Bladesmithing Class 2: Basics | Barrett Knives | Skillshare

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Bladesmithing Class 2: Basics

teacher avatar Barrett Knives

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Steel Choice


    • 3.

      Handle Material


    • 4.



    • 5.



    • 6.

      Midway Motivation: Expect Failure


    • 7.



    • 8.

      Explaining Heat Treat (Thermocycle, Quench, Tempering)


    • 9.

      What's Next


    • 10.

      Class Project: Design Your Blade


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About This Class

NOTE: This is class 2 of a series of classes designed to start you off on the right path to blade smithing. For introductions and important information, be sure to watch class 1: Introduction.     

   Welcome everyone, my name is Trevor, and I will get right to it. I am a self taught, full time bladesmith right here in Alaska. I made this course to help you start your path down bladesmithing. Whether you are interested in this amazing craft because of tv, video games, books, history, or just the desire to create something with your own two hands, you’re in the right spot. Really, whatever reasons you have or looking into this, you’ll love this class. 

Because to be totally honest, almost everyone can start bladesmithing. I am just some random guy who one day gave it a shot. I had no training, no experience, and being in rural Alaska, I had nowhere to go for help. So trust me when I say that if I can learn how to do this, so can you. And obviously, I want to help. 

In this class, you’ll learn right from your own home everything you need to know in order to start bladesmithing. This means I’ll tell you how to get equipment you need, how to set up a shop, how to design blades for certain purposes, and how to make them high functioning pieces of art. 

    Check out the class outline below for a clear idea of what to expect!


Class 1: Startup

  1. What to Expect From This Class
  2. Get to Know the Instructor
  3. Tour of the Forge
  4. Stock removal vs. Forging
  5. Basic Gear vs Intermediate Gear 
  6. A Note on Safety
  7. Shop Layout Sample
  8. Weather Considerations
  9. What’s Next
  10. Class Project: What's Your Reason?


Class 2: Basics

  1. Overview of Knife Making
  2. Steel Choice
  3. Handle Material
  4. Hammers
  5. Forges
  6. Midway Motivation: Expect Failure
  7. Anvils
  8. Explaining Heat Treat (Thermocycle, Quench, Tempering)
  9. What’s next
  10. Project: Design Your Blade


Class 3: Making a Stock Removal Blade

  1. Introduction 
  2. Benefits and Downsides of Stock Removal
  3. Design
  4. Cutting out the Design
  5. Prepping the Tang
  6. Midway Motivation: It Won’t Be perfect!
  7. Adding Bevels
  8. Heat Treat
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Cut Out a Simple Blade


Class 4: Forging a Basic Blade

  1. Introduction 
  2. Benefits and Downfalls of Forging/Design
  3. Notes on Heat Control
  4. Forging the Blade
  5. Forging the Tang
  6. Heat Treat
  7. Cleanup/Blade Finish
  8. Sharpening
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Show Me Your Blade


Class 5: Handle Making

  1. Introduction (Comfort, Style, Finish)
  2. Notes on Adhesive
  3. Hidden Tang Handle
  4. Full Tang Handle
  5. Paracord Handle
  6. Wooden Handle
  7. Antler/Bone Handle
  8. Spacers
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Show Me Your Handle


Class 6: Finishes

  1. Introduction
  2. What to Avoid
  3. Forge Scale
  4. Polished
  5. Satin
  6. Midway Motivation: Take Your Time
  7. Etching
  8. Texturing
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Show Me Your Finish


Class 7: Sharpening

  1. Introduction
  2. Safety
  3. Sharpening Vs Honing
  4. Methods
  5. Angles and Applications
  6. Cutlery
  7. Camp Knife
  8. Testing
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Demonstrate Your Edge


Class 8: Forging Large Blades

  1. Introduction
  2. Small Vs Large Blades
  3. Heat Control on Large Blades
  4. Forging
  5. Midway Motivation: Entirely New Challenge
  6. Grinding
  7. Balance
  8. Finish
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Forge a Blade at Least 15” Long

Class 9: Forging Damascus

Class 10: Forging Sanmai

Class 11: Recap and Reminders

  1. Introduction
  2. Forging
  3. Handle Making
  4. Heat Treat
  5. Midway Motivation: You’re Just Getting Started
  6. Finishes
  7. Sharpening
  8. Testing
  9. What’s Next
  10. Project: Show Me A Finished, Sharpened Blade


Class 12: What Now?

  1. Introduction
  2. What to Expect From Bladesmithing Now
  3. Hobbyist Vs Business
  4. How to Progress
  5. Growing From Failures
  6. Future of This Class
  7. What’s Next
  8. Project: Tell Me What You Want to Forge Next


Class 13: Forging a Kukri

Class 14: Forging a Seax

Class 15: Forging a Katana

Class 16: Forging a Viking Sword

Class 17: Forging a Gladius

Class 18: Forging a Spear

And more...

Meet Your Teacher

Hunter, Husband, Fulltime Bladesmith

Born and Raised Alaska

See full profile

Level: Beginner

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1. Overview: Okay, Welcome back everybody. We are now on class 2, so less than one is the introduction. Now a quick review. And last time in class one, it was all really informational things that you needed to know in order to get yourself started. So now, class two is its own separate thing because it's has to do with the different types of materials and gear that you'll need to get so that you'll be ready for class 3 when we start making blades. So by way of introduction, some of the things we're looking forward to in-class too far. Steel choice, because you can't just go grab a random piece of scrap steel. It just won't. Good product will also talk about handled materials. Different options you have in order to have a strong, functional and good-looking handles for your knife. One of the most important tools to hammer will talk about the different uses that different types of hammers, ones to look for and ones to avoid, and where you can get them. And then of course we'll be talking about the forges because you need a way to heat it. So what are your options for forges? Where can you find some of them and which one is best for you and your situation. Now, also talk about anvils because believe it or not, there's a lot of different parts to an animal. And each one can be super helpful depending on what you're able to do, whether you're a beginner, intermediate or advanced, but helped me try to find a good option for anvils. Then one of the favorites is the heat treat. Now everyone hears the heat treat, you know, do you think, which we're going to go into detail about each part of the heat treat process and why you're doing it so that you understand it. And then of course, we'll have a preview of Class 3. And now this time, our projects for this class is designing your blade. Now I'm going to want to see you and your style of what you're looking to make in class 3. And that's going to be a lot of fun. We'll talk about it in less than ten this class. But for now, those are some of the things that we need to look out for when we're going into class 2. Now something to keep in mind though, is that all of this is subject to where you are and what you have access to. By way of example, in my situation or it can be a little bit more difficult because I don't have as much access to some of the tools. So a lot of the times I had to make do with what I had around me. But it also helped me to get started in a very cheap and inexpensive way. Some of you might have more access to tools. You might even find older blacksmithing tools and sheds. I have multiple people who found 400 pound and holes in their grandma's shed. And that's an incredible fine. So it really depends. So as we go and as you listen in class to keep in mind that apply any of the information that you see here in this class to yourself into whatever it is that you have available. Because I can't tell you the best. It all depends. Now the first one is going to be steel choice. And the reason is, is because if you don't have quality materials, you will not have a quality blade. So let's get into it less than one. 2. Steel Choice: Okay, so we're on class to Lesson 2. Let's talk about steel choice. And the reason why steel choice is so important is that you cannot have a good product. If you don't have a good material. A lot of people will go to the local hardware store and buy steel there because they think steel metal. And as true, steel is very strong. But for blade smithing, it's very specific. That type of steel, the main component you're looking for is called carbon. Now varies a little bit with what kind of steel has, what percentage of carbon, and it can be a little bit confusing. So what I recommend is going to knife or any other website that sells different types of knife making steel and get something from there. Something specific, not just plain mild steel. Then the difference is is that if you make a bleed out of mild steel, steel that has a low carbon content, it will not harden properly so that it will not be able to get at sharp and it will adult quickly. And depending on the type of blade, you can even bend it in your hand. Whereas a high carbon steel, when properly done and treated, will not be able to bend, to be very sharp. And we'll be able to stay sharp because the carbon content is what makes it hard. Now I am not a metallurgist and I am not a scientist. I don't know the exact reasons and all that stuff, but I can tell you from a blade Smith in perspective, the why and the how. So. Here's a couple of options that you'll find on various knife making suppliers. Now, one option is what's called 1080 to 1080. And as you can see here, this is a bar stocks of 10 BD. Now this means that it has pretty much 0.8 carbon content. Now there are fluctuations and differences in that, but it gives you a basic idea. To 1080 is a considered a high carbon steel. I would recommend going for 1095, So 0100, 95. Both of these options are great options for beginner and advanced blade Smith's 1080 because it has a little bit lower content of carbon. We'll move a little easier, but it was, so it'll be a little more forgiving, but it will still maintain a high-quality blame. There are a lot of other options as well. For instance, this steel is called 50, 160. Essentially that means that it's spring scale. Now, you can just easily go on to Google and search it up for the differences between say, 109711 and it will tell you more of the specific details of it. But 5160 is really good for larger blades as well. But you could also do 295. The most important part is that you get a high carbon steel for making dies and not just generic steal from Harvard story. Other options when you get a little bit more advanced, include things like this guy, 15 in 20. Essentially this means that has a high nickel content. And what happens with this is that it's commonly merged with 1080 or similar steels to make Damascus or pattern welded steel. And we'll cover that later on in a different class. But this is just to give you a basic idea, a few steels that I recommend. Void. Do not go for mysteries field. Even if you want to experiment and just try something out, I recommend not going for mystery steel. If you don't know what it is, you're better off not using it. Now you can. And I might just turn out just fine. But in my opinion, just spent a little bit of extra money go onto a knife making supply store of some sort online or maybe even locally if you have it and find yourself a high carbon steel because then you're guaranteed. A lot of people like to use frame seals like leaf springs from an old truck and that's fine. The only issue there is that a lot of times they might have micro fractures that you came and you won't even know are there until after you've done a lot of work. Sometimes those micro fractures will show up during the quake and sometimes they'll show up after you're completely done and then you use it, you know, whack it on something and it will break, right? And a half of people like to use lawn mower blades, which isn't necessarily wrong. But my opinion is use quality materials to get a quality product. So, like I said, go for a high carbon steel, which is commonly found online. Again, one of the options is knife, and there's a whole list of them go down a high carbon steel and I recommend starting with 10, 9, 1095. It means you have about give or take, 0.9% carbon. And that will give you perfect steel, high-quality material to make a high-quality product. Now the steel is only half of the product. Next is the handled material. So let's talk a little bit about that in lesson three. 3. Handle Material: Okay, we are on Class 2 now, Lesson 3. Let's talk about handle materials. Now. The handle is one of the most important parts because it's what connects the knife to his user. And it's also one of those areas where you can really make it shine and show your own personal flair. Now there's three basic categories for knife making, material for the handle. And the first one is natural, the second one is synthetic. And then the third category is commonly referred to as hybrid materials. So kind of a blend of the two. So first of all, let's talk about natural materials. Pros and con. Natural materials include things like wood and antler. Now what is probably one of the most common materials ever used for knife handles? In my opinion. There's a lot of pros and cons. Let's talk about some of the pros is gorgeous. You have a lot of variety. And if you choose the right type of wood, then you can have a very strong handle for your knife. Some of the cons though is that wood can take a lot of work. And an example is that hickory is a very strong good, but it's also very open port. So if you don't seal it properly, you'll get damage frame and you can get a lot of dirt inside. That's why if you see it, a brand new ACS handle made out of hickory. It looks gorgeous, golden, and beautiful. But then you look at an old acts and is really gray and gross looking at last because a lot of the crud has gotten into the handle and moisture can cause it to fluctuate and whatnot. So with hickory, you need to do the extra step of wet sanding. Now, a lot of guys will do wet sanding anyway. It depends on what it is you're looking for. Some guys will seal it with a Danish oil. Some guys will just do a polyurethane spray over top of it. It really depends on what you look for personally, but we'll get all into that in the handle making video. But we're not there yet. So lot of pros and cons with would you also have Ampere material? Some of the pros is antler is extremely hard. Some of the cons is that antler is extremely hard. It can be difficult to work with it, and it can be a little bit more expensive depending on where you are. Now, if you're a hunter and you have your own antler, that's great. You just got results and free handle material. Free but you don't pay for it. So a lot of different pros and cons. This is a gorgeous Huntsman Look. A lot of people prefer that. A lot of people go for that. So it depends on what you're going for it. You could also do a mix like this with a little birch bark spacer. I like that look. That's a basic natural selection. Now we have different selection. And I agree mentioned synthetic. Synthetic is commonly referring to materials like my Carta. Essentially, my Carta is different layers of various materials set and pressed into epoxy resin. Now the pros of my Carta Gita and things like that is a generally make an extremely strong weather resistant material because it's pressed into a resident. So my Carta, this is a linen, my Carta, you can get paper and Canvas and all kinds of things. This is a very strong material and it's a, hailed as a very good one for Woodman knives, for tactical Maya, and things like that. You can gloss it up, showing up, or you can keep it rough for a texture field give you a little more Britain. It comes in a lot of different colors depending, but you have to buy it all and it can get a little bit expensive. But it's a very strong material. So it's a balance between the pros and the cons depending on what you're looking for. The other one is more of a hybrid. Now, this is a Berle block of Berle set into coloured resin and forgot the word for a second. And it will produce a very strong knife. And a lot of the nice things with a hybrid material is that you can take normally week material and set impress it into epoxy and it makes it a strong, durable material. They've done it with pine cones, they've done it with various types of salted birch That's typically too weak to use it as a knife handle, but set into resin and reinforced. And it makes it very, very strong. I've even seen it done with moose droppings. I wouldn't necessarily recommend that because it's a little weird to me. But whatever goes view or you could do a mix. Whatever it goes for you. My recommendation is start with would start with a piece of walnut. Look online for woodworking scraps or a knife handle materials, scraps, different things like that. So that you can make either a hidden Ting or a full team, depending on what it is you're looking for. It depends on your style of a keep it in mind because remember, the project is going to be designing your blade. So while you're designing your blade, design your handle, just what you wanna do and what you have available to you. So we'll talk about how to make these into various handles, but those are some of your options. So again, I recommend getting something simple. Getting a nice piece of walnut, something that's strong as shines up really well and it looks good and it will be equality handle material. Now, this is all well and good. Now we know what kind of materials to start with, but what do we need now? But the equipment to make the product. Let's talk about in lesson 4, hammers. 4. Hammers: All right, welcome back Again. We are on class to lesson 4. Let's talk about hammers. You see the reason mean is that in order to make the middle move, you need something to move it with a hammer. Now a couple of things to keep in mind. They will talk about what you want to look forward to. Hammer will talk about what you don't want in a hammer. And we'll talk about where you can get said hammers. Ok. Now First of all, my recommendation is just by the proper hammer. The reason being is that it's very easy to just find a hammer that's around. Won't do you any favors if it's not going to serve you? Well. For example, I've had people say, well, I'll just use my old carpentry hammer. I wouldn't recommend that because many carpentry hammers, for one have a very small strike face. So that isolates the strike of what you're doing to a very rounded, centralized point on your material. Which means that instead of spreading the material, you're putting pucks in the material. Another reason is that honestly, it's not heavy enough. You'll take more effort trying to swing it hard enough in order to move the material effectively, the back. And instead of having a useful addition to your hammer, instead you've got a clot and I don't know, maybe you could hit yourself with it. I have no idea. But the point is, by the proper hammer, others have said, well, I'll just use my sledgehammer. It's eight pounds and I'll move some middle. That's true. But I have found that most blade smithing, most blacksmithing has to do with control, not just sheer brute force. Think about a power hammer. It's whole thing is to move material aggressively. But they don't do that for the fine detail work. They do that for drawing bullets out and for making a big impact on the material. So that's fine. Later on you're probably going to end up getting a heavy hammer and you'll need one. But the most important general-purpose hammer is about three pounds, 2.53 pounds. That is a very effective camera. Now, an example is this guy. This is 2.5 pounds and it's a little bit light. But that's fine because I have a 2.5 pound for pound and I have on up. I also have a 16-ounce ball peen hammer, but we'll get to that. Now. What are some of the good things about this one is that for one, if you look at the strike you'd face, it's rounded. The why is that important? Because if you were to take your material and strike it, What's happening here is that because it's rounded, It's not making a sharp impact on your material and it's spreading it out. But if you had a hammer that was sharp on the edges and flat, it is impossible to properly land every single time, perfectly flat. So what's going to end up happening is that you'll be causing debits and sharp cuts into your material every single strike. And that is something that you're going to have to work out later. Another thing is, is that this is a little bit wider of a striking face than say, a carpentry hammer. So like I mentioned before, instead of doing it circular pox into your material, it's helping to spread it out a little bit more. The other side of the hammer is important as well. This is called a cross p. This guy here. Now, this is very effective for shaping metal more aggressively. You could do it for drawing material out. You could do it for shaping the finger wells or all kinds of different things. But the idea is, is that this instead of a generalized spreading of the material, this helps to localize your strike and your force in order to move metal in a more aggressive manner in a spin. Wait. So you want to forge bevels this way, but you could hit it in a certain way to draw the material and widen, but we'll get into that in more forging videos. So a 2.5 or three pound hammer is a very good starting point. This will be one of your most used Hebert. You can use it for small projects. You can use it for large projects. You can use it for forging and your bevels. You can do it for straightening it out. I would recommend getting this guy, I think this was 40 or 50 bucks on Amazon, this one. So also you can go to your local hardware store. And any hammer you find that looks like it would be heavy enough, about three pounds. And that you can alter the striking face because this was squared off more this way, this way. And I just use a belt Sanders and files in order to round it up a little bit. So you might have to modify almost any hammer that you're looking for it unless it's a custom hammer. But for now, just go to a hardware store, get a 234 pound hammer. And you'll enable yourself to work on a huge variety, huge variety of different projects. That's what I recommend. Later on, I recommend getting large hammers, sledgehammers, and even a wooden malate and small ball peen hammer. There's lots of different options but to start off, get yourself one of those finite locally if you can, and have not gone Amazon to what you can find. Okay, the next one we've talked about how to strike. Let's see how to heat. Let's talk about forages. 5. Forges: All right, welcome back. We are on Class 2, less than five. Let's talk about the forages. We've talked about hammers, we will talk about anvils. But the other important piece of the trifecta for blacksmithing equipment that everyone knows is the forage. Now you basically have two different options. You can use a coal forage or you can use a propane forage. And there's pros and cons to each one and it depends on your specific situation. So personally, I started on a coal forage and eventually moved to a propane torch. Let's talk about some of the pros and cons of each one. A coal forage can get hotter. And it can be more versatile in many ways. Many times, a propane forge will limit the size and limit the maneuverability of your piece. So it'll be harder to do things like a wide axe head or whatever else. Whereas a coal forage typically has a wide dish, you can lay it. It does a lot of reasons why you might consider getting a coal forage. Now some of the cons of coal forage is that it can get a lot hotter. So if you look away or if you're not paying attention, is very easy to burn your steel. I'm not, you can burn steel. What happens is it starts to break down because you're destroying the grain structure and you're wrecking the carbon content, you can actually burn the carbon out of your metal if you're not careful. So you got to watch it. It's also a little more difficult to get it started. It's a little more difficult to learn how to do so and how to work a coal forage. And you need more ventilation than you do with the propane torch. You need ventilation with both but with a coal forage, I recommend even more. That's why sometimes you'll see a coal forward with a huge hood and a fan that just draws all of those fumes write out. Also, you need to be able to buy coal Regularly. Depends on where you are and what you have access to. It might be cheaper or might be more expensive, depends on what it is that you have in your area. So do a little research, look locally equal to hardware stores and ask them what they have. Look on the Internet and see what you can find as an option for getting cold if that's the direction you want to go. Another con is that it can be harder to balance the oxygen and to keep the fire going. But with a little bit of practice, you can learn how to do it and it'll work just fine. I don't recommend trying charcoal. It doesn't get hot enough for long enough and a burdens too quickly. And you'll just blow through a whole bunch of charcoal. And you won't be able to get the steel hot enough to really work effectively. Now, let's talk about a propane forage. Essentially it's a tube with an inlet that shoots out OK, shoots out propane, and then you light it. Now it's can be pretty loud, but it's typically a very clean for it not to be as much fumes, but it cannot necessarily get as hot. Also, you have to have a propane tank and you have to be able to fill the propane tank. And like we said in the last class, it also depends on the weather considerations around you. If you're using propane and it's cold outside, then there's good chance that you're a propane tank can ice up and then you have to work around that. So it really depends. So some of the pros, it's easy to use. You just start it right up and it makes a good heat source. Some of the cons is that it's a little more dangerous in some ways because it can pop on. You. Burn my eyebrows and burn my eyelashes and Merton hair a number of times because I'm trying to light it and I have hearing protection on. I don't realize that it's going so then when it finally lights, being able explosion. So a can be a little more difficult if you're not careful. So it depends. You might go for the coal forage because it's a more traditional route and it's cheaper in your area perhaps. Or you might go for the propane forage because it's easier to start. Is there learn and it's cheaper in your area, perhaps. It just depends. I switched from coal to propane because in my area in which cheaper to new propane and just fill that up. So I'll go through ten gallons in a week. Easy. Usually more than that. But it just depends or whatever whatever is easier for you for me between shipping delays because I live in a more isolated area and Alaska and the time that it takes to get here and the cost of gets it takes to get it Here. Cole wasn't the way to go. So I went to propane. So it depends where to get them. Ebay, Amazon, anywhere online. There's plenty of different options you can go into, ETC, and search, propane, Forge. And there's loads of options. I would recommend not because one's better than the other, starting with the propane forage because it's easy to learn. And going on to eBay or Etsy or Amazon and looking up single burner propane torch. And it will give you options many times under a $100. And then just get yourself propane tank. You can even start with barbecue tank. And then you've got to forge and then just follow the instruction. Some of them you need to do a little coating of refractory cement in order to keep some stuff inside, but it depends. So that's my suggestion. I recommend propane is easy, good stuff going, but you can easily get into California as well. So what's cheaper for your area and what's easier for you and what your needs are. There you go. That's how to heat your steel. Now the next one, we're gonna take a little bit of a break and we're going to get it into the Midway motivation, expecting failures. 6. Midway Motivation: Expect Failure: All right, we are on class to lesson 6, was talking about midway motivation, expect failures. Why would we even include this? Well, because honestly, no matter what, they're going to have failures. And it's not whether or not you experience a failure. It's how you respond to it because it was going to happen. No matter what. What do I mean by some failures. You will waste time. You will waste money, you will break products, and you will get injured. Sometimes, doesn't have to be severe. You're going to hurt yourself one way or another. So some of the different failures that I've had for one I had was shot burned down because of an electrical fire late at night when no one was even in there. So that was kind of a bummer, but that's not the typical stuff that you're going to have an issue with. A typical stuff is you're going to come up against issues that you didn't know existed. For instance, let's say you forge out a blade and it works. And how your blade is warped and you don't know what to do, there's a way around it. But if you get discouraged by the fact that you weren't able to forge and quench this blade without warping it, you're going to give up. But that's what happens to every single Smith. It starts out other failures. I've had a broken blades. I didn't even know the proper steps when I first started and I broke a blade, snapped right in half and I was incredibly discouraged. Sometimes you go through phases where you break blades all the time. That's exactly what I did. I could not solve breaking a blade for about a week there when I first started, I didn't know what I was doing and what I want to do it. I wasn't tempering. Did all process except Tim Burton that were taken with right now these reading whack, you'll break it in half. We'll talk about what the heat treat is. We'll talk about temporary in Lesson eight, come up. Other times, I accidentally sold a bad product. I didn't know it. I had problems with handles, a broke handles constantly trying to learn how to fit them onto my brain's. Blood. Wood is very brittle, very beautiful, but very brittle handled material. So it's great once it's in place, but it doesn't flex at all. So try and get it into place without breaking. It was very challenging to me a long time to learn how to do it. But eventually we got there. So it all depends. Other things is I couldn't get my blade sharp and I didn't understand why all the obliques working just fine, but it couldn't get this one sharp for some reason. They had to do with geometry, which we'll get into as well. But the fact is it can be so frustrating Coming up to problems that you didn't even know existed. Another thing is let's just say you figure out how to make a good knife and you relatively consistent with your quality and you run into less and less issues in that regard. But now the dot getting exposure that you want, maybe you want to start a business, but you're not being able to eat. The results for your hard work or a nobody knows about what you do so that you can't sell your products or whatever the case is. Another failure that I consider. That failure is that I would look at other Smiths and I would think I was trying to do that and I failed big time. That was way better than when I did. Even less time than I had. And he's done better. It's okay. Not whether or not there will be failures. It is your response to these failures. And honestly this is more of just a life lesson. Everybody goes through this, whether it's work, whether it's relationships, whether it's just general life situation, it depends. There will be failures. So how did we learn from the failures? Step one is we expect them. We know they're coming. So that way, when they do come, we're not discouraged. The most important thing is to look at a failure as an opportunity to get, to learn how to do better. And sounds a little motivational speech. But it's true because when you break a blade, instead of getting discouraged and then you break it another way and bring another blames give up. Instead. Take a break. Think about your process and do a little research. You can go on to knife making forums. Research on why didn't my blade break? What's the proper way to make a flexible blade? What the proper way to harden a bleed? Do research, join different communities online and find out ways to improve your work. Or maybe you're using a material that isn't proper for this application and you didn't know that. So what you need to do is use the right material. He doesn't necessarily indicate that you're a failure as a Smith, it might just be that you're using the wrong material. For this application. It all depends. There's so many different options. For example, another thing that I had, I couldn't get my blue to set, no matter what I did. It wasn't setting. That's because I wasn't cleaning my material. So I thought it was set in in in reality, you will set but it wasn't bonded well. And so it kept popping off because I didn't clean it well enough before I tried to adhere it to the blade. So it can be small things, tiny little adjustments, Eden even know. But the more you get discouraged by, the closer you are to giving up on smithing because it's a challenging trait. You will come up to so many different problems. So the basic steps, I recommend, one, take a break, too, molded over 3, do some research for try it again. There you go. That's the formula to succeed. Every single time you fail, even if it's a problem that you keep running into, keep trying. And you will fix it and you will figure it out because everyone's done before you and they're gonna do it for you. This is all part of the process. So Medway motivation expect failures so that instead of being discouraged by them, you can learn from them and you become a master at your craft. 7. Anvils: Welcome back to class to lesson 7. Let's talk about anvils. Now. What I have here is a steel envelope is the small guys probably about 40 pounds or so, maybe 50. But anyway, my point is, this is a small but a quality envelope. Now sometimes people think I need the biggest anvil I can get. That. That's not necessarily true. You don't want a tiny little jeweler jewelry anvil, but you do want something moderately sized. This is a very good size for say, smaller knives, medium, Nice. You could even do bigger stuff on it. But if you're going to start doing bigger stuff, you want the proper equipment. So some of the things to look for, you'll notice that this does not have any of the extra shells or the holes or even mounting points. This is a very basic envelope. So some of the issues you'll run into with this kind of animal is that it'll bounce around all over the material, believe it or not, even though it's a pretty heavy anvil. If you take a hammer, you put on a stump. You put this on a stump and you hammer on it, you'll see it bouncing around quite a bit. But that's fine because you can usually secure it down with some chain or bands or whatever else. There's ways around that. Recommend is going to local scrap yards and look for things like railroad track. You can get little chunks a railroad track in order to get started. And those are hard steel and there'll be very good quality. I started with just literally a steel plate bolted onto a log and it did do the job. But I was really suffering the more and more of than I got into it. Eventually I upgraded to a actual true anvil. But the problem is, is that a was iron. And so when you would hammer on it, it would be a dull thud and every hammer blow would put a dent into my material because the iron wasn't strong enough to handle what I was doing. Of course, I was also not very good because it kept missing the envelope to that point, but eventually I got better with my aim. Then I upgraded to an actual true steel anvil and it is total life changing experience. Honestly, the iron anvil eventually looks like an ancient, unique heirloom that had been around for thousands of years because it took such a beating. Whereas the steel anvil, I've been using it for a long time now and it looks almost as fresh as it did on the first day. Some of the things that you would like to include, if possible, would be a pigeonhole and a hearty hole, and a horn and a shelf. There's so many different applications for different things that you're trying to do by way of blade smithing and blacksmith thing in general. The hearty whole gives you access to a lot of different types of tools. There's a hot cut tool. There's two little posts for a bending wire around it or bending rods around it and making cool shapes. There's a fuller tool, all kinds of different things you can do to pigeonhole gives you more options as to like drifting holes and whatnot through your material. So if you don't want to drill your hole, you can just drifted through with a pond or whatever you have on hand. And the shelf can help you shape certain aspects depending on what you're trying to do. And the horn is very useful for shaping your blades. This one's a whole squared off you can see. But my other hand, VL is more rounded, which is really good for shaping like the finger wells of a blade. You can just lay it down. Of course, keep in mind if you lay down like this and you hammer it, it will bend around that horn. But your hammer blows will also affect the spine. So there's ways around that as well. So you can go on to eBay and you can't go on to Amazon and, and things like that. But look for steel drop forged anvil. They can be pretty expensive, but that's some of the options where you can buy them from relatively cheap. I got mine for under 500, which is pretty expensive. So if you're not looking to buy them just yet, go onto Facebook groups and just ask, does anybody have an anvil? Any anvils better than none. But I know so many guys who have gotten 400 pound steel anticonvulsants for free because some old guy in a shed just didn't need it anymore. So look online, Craigslist, Facebook, whatever you can see what is in your local area. I don't have a whole lot of people around me in my more isolated area in Alaska. So I had to buy my own and have it sent here. And that was kind of a hassle and kind of expensive. But go for a steel anvil, not an iron one, if ever you can't. And worst-case scenario, just find a chunk of steel to get started. That's all you need. A chunk of steel, something so that you can start hammering and then later on you can upgrade to a more official hammer. Okay, so now that's what it is. We've talked about the hammer, we've talked about the forage, we talked about the anvil. Now let's talk about the heat treat process. What does it mean to heat treat ablate? 8. Explaining Heat Treat (Thermocycle, Quench, Tempering): All right, we are on Class 2 less than eight. The heat treat the heat treat process is the most important part of the blade. Because if you don't have a hardened, properly he treated blade, you do not have a functional blade. It will fail. If it's too soft, then it won't get sharp, it won't stay sharp and it can bend. If it's too hard, then it will get sharp and it will stay sharp. But it could very easily break because it's so brittle. So a lot of people think about the heat tree and they think of the quench, right? You see it on different shows the quench it in blue are the coin Jin in the river, a mountain or something. Which is not how I recommend quenching or blame. You need a controlled and a consistent environment in order to have a proper quidditch. But the heat tree is actually a three-step process. Normalization, the quench, which is most commonly seen, and the temper. So the first step is normalization. What's happening is that you're normalizing the steel and the green structure. The reason being with the heating and the cooling and the working in and the hot temperatures. What happens to the grain structure? Essentially, there's an under explained explanation, but it's not very scientific. But the point is, the facts are 1, the grain structure grows, making it more course, making you more prone to break. And as you're working on the material, certain stress points kind of like a kink in your neck. So that when you then go to quench it, if it's not normalized, one of the stress points could break or work. That's where a lot of the warps come from, is a stress point. How do you fix that? You heat it up to temperature, and then you let it cool pretty much to touch. And what happens is that when you do that, each time you do it, it's taking those various stress points and it's relaxing them in a uniformed way. So I sort of, you do it once and it brings it a little softer, a little better. And then you do it again in a, normalizes it more and do it again. And eventually the grain structure is uniform it to shrink and improve so that instead of this course, easy to break, it's more fine, kinda like sugar. And you can actually see once you take your blade and quench it, if you break it, you can look at the grading structure and you'll see that it's really, really course, it wasn't normalised well and various other things. But if it's fine and strong and that's actually much better and shows that you did a good job before the quench. So bringing up to temperature and let it cool pretty much to touch three times, three cycles of normalizing and you're going to have quality blade. Now the second one, the quench. This is where you bring it up to temperature and it depends is different depending on the material. And then you plug it into the oil. Now what's happening is that the steel is rapidly cooling. So it's causing everything to constrict real strong, which makes it really hard. But the problem is, is that there's a lot of different things that can go wrong. If your oil is cold, then as you plunge it into the oil, there can be that drastic contrast of temperatures that causes a vapor barrier around your, your blade, which prevents it from cooling fast enough. Some people will just don't get it and take it up. And it doesn't give it time to cool efficiently so that it hardens. Or some people will put it in and the wiggle it around in their warping and as they're moving side to side. And there's a lot of different things that can go wrong, but we will explain that every step in class three, as we're actually doing the heat treat, now, a proper quench, it hardens everything right? But the problem is, is that now it's very brittle. You could take you could be bending snap. So you need to temporary tempering is after it's been quenched it straight and it's cool. You put it into a temporary oven. You can even use a toaster oven and you put it depending on the material, about 400 degrees for an hour, then let it cool off and do that in a couple of cycles. And what's happening is it's taking that really hard steel now and it's loosening it just a little bit. But in a controlled environment and is consistent, it maintains the hardness, but it cuts the brittleness some. To make it a functional blade, a non-temporal blade can very easily break. Whereas he tempered blade where you loosen up just a little bit, we'll make a blade that's very difficult to break. So if you were to take IF that you didn't quench and you hit it really hard at something, you'll cause a huge dent into your blade. If you take a blade that you quenched but didn't timber and you hit it really hard to do something if you chip, but because too brittle. But if you take that blade and you quench it and you temperate and you normalize it, not in that order. You get point and you hit that really hard thing. There's a very good chance if you did it properly, they're not going to have any damage to your bleed. But it has to be all three steps. That is the heat treat process. Now again, in class 3, we're going to see it in action so that we can do it properly. Let's talk about class three. 9. What's Next: You're almost done with class 2, but we're still here though, less than nine. Let's talk about what's next. So far we've had an introduction. I've met you in class 1, class 2, and cut the basics, how to get ready to work. Class three is going to be about work to class 3 is making a stock removal later. Now if you remember, stock removal is pretty much where you cut aimed, grind the lain out instead of for me with the hammer. Again, there's a lot of different pros and cons of each one that we'll get into that in the next class. Some of the things that we're going to do, the benefits of stopping rule and the downfalls of stock. We'll also talk about your design and different things you can do with a stock. Remove blame. Some of the things that are possible, some of the things that we've been more difficult with. Then we'll talk about how to cut up the design. And then we'll talk about the bevels, talk about heat treat, talk about paint will do all kinds of things. So that by the end of class 3, you should have a strong, capable functional blade. So we're going to be doing actual work now. So class 12, in my opinion, are essential to have a base of knowledge and understanding in order to set yourself up, write a class 3. Now that we have that information, we have the materials and the equipment that we need. Now we're going to get into fours and actually do some work. So that kinda bring those to less than 10, no class two and class projects, designing your blade. So let's talk about that. 10. Class Project: Design Your Blade: Class 2 is almost over. We're on Lesson 10. This is the project for you. Class three is going to be busy. There's going to be a lot of work to do. But before we start, we need a design. What is going to be the blade that you make in class three? The reason why I'm making this whole lesson of itself and a project is because it's one of the more important things, knowing what you're gonna do. And I wanted to go in there and make some messy-looking chunk of steel that's kind of start. Instead, come with, come up with what you're looking to make. So it could be something fantasy based, it could be something practical. It could be something tackle. It could be a kitchen I if it could be a hunting knife, it could be a dagger, whatever whatever it is that you're looking for. We will be showing how to do a very simple drop point, 100 EDC blade everyday carry is very simple, very basic because we're just starting out. So if you want to make fantastical looking dagger, keep in mind as fantastical as you make it. You're going to have to cut it out and make it look like what you did. But I recommend making something that you think is within capabilities because one of the better parts of learning how to be a Smith is learning how to work off of a pattern. It's very important to be able to develop that skill, especially if you're looking to make it into a business. If someone says, Hey, can you make me, this is kinda my idea, then you'll have to be able to replicate what they're looking for accurately. So designing the project is one of the most important things. Learning what it is that you are capable of doing and designing in a comfortable way. So I would recommend something very simple for your first knife. It doesn't have to be flashy. It doesn't have to be amazing. But if that's what you wanna do, Go for it. I'm not going to stop you at all because my first blade was very complicated to had a swoop to it and jumping on it, handling a cool handle. I didn't know how to put handles on it at the time. But it took me forever and it was almost a stopping point and probably took me about a month just to do it because it was all new to meet a class three is not going to be that is going to be very simple. Stock removal blade, all the beginning to the end, all the stuff that you need. So make a blade and send it to me. Not to blame, but send me the design a buret knives at because I want to see a pretty excited. And then later on at the end, you're going to need to show me what you did. So we want to compare, okay, we want to see what you designed and what you produced. You don't have to, but it's kinda fun to do that to see what your capabilities are. Keep in mind no matter how terrible it looks. Okay, even if you did a great job, you did a terrible job. It's our first plating. Or maybe you've been doing this for a little while. We're always improving. I'm always improving, you're always improving, everybody's always improving. So it'll take time. So design blame. Show me what you want. Give me a description of the two. Okay. I want to know what it is you're looking to do. And a reason why you designed into certain weight. For instance, if it's a bush craft knife, tell me what each part is going to be four. If it's a fantasy thing, what does it inspire it on? And what did you have in mind when you were designing it? And if it's a tactical thing, type, a tangible thing, tell me why you like that style or whatever the case is. I want I want to know, okay, this is very interesting to me to see people's thought process behind what the design. So the project is design your blade and show me very nice. class 3 is coming up where we're going to be in the forage doing some work. We don't need afford yet or hammer anvil, but we do need some cutting things. We're going to make a bleed.