand side of the breasts are receiving additional light. This front chest area can get a little bit more light as well. Similarly here by the stomach, you'll find this stages particularly quick. You just need to make sure you're not pressing too hard and not getting too harsh edges out of your brush. You'll see how I strive for subtlety and you should too. We want to just introduce light where it's needed. Mainly. This would be on the left side as well. Do keep that in mind, you won't introduce much of this light in a shadowed area or in the general shadowed area unless you really feel you need to add some light there. We'll bring up some additional light in the arm here. Here as well. Let's move to the face. I'm very tempered with how I used the soft brush in this instance. I ask myself, well, if there was light hitting the face from the left, where would it hit? I imagine we'd have a spot here on the forehead. Some light on the nose. Possibly on the top plane of the nostril, perhaps not so bright. A little bit like that. Definitely on the left cheek, you can see stroke it very loosely. Press very gently. I build it up slowly. You don't have to rush to build up any of these zones. Right then the eyelids as well would receive a degree of light. They tend to get quite lit. Does depend on the lighting circumstance, but it adds a nice degree of dynamism. We want to be careful when we're doing this lighting phase as well, not to eliminate our ambient occlusion, shadows on the edges of the forms. That's a very common beginner's mistake. If you do that, it's going to make the form not look three dimensional anymore. That's pretty much it for the lighting of course. The higher degree of accuracy you pursue in this stage, the more fidelity the image will have. You're really playing with a scale of very realistic down to a scale of very simplistic. We're going to keep things in the middle ground here. Still doing the full workflow. Let's hit the hair, go to the hair layer here, Hair lighting, select our base color. We're going to warm it up a little bit in the hue and we're going to increase the value. We want a nice, substantial increase and we are going to keep it very soft and let the gradients work well. We're going to do this once again with subtlety. And primarily in areas where the hair would be lighter, we don't want to go, that's light. Light, that's, that's that's light, et cetera. We just focus on where the light would be at. A where the light would be basically focus where the light would be. I have to ask myself, do I want to do with some of the gaps in the hair, Is it in shadow? If it is, I want to leave it unlit. If it isn't in shadow, I'll add a few streaks of light to it. We'll just slid a few of these areas, but very subtly we don't want to overdo it. We would then move through each zone, gently applying light to areas where we feel need extra light, that are getting hit by a general source of light. Effectively, we're enhancing the existing light zones that were defined by us placing shadows in the correct positions. All right, let's take a look at what happens when we've done this over the entire piece. We should have our flats and our shadows completely done. Then when we've applied the lights across the piece, we'll have this type of effect where it's almost as if you're turning a light on and off from the left side and it's lighting. The forms, you'll move that across each of the layers. Taking care to consider the planes to use subtlety. Don't forget that you want your flow to be quite low in this instance or your opacity low. If your software doesn't have a flow setting, keep your Pacy. About 80% just gives you more control over how much paint you're using per stroke. That's that for the lighting phase. Let's move on to the next phase. 8. Stage 5: Light 2: We're now going to move over to our reflected lighting stage. The thing we want to remember about the reflected lights is that they generally appear in the shadows. They also generally appear from the ground. They're bouncing up from the ground and they're hitting bottom surfaces of things. We're going to go ahead and use our skin lighting layer here to do an example of that and how you can paint that in. Of course, you'll move across all your layers, your lips, lighting layer, hair lighting layer, and so forth. Going in and doing the reflected lighting where it should likely to be appearing. Let's start here on the face. What you're going to notice is that now that you've got your shadows down and your lights down, and you've built up the bulk of that form. You're going to notice that when you add reflected light, it suddenly brings a whole new world of dimensionality to the piece. And that is why reflected lighting is one of the four pillars of lighting. What I've done here is this is my typical color that I select, which is a highsh value in the green hue range gray, it's really just a slightly greeny gray. And you could pretty much arguably use anything. But I feel that a mixing of the light comes to something like this. A lightish gray or even you could just go a flat gray high value. That is the color that I'm using there. What I want to do is I want to imagine what planes the ground lighting might be shining on in the shadowed areas. One of the most common locations for this is at the bottom of the chin and the jaw. So we're going to go ahead and we're going to paint that in. What you want to do is make sure as you're painting in these strokes, that the gradient, as it moves into the skin is very smooth. You want to avoid harsh edges, right? You don't want sharp edges. In this instance, I start off just painting a light smooth section and then I move into a little bit of a brighter section here. And I keep going over that edge to kill that line, that harsh edge that we get a smooth gradient moving into that area. Bring a little bit more up here. I'm going to add a little bit under the ear as well. I'm just asking myself, if there was light bouncing up from the ground, where would that light, potentially, it may hit a little bit of the ear here. Certainly a place it definitely does tend to hit is the bottom of the nose. Just keep in mind, try to keep it in the shadow areas. You can see already the three dimensionality that you're getting from adding that reflected lighting into the face. Really you just move through the piece, painting it in, making sure those edges are really soft edges because if they're hard, it kills the effect immediately. Maybe there's some bounce and reflected lighting in the eye area here in the eye lid, top area, below the nose, here on the nostril. Even indeed, even in the eyes there will be some. I'm not in the eye layer at the moment. Of course, they'll also be on the lips and so on and so forth. So I'm going to move ahead and just show you what the entire piece will look like when you've added this reflected lighting in. This is our piece without the reflected lighting. Very similar to when we added all the lights. You'll notice as if you're turning a light on and off from the ground. Let's go to this zoom level. Actually, the zoom level is fine. Let's turn that layer on with the reflected lighting. It's off once again. Once again, let's keep it on and just explore it a little bit. You can see here generally bottom facing planes, planes that face the ground, get this treatment to one degree or another. What I tend to do is, depending on whether the area is in a focal point or not, I will lighten it. As we get to the top, this area here, you can see it's quite light there, but here on this main piece of sweeping here, it gets quite bright. The value of that reflected light gets quite bright. We have it on multiple areas of the face. We have a little hint of it in the eye. We've got it on the lips and the top lip, the bottom of the nose, the bottom of the shells, mainly bottom facing planes. The bottom of this arm here, that arm there, and here on the tentacle areas that face the bottom planes. And that is the reflected lighting stage. Going to move onto the highlight stage. I'll see you there. 9. Stage 6: Highlights 1: We're now going to discuss highlights and the highlighting stage. Now something to keep in mind is that highlights appear in the lit areas. Also, you will want to restrain your use of highlights. Highlights Sound really fun, bright beginners. A common mistake is that they place highlights everywhere on everything, and we want to show restraint. We want to put highlights at where we believe is the highest point of light on a particular surface or on a particular element. We're going to do the example on the skin layer. Once again, it's a very common layer. And we are going to pick our light zone color, one of our values within the light zone, somewhere fairly light. And we're going to he up a little bit and we're going to value up a little bit, then do a test. All right, let's check that on the value check layer. Seems good, do that. Go back to our skin lighting layer here. What we want to do is pick one or a few zones in the lid area or a few elements that could have a potential highlight based on the planes on the face here, for example, that I see three very viable zones for a good highlight. The first zone would be a small little section just here on the forehead, which would be the highest point of light on that forehead section on the nose, lightly spray in a bit of a nose highlight, trying not to eliminate my ambient occlusion edge there. I'll start here with the brightest point at the tip and I will drag it up a little bit and kill some of the edges a little bit to make them not so sharp. All right? Maybe even as I do that, I'm thinking to myself, restraint. You want to show restraint with the highlights? I'm not going to have it extend all the way to the top. Then on the cheek here, a little bit of a subtle highlight just on the cheek. Nothing too crazy. That would be probably it for the face. Actually, let's just add a little bit here to the eyelids. Just the tips of them. A little trick I like to do because that area of the eyelids can catch light. Just in the middle area there. All right. That would be it for the face. Now you can mess around with and you can add subtle lights here and there on your highlighting phase. But you want to show restraint because the minute you start adding too many highlights or two bright highlights, you really start losing the three dimensionality of the forms. For example, as we move to the chest area, imagine there would be a spot probably like here that would receive a lot of light, or more light than the other sides. I try to stick to light zones here on the breasts. Maybe a little bit of a section, the section here on this breast. And to really try, keep things minimal and think about the planes, Do not go crazy with highlights, you'll regret it. The arms here, for example, cylindrical objects tend to highlight with a strip or a stripe, a bit of a light stripe there. Always adjusting my brush size as I need to. We probably have a bulb like highlight here, just there on the arm and kill the edges softly. Similarly here in the stomach, probably this left side would have a little bit of highlight because it's raised, its planes are raised. You can see you really have to show restraint when you're doing highlights. Go ahead, do your highlights. Remember, you want to pick the light zone color, hew it up, and value it up quite substantially. That is effectively our highlighting stage. You'll move through the piece doing this on each lighting layer, the skin lighting layer, the lips lighting layer, and so on and so forth. And once again, I've gone ahead and done highlights on the entire piece, just so we can save some time. There is the work without highlights. Here is the work with highlights, particularly on the hair. You want to your zones very wisely, don't go highlighting everywhere, It will really ruin the three dimensionality of the hair. Okay, there we have the highlights on and the highlights off, on and off. All right, we'll leave those on. I will see you in the next lesson. 10. Stage 7: Highlights 2: When we're painting high lights, there are going to be times where certain surfaces need to be more reflective. And the way we indicate their reflectivity is by hardening the edges of the highlights on that particular surface. In this instance of this particular piece, these tentacles are actually going to be a little bit more shiny. What we're going to do is we've moved over to the tentacles lighting layer over here. We've put in our highlights and our lights. You can see in this section of the tentacle. And what we're going to do is using the soft rush, we're going to come in and we're actually going to harden up selectively some edges. Now, which edges do you pick to harden up while you really have to look at it and see what makes sense? But generally speaking, you can harden up a fair bit of the edges and it will start to make the surface look a little bit more shiny. Now the edge is on a particular surface in terms of your lights heading. It is the more reflective that surface is until such a point where you can have a mirror reflection. And it's really just reflecting everything around it. But in this instance, we're going to go for just slightly shinier. We're not going to go for a mirror reflection. What I'm going to do is just color pick this highlight here. Use my soft brush at a fairly small size because the smaller size means I get a tougher edge, harder edge. And I'm going to harden the edge of this highlight area here. Now I want to make sure things don't look super streaky. I'll still change the brush size at times just to make sure the blending of the gradients still looks good. Particularly inside this highlight area. You can see immediately the change that it has to how we perceive that object. Now here I'm actually going to select the shadow. And I'm going to use the shadow to harden the edge, the inside edge of that particular highlight. By doing so, I'm implying to the viewer that this thing has a greater degree of reflectivity based on its harder edged highlights. I'm going to go in and harden them even more just to get a little bit more contrast between the lit area and the shadowed area. You can see here we're getting quite a firm edge. Now let's not forget, we want to think about edges in a range of very, very soft all the way up to very, very hard. You want to get a nice range of edges when you're painting and coloring in general, right? And that area is done. The perception of the surface material of this object has now been altered, right? It's more of a shiny surface. I'm going to do the same up here as an example. Now, typically the light edge would be the hardest. The side that's facing the light, and slightly softer at the side that isn't facing the light here, I'm coming in and once again, I'm hardening the edges of these lights, of the highlights here on all surfaces that need to be shinier. You want to harden up the edge a little bit. That's not to say, make it raise a sharp. For example, if we used our ink flatter brush, particularly on the surface, you could probably bring it up to a mirror finish, but that's what a very hard edge would look like. All right, so we're just putting in a very hard edge. Certainly it is effective for very shiny surfaces. This is not going to be ultra shiny, maybe a medium degree of shine. Okay? That's effectively what we'll do on every surface that needs this type of edge treatment. In this particular piece, the only areas we're really looking at this happening are the tentacle and the handle of the knife. The top section, this gray section of the knife. As for the bubbles, technically we could also do it on the bubbles as well. I've just not opted to in this particular piece because the bubbles are actually more of a background element. I don't want to put too much focus on them, but make sure you're hardening edges on surfaces that are shinier are meant to be shinier or more reflective. Actually, before we move on to the next lesson, let's take a look at what this looks like when completed. That's without the hardening. Look particularly at the tentacle that is with the hardening. And you can see how our perception of the surface material of the tentacle has changed quite significantly before and after. Make sure you have a pass where you run through on your highlights and harden those edges if the material type is more of a reflective type of material. All right, let's move on to the next lesson. 11. Stage 8: Highlights 3: In this last lesson on highlights, we're now going to take a look at adding specularity, or specular highlights, to our piece. Now, specular highlights really are the brightest points of light. And usually there's only one single specular highlight per a particular zone. Similar in the way to highlights, but even less and more restrained than highlights are what we do with specular highlights. Or at least what I'd like you to do as we are moving through this workflow is to put your specularity layer, or your specular highlights layer above your lines. And what I've done here is I have the lines layer here, which I've combined our hard lines and our soft lines into a single lines layer and put it above the lines layer. And you will notice that when you're doing specular highlights, that you will be erasing some lines that you don't need. Because it's pointless if a specular highlight is underneath a line because the specular highlight is brighter than anything underneath it, right? So it has to be on top. We put the specularity layer above our lines layer. All right, we're going to move ahead in this piece and go and add some specular highlights. The first highlights we're going to add, we're going to take our Inca flatter brush, which has a nice hot edge. We're going to add the specular highlights to the eyes. I'm just going to put a dot there and a dot there and I'll put a the eye as well. This is just a stylistic choice. You can put as many highlights as you want. And these don't have to be a particular shape. They could be square, it could be triangular. I'm also going to add a specular highlight to the lip here. Add another little one as well. What I would like to do is add a single specular highlight to the nose. Let's just say, okay, her nose is very shiny. What I'm going to do here is I could use white. Going to use my soft brush for this based on the surface of the skin being not quite as reflective as the eyes or the lips. I'm going to just bring my value up there and I can hew up a little bit as well. I'm going to add just a small little highlight to her nose. Right. That's pretty much what we do when we're doing the spinklers, particularly the white spicklers are quite easy. Now you can see I've removed the circles marking the highlight positions on the bubbles. So what we do is we move into the bubbles. We can use our ink flutter brush or our soft brush, as long as your edge is hard, and add in those bubble highlights, which is pretty straightforward. And we'd move through the piece and do that. But there's something else I want to show you. As we know this tentacle is quite reflective. And I'm going to show you a fantastic technique for getting really hard edged but smooth specular highlights in. Once you've done all your other lighting, what we're going to do here is we're going to go to the inco flat brush and we're going to pick a much higher value. We can even increase the hue here as well. We're going to use the inco flat brush and the soft soft op flow brush in unison with each other, right? First of all, we're going to lay down a stroke inside, right within our highlighted area like that. Then we're going to hit the erase tool and use the soft op flow brush and erase the tips out until we get a nice smooth gradient into that area. All right. Immediately, I'm sure you can tell it looks a lot more glossy and a lot more shiny. Let's do it here. Do note that I do move the brush quite quickly to get these smooth strokes in. We'll do the same there, and the same here. Of course, if you feel that maybe you want this to be the single brightest point, we can just erase over it and lower the value as we are erasing that little extra specular there. Let's do this point here. You can see I undo until I have the stroke exactly as I'd like it to be. I would advise as well. Don't take second best with yourself. Don't rush. Get things exactly as you want them to be. All right here, I'll do the same once again and I'm just going to lighten most of the stroke. Voila, we have a very shiny tentacle with some speculats on it. Consider what material types would have a specular lighting. This blade here, for instance, would certainly would this handle top of the blade or the hidden blade. So I'm going to do the very same thing. I'm going to put in a bright stroke. And because it's on a separate layer, there is no issue with me erasing those edges out. Right? You can see in certain instances, let's look at our old lines where there were lines. For example, the nose on the lines and the circles on the bubbles, I had to erase them. And this is common practice. Usually you realize you've put lines somewhere where you actually want a specular. And you have to go into your lines layer and erase those lines. Come back to the new lines, you can see they've been erased. And this layer specularity layer, specula layer is one of a few layers that will be putting above the lines or right on top of things, but we'll get more into that as we move on. Right, that is the end of the highlights lesson. Here is my fully completed speculus for the piece, not much different to what we just did. Just a few extra bubbles. I will see you in the next lesson. 12. Stage 9: Dynamic Lighting: We're now going to take a look at adding secondary lighting to your piece. The first thing you want to do is think about what direction would the secondary lighting be coming from. We've got our primary light on the left, got reflected light at the bottom. Perhaps a good secondary light location in this instance is from the right. That said, it doesn't have to be from the right, it could also be from the left as well, and it would still look pretty cool. But nevertheless, with the light coming from the right, the secondary light source. We're going to approach this in a very similar way that we approached the reflected lighting step. What I've done here is I've selected a very high value blue. Now of course, you could select whatever color you feel works with the color and scheme that you're working with. And what I'm going to do, I'm going to use the skin lighting layer again as an example for this is we're going to move in and lightly paint in this secondary light, shining on any planes that face it. What I do is I come in with this soft brush just to get an initial glow happening. Then I move closer in to add the secondary lighting. The brightest point of it. Very similar approach to the way we do the reflected lighting. Now also remember it's okay to overlap the reflected lighting when you're doing this stage, for example, secondary light is clearly going to be shining on this section of the arm here as well. I just overlap that reflected lighting and continue to paint in my secondary lighting. All right? It's a pretty straightforward process. It can be quite time consuming as well. It depends how many details you have in your piece. Here on the face, Let's add a little bit to the jaw line. Try to make sure that you're not having two hard edges. You don't want it to look like a line, it must just look like light shining. We can add some to the ear here as well. I'm using the soft brush for this as well. Also, take note that I've added a small blue specular dot on the specularity layer just to indicate that light source in the eyes as well. You work layer by layer, section by section, adding this secondary light source. When you're done, it should look something like this. Once again, you know, you're getting it pretty much correct when you can turn it on and off like a light switch as such. Now that we have the ground reflected light, the key light on the left and a full light on the right or our secondary light source on the right. We now have three point lighting and it makes our work look very, very dynamic. And three D. That's it for the secondary lighting lesson. I'll see you in the next lesson. 13. Stage 10: Contrast: We're now going to move onto the occlusion shadows stage. Really we're going to be enhancing all the darkest, tiny shadows in the piece in this stage, first thing that we want to do is create an occlusion shadows layer below our specularity layer and above our lines layer. That's the very first thing we want to do. Then we'll want to set this occlusion shadows layer to the multiply layer mode. What we're going to be doing is we're going to have this layer multiply the values of the colors underneath. And we're going to then use the soft rush. And paint with black. What we're going to do paint on that layer, but we're going to use selections from our flatful layers. For example, in the skin here, we're going to hold control and select all of those areas there. Hit control H to hide the selection lines. And then I'm going to move back to my occlusion shadows layer. Right, This one here is called occlusion shadows class because the finished occlusions have already been done. Just in case you're confused about that, let's move into it. If we unhide the selection, you can see that we've got all of the skin areas selected. But just be sure that you are on your occlusion shadows layer when you're going to be painting in the occlusion shadows. What I'm going to be doing here is asking myself, he where are they going to be? Shadows that are really getting close to black on the form. All right. And one of those areas here would be in these tiny little crevices by the hair. I'll gently stroke in occlusion, shadows where the hair meets the head. Wherever I feel they may be really dark areas. Once again, you can see these little gray areas that do not have any full. Once again, don't stress about them. We can clean that up when we're doing our final touches. Were any areas we haven't fold or that didn't get full, probably we can clean them up. What I'm doing is I'm moving through the piece, looking for areas that need to have more occlusion shadows or darker occlusion shadows. I go through step by step and add them wherever I feel they need to be. Here under the ear, for example, could do with a little bit more. The section of the neck here. Don't be afraid to use the arrays tool as well to clear up edges. For example, if I wanted to do an occlusion here in the pit which is a viable location and I did something like that to enhance it, that's fine. I can then just use the arrays tool and erase the areas that are not meant to be occluded and still keep my occlusion. Right. That's the great thing about having it on a separate layer. I might want to enhance the small little gaps between the shells in which case I'll have to go to the shells layer, flat layer here and select them. Control H to hide that selection because I don't want to paint on my shells layer. I'm going to go back to my occlusion shadow layer that dark and just enhance these shadows here. These are more subtle occlusions. You can see the difference this makes to how the forms stand out. All right, we'd move through the whole piece including the hair, adding in occlusions wherever we felt we needed to enhance the darkest of the dark shadows in our work. Now here is the final occlusions for this. It didn't take too long, it's not really a very long stage. You're really just trying to identify areas that are a little bit too light. Here you can see as I turned it on, north is introduced contrast and you can see a few zones that have gotten the occlusion shadow treatment. Right. And that is that for the occlusion shadows layer. Once again remember above your lines, below your specularity layer. All right. I'll see you in the next lesson. 14. Stage 11: Cast: We're now going to do the final part of the bulk of the form lining workflow in painting, this character which is cast shadows. Of course, cast shadows are those shadows that are being cast by some object over another object. Another key thing we want to remember is that car shadows are typically quite transparent. The edges of the car shadows is determined whether the light is very bright or if the light is very dispersed. For example, car shadows on a cloudy day will have a softer edge, and car shadows on a bright, sunny day will have a harder edge. In instance of this piece, I think we're going to go with more of a normalized lighting, so we're going to stick with harder edged. What we're going to do is we're going to create a layer above all of our other layers. It's particularly above the specularity layer we can call the car shadows. And we're going to set the mode to multiply. We're then going to use the Inca flatter brush or a hard edged brush in your softer of choice to paint in essentially black stripes of the car shadow. We want to try and mimic a car shadow effect with this pure black first. Then we're going to use the soft up flow brush, or a soft brush to erase the parts we don't need, as well as create the transparency in the shadow. But let me show you how we're going to approach this now before we actually get started. Generally speaking, depending on the piece you're working on, you may not have too many car shadows in the piece. Just think logically about what could be creating a car shadow over a surface or an object in the scene or in the piece that will guide you. In this piece, there are only a few locations for car shadows and one of the biggest locations is this big swooping piece of hair over all the other hair. What I'm going to do is I've got the Inca flatter brush. I have black selected. I'm on my car shadows layer with multiply. And I'm going to try and mimic the shape of the shadow that may be occurring from this hair. Now, this can be as accurate or as simplified as you require it to be. Also based on the style that you're going for. I try to get it as accurate as possible, but we need to keep in mind we're not computers, you're not going to get 100% accurate car shadows. Really do your best here. I'm using the Inca flatter and I'm just erasing the bits that I don't need that are coming outside of the hair there, guessing at that edge. I'll raise this section here too. Just imagine where that bottom piece of hair will be. Then I'll switch to my Rays tool. Switch to this soft rush, lightly erase in the transparency I'm pressing lightly so I can get a degree of transparency over this car shadow. That one looks a little bit dark, so I'll go over it again. That is a very quick way to paint in the car shadows. Just going to smooth that edge up over there. We have one cast shadow in. I'm going to jump right ahead to the car shadows I've already placed, and we can take a look at them. You can see that I extended this cast shadow here, around here, up and over through there, just to give the impression that it's definitely in front of the rest of this hair. I added a small little one under this piece of hair here. And then I also added some car shadows, mimicking the edge of the shell shapes as those shells cost down on this side from the light on the top left. That's pretty much the only car shadows that are added into the piece because we had already done some of the key cast shadows at the beginning of the workflow. When we were doing our shadow steps, we added in neck car shadow and we had this very slight nose car shadow underneath the nose here. That's something we might want to enhance, which we can do when we're doing our final clean up stage. That is the cast shadows lesson. Really just look for clear, obvious places where something would be costing. Create your layer. Make sure it's set to multiply. Use black. Use the brush edge that you think is necessary for the lighting circumstances. And then go in painted in. Erase it so that we have the transparency and that is how quickly create cast shadows. Great, I'll see you in the next lesson. 15. Post Production: We've now completed all the steps of the lighting workflow, but we've got some things to do still yet. But before we get there, this is a great time to stop and consider what we could change in terms of the levels and the hue and the saturation of the individual elements. In order to do these adjustments digitally and efficiently, what we'll want to do is merge our layers together. For example, over here we have the skin lighting layer and the skin flat layer. What we can do is hold shift, select both right click and then choose Merge Layers. This works more or less the same way in most of the software. Now that the layers are merged, we can then go to the Image and the adjustments menus and pick from the variety of adjustments here to make to that section. I'm going to go ahead and merge the lips layers as well. And I've gone on ahead and merged every single layer so that every separate element now has the lighting and the flats on a single individual layer. This really just again, makes it easy for us to make those edits and adjustments. Let's take the skin for example. First, let's adjust its levels. This would be the value levels, the dark values, midtone gray values, and the light values. I'm going to add some additional lighter values in play around with the mid tones. I'm really just losing my eyes to see what I feel feels right in the context of the gray background and the piece overall in this preview box lets me see the difference between my changes and the previous version. It was a little bit dark, so I'm glad we've increased the skin value there. Now be careful when you're using tools like that. Always do your value check to make sure that the values still read well. You want your lights and your shadows to be clearly contrasting against one another. When you're making these changes, just be vigilant on that. Let's take the hair for example. We'll do a huge change on the hair. Let's say just for argument's sake, we wanted the head to be more green. Can add a little bit more green into it there, increase the saturation a little bit. Then we could keep that change, it changes the feel of the piece quite a bit. What you'll do once you finish the lighting is take that moment to pause, merge your layers together, and go through and make the level adjustments so that you can achieve the contrast levels that you want. If you made something too dark or you made something a little bit of the wrong color, this is the time to change it. Before we move on, make sure that you do have this adjustment. Stop off point along the way as you're working through your pieces. I'll see you in the next lesson. 16. Skin Enhancement: In this lesson, we're now going to take a look at subsurface scattering on the character's skin. Now, subsurface scattering is a light effect that occurs when light enters an object, scatters around underneath the object, and then causes a slight glow on the outside of the object. Types of areas to think about this is for example, on the ears when light is shining through a character's ears or the little pieces of skin between your fingers. You've probably seen that it glows quite red sometimes depending on the lighting, obviously, Another way to think about other objects, for example, are gummy bears. Gummy bears are a good example in jelly, for example, of how subsurface scarring works. Where the light enters, the object bounces around inside and then causes a bit of a glow for what is underneath. Now obviously under our skin quite a lot of blood vessels in blood, we get a warm red glow occurring. This is one of the key things that makes a character that looks dead maybe, or stale, or maybe really pale, make them look alive. And we're going to do that now. I'm going to show you a very quick, easy way to do this, particularly in Photoshop. The way you can mimic this in other applications is really just to create a normal layer and just put a light bit of a red or a very cherry red with a soft brush. But in Photoshop there is a great layer mode called soft lighting. First, I've created a new layer here, and we're going to call it SSS for subsurface scattering. And we're going to set the layer mode here to soft light. Then we're going to grab a very bright cherry red, our soft brush here and gently put subsurface scattering or paint our subsurface scattering onto the areas where it would be. Now, common areas for subsurface scattering generally tend to be the cartilage areas of the ear. Oftentimes the cheeks very subtly. Sometimes the nose, I'll show you an extra bonus effect for it as well. Let's do the ear area, for example. I'm going to select the skin area there because I don't want to paint on the hair or anywhere else. I'm going to lightly spray in some of that red and very bright cherry red. We'll do some on the cheeks here. Be very subtle with it. You don't want to overdo it. You'll see me undoing if I feel that it's gone a little bit too red. There's one cheek, there's the other. Now the beauty of the soft light layer is that it maintains the values that we've placed underneath the way to do this, if you do not have soft light layer in your software to really play with the opacity of the layer as well. Just to get those values to shine through, let's add some on her nose to be subtle with it, right? A slight little trick that is quite appealing to do is to put some of this just on the corners of the eyes, the corners of the eyelids at the top right here of this eye, at the top left of that eye. It looks a little bit like makeup. And you can actually use this layer to bring in additional colors as well if you want to give a character makeup look. Let's go with purple for example. We can actually spray it in just very lightly there, and it allows the values to show through, I think. Let's go with the purple. Why not? But generally going with this cherry red is also quite nice as well. We'll stick with the purple there. Let's go back to the cherry red. Now, areas where you would see this occurring, more of a redness than a subsurface scattering, is at the joints of the knees and the elbows here, I'll put a light bit of pink there of this chair. Red, mind you a little bit here as well. It just enhances the look and makes the character look more alive, right? That they've got blood running through their veins. If you feel the effect is a little bit too strong, can just adjust the opacity of it, which I think I'm going to do. I prefer subtlety over very brush coloring. But of course, do it as to what you feel looks best and works best for you. Let's toggle this layer on and off and take a look. And what this does to the feeling of life in the character. She seems like a toy previously, just going to use my soft eraser here. I just feel like it's a little bit too red on this cheek. Just going to lightly erase some of it out. Just keep it more subtle. That is, adding in subsurface scattering onto your character using the soft light layer. Or just using a soft brush in a normal layer and playing with the opacity of that layer. Great, I'll see in the next lesson. 17. Secret hair Painting Technique: Hair painting can be a royal pain in the butt, unless you know a secret hair painting technique that will make your life super easy. Now, at this stage in the workflow, we've already got some nice light and shadow zones creating the bulk masses of the forms of the hair. The hair has form, but it doesn't really look like hair. It looks a bit like Plato or something. Right? This technique, you've seen me use it once before when we were doing the specular lighting on the tentacle sections. But what we're going to do with this technique is we're going to create two additional layers on top of our hair layer. We're going to call one hair painting shadows and the other hair painting lights. We're going to use the sketcher brush. The reason why we're going to use this particular brush, the properties of the brush really is that its pressure determines both opacity as well as the size. When we do a stroke with this brush, let's just do a red example. Here we get a varying degrees of opacity along the stroke and we get these nice sharp points at the end. Now painting hair is a process of looseness. You want to be loose and flowy just like the hair itself. What we're going to do is we're going to enhance the existing light areas and the existing shadow areas with hair strokes. And then we're going to use our soft brush to we raise back the tips, making it blend well and look really smooth. I'm going to do a small section example probably on this strip here. Then I will show you what it looks like in my versions that I've done on the entire here. But the process really is a rinse and repeat process once you've got all these base forms down, all right, once you've got all the base lighting down that we were really done, I'm going to do first is I'm going to pick my shadow value here. I'm going to darken it just a little bit. I've clipped these two layers down to the hair lighting there. If you don't have clipping your software, you can just put the layers on top and create a selection of your hair and just paint on those layers within that selection. What I'm going to do here is I'm going to work on the shadows first. I advise doing it in the workflow of all the shadows and then all the lights after that. As an additional note, you will be able to see this full painting process in the full workflow of this video, the full time lapse video of this particular painting, right? Let's get to it. To rotate the canvas here. One of the reasons I'm rotating the canvas is because I need that flow. I need to flow correctly with the lines. What I do is I find the shadow areas and then I pull some strokes out from them. All right? I'm pulling the shadows out, if you will, from the shadowed areas. I'm trying to get a nice variety of strokes here. Pull another one there. Actually you want to try and keep detail, the stroked detail. Don't think to yourself, oh, it looks messy. It's okay. Have a degree of stroke detail coming through of the overlap of the lines and so on. Also, change of brush size. There's no harm in getting a few very thin strokes to come out as well and to cross through the forms. All right, let's build this one up a little bit here. You can see I'm very, very stroke with the brush. I'm trying to be very loose. There's a dark zone. I'm being a bit risky with it, but I'm pulling some of these hair threads in. All right, once that's done, you press to go to your erasor. Use a soft eraser and then lightly erase the tips of the hair out. Maybe that was a little too light on my part. Let's just undo that, right, We just want to get the tips out. You would do all the shadows in this particular way, and you can already see how it's starting to look a little bit more like actual hair, of course, in this universal general workflow version of the hair. All right, now let's move over to the lights, the hair painting lights. And we're going to do basically the same thing, the same brush. We're going to select these at a very light value here, test it out, make sure it's nice and bright, and we're going to go ahead, particularly with the lights. We want to exercise that restraint. Once again, we don't want to light every single section of the hair with one of these bright highlights on really the areas we've marked as having this lighter lights. There's only a few areas here. We've had this lighter highlight. You want to put these brightest streaks of hair into those areas only, right? So what I'm going to do, again, I'm going to try to be very loose here. I'm going to increase that value a little bit more. I'm going to pull these threads out of that bright spot, just like that. Let's get a few smaller strokes in there. We'll do this side here as well, this piece of hair over here. Don't worry if you over extend some of the lines a little bit because that's what the eras tool is for. I'm going to use just a slightly smaller brush here. Now this particular technique can be scaled right up to realistic hair. You just really have to ask yourself, how detailed do you want the lighting workflow of the hair to be? Okay, you can scale this right up to photo real hair if you want to. Works in the exact same way. Here I've switched to the eraser, I'm erasing those tips once again, we have a nicely rendered piece of hair here, quite convincing for the current style of the workflow right now. Let me show you what it looks like when it's all been rendered out. And you can see how careful I've been with the high light zones, right? We don't want to have too many highlight zones. But as for the shadows, go crazy with the shadows. Put them wherever you need them to be. They really bring in that extra feel of the threads of hair and they're running all across the piece, right? That is the secret. Hair painting technique, painting strokes with a brush with opacity and pressure on size, and then using a soft brush to raise the edges. We work in a shadow and a light phase on this. Remember, two values are pivotally important for pretty much everything we do when we're painting. That is the end of this lesson. 18. Line Colouring: In this lesson, we're going to be taking a look at line coloring. But before we go to that, let's take a look at some notes about the line weights themselves. If you have thick lines in your piece, they are harder to hide. Generally speaking, you want to then make sure that if you're doing thick lines, they're there for a reason and that they're actually part of the piece. In this piece, for example, the lines are meant to be here. We're not trying to paint out the lines at a later stage. Now, if you want to have a more painterly look in your work where you don't want to see the lines at the end, Then you'll want to opt for thin lines in your clean up lines, because thin lines can be easily hidden. Now of course, line weights vary. You may have line weights that are very thick. For example, more of a graffiti style line weight. And obviously, the lines then are a feature of the work, so you want to keep them, whether you color them or not, the lines are a feature and you want to keep them visible. But just keep in mind that if you are going for a very painterly styled look, thinner lines are better. And you want to keep the line weights very small and minimal because you're going to let the painting or the coloring do the talking. But thicker lines will be prevalent in more illustrative work where you want the lines to be seen. Let's keep that note in mind. Going on to the line coloring, it really is quite a straightforward process. We're going to use the soft brush to do this and we're going to create a layer above our lines layer if you're using Photoshop or software. The last clipping, you can clip it to the lines layer, which basically just creates a selection. Or you can control click the thumbnail, create a selection, hit control H to hide that selection, and then create a new layer on top. And then you can go ahead in and paint the lines. Line painting is pretty subjective. You can do whatever you want as long as your forms are still reading. Now one common way to do the line painting is to select a darker value or a shadow value of the current area. For example, in the skin I'm going to select the skin shadow value and then make the lines of all the skin areas this shadow value. You can see here, there's quite a nice softening effect to the piece. The piece doesn't look so harsh and so sharp anymore. Very similar to what we do in the line softening when we're softening the lines using the blur tool. Similarly with the hair, I would select a hair shadow value here and go ahead and make all the lines of the hair that darker shadow value. It really does soften the look of everything and makes it look a little bit more professional. Of course, this is style dependent. You may like black lines, and I personally use black lines a lot. It all depends on your preference. Another technique that you can do is if the value of the area you're doing is five to ten, so it's a very dark valued area. The idea is to use a light value for the lines. This is quite a modernish type of look. You'll see a lot of modern animation and a lot of modern illustration will do this where darker valued zones have very light lines. Then conversely, values five to one. The lighter values are used on surfaces that are values five to one, then use a darker line, For example, the skin, we then use a darker line, you can see it has quite a nice effect. It's obviously more of an illustrative effect because of course, you're not hiding the lines as much. Last but not least, you can also do all the lines in just a single value. A common technique for this is to use a lightish brown, which is quite nice. I'm going to just do it over the entire piece here. This also has a very particular look about it. You may have seen this before. It also aids in softening the piece. I would advise to use just a slightly darker value for the eyes, because you can see you can lose quite a lot of readability in the eyes. But it softens the whole piece up really nicely. And of course, you can really do anything you want with this. Just as long as your image is still reading, use your creative vision and your creative subjectivity to decide what you like best. That, in a nutshell is line coloring. 19. Overpainting: We're now getting very close to finishing our piece, so we're moving on to the overpainting stage. I've created a layer here called over painting, and it sits above all the other layers. Now you want to do the overpainting stage once. You're really happy that all the values and the colors, the hues and saturations, all the adjustments have been made. And you're really happy with the piece at this point. So that you can go in and use the over painting layer to change things, move things around, paint in the little gaps that you've missed, and so on. So you want to make sure everything is right before you do this, because the over painting layer sits above all the other layers. If you had to do further adjustments, things would start looking weird. Now of course, you can go to those individual layers, for example, the skin here and fix the skin by hand. But generally, the over painting layer is done right at the end. All right, let's get into it. And what I'm going to be doing is I'm going to be using the soft brush and I'm going to be color picking a lot and literally painting over elements to clean up these areas. For example, I'm going to fix these little gray areas there. I basically just color pick and spray to get those gray areas out. I've already thought about some things that I'd like to change on the piece. Particularly on her left eye. The left eye doesn't read super well from a distance like there's not enough green. I feel there's not enough green. The over painting, there is a perfect chance for me to come in here, add a little bit of additional light as if I were drawing right on top of everything and getting things to read a little better so we can see the difference there before and after. Let's go a little bit closer before, after, there's a little bit better I read there, This effectively is what over painting is. It's your chance to fill in all those little gaps before we move on to the final adjustments, overall adjustments and effects of the post production phase, I'm going to carry on doing this and by the time you get to the next lesson, all these little gaps will be filled and we'll be ready to move on. See there. 20. Post Production Effects 1: We've now reached the final post production stage of the piece. And we're going to be looking at a few different effects we can do to the image to really finish it off. The first thing we're going to look at is the shadow gradient. As well as adding a color balancing overlay layer. Regarding the shadow gradient. What we need to do before we can work on these effects is we want to merge everything into just a single layer. We don't have multiple layers anymore, we just have a single layer. What you should have at this point is an over painting, the car shadows, layer specularity, layer occlusion shadows, your line coloring, layer your lines themselves. As well as the coloring and painting group. I have a group here which has all of our individual elements layers on them. All right, we want to bring these all down to a single layer. What we can do is simply select all of them and then merge them all together. First, let's make a back up. I'm going to select them all here. We'll leave the value check layer out. I'm going to duplicate all of these layers by right clicking and going Duplicate. Then I'm going to right click and merge the duplicated layers together, all my old layers. I'm going to just select them together, create a new group, and put them in a group. And just call them source because that is the original source of everything. And then we will just deselect visibility. Now the entire image is just on a single layer and it's ready for us to do our effects. I'm going to call this effects one, and we're going to do those various effects that I've just discussed. Okay, the first thing we're going to do is we're going to hold control and select the entire image. I'm going to hide that selection. We're going to take the soft brush and black, and then we're going to create a new layer on top. Call it shadow gradient. We're going to set that to multiply. Now of course, keep in mind that these effects that I'm showing you are entirely optional. They're just added extras. I'm showing you some cool tricks and tips that I like to do on my work. Typically most, most things are lit from the top right, which does mean we're going to have somewhat lower values at the bottom. The shadow gradient on a multiplier layer with the soft britta black is really just a quick way to darken some of the lower areas and keep the upper areas lighter. You want to do, you want to keep it quite subtle. That's pretty much all we do there. One of the reasons we do this is in character work. The focal point number one is usually the head. It's generally always the head. And the focal point number two is the hands. Generally, this section of the piece should be the lightest, the most contrasting, and so on. To draw the attention to that focal point, that's the shadow gradient. Next thing we're going to do, keeping our same selection, we're going to create a layer, and we're going to call this our overlay layer. We're going to use this layer to create a color balancing effect where we're applying a single color. It could be any particular color. I'm going to show you that we're going to use a blue. What this does is it brings all of the different colors into a more balanced family of that particular overlay color. But let's go into it and you'll see What I mean I'm going to do here is I'm going to take the inker flatter brush. We've still got our selection. I'm going to just select a bright blue, right? The highest bright blue here, we've called the layer overlay. And this is what we will be doing. We'll just be doing a flat silhouette fil over the entire piece, right? This is something I tend to do with all my work. The value does change, but the color changes, but the idea of it is the same. What we're doing is almost think of it like you're casting a light on it. Grouping all the values and colors that you've used into a single family of sorts. What we're going to do is we're going to set this layer mode to overlay to the layer mode. Then we're going to bring the opacity down quite significantly in the five to 10% region. You can adjust it as necessary here. Let's toggle it on and off. It's a very subtle effect, but it brings the entire range into a similar lighting cost, if you will. Right? Everything now seems more unified. Right? All the colors seem a little bit more unified. And that is the shadow gradient and the overlay layer on top of our effects. One layer which is a group layer, which is a compressed, merged layer of all of our elements onto a single layer. Let's move on to the next lesson. 21. Post Production Effects 2: When light at different wavelengths, refracts at different angles, you sometimes get an effect known as chromatic aberration. You see a few different colors on an object. This can sometimes make the object look quite a little bit more three dimensional, just in a general sense, what we're going to do is we're going to apply a chromatic aberration type effect to our work. And how we're going to do this is we're going to first select all of our layers, duplicate them, and merge them now into one layer we can disable our old overlay shadow gradient effect layer because now we have everything on one layer. Then we're going to want to hold control and select the entire image space here. I don't know why that little area there is not selecting, but I'm going to add it as well. All right. Now, in Photoshop, this is primarily how you do this particular effect. If your software supports channels, you can do it there as well. I'm going to switch to the Channels tab in Photoshop, which is next to the Layers tab. What the channels really do is they allow you to edit just all the green or all the blue color information of an image. Here you can see that all of that information plus it combined is all visible, looks very similar to the layers tab. What I'm going to do, I'm going to hide my selection. I'm going to select just the red channel. I'm going to press V on my keyboard. Give me my move tool. And I'm going to use the keyboard to nudge or move the image by one pixel. Using the directional arrows on the keyboard. I'm going to move all the red pixels just once to the left. I'm going to select the green, use the keyboard again and move all the green pixels once to the right. And I'm going to move all the blue pixels on to the top. I've got left, right, top, but you can do it any direction you like. I personally wouldn't recommend moving it more than one pixel across. The more you move it, the crazier it looks. Here you can see the effect of the chromatic aberration, right? Let's go and compare it to our previous layers. What I'm going to do is I'm going to just duplicate them again. Merge them again. All right, the top layer here has our chromatic aberration, and this is just our merged color layers. Let's take a look at the difference. Obviously, it looks a little bit more blurry. That's not necessarily a bad thing. There's our old version, and he has our new version with chromatic aberration. Take a closer look at what's happening with a chromatic aberration. You can see that moving the pixels has caused these strange color changes happening, particularly at the edges of things. Right? The effect can be quite pleasing. Now, you don't have to move all the channels. For example, you could move just the red in the blue, just the red in the green, or what have you. I would recommend playing around with the effect and seeing what works best for you. That is how you implement chromatic aberration into your piece, giving the view a sense of three D because of the weird way we've made the light appear to be refracting. 23. Conclusion: We've now reached the end of module three. Let's keep in mind the main form lining workflow, particularly in terms of the shadows that we did in the production part of this process. We want to make sure that the shadows and forms read well and look three D because everything else is relatively straightforward. After that, make sure you really get that down. Learn it off by heart. Learn the form lining principle and also overinvest in your shadows phase. Also, don't worry too much about post production effects because you can really just mess around in the software and figure out your own effects that you'd like to do at the end of the piece. Once all the bulk of the work has been done. A town maps of this entire process will follow this lesson. And you can use it as a quick summary to guide you when you're painting your own work. Do take a look at that. In module four, we'll be looking at a number of ways to scale the fundamentals of the workflow, which will allow us to do simplistic coloring as well as scale it up to more advanced painting. It's been great. I hope you've enjoyed this and learned a lot. Let's move on to the next module.