Bladesmithing Class 4: Forging a Basic Blade | Barrett Knives | Skillshare

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Bladesmithing Class 4: Forging a Basic Blade

teacher avatar Barrett Knives

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Pros and Cons of Forging


    • 3.

      Heat Control


    • 4.

      Forging the Blade


    • 5.



    • 6.

      Heat Treat


    • 7.



    • 8.



    • 9.

      What's Next


    • 10.

      Class Project


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About This Class

Welcome to class 4, Forging a Basic Blade.

As mentioned in previous classes, please be sure to make safety your highest priority. This means including proper heat shielding, wearing proper PPE, and having a fresh, charged fire extinguisher on hand at all times. Especially when quenching, please allow for enough room in your quench tank for displacement, otherwise you could risk spilling hot oil. Blacksmithing has dangers involved, but with forethought and careful attention to safety, you can avoid these dangers.

My name is Trevor and I will get right to it. I am a self taught, full time bladesmith right here in Alaska. I made this course to help you start your path down bladesmithing. Whether you are interested in this amazing craft because of tv, video games, books, history, or just the desire to create something with your own two hands, you’re in the right spot. Really, whatever reasons you have or looking into this, you’ll love this class. 

Because to be totally honest, almost everyone can start bladesmithing. I am just some random guy who one day gave it a shot. I had no training, no experience, and being in rural Alaska, I had nowhere to go for help. So trust me when I say that if I can learn how to do this, so can you. And obviously, I want to help. 

In this class, you’ll learn right from your own home everything you need to know in order to start bladesmithing. This means I’ll tell you how to get equipment you need, how to set up a shop, how to design blades for certain purposes, and how to make them high functioning pieces of art. 

    Check out the class outline below for a clear idea of what to expect!


Class 1: Startup

  1. What to Expect From This Class
  2. Get to Know the Instructor
  3. Tour of the Forge
  4. Stock removal vs. Forging
  5. Basic Gear vs Intermediate Gear 
  6. A Note on Safety
  7. Shop Layout Sample
  8. Weather Considerations
  9. What’s Next
  10. Class Project: What's Your Reason?


Class 2: Basics

  1. Overview of Knife Making
  2. Steel Choice
  3. Handle Material
  4. Hammers
  5. Forges
  6. Midway Motivation: Expect Failure
  7. Anvils
  8. Explaining Heat Treat (Thermocycle, Quench, Tempering)
  9. What’s next
  10. Project: Design Your Blade


Class 3: Making a Stock Removal Blade

  1. Introduction 
  2. Benefits and Downsides of Stock Removal
  3. Design
  4. Cutting out the Design
  5. Prepping the Tang
  6. Midway Motivation: It Won’t Be Perfect!
  7. Adding Bevels
  8. Heat Treat
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Cut Out a Simple Blade


Class 4: Forging a Basic Blade

  1. Introduction 
  2. Benefits and Downfalls of Forging/Design
  3. Notes on Heat Control
  4. Forging the Blade
  5. Grinding
  6. Heat Treat
  7. Cleanup/Blade Finish
  8. Sharpening
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Show Me Your Blade


Class 5: Handle Making

  1. Introduction (Comfort, Style, Finish)
  2. Notes on Adhesive
  3. Hidden Tang Handle
  4. Full Tang Handle
  5. Paracord Handle
  6. Wooden Handle
  7. Antler/Bone Handle
  8. Spacers
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Show Me Your Handle


Class 6: Finishes

  1. Introduction
  2. What to Avoid
  3. Forge Scale
  4. Polished
  5. Satin
  6. Midway Motivation: Take Your Time
  7. Etching
  8. Texturing
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Show Me Your Finish


Class 7: Sharpening

  1. Introduction
  2. Safety
  3. Sharpening Vs Honing
  4. Methods
  5. Angles and Applications
  6. Cutlery
  7. Camp Knife
  8. Testing
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Demonstrate Your Edge


Class 8: Forging Large Blades

  1. Introduction
  2. Small Vs Large Blades
  3. Heat Control on Large Blades
  4. Forging
  5. Midway Motivation: Entirely New Challenge
  6. Grinding
  7. Balance
  8. Finish
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Forge a Blade at Least 15” Long

Class 9: Forging Damascus

Class 10: Forging Sanmai

Class 11: Recap and Reminders

  1. Introduction
  2. Forging
  3. Handle Making
  4. Heat Treat
  5. Midway Motivation: You’re Just Getting Started
  6. Finishes
  7. Sharpening
  8. Testing
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Show Me A Finished, Sharpened Blade


Class 12: What Now?

  1. Introduction
  2. What to Expect From Bladesmithing Now
  3. Hobbyist Vs Business
  4. How to Progress
  5. Growing From Failures
  6. Future of This Class
  7. What’s Next
  8. Project: Tell Me What You Want to Forge Next


Class 13: Forging a Kukri

Class 14: Forging a Seax

Class 15: Forging a Katana

Class 16: Forging a Viking Sword

Class 17: Forging a Gladius

Class 18: Forging a Spear

And more...



Meet Your Teacher

Hunter, Husband, Fulltime Bladesmith

Born and Raised Alaska

See full profile

Level: Beginner

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1. Introduction: All right, everybody, welcome back. My name of course is Trevor buret with barrett knives. Before we introduce the class for forging. And basically, I offer you a little bit of an explanation as to what took so long since class three because it's been awhile. As I'm posting these videos, we are waiting for our very first child to be born in Juneau, Alaska, live in Haines, Alaska, but we're waiting in Juneau where the hospital is. So there's been a lot of changes and one of the new things happening and that's caused a delay. And I apologize for that. But now we're back. We're going strong with class four. So let's talk about forging a basic flavors. So far. We've talked about a lot of different things. Talked about how to get going. We've talked about the principles behind forging and White-Smith team and stock removal. And then we had a nice discussion on how to make a stockroom the blame. In this class, we're going to focus now on forging a basic way. As you'll see in the coming lessons, There's a lot of different things to it that stand out as in contrast to stop renewable. So what are we going to talk about? How is there a difference between stock rule and origin? Are the pros and cons. As you're doing it. What are some of the different things that you need? Watch out for a lot of different things. And we're going to talk about it in detail. But remember, we're gonna be focusing on a very basic, plain, fancy, nothing interesting. Just how to get you started into 42. Then of course later on, there's a lot of different techniques that you can use. You may see some techniques that you like and you want to include. And you may see some that are just not your thing. There's plenty of ways to do so. We're going to start off on the simplest methods to get a bleed porch. As we continue with lessons and classes, I'll be showing you some more advanced than x. Now, this one, this is the start. All comes down to heat control, hammer control. So we're gonna go over each one. We'll talk about heat treat again just in case you missed it for class II. And honestly, there's a few things that are a little bit different with heat control while you're forging as opposed to hit Control while you're doing stock removal. So there's a lot of discussion. I think you're really going to like it. All I ask is that you please leave a review. Let me know how this whole class goes. Tell me if you like it. And then later in the class, once we've finished up your forging blade, I'm going to ask you to see your blade, telling me how it went. You know, give me some details on what you thought. Different things that you would like me to address in future lessons so that we can help work out some of the kinks that you found in your blade similar thing. So really whatever it is at the end of this, during the class or during the class project, make sure you tell me some of the things that you're struggling with. So I can at least respond in the comments down below. Or I can make a whole lesson on it so that we have at all cleared out. And it's nice and simple. So let's get into it. We're going to talk about now two things. For less than two, Let's discuss the pros and cons of foraging as opposed to stock removal. And then we'll discuss the design for this class blade that we're going to forge out. I hope you guys like it. Thank you so much for coming back or if you're new here, welcome. We got a lot to do and it's gonna be a lot of fun. But remember, be safe, too low and slow. Don't get anything burned down. Don't hurt yourself. But have a lot of fun is gonna be difficult. It's going to be challenging. But really that's all part of it. So again, thank you so much. Let's get to it. 2. Pros and Cons of Forging: Okay, So we are on class for forging of basic played less than two. Let's talk about some of the pros and cons of forging a blade as opposed to start removing just a quick refresher. Stock removal is when you take the bars steel and you cut and grind out your design. After you do that. Really the heat treat and everything else is pretty much the same. However, with forging, There's a lot of differences as to how you get to that point. Once, how do you get to the profile of your blade? So first of all, let's just be honest, forging is more challenging skill wise. That's not to say that it's better for that stock removal is worse. It's just different. With foraging your blade. It requires a lot more understanding of the steel. It requires a lot more ability with your hands and your arms and your hammer swings to make sure that you are directing your blows in an effective way that we won't end up messing up the material that you're working. Let's talk about some of the pros and cons. Specifically probes. It gives you more freedom as to your design. The more you will learn how to work the steel, the more you can manipulate it to do what you want. You can start drawing it out. You can spread it up in special ways and you will not be able to do so. We'll start with an example. If you have, let's say a concrete, highly stylized, probably the only way to accomplish that without forging it, if you were to stop removal, is to have a large sheet of steel or at least one that's large enough to encompass that curve and then cut it out. But with forging, you don't need to have a huge stuff material in order to make that shape because you forge that shape into blame. Other pros. Honestly for me, it's way more fun. I enjoy forging it. So much more stock from just because I enjoy the act of forging some of the cons is that is far more difficult. And so it takes longer to learn how to do it effectively. It's easier to make mistakes in forging. You could work this steel in an improper way and you won't even know you have a mistake until much later on in the process. Sometimes even when you've already finished the blade. So it's more difficult and it takes more time to do so effectively. It's also a lot more physical. So if you're limited in a physical ability for whatever reason, that may take more time to work around that. Another example of how it's more difficult is getting an even profile finished sickness and profile. In order to move on to the next step of grinding and finishing the blade is more difficult, but depending on exactly what you're doing. But we're going to highlight that as we go on so that we can make sure that we eliminate as many of these things as possible. One of the things to keep in mind though, is that no matter what, you will hit challenges, you need to just go with that. So it'll come. So don't worry, I'm whenever you hit those challenges, Don't worry about it. It will come. Another pro is that you learn pretty quickly how the steel moves under the hammer, the anvil. And so you can use that to your benefit. But the same thing also kinda worked as a con in that initially you don't know how it moves. So you'll be working in this piece of steel, you'll notice that it's starting to curve or whatever the case is. All these everything's that it can do. So it can be frustrating. Now a quick note about whether or not forging produces a better plane. There are some discussions that suggest that for jingles believe it produces a higher quality blade. But there's also many, many studies Show that theorem essentially exactly the same. So it can be said perhaps that work in the grain structure from an experienced Smith who's good at what they do. A forage blade can outperform a stock removal, Blaine? I have not found that to be true. I have found that each one performs exactly the same. We'll see if later on in my path, as a Smith showed me something different. But at this point they are the same. But that's fine. Because you can make a high-quality blade no matter what. But with smithing, you can much easier to make a low quality blade by messing it up, as we'll see in the continuing classes. However, if you are a smith, don't fall under the trap of saying, Well, my products are superior to yours because I forged them, because that can be a slippery slope. And we don't want to start bringing in a lot of unity and contention in the placement that community because it's so well-respected and is very supportive to other myth makers and Smith's. So it doesn't make us better. And it doesn't make us worse whether we choose to stop removal or forge our blades. But it does give you more freedom as a Smith when you learn how to work with material with a hammer. So there's a lot of different discussion, but we'll get more into that. Those are some of the basic pros and cons to smithing, stock removal, etcetera, etcetera. So now real quickly let's talk about the design for this class. As I said, we're going to keep it very, very simple and very straightforward because we don't need to do anything super fancy right now. We're just looking for an effective blade. Then you can take out camping and hiking, fishing, whatever it is that you do, or something simple so you can start getting it as a gift. And as we continue on in the classes, we're going to have more advanced things, of course, but for now, don't worry about all these fancy ways of forging that you're seeing. We're gonna do the basics just so we can be from. The most foundational. Doesn't mean just wanted to be a lower colon easily. I'm just going to be a simple blades. Remember, as with anything, any craft or martial art or whatever you're doing, once you really established the fundamental truths and the most basic building blocks of your craft, you'll be able to progress from there. Don't get too caught up in the big stuff because the little stuff is worked out. Alright, let's get into it. Next lesson. 3. Heat Control: Alright, we talked about it a little bit in the last lesson, but we are on for less than three. We need to talk about heat control before we get into the meat of forgeable Blaine, keep control with forging a blade is so much more particular. Them with stock removal ablaze. Why can I say that was competence is because you are under the heat much more often when you're fortunate, There's a lot of different things involving this. E.g. with stock removal, you really only need to heat it up during the normalization. And the question. So the heat treatment, of course, with forging it, obviously, it needs to be under the heat much, much more. So let's talk about some of the core basics about heat control. And they will do so practically while we're fortunate, it has to do with grain structure. If you work your steel, improper temperature, you can cause so many problems that you weren't even know are there until much later. E.g. if you overheat your steel, you can start to really damage that grain structure and make it crumbly and brittle. And if you're using a coal forage, you can even burn that steel box. You see it on blades fifth and competitions a lot when they lose focus on coal for especially. And then they're billing or whatever they're working on. Falls and falls off because it got overheated and ended up actually burning, wrecking the steel. Conversely, if you work you're still too cold. You will cause stress fractures all the way through that. What's your steel starts to drop temperature and it starts to look like red or cooler. You need to put it back and forth. It not work with cold. Never, ever. Hammer on cold steel. Cold steel is relatively fortunate because 1,000 degrees sounds like it's really hot. Forging steal thousand degrees is not hot enough. Now it is true that there's a lot of differences way that steel reacts, the different types of steel reacts to heat. For instance, 1080 steel is more forgiving underneath. Whereas 51, 60 I have found, tends to be in very heat sensitive steel. They need to take care of it a little bit more. Usually working on hiring details, temperate a little bit higher for various reasons it has to do with the components that make up that individual. We don't need to get super specific, will be using 1095 steel, which is a great steel for both beginner and advanced Smith's. In fact, some of the best blades are still made out of 1095. So we're just gonna go nicely, simple, straightforward. So now let's talk about heat control for the heat treat. We've already talked a little bit about some of the heat treat procedure for each stock provably. But it's even more important for when we are forging bubbly. And the reason is, is that because that steel is under the heat for so long while you're forging the grain structure inside that steel starts to expand and become very course. If you were to go straight from foraging and they just dumped the steel into the oil. You could fracture. It may actually break where you see a large crack. Or it may just be a stress fracture where you don't even see it from the side. Watch almost any episode. And you'll see that it'll break from use and you'll see a dark line. Usually that's because it was quenched too hot or it wasn't normalized properly. And then that brain structure was very, very coarse and open. So therefore it was very brittle. And there was a stress fracture in there possibly to worry to hold, whatever the case is. There's so many different things to watch out for. So a good rule of thumb is to work your steel when it's nice and bright yellow. And when it starts to dip below that, put it back into the forage or pulling out before it gets too much. Because when you're working with a blade, eventually you start the tip of the blade. And if it's a real sharp tip, that tip can overheat before the rest of your blade is up to temperature. Sometimes you need to learn how to work the heat of your forage and how to move it in and out in the porch to prevent that tip from maybe that even involves keeping that tip thicker and grinding it later, whatever works for you, There's a lot of different methods to prevent that from happening. Then once you're able to normalize it and start shrinking that grain structure, do you remember how it does that? You bring it up to critical temperature and then you let it cool slowly and slowly starts to shrink that brain structure and work out any of those stress points that may have happened because of the temperatures that you're working with orange and it prepares it for the stuff we've talked about that and we will talk more so than stock removal. Keep control is essential. Just a couple of quick notes on that and now we're going to see it in a practical way as we start forging our blade. And we'll begin using eight out of 1095 steel. So it's a very, it's a relatively more forgiving steel. There's some of the other ones that we have out there and is hardened and oil. So it's gonna make it pretty simple. It's a really good steel for Blaine Smith. Okay, let's go on to the next lesson. 4. Forging the Blade: All right guys, welcome back. We are finally their class for lesson for forging the blade. Make sure you go get any refreshes that you might need from the previous ones. But today we are using 1095 high carbon steel. We talked a little bit about it. It's great steel. And for that, we're looking for bright yellow. Just about here is the proper color range before 1995. Let's talk about forging the tip as specifically avoiding crow's beak, where it folds over on itself and you get a crease in the center. A key technique to forging is hanging the material over the edge of your anvil so that as you forge it, it's pushing it down past that edge. The reason being is that helps prevent that crease in the center. Then you just pull it back a little bit more and flatten it on the face of the animal. That will of course cause it to start to fold like this. So you lay it down flat and you continue to hammer and that will flatten it out. You'll find that with forging, There's a lot of back-and-forth depending on how you what you're looking to accomplish. So make sure that you are consistent and symmetrical with your design. And keep her still hot enough. Now, here we're going to speed it up. As all we're doing is we're hanging over the edge of the anvil, hammer it down, flatten it again, put it back in the 40s and we'll repeat that cycle enough time until that tip is forged. Now really only takes a little bit of time in order to get you to where your blade is, pretty much rough shape, at least the tip of the blade. So as you go play with the envelope, play with the hammer. Don't worry too much about powerful blows, but focus more on directing your blows to be accurate and control. Now here we're pretty close. So I'm going to stretch the material out a little bit more. It's pretty wide for the blade I'm going for. So we keep laying it down, flattening out, bring it back up and shaping it, and then laying it down and flattening it back out. It's a continual back-and-forth. Keep in mind as well. The heat control like we talked about last time. Make sure it doesn't get too cold. If you hammer cold steel, you could cause stress fractures easily. Keep it nice and hot. Don't be afraid to take your time. There's a whole lot of new techniques and learning how the hammer fields. Each hammer will feel different, but just take your time, learn to use your anvil to your advantage. Now other than the bevels, we've pretty much rough shape the blade. So let's move over to the Tang. We're going to be doing a full tank. Remember, full tang is a very strong, very durable, usually easily balanced type of blade. So as you see here, all I did to do that is I laid it down flat, nice and in the center of the anvil. And I started hammering in that spot where I want the blade to transition into the handle. Now here I'm actually hot cutting it because I have the basic shape of the handle done. So you can use a chisel, you could use a miter saw, you could use an angle iron, whatever you need to do. Don't worry about going all the way through if you're hot cutting, just give it a nice crease. Bennett, back-and-forth. It'll pop right off. Now we're ready to continue foraging that tank. So flip it around and hold it by the blade and just keep focusing your blows so that they are accurate and they are controlled. You don't want it to go wild when you start messing up and ruining your work. Now let's focus in here. That transition from the blade that are caso into the handle is an important area. And the more you focus on developing your ability to forge, the better your products will come out. So try to do as much with the hammer as you can. You can use a cross pin or a straight peen hammer, like we talked about before. But really learn how to dial in. And now it's a very simple design, is pretty much done with the handle. So let's switch to forging the bevels. The bevels are a key part of a knife. Lay it down and then angle it up just a little bit. That way as you hammer, you not only put the bevels hammer side, but also the animal side. Every blow helps develop the bevels on both sides. Keep it symmetrical. A couple of tips. If you hammer four times in one side, flip it over and do the same. Another tip. Use the edge of the anvil to help establish the Picasa. A couple of really precise blows. And you get some really clean lines. You don't have to do that though. For this blade. We're not gonna do that. We're just going to make a really simple one. So you'll see I'm angling it up and then I'm working my way down the blade as a hammer in those bevels. And then I flip it. And I do the same thing so that it's nice and even look at that bevel being forged in instead of grinding it out. But also notice how it curves back because we're pushing material back. Easy fix, laid down on its spine and gently hammer nice hot steel so that straightens it out. That's one method. There's plenty of methods to keep the blade straight. That's just a really simple one. So let's get back to it. We heat it back up and we forge those bevels nice and thin so there's less grinding to do. Keeping it again as symmetrical as we can so we don't start developing twists and uneven surfaces that will make it so much easier. You really learn how to control your camera. Again, you'll see the curves back. Once again to super-easy, lay on its spine and gently hammer the edge so that it flattens it out again. And this is going to help you have a really clean profile. Okay, now let's speed it up a little bit. Same thing, I'm working my way down the blade. The blade material is pushing out so it's curving the blade. I lay it back down and I flatten it out. And it's just it's a continual process. Again, focus on keeping it symmetrical and even nice and clean. Don't hammer too hard, but instead, focus on your control, the power that will come. Focus on control and technique. Now take a look. It's pretty much done. Keep in mind, we're keeping it super simple so that we can learn how to do a basic blade and we'll do more complicated things later on. But here we go. That is the forging of the blame. We've got slight levels, it's mostly forged. The profile is looking pretty clean to me. Of course, there's things we could fix about it, especially here towards the end of the Tang. But don't worry about it. We're going to get there. We're going to move on to grinding next so we can clean up that profile. And in further classes and lessons, we'll do even more detail about how to really hone in your foraging abilities. But that's about what you should be looking like for a nice simple Bush craft blade. Let's go onto grinding. 5. Grinding: All right, We've made it all the way to class for lesson five, grinding. Good job. You have forged out your blade and now it's time to true up not only the profile, but also the bevels. So you can have good geometry, symmetry and you've got an effective blade in your hands. So don't worry about any of the mistakes that you've made. This point. We are going to move on and we're going to grind it, clean it up. So now whatever Brenda you have, make sure you get when you solve one of these little rubber blocks. It's pretty cheap. And what it does is it helps grind off and clean off those belts of yours that will extend your belts for even longer. If you need to refresh on equipment, go check out the earlier classes. But here we go. We've got our blade and we're going to start cleaning up the profile, especially towards the end here, any mistakes you see, anything you didn't like is really simple. Take it to the grinder and just start grinding it down. Make sure you don't wear gloves. Because even though this can be a dangerous machine, even if you use a one by 32, do not wear gloves around rotary machines, but go nice and slow. It isn't quenched yet so you don't need to worry too much about heat transfer. But just make sure you use a nice course belt to grind off any differences and anything you don't like. So now this guy you see that it's already turning colors because it's getting dark. To make sure you've got a bucket nearby where you can dip it. Keep it nice and cool. That's especially important after the printers, but we're not there yet. So this is a very simple design. So just make sure you practice safe grinder technique because we do not want this blade flying through the room causing damage and hurting somebody. With a very simple style of blade. It doesn't take long to clean off the back there. If you have a work table, I would recommend you use it. I don t have one because I just don't prefer it. I don't really like the way that it feels, but there's nothing wrong with them. It's just my preference. So I'm working on cleaning up the spine to make it look nice and pretty so that we can then move on to the tip and just get everything nice looking, get it cleaned up. There's still some more profile work, but we've got the spinal good. Now let's talk about grinding those bevels. You can go up or down. It all depends on your style, but if you're going up, you need to make sure that you angle it properly. Going shallow can depend on what kind of grind you're going for. But if you go too steep, then you risk catching the edge of the blade and falling through the air. So don't do that. Instead, take your time and use bare hands to hold the steel up against that and just start making your way. Now we're not doing over cost. So when this blade, because we're going to make it super simple. So more tips later and how to get a nice for Costco line and all that stuff. At least not too dramatic, but we're going to do a very simple one. So do not use gloves so that you can feel the heat transfer, especially important when you are grinding after the quench. Established along the cutting-edge a nice clean line to clean up all those hammer marks. And then just start slowly bringing your bevels a little bit higher and higher. Making sure to constantly cool the piece so that it doesn't burn your hands and so that you don't overheat it. As an alternative, you could use a welding magnet. It does help keep it more steady, but then you're not going to be able to feel the heat transfer, which is fine. If you're nice and careful, go nice and slow. And it can also slip off if you're not careful. So you just worked whatever works for you, but make sure you go low and slow and be safe whenever you find that makes it easier for you. There's also all sorts of different grinding jigs you can use. But I'm not going to show you any of that right now because that's not personally my style, but there's plenty of information on the Internet where you can find you can use those. But now I'm working on the other side to make sure it's nice and symmetrical. To start that Ricardo area, I would recommend starting a little bit ahead and then slowly move your way back to that request so line so that you can make sure that you don't overshoot it and in it making uneven lines. Now, later on in the various classes and lessons, we'll be talking more about the different types of grinds and the different types of bevels you can be looking for it depending on what you're going for. But again, we're gonna go with a flat grind to keep it nice and simple. Here I'm looking down the length of the blade and make sure everything's lined up. Just go slow. And remember also this is before the quench. So we want to make sure we grind things a little bit bigger than the final product to help mitigate the chances of warpage and in the quench. So instead, to do that, keep it a little bit thicker going for the quench and then true it up afterwards. And there you have it. It's pretty much all ground down and cleaned up. We started with a 24 grip belt to really remove some material. And this here is not quenched yet, so we only went to about 180. But you see we left it a little thick on the cutting edge. And you're also noticed that I drilled some Tang holes That's for much later, but I liked it before the quench. The Rococo area where the transitions into the blade looks nice and clean. We just took our time. It's a little messy, but we got more time to fix that. So don't worry about it. You can use the file sandpaper, Use your grinder, whatever the case is. But to wrap up the grinding section, be safe. Do not wear gloves around rotary equipment, whether you've got a large grinder or a small grinder, use as pressure belts as you can and use your rubber block in order to clean it off. Work your way 24-36 to 100 to 180, whatever you got. This is how you get it prepared for the quench, which brings us to our next one, heat treated. But before we get there and make sure you leave in the comments any questions that you have and I'll do my best to help you out. 6. Heat Treat: Okay, welcome back to the forage. We are on class for less than six, the heat treat. We've talked about heat you to a little bit before, but remember, heat treat it involves thermal cycling, also known as normalizing, quenching and tempering. Quick update on those just in case you forgot or haven't been able to check out it before. In the previous classes, the normalizing is absolutely critical to shrinking the grain structure so that during the quench and during use, you don't have a coarse-grained structure which is prone to being brittle and breaking also helps prevent stress fractures during the quench. So always, always normalize. To quench is the hardening of the blade where you dip it into pre-heated oil at about 120 degrees. And then tempering is where you heat it in the oven for 400-450 degrees depending on the steel. And that cuts not only a little bit of the hardness, but it drastically cuts down the brittleness of your blade. And that's how you get a properly heat treated blade that is ready for use. Now that we've got the rundown complete, let's talk about some of the specifics of each one normalizing. So for normalizing or thermal cycling, I recommend grabbing it by the blade first and sticking the Tang into the Forge and gently moving in and out to in order to get as even of a heat as possible. The reason why I say go Tang first, so the handle first is because the Tang will heat up slower than the thinner blade because we did all that grinding. And you don't want to overheat the steel, like we talked about in the previous lesson under heat control. Also make sure you play with the intensity of your board so you don't overheat it. Anyway. So we move it around. And now that it's flipped around, we're going to turn the intensity down a little bit and go in for the rest of the blade. Keeping in mind that we're not actually looking to quench the Tang, but we don't want any hard lines of difference between the quench. So now we're going to make sure we move in and out. I turn down the heat of the forage so that it doesn't overheat. But the more you move it to more even your heat treat is going to be, you don't want something to be overheated, such as like we mentioned before, the tip, if you overheat the tip, you could cause a lot of damage. Like here, I made sure to have it pretty obvious so we kept it hotter so that you can see the difference between how quickly the tip heats up as opposed to everything else. So go low and slow. This isn't a race. So there's no reason to rush it. Now for the normalizing, you want it to be a little bit hotter than what you're looking for, for the quench. We're bringing it up to critical temperature, which is a nice, solid foraging color. And now to thermal cycling, we're going to let it cool slowly. Let it cool to touch at least three cycles that will help you ensure that the grain structure is very nice and tight. Now we're going to go on to the quench. So you could use canola oil, you could use AAA, you could use parts 50, all kinds of different oils. But I recommend heating it up to about 120 degrees Fahrenheit Before you quench. So take a scrap piece of steel sticking in the forge, heated up, dunk it in later on. After three cycles of normalizing, we are ready to bring our blade up to temperature for the quench. Remember that the quench temperature of most steels will be lower than the forging temperature of most steels. So typically, especially from blades seals like 1095, you're looking for a cherry red. Once you get to a nice cherry red color like this, dunk it straight in and make sure you agitate it in the oil. Otherwise, you could cause as vapor barrier around the blame, which prevents it from actually cooling properly. I recommend about ten to 12 s of agitating any oil before it's ready to be pulled out straight from the quench, bring it over to advice and clamp it in there so that it stays nice and straight as it cools. And if it's a longer blade, go ahead and use some angle iron to assist the length in cooling evenly. To finish up the heat treat, you need to temperate, which is vitally important so that you do not have a brittle, useless blade that will break with any use. So bring it to something simple. It could be your home oven, It could be microwave oven. Make sure it's nice and clean. Sarcasm sticking in there once it's cool all the way off and set it to 400 to 450 degrees for an hour. It depends on the particular type of steel. I shoot for 425 for 1095. After you've done that for two cycles. So let it heat up all the way for 1 h, then let it cool, then do it all over again for one more hour. Now you have a fully heat treated functional blame. Good job guys, but we're not done yet. We've still got a clean it up. Then we've gotta get a sharpened. Let's go onto the next few lessons. 7. Extras: All right guys, welcome back, class for lessons seven. Some of the different extra things we need to make sure that our all done so that by the time we get to sharpening, our blade is pretty much good to go other than the handle, but that's coming into future class. Now after the blade is fully heat treated, we need to bring it back to our grinder and clean up those bevels. The flat on the cutting-edge needs to be nice and thin so that instead of the wedge shaped profile for our blade, we have a nice clean flat grind. Geometry is the most important thing for a nice sharp cutting blade. The only way to do that, It's suspended time, giving it a flat, consistent grind. We'll talk more about that in future lessons, but make sure that it's brought to a nice, clean finished. I would recommend shooting for about 400 if you're just using the belt sander. This one here is only about 180, but we're gonna be doing a couple of tweaks to it before we bring it to its final polish. But that final polish of 400 will help reduce any friction as we're cutting and will help it resists moisture just a little bit because there's less surface area. Not really going to notice it, but it is true. So here I have a piece of angle iron clamped and advice and then I have another clamps securing my blade down to the angle iron so that I can work on it freely. Cleaning up that transition from the blade to the Picasso. It isn't necessary, but the fit and finish really helps it stand out. It's also a lot easier to do this before the quiz, but it is possible to do it after the quench to work with what you've got, just trying to make it look as good as you can. Now, let's work on getting the pin holes drilled into our tank. You don't need to be fancy. Just using a Sharpie is plenty. Mark it out and lay it down. Now if you have a drill press vice, that would be even better. But for the purposes of this, we're going to assume that you don't yet. So just use a block of wood on your drill. Press, lay it down on the table and make sure that the blade is facing toward the post of the drill press. Sometimes it will catch and spin and we don't want that. You see me using some oil here at super simple. Just go to your hardware store and get any kind of cutting oil just to make sure that it cuts easier and it's not going to burn out your drill bits. I'm using a one-eighth drill bit so that I can use one eighth pins. That's great for smaller blade, you can use whatever you like, but that's what I'm doing here. So oil it up, replace the oil whenever you need to, and just simply drill through steel. If you have not quench your blade and you're having a hard time getting through the steel, heat it up and let it cool slowly. Do that for our cycle or two and it should cut through just like butter. If it is done after the quench, you're going to have a little bit harder over time. So always try to do the pinholes before the quencher. We can, but it's still possible. And there we go to space them however you like, for me, for smaller blade, I like to have one pin close to the top of the handle and one pin close to the bottom of the handle. If it's a larger blade, you can do three or whatever it is you want for your blade, but this will be just fine for this. So now your blade has gone from a rough forage look with some grinding and some heat treat and a little bit of extra details. We've turned it into a beautiful to complain the bevels or ground at a 400 grit finish. Plus we grounded thin enough so that the flat of cutting-edge is nice, thin. So instead of being like a wedge that's pushing through our material, it will cut nice and clean. So with that prep work done, we are ready to go onto the next lesson all about sharpening. Good job guys. If you need to make any adjustments to it, go ahead and you'll see I added a little bit of Choi Here. I worked on the record so little things like that, they're all fine. Those are up to you. Do not necessary, but it just depends on your style. Now let's hit the next lesson. 8. Sharpening: Class for Lesson eight, sharpening your blade. In order to have an effective blade. Obviously, it needs to have a good edge and that all comes down to geometry. So in a blade we have our primary level and then we have our secondary bevel, which is the cutting edge. When you're sharpening a blade on your bench grinder, you can either do it up or down. There's pros and cons to each one. So really depends on what you prefer. But what I'm going to show you is how to do it facing up. Keep in mind however, that like we mentioned in the other one, you need to be careful about your angle as you're working blade, one side and then the other. It cannot work at too steep of an angle because it will catch and throw that bleed all over the room. So make sure you are comfortable with whatever you're doing and you're playing it safe. Because again, we've talked about not wearing gloves. This is essential because of the heat transfer. Without gloves on, you will be able to feel whether or not you are heating it up too much. So you could get very specific about this and look for very specific angles, but we're not gonna do that. We're going to go for the simple and easy. There is our cutting edge. Right now, it is a flat. We're going to turn that into a sharpened blade. Bring it up a little steeper than the bevel, and slowly draw it back to the tip, not pressing hard on the tip or else you will overheat it quickly. Use a nice fresh belt. You'll see that I started a little bit away from the Picasso and then I slightly move it back so that I can have it nice and precise. And then I do a slow draw cut, angling the blade as the cutting edge curves. Another flat is still there, but it's thinner. So let's do it again. Go back. We started a little bit away from the recall, so moving in just a little bit and then finished full draw cut, do not apply too much pressure. It's nice and it's easy. Flip it around so we have symmetry. Do the exact same thing. Go easy. Keep your fingers away from the belt and do not press very hard, especially on that tip because the tip is so thin. Now as we can see, it's a nice even draw, a nice even finished. There's no strange angles. This is very precise work. So after each pass, examined the work and see if there needs to be any adjustments. You want one clean bevel the whole way down your blade. It's not too difficult with a smaller blade, but learning it can be difficult. So again, start a little bit off from the recall. So we work our way in and then we easily work our way down the rest of the cutting-edge. As you train your eye, you'll start to see a slight burr as you're sharpening again. And that's good. You want to be able to train your eye, but it will take practice. Every so often carefully run your finger along the edge and examine that flat to see if you're getting there. You see a little bit of inconsistency on this one here. So I'm going to have to go back and fix that. But nice and easy. Draw back, flip it around. Do so again. Now we're going to speed up the video a little bit because it does take time, but go nice and slow. Start at a low grit so you can remove material without overheating it. And then once you have the primary cutting edge Establish, you can move through your grits. I usually stop at a 400 grit on my belt sander. And from there we can really hone that edge. When you sharpen a blade, you start to develop a very slight burr, which is sort of like an overhang of material on one side. When you flip it around and you sharpen the other side, it pushes that slight overhang, the bur to the other side. If you do not home that blade, that burr will not be broken off. So it will not feel very sharp. So even after working with a finer grid of a belt, you're going to have to hone it. You could use a ceramic rods or you could use a buffing wheel to go ahead and get some green compound and bring it to your buffer. And we'll never Buffett with Blade up, always down in this regard, every single time. But all you're gonna do is very lightly run that cutting edge along the buffing wheel. Nice and easy, very, very lightly, making sure that the tip is angled down so you don't accidentally catch that buffing wheel. That would be bad. If you've done one side, flip it around, do the other side, makes sure you reapply some compound and very lightly. Just run it along that buffing wheel so that you polish that cutting edge, break-off that burr. Now let's compare this with another paper test cut and see how it did. Admittedly, the papers have been beat up. But let's see. What you're doing is you're listening for how much tearing there is as opposed to how much cutting there is. But look how much easier that glides through the paper. Even a busted piece of paper like this one. That's what you're looking for it full test from tip all the way down to the recall. So we now have a very nice sharp edge. You can also feel for any burrs, one side or the other will have a little bit more dragged book. Good job. Now let's talk about what's next. 9. What's Next: All right guys. There we are so far that's what we have for class for forging of basically. So what's next? Well now we know that we have our blade, but we don't really have a handle. I may have mentioned you could throw a pair record handle on it or a simple leather wrap just to make it at least we'll know. We're going to go even further than that. The real quality of a blade is made up not just in the blade itself, but also the connection to the user, the handle. Whether it's a larger blade or small bleed. The handle is so important in the quality of your product. It has to be comfortable, it has to retain grip, and it has to match statically as well. If you want to really stand out as good quality high caliber Smith. So we're going to talk about in the next few, in the next class, how to make a quality. We'll talk about some of the materials so you want to use some of the materials you may want to avoid. And we're going to talk about some of the methods in order to accomplish that. Keep in mind as we're doing so. It's going to depend on your preferences. For instance, we have hybrid materials with like a resin borough would mixture. We have natural materials and we have fully synthetic materials. So we're thinking would antler bone and then synthetic were thinking my Carta g ten, all kinds of things as well. Each one of them can make a quality product, but it all depends on either what you are looking for or what your eventual customer baby looking for. If you're looking needed to eventually sell you products. But every one of them has a viable option and they can look great. It depends a lot on the style that you're going for. And they all have their pros and cons. We'll talk about it. But a basic rundown is that would take us a lot more work to make it look good and to make it function well in the weather. Whereas a totally synthetic materials such as my Carta, you don't need to do as much work on it. And it can take moisture and weather conditions a lot better than many woods. But that may not be the aesthetic that you're going for. So it all depends. We're gonna get into it, but just some quick notes on the different handle material. That's what's coming up. How to do it. Things to keep into consideration, things to avoid, and how to make a handle that's going to sit comfortably in your hand so that you can wield it all day long and it will be comfortable. 10. Class Project: All right guys, we are now on class for less than ten. The class project, which is show me your blade. I want to see what you did. I mentioned that a little bit in the introduction, but I want to see what it is that you did in the forging your blade class. So if it broke, show me if it turned out to be just like a hunk of steel that didn't look good. Tell me, let me know so that we can help work you through it. But as you're doing it, include any pictures and videos and whatever you happen to taste so that I can see the process that brought you to the blade that you have. Let me know how it was sharpening, finishing, let me know how it went with forging your heat control, hammer control, whatever it is. You don't have to send me all the stuff, but sent me whatever you are comfortable with sending me so that we can give some feedback. Shoot me an email at Barrett or respond right here in Skillshare. And we will make a discussion out of it down below in the comments, in the discussion portion, will be able to get some dialogue on some of the challenges you faced. Some of the successes that you had. Whatever it is, it's a lot of funding ordinary be doing this, but we have a lot to move forward to as well. So I hope you liked class for please send me as much as you'd like. Let me know what you would like to see coming in future classes, things that I should include, and make sure you follow me here on Skillshare. Make sure you sign up for the next class of KM and hopefully very student's class five, all about handle making. A whole lot to go over in that we discussed in the last class. We have so much more to discuss in order to really round out our skills and abilities, ask Smith's life makers, It's so much fun. I just wanted to quickly say as well, thank you everybody. I really truly enjoy this. I really appreciate getting old feedback because you guys send me e-mails all the time and is a lot of fun for me and I'm very happy to be able to share that. So thank you so much for taking care of us here at Barrett knives. It really helps us out as we're growing and it's all because of the support from you guys. So make sure you stick around here on Skillshare classes 5678 going on because we got a lot of fun things coming up. And I'm going to want to see your iteration of what we're working on. So thank you again guys, and we'll see you in class five, making candles.