Understanding and Painting the Head | Marco Bucci | Skillshare

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Understanding and Painting the Head

teacher avatar Marco Bucci, Professional illustrator & teacher

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

19 Lessons (7h 19m)
    • 1. Chapter 1 - Intro

    • 2. Chapter 1 - The Brow

    • 3. Chapter 1 - Cheek Area

    • 4. Chapter 1 -The Jaw

    • 5. Chapter 1 - The Chin

    • 6. Chapter 1 - Underside

    • 7. Chapter 1 - The Nose

    • 8. Chapter 1 - The Mouth

    • 9. Chapter 1 - Ear

    • 10. Chapter 1 - The Eye

    • 11. Chapter 1 - Assembly

    • 12. Chapter 2 - Value Control

    • 13. Chapter 2 - Asaro Head Value Study

    • 14. Chapter 2 - Adding Color

    • 15. Chapter 2 - Direct vs Diffuse Light

    • 16. Chapter 2 - Caricature and Planes

    • 17. Chapter 2 - Caricature Sketch in Watercolor - Pt 1

    • 18. Chapter 2 - Caricature Sketch in Watercolor - Pt2

    • 19. Chapter 2 - Study Advice

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About This Class

Perhaps nothing is more essential for an artist to understand than the human head. Drawing and painting the head well presents us with nearly every major drawing challenge: form, proportion, perspective, anatomy, complexity, simplicity, etc. 

In Chapter 1, Marco will break down the head with focus on the most important things you need to understand to draw and paint it well. These are not simply anatomy lessons. They are designed with application in mind, to give you the full scope of the art process, from understanding to execution.

In Chapter 2, Marco will paint the head in full color and light. Over several demonstrations, he will discuss how to go about simplifying and managing all the information presented in Chapter 1, turning it into a beautiful, artful image. 

At the end of the class several study tips are included, which can help you design your own assignments and actionable steps.

What you'll get out of the class:

  • Critical insight into the complexities of the head, and how to simplify them and present the information well in a drawing or painting
  • Practical information you can apply widely: from fine art portrait painting, to character design, to comic books
  • Both a technical understanding of the human head as well as artistic interpretations, and how to distinguish between the two
  • Insight into overall art fundamentals: value, shape, light and shadow
  • Fundamentals you can bring to all art subjects, beyond just the head
  • What to look for to create the biggest possible impact with your paintings
  • Development of a mindset that fosters confidence in your workflow
  • Learn a non-technical, artistic approach to digital painting, relevant in any software

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Marco Bucci

Professional illustrator & teacher


Hello, I'm Marco.

I'm a professional artist with 15 years' experience in the film, TV, game, and print industries - primarily as a concept artist and illustrator. I also happen to believe that it's the duty of experienced artists to pass on what they've learned, with no BS and for as low-cost as possible. It's for that reason that I'm a passionate teacher. I currently teach at CGMA, and have previously taught at Academy of Art University, Centennial College, and more. 


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1. Chapter 1 - Intro: everyone Mark Obuchi here. Welcome to my understanding and painting the head class. You know, I draw and paint the head of lots in my daily life as a freelance artist illustrator just on my personal time, whether it be little watercolor sketches like this or oil painted studies from the model like this, even little funds sculpture will claim that cats here. I just love the human head, and that's what this class is all about. I find there's two ways to understand the human head that kind of go together. One is the anatomical way, which is very important, but it's not the whole story. The other side is like the rhythmical part, these abstract rhythms that flow throughout the head and connect one piece to the next. We're going to examine both of those. This little guy is called the Sorrow Head, and I will be referring to this a lot during the class. The cool thing about the Sorrow Head is this half is kind of simplified, and this half has more complexity with the planes and will use both. They're both very useful. I'll start each section with a little bit of a introduction with the sorrow head, and then we'll dive into photo analysis, drawings, anatomical studies where we need them to break down the head. I will begin by breaking down and Chapter one each piece, the brow, the eye, the ear, the nose, etcetera, break every piece down. Then at the end of Chapter one will kind of step back and I'll show you some tips for assembling them. Then, in Chapter two will focus more on design and style in painting and light, and really bring it to, like an artful level. So Chapter one is more like a technical understanding. Chapter two is more of the artful understanding to put it that way anyway, Lots to get to Let's get started. 2. Chapter 1 - The Brow: okay To kick off the entire chapter of understanding the head, I need to say one very important thing. The head at its most simple, is like a box. It's not like a sphere. It's like a box. It has planes that face the front. It has planes that face the side, and there's some back planes to that are a bit less important for now. But the front and the side planes are really, really important. In breaking down. The head will be looking at planes that point forwards upwards to the side underneath, or things that transition in between. That is a good, fundamental way of understanding the head. We're gonna start with the brow region, and the thing I love about the brow is it's pretty simple from a geometric standpoint, not a whole lot of complex planes, but also, more importantly, it represents the front of the box and the side of the box. You can see this graphic sort of shadow here as the head goes into the side, not to see the same thing on the other side. The other thing I like about the brow is that these planes are very flat. There's not a whole lot of complexity here, like you can see again with the shadow. Just look how flat this plane is. There is a little bit of complexity again on this side of the Sorrow Head, which has more resolution we can see here. This is the zygomatic bone that I'll point out when we draw it and break it down with photos. We'll probably end the brow region there, and we'll, Traci, zygomatic up and around as it transitions to the front. There's a few front planes here that will look at. There's also some interesting, like protrusion elements here, the brow kind of the brows, not just straight. It has a little bit of this kind of angling action to it as it protrudes out. And then we'll probably cut off the brow right around here, right before it sinks into the eye socket. And, of course, we'll cover the eye sockets in a later chapter. So again, head is like a box. The brow, as we'll see, represents a lot of the front of the box and the sides of the box, so let's get into it. All right, so let's start off by pulling up this photo of a swimmer. I guess it's gonna be good reference for the brow region, though These colors up here, by the way, are not a sideways German flag. They are just colors that I will use to kind of color code. My drawings. The first thing will use is the orange color to mark some important landmarks on the picture, starting with what I think is the most important landmark on the brow. And that is where it separates from the front of the head to this side of the head. And remember, the head is like a box. So the front of the box versus the side of the box, this conveniently will coincide with where the eyebrow itself turns. Eyebrows kind of have this angle to them where they go up like this and down like this. Even this model who has pretty straight eyebrows. There will be this shift in angle, right? You know, right there. Same with this eyebrow. You'll see that shift happening right there. So the first landmark I'm going to put down is this little circle that will mark that location on the model, grab my pencil color and I can throw in this plane now it's It's a bit of an angled plain. It's not straight like it's not a straight up and down plane like this. It's got a bit of an angle to it. And for our purposes. Here in the brow section, let's end the brow right where the hairline is. So the hair, you know, kind of goes like this. All right, Now let's tackle this. You know where the eyes are? We're not gonna be drawing eyes in this section. We're gonna be focused on the planes. The thing I like to do to simplify this whole region is basically just draw a kind of a straight line that connects our two landmarks. This line will separate the protruding brow from the eye sockets. Now the eye sockets start digging into the skull just to look at the skull very quickly to sort of retrace our steps. We've marked this plane. We've markets neighboring Landmark over there. This skull diagram beautifully shows this angle that we talked about. Now you might be wondering why this part is orange. Like you see, this color is orange on this diagram. The orange part of this skull diagram represents the bone that is directly underneath your skin. I mean, if you just tapped on your own forehead, the bone is right there, right? You can even look. You look at the cheeks there. We'll talk about the cheeks later. But if you tapped your own face right there, you can feel the bone just under the surface. The term is subcutaneous. That's the annoying anatomy term, but it just means superficial bone. Anyway, back to our brow diagram. We've marked the hairline, which is roughly there, and then I've drawn kind of this straight line here. Now we want to talk about the eye sockets, which dig into the face. Now what I like to do to simplify this down. Typically, you can use the eyebrows, a guide. Just follow that eyebrow down here, give it a little bit of thickness right there, and we'll do the same over here, a bit of thickness. And then, just like I did with this line here, let's just draw that straight. Just keep it straight, and I just shade this dark to represent the fact that it's cutting in. I should probably take down the opacity of this layer so we can see our drawing a little more clearly at this point. Now I want to be clear about something. This line, this bottom line we just drew is more or less cutting halfway through the eye socket. It's this. It's not all the way down the eyes. It's not all the way. It's just about here and again. As we move down, the face will talk about you know how all these things connect. But just for now, this represents the sort of upper half of the eye socket area. A few more steps from here. Let's just draw this line straight back and this corresponding one here. Of course, the nice part of the head is it's symmetrical. Just make the same decisions on both sides. The side of the head will just continue back just a little bit like this again. This is the brow region. So I'm not gonna deal with the side of the head right now. But so for this exercise, let's just continue this back in a circular fashion, maintaining the rhythm of this. If you look at the skull, the skull clearly shows that rhythm, right? So we have three important features mapped out the front of the brow, the sides of the brow and then where the brow turns under. These are all very major plane changes that contribute to the boxy nous of the head. Good, but we're still not done. There's just a few little nit picky little planes in here that they're pretty minor, like the brow is pretty flat, but it does curve around a little bit. In fact, if I hide my skull model just so we can see our little a sorrow head right here, you notice it's these two planes right there, right? Those planes exist, but they are secondary to what we've already mapped out here. Because the plane change itself is pretty minor. It's not as steep of a change. Where is like the plane changes we have here, from the front of the head to the side of the head, these plain changes are massive, like it's a It's a huge directional shift, you know, again contributing to the overall boxy structure of the head. And I'll just throw these in shadow to be clear about it and just hide this guy. You can see it's a very clear kind of box like form. Now this is something that didn't come into play on this front view because it's pretty obvious from a front view, but it's always helpful to mark the center line as well. In fact, when your land marking you can even mark sort of where that center is. And now let's continue this exploration, but with a 3/4 view and we'll bring in another model here. Now this guy obviously takes very good care and manicuring his physical appearance, which is great for us because it's very clear what the planes air doing. So let's go through what we did on him. But now, from a 3/4 view, I'll start the same way. Let's mark these landmarks right where that brow turns right. It's very obvious to see it now. In a 3/4 view, this landmark sits right on the contour because, like I showed you in this diagram, this is such a strong plain change, the angle from front to side that is a steep change. So when we see the model in 3/4 view, this corresponding landmark is right on the edge. Let's also mark the center line of this guy because this is gonna be important. Because, of course, a 3/4 view introduces for shortening the artist most hated enemy. It's actually not that hard once you get to know it, but in our front view where this was equal to that because now it's foreshortened. This is shorter than that, even though we know that these air physically the same length, it's just adjusted by perspective, right? That's what foreshortening is. So when you're dealing with perspective, as you often will be with the head, knowing the center line and drawing the center line can really help with the foreshortening part. Let's get our pencil out again and start doing the same planes. The temple region again has this curved line. If I undo that, can you see it? You see how there's a rhythmical element to it. In fact, let's bring back in our friend the skull. This is beautiful rhythm. It goes up this orbital bone and around, and in fact, because we can see the diagram is orange Here. That means this bone is right on the surface. You can feel this on your own skull. You can feel this. There's a ridge here. You can feel that ridge right on your own skull. And if you just traced your fingers this way, you can feel how that ridge exists right underneath the surface of your skin. Kind of creepy, almost. And once you know that you can see it on the model. You know, my brain can see a line there, even though it's softened in real life. Of course, right now we're drawing the planes, as if the change is razor sharp. That's for our own understanding. In reality, these planes air softened a bit, but of course it's beneficial to understand them first as hard changes. So I'm gonna draw this plane here and just like before the corresponding plane is the contour. When it's a 3/4 view, is going to trace the contour of this guy's head. Well, mark off the top of the hairline and just connect them like this. I will turn down the transparency of this layer so we can see our drawing a bit better now , just like I did before. Let's connect these lines here with more or less a straight line. In fact, I'm actually bending it upward just a little bit again, depending on the model. This this line will either bend up or be straight or it has a different adjustments. But we can bend it a little bit up. It's OK, Let's now deal with the eye sockets. Of course, from a 3/4 view, you can physically see that the eye sockets dig into the head, do that same contour over here and just connect it with this line. That's basically parallel to the one above it. Now, one thing I don't think I've explicitly said is I am not dealing with the nose here. I'm basically eliminating the nose from this equation, which makes sense. This is a section on the brow, not the nose will deal with the entire head construction. Of course, as we go through this class right now, we're isolating the brow. Forgot to indicate just a little bit of thickness there, and this line goes straight back to the ear. If we look at the skull, it essentially follows this line right back. It reaches the tip of the ear. This bone, by the way, is called the zygomatic bone, more commonly known as the cheekbone, and we'll talk about that more in the next section. For now, let's isolate our drawings here and for the sake of completion. Let's draw this center line. Going down, cutting into the skull. Okay. Also, you notice I've indicated just a little bit of thickness here. I'm taking a slight step up in complexity from our 1st 1 There is a bit of thickness there . This is caused by the orbital bone coming up here, and because that bonus superficial, its thickness needs to be observed. So I'm adding complexity as we go drawing by drawing All right, a few more bits of complexity to add before our understanding of the brow is complete. Let's address this further breakdown of planes, as indicated by these two lines here because right now, if you look at our brow diagrams right now, it almost looks like this is perfectly flat. But of course it isn't. The brow goes around and we haven't shown anything that deals with that complexity. So let's add this. The reason I haven't added them yet is because I wanted to deal with the major directional changes first. This is like the front part of the head. This is the side part of the head there's a major change in direction. That's the key thing to understand First. Now, after that understanding, we can address the subtle curvature that's happening here. Looking at the skull model, We've already got this plane right in here. In fact, let's bring back our model here to look at some good reference. Now, these planes will be different on everybody. But on him, I'm kind of seeing it right in here. We've already we already know about this one on this plane is here and, of course, its corresponding planus. Somewhere in there, these planes served to explain the subtle roundness of the brow. So we have this plane here, here, here, and then this major change of direction there. So let's add them to our existing diagram. And you might be wondering why I've left a little gap between those new planes and the eye sockets down here. The reason for that is it. Let's look at the skull model. There's a little bit of a pro true prints happening right in here. The way the orbit works, it kind of juts out. The brow is pretty smooth as it comes down, but it kind of juts out right before the eyebrow starts. Is this for true parents here happening? This kind of cresting action, this is represented on our sorrow. Hedda's well, this bit of thickness here, and it also has this beautiful flow. Unlike the straight line we drew here, the patrons has more of a curved line that goes around the model like this. If I go back to our photograph of the model here, you'll notice that you can see the Patroons happening here. Then, by the time it gets to the corner of his eye brow, which was our landmark originally right by the time it gets there, it thins out. So it's this elegant our king rhythm that happens, the pre Trib rinse, you know, kind of swelling out around the middle of the face and then sinking back in where the major plane change happens here. So I will go back to our drawing, and I was simply add this information. And now, at this point, all the planes of the brow have been dealt with, and I just want to remind you that while humans have the same construction from person to person, the arrangement can change. For example, here's a frame from the movie aliens, which I was just watching last week, starting with him. Look at how noticeable this is. It's just this massive kind of thing. You can use this perhaps as a design element, to contribute to like a masculine look. Of course, females have it, too. It's just perhaps a little bit softer, but again it goes. It's varies from person to person. I don't want to make broad generalizations, but in general, one thing that can separate a masculine design from a feminine design is an accentuation of the plane changes. And these particular planes here are great fodder for design decisions. Even this guy here is interesting. I know he's blurred out. We can clearly see the contrary, comes down and then juts out before sinking into the eye socket area. This jutting out here is caused by this rhythm here, and that's the other thing. Sometimes the rhythm goes with the eyes, like on Ripley here, the character in the movie played by Sigourney Weaver. Here we can have this sort of rhythm were on this gentleman back here. It's this big our king motion. So again, watch out for the gestural variety in these planes from person to person and just to drive it home. Here's a profile view of the skull and you know, you can see exactly the contour that happens. In fact, let me just move this up here. This red line I'm drawing right now in the skull corresponds to this red line on this guy, and I have to edit this actually, to update our diagram. It comes out now in our front view. It's a little harder to see that information. We know that these planes would exist, but in a front view there, much less visible. When we get into painting the head with values and lighting, we can maybe see this a little more than of course, these planes here would probably be something like this. So now that we have that information, why not give it a go with some sketches? All mark out some landmarks. We know what those are, right? Let's get a midline. This is gonna be a little bit in perspective. This comes down. Of course I'm anticipating my planes right juts out like this. That's marked the hair. It's kind of just draw to our landmarks here In fact, let me just undo that 11 thing you can do is landmark, where you're going to be and then draw to that. That's something that I used to do a lot. When I was first learning figure drawing, I would kind of figure out where I wanted to go with my landmarks and then connect that they literally connect the dots because the landmarks contained just, like the pure information. And then the line just completes it, so they serve kind of two different purposes. All right, we know this plane here, the circular plane. We've got our friend, our per true parents here. Our line there. We come down for the brow down. Sorry, not the brow, the eye sockets. And let's just fill this in with it. Just a quick value. We'll talk about actual value use a little later in the lesson. I'm just shading this to show that it goes under and then to complete it. We have these guys here, you know. I feel like these two are linked on this one. We're looking a little bit down at the face and on this one, we're looking a little bit up in the face doing this address is one of the main challenges of illustrating the head, and that is dealing with perspective. Or maybe I should say how these rhythms exist. Despite the perspective. Let me just move this guy up and we'll try another one. How about one that's looking a little bit more downward than before? So let's get that. Let's get a center. I haven't marked the center for all these bullets marked the center to mark the hair maybe marked the sides of the brow will go in with a center line cutting into the eye sockets here from here, We'll just do. Our connections will come down here, but because we're looking down, that protrude prince is gonna be a little bit less down here. We'll get the thickness of the orbital bone there, connect R dots up here again, throwing in a value just really help sell that it turns under. And you know what? Like I don't need to put in all of this stuff I want. If I wanted to, I can. But sometimes the center line just sells it enough. I wanted to indicate maybe a different rhythm for those flowy Ah, cresting like pieces. I could do it this way. Change the design a little bit. Maybe these planes will have a bit more of, Ah, broad birth to them like that, as opposed to the straight ones we used here. So look, it's cab Ebner Magomadov. You have C lightweight champion and woe Check that out. That is just awesome. Let's give that a shot. Now. This is in not quite profile. There's a lot of for shortening going on here. The central line is going to be in here, comes down and then the hairline is here and here. And you basically it's just such a small bit of distance. There is the foreshortening. His brow looks flatter here and then, Boy, does it ever come out there, and that rhythm is so pronounced. But it doesn't do this. It kind of both eyes kind of have an individual one. Sort of like what I did here, right? So it's more like that. Then we have our side of the head here, or flat plane here, down but of thickness, down and across. Maybe a little bit more of the protrusion here. Let's get this flat plane and it's just occurring to me. I haven't been drawing this sides, but I think you guys I mean, that's the easiest part, right? Let's just get that in again. Follow the brow straight down, but of thickness. And then it follows that zygomatic bone and hits the year right where the year begins to kind of turn up and crest upward. So I'll just get that in my drawing here. We know the ear is probably gonna be somewhere here. And if we wanted to find these planes, I'm seeing it there. If I look at the model, I could see that plane there versus this plane here. Alright, let's try one. That's 3/4 view, but looking up like the head is tilted up, that's a common pose you'll probably be drawing at some point, so things are gonna be tilted back. The hair might be there. There, draw that center line. The center line shows us that tilt of the head. I'll keep it simple. I won't deal with those like true Brits things right now. This is a complicated perspective, so let's just figure this out first before we add the complexity. Of course, that's why I showed you this iterative lee so you can do this yourself. Let's get the contour here that tips in. Connect the dots. Let's get that plane. I think I'm a little bit too steep with my line. There could be more up like that because this head is tilted up. We're going to get a nice our king kind of thing, looking up at it down and then get this. Now I'm noticing my center line is off. Let's redraw that to accurately reflect the geometry that we're dealing with. Still, throw this into shadow, though we can trace our curvature here and continue this rhythm down as it now points to the ear, which is which, of course, is lower than our main sort of lines of action up here because they had is the head is tilted up. Minister, Fun will just connect this right now. And now, at this point, we can add that for true parents part that goes there. And, you know, if we wanted to, we could find it here. So it was useful to take my red marker and indicate these what are called cross contours going across the form with these kind of invisible lines, a very helpful drawing practice to assure yourself that you understand the form implicitly . How about some pretty dramatic foreshortening again, with our knowledge of the plains and rhythms and these landmarks? That shouldn't be too difficult, of course. Don't put the hairlines you high. The four shortening will squish that in Shorten it in. There's like somewhere in there. Maybe like this. Let's get that center line, which, because of foreshortening, is gonna come out like that. Let's get the dip in. The protrude brings thing. Is that such a steep angle here that it is going to give a little bit of a contract like you can see it on him? It's It's like that, and then like that. That's because of that attributes of the skull. Somebody get that, and then the flat part of the brow comes up from behind it, and from this angle, we can really see that this plane is not straight back this way. There's an angle to it. Read it. It's in more like this. Let's have a graceful, sort of sweeping slight curve connecting our two dots here in a dramatic cut. Their and its partner over here and again on a dramatic tilt like that, that this angle here is very steep and I'll draw the side plane of the head. Here is well now. One obvious point that I probably should still mention is that the hair covers and disguises a lot of the side plane of the head, but we're simply not dealing with here in this section. I'm kind of looking right through it, just noticing. There, these rhythms on him or just a little bit separated is that little bit of dip in the middle . Just looking at one of my previous drawings, this one here. I think this would be better if I cut this in a little bit. Remember at the beginning I showed you like this plane cuts in. It does. It's not straight, so it's a common mistake to push the brow out too far. I think it would be more like this. Finally, how about a dramatic down angle? So get our landmarks in, get our hair line now the center line because this is kind of straight on. Centerline is not gonna do us much good here because it's basically just a line down the center. Let's put it in just so we know, you know, with wise, what are center is doing. This will help us maintain symmetry as we go. This is tricky because the head is pointing down some of these landmarks going to be a bit wider than they would. The four shortening is going to cause us to be looking down at the head more. That's what takes practice. Just, you know, knowing these rhythms studying them from different angles and all the little subtleties that come with a foreshortened pose or foreshortened angle will start to become second nature to you again. Because we're looking down, this line is going to be bowed downwards. Also, we're not gonna get much of a plane change while the plane change hasn't changed. But we're not going to see much of the plane change because we're looking down was put that value in. It's gonna be the justice narrow bit of playing change here. The pro true prince part is going to be also kind of foreshortened down to more of a straight line like this, and the planes of the brow that are responsible for this bend. They're gonna be kind of doing this again. We're looking down at them, so there's slightly changed angle that they have and because I've been just cutting off the brow was gonna cut it off like this. Now we'll find the ear by extending this line this way. Unlike when the head was tilted up when we, you know, we had this dramatic down line, the head is tilted down. We have the dramatic up line, and this will also give us the side plane of the head. And just to reinforce that boxy, formal shaded in. It's a bit tough to gauge the perspective when you're only drawing the brow, you know, the second I put in some kind of no shape here, you can really see that that brow was tilted down. And once we add the cheek planes to this, it'll really start coming together. That's coming up next, and I mean right away because we're finished with the brow. Let's move on 3. Chapter 1 - Cheek Area: all right, so the cheek area is largely controlled by the cheekbones now, unlike the brow that had front and side planes, the cheek area comprises the front plane of the head in this kind of mid third region of the head. From about, you know, the lower the bottom side of the brow to where the mouth roughly is. The cheekbones are represent the front side of the head. You can see this graphic shadow again on the side, separating the cheek area from my jaw. This is the job will cover later the cheek area. That's the front on. But they make this beautiful little angle that comes down from behind the brow out and down , cutting in the head at a sharp angle. If you rotate the Brooklyn Massaro head this way, we can see the more complex side. There are some planes in here that even add to that rhythm further. Sometimes you get a sharp cut like we saw in this side. Other times, there's a graceful little question mark like curve to it, which I'll point out in a moment. Um, the cheekbone also share a little line with the zygomatic, which we know all about now. We were looking at the zygomatic around here, straight back from the brow in the last chapter. But now we're gonna Traci zygomatic down at a slight angle this way. And this will give us this. What kind of signal? The beginning of our cheekbone region. So there's a whole lot of connection happening with the brow. It continues rhythmically. It continues anatomically and yeah, let's get right into it. All right, let's begin our exploration of the cheek area with these two Andrew Loomis drawings. Now they're drawn by Loomis. So naturally they're structurally sound. And what I love about them is he hasn't drawn the planes. Well, he has drawn them, but he hasn't put lines around them. Let's start with what we already know. This is the brow region. Now the cheek area snaps in like a puzzle piece directly below it. This area right in here now, much like we did with the brow. The most important thing we need to do with the cheek area is to understand that boxy nous of the head in the cheek area. It separates the head from the front plane to the side plane. If we look at our a sorrow Head up here specifically. Let's look at this half of it. The simplified half these planes right in here are what we're looking at. And the thing I love the most about the cheek area is it separates the head from the front , which is this area to the side. Now, if this is not the cheek area, this is the jaw area where we're not covering this area in this section will do that the next section. So what we need to understand right now, right away. The most important thing is that the cheek region is the front part of the face. And like most parts of the human head, nature has done a very artistic design. The shape is just so nice. And I'll show you what that shape is right now. Okay, First thing. Remember this line we drew in the brow? This line that goes directly to the ear. We're gonna start from this end point here and draw another line roughly to about there. Now these lines connect and be careful here. Don't connect them. They're connect them there. That sounds like such a minute thing. And it maybe it is. But this is a plane that faces, you know it faces. This way we'll talk about which way the planes face in a second, but this is separate now. The rest of the cheekbone it cuts into the face a little bit like this may be a slight curvature to it. Again, everyone's slightly different here with these planes. Member, We'll do is we'll just taper it off down here, kind of trending down this way, and then we'll just let it fade away. For now, we're not dealing with this section yet. Let's compare this to our friend of the skull and let's see how these planes relate to what we've got here. Just move this over a little bit. All right, so this first plane we drew over here relates to the thickness of the zygomatic bone. And this part here is also controlled by the zygomatic bone still subcutaneous in this area right over here. Now look for the angle Here, look for this angle. It's not a 90 degree angle. It's whatever angle that is, it's greater than 90 degrees. So we're gonna look for something similar on our model over here. Doesn't have to be exact. Every plane of the head diagram you find will have slightly different angles, and everyone is different in real life too. But just the idea is that it's not a 90 degree angle. Now, when you get down to this part of the face, the bone is no longer subcutaneous it. It's buried under flesh, under muscle under fat. And we'll talk about this region coming up later in this lesson right now, the main thing to understand is we got thes and then let's just kind of taper it down like this, Okay? Going back to our Loomis drawings. The thing I love so much about the cheekbones is like I said a moment ago. They separate the front of the box like the head is like a box, right? They separate the front of the box from the side of the box. Everything here, in fact me draw on the Asar ahead. Everything here, everything here is same cheek, right? Everything there, it points upward. There is a direction that these planes generally face. Even this plane, the zygomatic plane here Now the zygomatic is on the side of the head, but it still points up the brow also points out or up, but in a slightly different angle. It kind of generally trend in the same direction. Just not exactly again. The head is like a box, but it's not a perfect box. The study of planes really is the study of changes in direction, which is particularly useful if your goal is to paint the head, which will do later in this lesson. And just to be clear about it, the last thing I'll do well, just throw in a quick little value here just to separate those front planes from the side. Clean that up a little bit. There we go. The dimension of this head is really starting to come along. Now let's do the same block in on our model over here again with put in what we know. This is the brow stuff. In fact, we just use a different color. This was all the stuff from the last section on the brow. There we go. We draw another line coming from here representing the zygomatic bone, and we essentially have this kind of thing going on and the gesture of this head she's looking down, so the head is tilted down, but again, these cheekbone planes are so oriented upwards, the brow kind of does. This cheekbone does that. They always point up or out again. I'm saying up because that's the general trajectory, but they point outwards like this. They're the front plane of the box again. If the head is represented by a box, the front of the brow and the cheekbones would be like this part of the box. So Hollywood, which largely trades on our current notion of what beauty is. In fact, the entire beauty industry seems to really value clear, plain separation in the cheekbone and cheek area. Much sure exactly why, but perhaps something to do with the natural rhythm and flow of these planes that we find appealing. Here's a photo of a young Angelina Jolie. I think that's who this is anyway, on her, we can clearly see this rhythm of the cheekbones happening. Of course it's symmetrical, so it goes down both sides now. This is an interesting This is the first time we're seeing a front view, and this is interesting. I want to point something out. Remember, on this head, I pointed out that there is a gap right here. We can find that present on the actual human model. The cheekbones slide behind the eye. They don't start here. They start here. So this gap is quite important. It's a common mistake that I see for people to kind of break the plane here. And the cheekbones kind of tuck in too far this way, and it just, you know, it creates all kinds of asymmetry, and we're design. That's the thing about the face. When you understand the flow and the rhythms and the planes of the face, you'll be hyper aware that even the slightest misalignment in your planes well, cause you're designed to flatten out or just look terrible. And the thing will just start looking amateurish immediately and again. This whole lesson that we're doing is me showing you the most important parts that you absolutely need to know about the head in order for that to not happen to you. Speaking of rhythms of the plains, there's another little rhythm I enjoy, and it it's how the cheekbones link up with the brow. Remember, we were talking about the brow. We talked about this break of the eyebrow on this plane here. Well, this break of the eyebrow comes down, meets the cheekbone and kind of forms a question mark. It's sort of this question mark like shape. And then, of course, here it's a backwards question mark. Always look for that when I'm designing my own heads, just a nice little shape that we're all aware of. We can kind of test our planes against. Of course, not a perfect question. Markets question mark Like now let's look at the zygomatic bone again. That was the plane from the brow that went back to the start of the year and the plane from the cheekbone that also goes back to the roughly that same point zygomatic bone. Here you notice that Let me undo my brush strokes so you can see the face. It's not as obvious as this plane of the cheekbone. It's much more clear that there's a clean break in this part of the head. This part of the head is more of a subtle change. That side plane of the brow comes down. You can see it ever so slightly, comes up right and then ever so slightly comes down. It's a plane change. It's important, and it will have different degrees of clarity on different models. But even where it's subdued, there is a little bit of a change there again, the bonus subcutaneous. You can feel it on your own head right now. This is another great piece of reference. She seems to have slightly wider cheekbones than Angelina did, but you can see they go up behind the I write this, this flow. Here it comes down and then tapers off this way and again. We'll cover the lower part later. I love this area. The brow comes down like this, which we talked about. The cheekbone comes out from behind it, so it's not a continuous contour like that. The brow is in front. The cheekbone is behind. When you're dealing with perspective like this, and cheekbone cuts in this part is the jaw, the side plane of the box. We're not dealing with that yet. This and this are different planes. Those aren't the cheeks. It's common for someone to mistake. The cheekbone is being too broad, and they'll bring it down like this. But no, the cheekbone does not form the Contour down there, but he's not from this perspective, we can still clearly see the front plane of the cheek versus the jaw plane, which covers the side. And once again, look at this nice little question mark shape that it makes just beautiful rhythms that nature has given us. The head is interesting. Nature doesn't always give you good rhythms like I also talk about landscape painting and stuff in my other classes. Nature often does not give you pleasing rhythms out in the landscape, very randomized. But on the human head, nature has done a very artistic job, you know, speaking of the beauty industry, there's a whole makeup style called contouring, where people put a darker tone of whatever makeup they use. I don't know the terminology, but they use a darker tone underneath their cheekbones to emphasize the plane change. This is just further evidence of the undeniable link that we've crafted between beauty and of noticeable cheekbones, even on a heavier set individual. In a non ideal lighting scenario, we can still see this plane. Now remember, this is the subcutaneous area where the bone hits the surface, which is why, even on a thicker model like this, you can still see the evidence of that cheekbone plane down here, it gets lost underneath flesh, and we're gonna talk about some of these areas later on. But it's this rhythm here that is visible almost every single time. And, of course, don't forget it's symmetrical counterpart over there. And then I like to just kind of just taper it off this way, and we'll deal with the muzzle and stuff like that later on. Hello, Cheekbones on a very lean face that is a face with incredibly low body fat percentage. The zygomatic appears so dramatically that it creates a con cavity underneath it. And just for the sake of science, let's do a little fun Experiment. Poke your own face right there. You should feel that cheekbone Well, if you're human, you'll feel that cheekbone. Now poke your face right around here. This is where the cavity of your mouth is like I can you can. You can't see me doing it, but I can push my finger into my own face. There's no bones there. So when the face has very little like fat content, in other words, it doesn't have much flesh to, you know, pad this. You can really see that the skull is determining the shape of the form. Compare this with our sorrow. Head over here. Look at the plane here, straight down. And then it kind of, you know, this is this would be the job playing. This would be the cheekbone plain. You can see that exact rhythm on him, This cheekbone, you know, basically comprising the front of the head that faces upward. And then, you know, I keep saying this, but we'll talk about the draw later. All right? So drawing the cheekbones in isolation like we did with the brow, could be a little strange looking. So let's start with one of our brow drawings from the last section. So we know the years roughly around here. Let's bring in that zygomatic bone again. We get that thickness years, it goes behind the I plane will come down with it and around again and trying to get that that question mark sort of rhythm. And I could have drawn this with a curve, but sometimes a curve is more accurately drawn by breaking it up into two straights. Taper that off down here, and this is in perspective. So let me just draw quick perspective line. Remember that this plane faces up. So our line on a 3/4 view is this sort of thing comes out and then down. It's a different kind of contour than this again. Perspective will adjust things, and all kinds of you know, the four shortening does all kinds of funny things. Your artistic homework is to learn how these rhythms look in different perspectives. I'll cover some of them here, but there's endless varieties of, you know, ways. You can see the head. The centre line will help just get this area here and then down. I haven't mentioned this, but just like the brow where I didn't draw the eyes here, I'm not drawing the nose. The nose will be built on top of the cheekbone plane that will be in a later section of this lesson. The individual features are less important than the overall structure of the head. The structure is just that. It's the foundational strength upon which the features and any little details are built. From this perspective, they're probably not gonna be a lot of the jaw showing, but there would be here, this side plane I'll just quickly indicate that it would be the side playing very noticeable here. So as far as the cheekbones go, separating that front from the side is exactly what we want to dio and checking your work with this question Mark rhythm can be really useful. Let's try a much more simplified drawing here, just to show you don't have to spend forever on these. Let's just get a quick, boxy plane. This is will be the brow region is gonna do something like this. Cuts in for the underneath part of the brow where the eye socket is. You find the ears somewhere over here, side plane of the head. So that's the brow. And then, yeah, the cheekbone would just come in. We come out from behind the head. Let's get our overall. Make sure we're in perspective here. In fact, a center line always helps down the brow, down the center, out for the cheekbones and then tapering down. It always helps to acknowledge perspective. So I use my orange Penn Teoh. Just quickly grab some perspective lines here and that she won't comes out in, out, in, and if we want, we can just quickly indicate that this is a side plane. Let's try one in profile and again, sometimes it helps us to bring up a photo, but then do a little study off to the side. So let's start with the brow in one chapter of this lesson, building upon the next connect that go down for the eye socket area, that bit of thickness. Throw this into a bit of shadow. Indicate that plane change back to the zygomatic bone. It's plain to the head will just have it wrapped around cut off the brow where that hairline is Somewhere in here he hasn't thickness. Okay, um, cheekbones will start in where that year roughly is. Come out for the zygomatic bone, The thickness here. A little bit too far. There already that space, right. Let's come down here out pretty straight on him. It's kind of like this overall. Remember that angle I showed you earlier this overall angle and then down and then we're not drawing the nose right now, so let's just have the head just kind of go down like this, and it always helps to take the major directional plane changes and throw them into shadow . We know the zygomatic points up. So we leave that alone and we get that in shadow. Let's try that extreme top view from earlier. We'll find the ear. Of course, from the top, the year were just in the top plane of the ear, the same ear over on this side. Now going back. Remember that? And this extreme, you were going to see a lot of this top plane here. So this is all going to be one plane. In fact, let me just grab a land marking sort of tool here just to quickly get this plane and then I can go find my pathway to it. We're not gonna get much curvature from the top skin perspective will flatten that out. And let's make sure our dimensions are sound like our symmetry. And then in this area where the head starts tapering down, we'll just let it sort of taper a bit. And we'll deal with this area later, depending on the angle, you might see a little bit of that break from the from the front plane of the cheek here to the side plane of the jaw, there, revealing that boxy nous of the head that is ever pervasive. Next one, I'll just load up a brow drawing from the front. We're not going to see much of that zygomatic bone, but it does come out from behind as we know same on this side here. And I think what I'll do is I'll try dropped two different treatments you can see on the Asar ahead. We have one plane that kind of cuts sharply like this, and the other one kind of has that question mark thing. I'll try both here. Even when the plane does cut straight, there can be a bit of an art to it, just like that. And then the question mark one comes down in a little more sharply and then down again. Different people have different arrangements of the same planes, and both are valid. Of course, this face looks weird because you can't have two different ones on each side. But I'm just showing you kind of the same way. The Sorrow head does what's got two different arrangements on different halves. And finally, let's take a look at ahead, pointing up to complete our selection here. We've got the zygomatic bone coming out, serving up a nice front facing plane here, which will taper off down there, might be bright and a little too far. It's a bad habit of mine. I bring cheap ones in too far, always gonna check myself there. Everyone will have their own bad habits. A common one is not checking perspective. So make sure you get that in these air like half perspective lines. Half cross contour lines going around that form. The plane on the other side will come out and come in again. It's always helpful to my center line was a bit off, always helpful to find or refine that center line We go, and I could always just throw this into a quick tone if I wanted to. And there might be the slightest change of plane on this side visible from this view. Rough that in just for fun, you can get a lighter value and just throw it on the cheekbone plane, the one that faces the most up. Just to emphasize that that plane is separate from this plane and men, that center line is way off. It's always be checking that we can map out the zygomatic change and then down, and just as a quick appetite, wetter. Look how easy it would be to just throw a little nose on there and have it sit nicely on structure. But getting it myself, let's move on to the next bit. 4. Chapter 1 -The Jaw: So the jaw picks up right where we left off with the brow and the cheekbone. We remember this triangular shaped the zygomatic made in here, right? Well, the jaw is right underneath that this entire region, this entire broad region, is the jaw. And the thing I love about the plane of the jaw is it is simply the side plane of the box. Remember, the head is like a box. This jaw is the side plane we can see in the nice lighting set up we have here. It's just all in shadow. The other cool thing about the job is like rhythmically, it shares this contour with the cheekbone, the cheekbones being up here. But the cheekbones kind of terminate at this line. The jaw is where it picks up on the side here, so it's very related to the cheekbone. It's a good follow up to the cheekbone chapter. There is a little bit more complexity to the jaw. If I turn, the sorrow had around. There are a few planes in here that you know, undulate direction and change up things a little bit, however, even and we'll look at them. Of course, there's also some skeletal anatomy of the jaw. The mandible is under here, which will look at that as well. It's a very important player in the jaw, but despite any intricacy that we get into the jaw is simply a flat plane. It is this beautiful, broad, flat plane that comes in following the contour, the lower concert of the zygomatic contour of the cheekbone coming in and, you know, kind of terminating around somewhere around the corner of the mouth. That side plane is cuts right in here. It's a simple and effective plane critical for constructing the head. So let's dig in and look at it. All right, So on the left we have a beautiful painting by Dan Gair Hearts and on the right, we have a skull diagram by Andrew Loomis. We're looking straight at the jaw plane here. Another jaw is actually a series of planes, just like the brow on the cheek area was. But before we get into the series of planes, the main thing to understand is it is a pretty flat side plane of the head, More or less. This is just one thing. Now I don't want to speak to soon There is some complexity to the jaw that will dig into, but let's understand it first, as simply as we can. Now, when I think about the jaw plane in my own illustrations and paintings and drawings, I like to have it intersect the chin a little bit. I group the draw plane in with the chin. It might be tempting to think of it like more like this, but I think it's better to kind of have it cross near the corner of the mouth and come down to the chin because this is all the side of the head. You can see this rhythm on our a sorrow head. It's kind of the same sort of thing. It comes down intersecting roughly where the corners of the mouth are, and these planes point to the side. And before we explore more of that, I want to make it clear that the jaw has one big break in direction. It's right in here. The corner of the jaw is here, as you can see, conveniently located at the halfway point horizontally. So if we were to draw the same plane on this skull here, it's kind of like this defined by the zygomatic, that top line defined by the zygomatic bone. And we come down around here the bottom contour of the job, which I have not drawn yet on her goes here. We find this corner right in here and the jaw comes up. So again, this corner here we draw to that, and it comes up literally following this jawbone. Now, of course, the jaw is a movable element on our skull. It's a hinge joint just to move this photo shop rotation point. It just hinges right there. So the jaw moves like this. We'll talk a little bit about how the face moves. This is not a class about that, but we'll get into a few tips and tricks later on. But in terms of the movement of that plane, it's very straightforward. Let's go back to our swimming friend here and just notice how the jaw looks in perspective . I'll just redraw this plane on the left. Here. We're looking at the job pretty straight on from the side, and let's use our orange marker to identify that angle change, which is very obvious, and I apologise. Let me just bring back the skull for just a second. Notice that angle. It's very close to 90 degrees. It's just a little greater than 90. But again, you might have different angles with different models. But it's something just over 90 degrees is a pretty. It's pretty squarish alright, So back to everywhere we can see that angle represented in the front view as well. Now the thing I wanted to show you, though, is just how the shape of this jaw, this one plane that we're simplifying it down to here changes in perspective. If I were to draw it on him, I would follow the, you know, side plane of the cheekbones. Like we just looked at this part right. I follow the same contour, except this time we'll go down this way, maybe just tuck it under like that. Just let's just trace the literal contours of the head to, uh, finalize our draw. Playing here when I turned the opacity of the photo reference down, I just want you to look at what perspective does to the plane. Obviously, when we're drawing the draw from a front view, it's foreshortened, the jaws coming out toward us. So this nice, clear sort of boxy or squarish shape, you know, turns into a more diamond shape. You see how it's diamond like fire drew, like more of a graphic diamond. That's what the jaw kind of looks like from the front view again. Perspective plays with these shapes and your artistic homework. When you study is to notice how these simple shapes morph in perspective, that's what experience will give you. Hopefully, what I'm giving you in this lesson is like a propulsion or jumping off point may be showing you the path to go searching on. That's what my goal is here, you know, directing you to the very important information. Comparing this jaw plane to the same view with Theus are ahead. We can see it's the exact same shape, that diamond like shape. And remember earlier I drew that arrow that went like this. You noticed that arrow doesn't point straight out. It points down slightly. The jaw is angled downwards a little bit. This is in stark contrast to the cheek plane, which which essentially pointed up the jaw points in an incredibly different direction. Which, of course, is why it's responsible for the side plane of the head but the plane separation here between front and side is great. This is why obviously the Asar ahead is quite valuable as a tool for artists learning how to draw and understanding the head. It emphasizes these directional changes. When you look at a human model like this is perhaps a little bit harder to see this really important and vast change in direction between these two plains. I mean, hopefully you can see it now because I'm showing it to you. But an appreciation for this is something that only comes with study like we're doing here . I apologize for the low rez photo, but this is an absolutely gorgeous sculpture from Disney's Mulan. The character design teams on animated films, often new sculpture as a way of teaching. The animators had to draw these planes very simply and just look at this beautiful plane of the jaw coming down and again, just a bit greater than a 90 degree angle. As it sweeps around and hits the side of the chin, you notice I'm using a bit of a curved line there. This is something that can change, too. Sometimes you'll see it more straits. Sometimes you'll see it more, you know, with a slight bow to it. But despite that, this plane will always be nice and relatively flat and just want to remind you that the contour here shares the contour with the cheekbones. This line is exactly the line I would have drawn if I were defining the cheekbones. In a perspective like this on the other side of the jaw, it's still that diamond shape, but this is even more for short, so it's an even tighter diamond shape. You can see the diamond right when you squish ish, when you squish a square shape into perspective. When you squish a square shape, it's a tongue twister. When you squish a square shape into perspective, it becomes diamond like All right, we say hello to Brangelina again. And here is a skull who? Sorry, I want to add the next step of complexity to the jaw planes, because remember, it is more than one plane, unfortunately, and that brings along some subtlety that we need to understand. Firstly, though, let's just remind ourselves how that job plane sits over top of the skull. We're looking at the skull in a slight 3/4 view so again, that diamond shape is starting to happen. I think this is pretty simple to understand, so let's just look at the next piece of this. Remember when we did the cheekbones? We had this plane here that pointed up well, the bottom of the zygomatic bone points slightly down. So there is a change of direction here. And because this ridge is superficial or subcutaneous, that Ridge will show up on people, not just thin people. It shows up on everybody. It's subcutaneous. It doesn't change from person to person, and for that reason it's a great landmark. But looking at this part of her jaw here, can you sense that subtle change of direction? This is cheekbone pacing up that is, the underside of the zygomatic or jaw facing down the dividing line would be right in the middle and coming down here as we know. In fact, on this particular photo, you can almost see an invisible line. Can you see that kind of invisible line defining the side plane of the jaw? Actually, Andrew Loomis, in one of his books, said that he recommends studying from like magazine models. Of course, this is back in like what sixties? Whenever it was written where magazine models was more of a thing than it is today. But the whole idea is is studying from beauty photos is a great way to learn the planes of the head. Because, as I said before, we attach a great beauty to clear planes. All right, The other thing about this particular change in direction this tiny little plane here, it's only really evident right in here. If you remember, this part of the skull is not subcutaneous. You cannot feel these bones directly under the service. You're gonna have to push your flesh in t hit this bone here. So for that reason, this part is more fleshy. Now, there are planes here that we have not talked about yet, and I will. They kind of intersect with skull. We'll get there. Don't worry. For now, just ignore that and know that the sharpness happens here and it's softer there. Okay, Next up on our tour of the jaw is this very important bone called the mandible. The mandible is this entire bone, obviously wrapping all the way around to the other side. But right now, I'm interested in this little piece of it and not only the physical piece there, but I'm also interested in the lack of bone that exists here. We've already looked at the potential for a slight hollowing effect toe happen here because there's really no bone for a support. It's just it's kind of his cavity that just goes in and sometimes you will see that hollow effect. Not always. This is sometimes covered up, but you know, we can see it here on this model. But where the mandible is, this is where the jaw rounds back out. So we have the hollow coming in this way. The mandible causing this rounding out that way. I'm exaggerating the plane difference here. The Sorrow head and I flipped this horizontally. This is the complex side corresponding with this. I just flip the image so it aligns with our skull. The sorrow had shows us. This shows us the hollow and then you can see that plane come back out right where the mandible bone would be going back to our human model here. I don't know about you, but I can kind of see that bone if I'm looking for because I know it's there now I can kind of see it. Or maybe what I should say is I can see evidence of it. I can see the plane change that gives you the mandible in this area. Now, don't mistake me here. This bone is not subcutaneous. However, this part of the jaw is this is where the bone touches the skin again. Feel it on your own face. You can feel that bone right under the surface right there. So there's a big hollow here. But we need that bone to touch the flesh here, so it's gotta build itself back out and you get this kind of lumpiness sort of thing happening on the lower jaw region. But the story does not end there. Let's bring up this diagram. This shows you some of the muscles of the head. Obviously, the mandible would be somewhere here, But if you notice is buried, it's buried under this gigantic muscle called the Massacre Muscle. This is the chewing muscle. If you just mimicked a chewing motion with your own jaw right now, put your hand. You know, roughly right there you can feel this muscle flexing as you chew and because we humans tend to have to eat a lot. That muscle is very developed. In fact, I gained my respect for this muscle not from studying humans, but from studying horses. This is the massacre muscle on a horse, the one in red here, obviously a horse's jaws much more powerful than ours. And this is the star of the show, this gigantic massacre muscle. And, yeah, ours is right there kind of lays over the mandible like this a little larger than the actual bone itself. And yes, there is another muscle beside it where this worthy hollow is. But even this muscle still gives the opportunity for a hollow. It's not nearly as big. Doesn't push out you can see in this diagram doesn't push out as far as the massacre that little muscles called the Booty Nater, By the way, which I take personal pride in any way the way the a sorrow had depicts. This is that there's a plane here which roughly attach Is there a plane here and down. And the direction of these planes go like this. This goes down, this goes out and this goes down here it is on the actual sorrow head. You'd see these planes this down, out, down. You might be wondering what this triangular plane is here to. Bit odd to me, I've always found it odd that it's triangular because there's nothing really triangular about this region in this skull. Far be it for me to question the great Jonah sorrow. I usually think of the head more, this more of us a square plane. I do think there is a plane there, though, because the jaw does change direction, bringing back this guy here. You can kind of see that plane going this way backwards. Been ever so slightly. It cuts at a slightly increased angled toward the chin power to draw some arrows. This plane faces this way this plane faces. That way. It's just a slightest turn. Here is a fantastic model that demonstrates all the possible complexities of the jaw. Now, again, this is a very lean face, which means we're going to see all the little undulations at their maximum level of expression. I think most people you see walking around day to day probably don't have this level of definition in their jaw. Now these things are always there. It's just that they can be masked by many factors. One common one is how lean you are. So just to recap, let's get the overall shape of the plane here and right away you might be like, Oh, you're too far from the corner of the mouth. There are planes here that we're gonna talk about later that also effect that kind of intersect with the jaw. So don't worry, we'll get there. But, you know, I got this diamond shape right. The same diamond shape we discovered right at the beginning of this section got this plane here that goes downwards. We've got this squarish plane of the mandible that's going back toward the ear, this direction, this little plane that juts out in this direction and then the plane that brings us to the bottom part of the mandible, which is subcutaneous, which goes in this direction so that little jaw gets quite complex with everything in the good news is, like I said, you probably won't have to paint it like this or illustrated like this that often. Most of the time, it's just a relatively flat plane, I say relatively flat, cause it still has some roundness But one thing you'll always see is this diamond shape number. The jaw breaks right about there. I say breaks. It changes direction. This angle we looked at essentially all that complexity we just saw. It is just not present here. This is just one sort of flat or relatively flat plane. Now we'll talk about light and shadow later in this lesson. But the shadow side of his face is beautiful because the shadow literally traces that plane . Me, un do that. Can you see the shadow line If I just traced that shadow line? Uh, the light gives the light gives us this plane. And why is that? Well, say it with me. The jaw is these side plane of the head. And again, it's just this relatively flat plane on him. I feel weird saying him. That's Martin Luther King Man. The job planes on Edward Norton here have a little bit of that complexity. You can see a slight dip and then a slight recovery as it comes out to meet the jaw. But for the most part, it is fairly flat as well. So, again, it's important to know the simple explanation for things which is how I always start these sections, right? This simple, you know, shape of the jaw plane as if it were just one plane. And then we break it down so all of this could be put into your own illustrations. Portrait's designs. Do you want it simple. Do you want it more complex? Whatever fits the mood that you're trying to dio. Okay, now there is an important variant I have to cover and I'm going to dip back into the cheekbone section because this has everything to do with the mandible and massacre muscle in combination with the zygomatic bone. This diagram will help me intro it. This frontal edge of the zygomatic bone is quite prominent. It's subcutaneous as we know. The mandible is also quite a substantial bone. And the mass it er that lays on it is such a substantial muscle. Sometimes these two things or three things work in concert and you get a rhythm that runs down the face like this. This is a bit bags. Let me just show you a photo here on Kab Ebner Magomadov. You can see it happening, starting with the zygomatic here which we can kind of pinpoint right there, the master muscle would be somewhere in here. You can see that these planes link, and there is this rhythm of a line that cuts down. This is a variant, and it links the front plane of the cheeks with the side plane of the jaw in kind of a different arrangement. In this arrangement, the big front plane of the cheek, like we explored in the previous section, is different. It's not doing this. Instead, it's cutting down like that and going all the way down in this pattern. You often see this on lean faces because when a face is lean, the subcutaneous parts really stick out. At least they have the effect of sticking out more because there isn't enough fat content to, you know, patch it up, I guess. Here's a different photograph of could be same guy. You can see that dramatic plane change coming right down. Creating this is still a beautiful rhythm. It's got this nice arc in motion to it, but it is a significant break from what we saw in the cheekbone section, and I debated whether or not to include this in the cheekbone section or the jaw. I decided to put it here because now that we know both of these parts of the head, I could just kind of plug this in, can look at it on the other side. It's just this nice rhythm that comes down. It's almost like racing stripes or something. But speaking of the cheekbone, keep in mind that even when your model does have this, that front plane of the cheek the one that points up is still there. Like these planes still point up from the cheek. It's just this connection from the cheek planes to the jaw that are altered. In fact, there's a whole alternate version of the plains of the head. This is not a Massaro head. I don't think Jonah Sorrow sculpted this head. I believe this comes from some kind of Russian school, and this head shows this rhythm. Notice the dramatic plane change of the zygomatic bone right in here as we turn from the side of the hedge of the front. That plane changes really dramatic, and it creates this rhythm down like this. If you look at it from the front view, you can see what's happening. It's just that There is a dramatic change in direction here that is simply not shown in the Asar ahead. Theus. Aro had gives us more of a flow to it. Whereas this is ah, hard plane change from my experience, this is less common to see than this. Best I can say is you should look out for both. What else? I love about this alternate sort of plain of the head. I love that it really dramatically shows the down angle of the zygomatic bone. It also does not have that triangular plane of the sorrow headed. It has the boxy plane. This is kind of more in line with how I see the head looking at it from the front view. We get that hollow. Here we get the plane jutting out here. We get the underside of the jaw as it, you know, meets the bottom where the bonus subcutaneous. We get all these plane changes beautifully in this head model. We also get that side plane of the mandible, you know, pointing this way versus the rest of the jaw, pointing this way as it turns around. So are simple. Little jaw got quite complex by the end feel like we went through a journey with this one. And to complete that journey, Let's do a few drawings starting with this one from the last section. We've come from brow to cheeks to now, jaw. Let's get rid of what we blocked in earlier. We could do this more accurately. Now, first thing I want to do is kind of landmark where the bottom of the head is now. I haven't talked yet about overall head proportions. I will do that. Like I said in the intro, I'm kind of doing this lesson a little bit differently, but I'm gonna ballpark the chin somewhere there. I'm also gonna ballpark where the back of the skull is. That will give me my center line, which, as we know, is where the jaw hinges. Probably somewhere around here. All right, let's just extend that plane down, extend this plane down to give us something. The ear seems pushed a bit too far back. Now that I've got the back of the skull figured out, it's more like in this range we'll draw down, get that breaking direction, come in that little loop right in their meeting, the side of the chin then immediately will go over to our other side of the head, and we'll get this very compressed diamond shape that we remember for the other side of the skull. Just throw these in shadow to indicate that these are the side planes. Course zygomatic points up. So let's respect that. And let's just throw this Ah, brow, plain and shadow just for consistency. And for the very first time in this class, we have essentially a completed head minus the features, of course. Well, I guess the top of the head as well. But structurally, the head is there. My center line might do well to move in just a little bit. There we go. I find the more information you add to a drawing you can You can check your other information against it, right? If I wanted to get a bit more complex with this and find those other planes, I'd probably want to start with the mandible, which is a pretty thick plane that has the direction like this, using my red marker to go across Contra with it. This plane, as we know, meets the bottom side of the mandible and starts turning under that kind of just tucks in there. And then I can just put in this direction. Actually, let me put that closer to hear this direction of a plane that goes down as the front facing cheekbone changes to the side facing jaw. I could feel in these planes if I wanted to, just with some dark lines. And we know that this plane goes in that direction. The other thing I could do to address that variant is find the front plane of the zygomatic , trace it down rhythmically like this to that massacre muscle, which would Oh, Relais across the mandible like this. I'm kind of ruining my other drawings beneath this doing to drawings of the price of one here. But this would address that kind of variants we looked at. All right, this is a new one that I roughed in. I even put that lighter value here to indicate the cheekbones. The plane that points up first thing I want to do is again indicate where the bottom of this head probably is. I've already mapped out of center line of the skull here. I happen to know that it exists beneath the mouth. The breaking plane. Is there the breaking direction? I should say we'll talk about those kind of measurements a little bit later, but for now I can probably ballpark it toe happen right in there, and I'll draw a little checking line over to indicate the same thing over here and from here. Let's just work our way down from the center line. Hit that change. Come in here, finish up our jaw plane. Mirror it this way. The chin is there and for the jaw, thinking about that diamond shape. Now, don't do this. Don't connect it here. That's that's too short. That's two pushed in this way. The job does not connect to the cheekbone. What I've just done there is this. I put a line like that that's wrong. It's a very common mistake. Do not do it. The jaw connects out here with center line of the skull. And let's just throw these side planes into tone as we've been doing. If I wanted to find the mandible here, I could do it. It's there, and I like to put in these little cross contours to show me the direction. Show me the direction there's this curving action as it meets the under side of the jaw Mandible here. It's quite a thick bone coming down this way, coming down this way where it eventually meets Thea Chin area. Extend our center, lying down to complete this. And there we go once again, a head that looks sound construction. Aly speaking, Not sure of construction only is a word all right, looking at a dramatic down angle. Tricky part is to find probably where that directional change will be again. These little landmarks help because when I draw a little landmark like that, my brain kind of fills in the line. You could also, of course, just do like practice lines, um, and undo. Or if you're doing this in pencil, just getting eraser. Maybe this landmark used to come in just a little bit. Come down, get the change in direction. Get that again. You can check your angle, right? Make sure it's is in perspective, so it's a bit skewed, but little over 90 degrees from this angle. We will not see a jaw here. It's It's too steep of an angle. You won't see it. So from here, this just becomes the Contour meets the chin directly. Bring this plane down. But what? You know what? Before we do anything, this angle is bugging me. It's it's too close to 90 degrees. It needs to be to be out more just a little bit out something like this. Also, my center line there was off. That needs to be more like that. All these little corrections. I'm totally not afraid to leave in the video. I don't get things perfect right away. And I don't think many people do. Unless all you do day in, day out is draw the head. You're probably gonna be able. You're probably gonna have to make little corrections like this as you go. This is also why it's important to not start putting in the features the eyes, nose and mouth and stuff. Because if you're structure is off you, those things will just never land in the right place. And it's so easy to redraw centerline or redraw a jaw line much more cumbersome to redraw on entire knows. Anyway, I'll keep this last plain simple. The last thing I just want to do here is understand its direction. Remember, it points slightly down, and because this head is already tilted down. It points down a little more again. We looked at it here on the Asar ahead. The plane does not point straight horizontally. It points slightly down. This job might even go a little further down because of the tilt of the head. And I'll just demonstrate that with the across contour showing that direction of the plane again, back on the Asar ahead, going this way with the plane versus, say, the side of the brow, which has that tilt. It goes up this way. Planes are a study of the change of direction, both big and small. All right, I think that will do it for the jaw. Let's move on to the next piece. 5. Chapter 1 - The Chin: you know what I love about the chin is that the chin is a many little box. It's got a front plane. It's got some side planes here and here. It also has a little top plane right there. It's like a little box now. Of course, it's not a perfect box. Just like the head is not a perfect box, it's, uh, it's angle to some degree and of course, we'll dig into that in the forthcoming lesson. But simple planes, it's a little box like shape. It connects with the rhythm of the jaw. You can see that as the jaw came in here, it kind of terminates in here about the chin picks up there, right where the jaw leaves off. If the jaw face this way, the side plane of the chin kind of till it's just a little bit more. And then big plane change for the front and a little bit of a plane change there and then another plane change for the jaw. So the chin is responsible for, you know, taking that mandible all the way across. And it does so in this very graphic, plainer way. It's very sculptural way and the chin is there are a few planes in here also that will later link up with the mouth. So pay careful attention to when I start talking about the top plane of the chin. There's important rhythms there that will be very important later as they connect. Of course, all these features connect, so let's let's dig in and take a look at the chin. So just to quickly recap, we can see that our job plain comprises that side plane of the chin, this area right in here or on the sorrow head right in here. This would be what I would consider the side planes of the chin. And because they kind of connect with that side plane of the jaw, we're already kind of 1/3 of the way there. We've even indirectly kind of looked at the front plane of the chin. Remember going all the way back to the cheekbones? We had this kind of rhythm and I was just kind of dropping my lines off this way. Well, when I drop my lines off that way, I am encompassing that front plane of the chin. Remember, the head is connected rhythmically and there is this kind of graceful tapering action, almost like the front planes of the head form. A giant kind of funnel moving things that down this way and the chin just being the lowest end of that funnel A couple of important anatomical things about the chin. Remember that the mandible is subcutaneous along its bottom edge. That includes the chin. The chin is subcutaneous, right? They're not here. It's subcutaneous there. That's part one. Also Part two. There is a pro Trouba rinse action happening here. It's not flat. The chin is not flat like this. It comes out like this. The fancy anatomy term for that is the mental pro true parents. We can see it even more if you look at the Loomis diagram. If I were to draw the skull underneath this diagram, it would look something like this, you know, buried under the flesh here but building up to that subcutaneous part here. And once we lay the lips on top of this, which will do in a moment in the next section, probably what we get is this very noticeable our king action before we build back up to that protruding mound of the chin. That mound is visible on the skull to you Notice it dips down a little bit before building up and then building back down. So we do have a few planes here. Not only do we have this front plane of the chin which is here, draw this in black. But then we also have this little plane right there. This plane here is going to be part of the lips section, so I'm gonna leave this alone. But we do have this front plane and this top plane of the chin and you can see that on our sorrow head. Right here we have the front plane. This is the part that subcutaneous and then we have this top plane of the chin in this structural diagram of the head. We can see that top plane of the chin looking something like this and we can see the front plane of the chin looking something like that. The exact angle of these lines again is something that can change from individual to individual. It's rarely parallel, though the sorrow had gives you this kind of outward motion. This diagram gives you the reverse kind of an inward motion as long as it's roughly conforming toe a box, you're in the right position. The thing I wanted to show you here, though, is of course, we have the top and front of the chin. But how about this side? There is a bit of complexity that happens right in here. Specifically, that top plane kind of peters out and sort of diminishes as the chin, you know, progresses to the side and on the side would be like this. And the side plane, you know, kind of takes over, you know, and continues up into the job we've already seen. Rhythmically, though this top plane has this curve to it, you can see the same thing in the sorrow and see this curve. You know, the funny trick I used to remember this is like the mouth is a smiley face, and the chin is a sad face. Um, that's something that never fails me. Whenever I'm checking my read the rhythms on the head. Look back at this dude here. Very obvious, right? It's got this sad face rhythm to it. This downward sloping curve also very clear to see top plane, front plane, and then, you know the side planes kind of take over here. It's always important to draw these cross contours, showing the direction of the chin. And yes, the chin does turn under here. We're gonna talk about the underside of this whole area in a different section. Right now, I'm totally concerned with the front, the top and then the side planes bringing back our Angelina picture. We can see. I think pretty clearly this sort of what? I'm calling the sad face rhythm right there. We can also pretty clearly see thanks to the lighting, this top plane right here. And, um, I'm seeing this sort of rhythm like this to the front plane of her chin. Also, thanks to the lighting right in here, you can see how that plane tapers out like this. And then, like we did with the jaw, this would just continue up forming the side plane. There can be a little bit of extra information to put into the side of the jaw plane. From this point of the chin, it's not necessarily straight back to the hinge of the jaw. There is a bit of an intermediary step this line and then that breaks in the direction to arrive at. You know what? We've already talked about where the job breaks severely in direction and goes up. So this side of the chin plane here is a very minor direction. Change, branching out from the jaw. So again the jaw comes this way. Slight change of direction that way. And then it's pretty much a straight line or a slightly curved line. As we hit the front of the chin, the chin is very box like So I have the front plane or sorry, the top plane, the front plane and we get that slight tapering here, of course, is in 3/4 view. So I'm adjusting for four shortening here and then we have this sad face rhythm. Here we get our side plane and then the jaw. Slight change in direction. Look at this angle. Look at that angle. Slight change in direction as we go from the chin to the jaw and then that draw extends back to where it breaks in direction. It goes up and we've already looked at that angle in the previous section. Always helpful to add these cross contours to reinforce your understanding of the form. If I wanted to throw a slight value on this. I could make the top plane of the chin a bit lighter just to enforce the fact that it points upwards, maybe even a slight value to the front plane of the chin to reinforce the fact that it points forwards. And just for consistency here, some arrows. This plane points forward. This plane points upward at a you know, a kind of diagonal, almost actually the same kind of upward trajectory as our cheekbones. We put in some cheekbone planes here very quickly. This part of the cheekbone here had an almost parallel direction as the top plane of the chin. Here, we can see that pretty clearly that shin points up here. The cheekbones also point up almost parallel. I mean, maybe it could literally be parallel depending on your model. I'm sure this changes a lot as long as they're both roughly pointing in the same direction . We're okay. One last example before we move on Slightly more dramatic angle on the head, looking up very prominent. Sad face, rhythm. Withdraw. This over here is we go. I can start with that often. I find it helpful to start with that sad face rhythm, especially when we start connecting the lips to the chin, which will do later on. Then let's look at the top plane of the chain, which is here. He noticed that this line is not quite the same sad face rhythm. In fact, that line could be quite straight. But it's not this. It's lower, right, because we have to. We'll have side planes later on that we have to figure out. Let's look at the front plane of the chin. We have this on him. I'm seeing them. I'm seeing the lines kind of like that kind of outward bowing action like that, the front plane of the changes a little bit larger than the top plane. In fact, I might bring this top just a bit in to emphasize that. And then the subcutaneous part, the bottom of the chin where the mandible is on the surface. Then we have these sneaky little side planes of the chin that later on we'll see, are so they're very soft edged kind of things. But they are there. We'll get them into our drawing. That kind of just Peter out there kind of wimps the side planes, air kind of wimps. The side of the top plan, I should say it's kind of wimpy. Little planes here is they merge into the side of the head and we can connect our side planes like this. And then if this Joe went back, we could, you know, it's going in this direction just to put some cross contours on it, to make sure we understand the directions side plane, top plane, side plane, top plane. Maybe throw the sides into shadow, perhaps so a top plane into just a little bit of light. And that's really all there is to the chin. I'm not gonna fill up a page of drawings. I think this is pretty straightforward, and we'll keep momentum and move straight onto the next piece. 6. Chapter 1 - Underside: okay. The underside plane, of course, refers to the underside of the box. Remember, heads like a box. We have the bottom of the box. The underside is a deceptive and tricky Siris of planes, but at its most basic, it's essentially a shelf. The jaw kind of juts out of the neck like a like an open drawer or something, and the underside of responsible for that, that the tricky thing about the underside that a lot of people miss is you can see it even like when you're looking at the head like this. You can see the underside Onley when you're looking at the head from a downward tilted angle. Can you not really see the underside? But even front on, you'll still catch a little glimpse of some of the underside. It becomes especially apparent when you're looking at the head from the side, because, of course, the jaw comes up right, and when the job comes up, we're exposed to more of that underside. Also, the fact that this plane does have a bit of an angle to it means that it's gonna be evidence from many different perspectives. So we'll look at that. We'll look at it from a simple standpoint. We'll also look at how it wraps around the neck. His little plane changes in here. Um, very, very misunderstood plane of the head that is really of critical importance. So let's get to it. So the thing about the underside like I mentioned, is it shows up often. Even in this seemingly neutral profile view, the underside of the head is apparent. This plane here and right there is where a lot of people make a mistake, though. Forget about that under plain, and we'll just kind of do this like the job meets the neck in this kind of straight head sort of way. And while that kind of looks all right, it's really wrong. Like it's it flattens out the head quite a bit. This is one of the number one design mistakes I see in paintings and drawings that under plane just isn't there again. It's a deceptively sort of simple plain. It's kind of hidden in plain sight. No pun intended looking at Theus are ahead. The thing both of these diagrams have in common is that we're looking slightly up at the head in both cases, again, the handy line to follow is the zygomatic bone there. If it kind of points upward diagonally, that means you're looking up at the head. You can also map out the box. You know, if if this is like the corner of the box, you have this sort of action here happening, you know, looking upwards at the box of the head. Same thing here. We're looking up at the head ever so slightly. And when you do that, you're bound to see this bottom plane. It's got a beautiful sort of triangular shape to it. And the main thing I'd like to remind you of is that the mandible is subcutaneous along its entire bottom edge. Remember the mandible being this bone right here that wraps all the way around the skull, forming both sides of the jaw and the chin? This angle gives us our first glimpse at what this plane looks like. Or what it's shaped like If I just quickly traced this plane and just brought it over here , you can see it's kind of this triangular sort of shape. Now it's in perspective here, but in general is this triangular slash boxy hybrid. That kind of maps out the underside of the head. This diagram gives us a pretty clear view of what that trying to the plane looks like when it's more or less straight on. Well, they're still perspective here, but let's just take a look at this again. The subcutaneous parts of the skull starting from the breaking direction right here for all those the mandible slight change of direction we looked at for the side of the chin, straight for the front of the chin and again mirrored on this side. There's a subcutaneous part, and because of that, you can basically just draw a line through it to represent the overall plane change from the front and side part of the box to the underside of the box. And then I like to think of the underside is kind of like a shelf or a drawer like Think of pulling a drawer out of the chest, you know, it comes out straight. You've kind of got this straight sort of plane now it's not perfectly straight. It recesses further back here and here and comes forward here. So, you know, it's kind of this sort of action ever so slightly tapered, and this generally lines up with the planes. You know, if I just kind of mapped out that cheekbones slash chin front plane of the head and then with the jaw being the side planes of the head, the underside, you know, kind of lines up like this would be the side of the head. This is the other side of the head, and this is the front of the head. You know, these planes all kind of match up, going back to the Asar ahead diagram. You can see why the plane is not just flat. You know why this point is deeper this way, and this point is in the front, it's because our neck is not just a flat cylinder or neck has anatomy. You know, there's the thyroid cartilage there and things like that. The neck is not really part of this lesson. I'm focusing on the head in this lesson, but you know, in general, you can see on the Sorrow head we have some basic planes of the neck mapped out here. So, of course, it stands to reason that the under side of the head has to follow the plane changes of the neck itself. So again, mostly is triangular. But you do have this sort of perspective going on where, where this point is further back in space than that point. The nice thing about the underside plane is that whenever the lights coming from above, like it is in this diagram or this photo of the underside plan will be completely in shadow . So if we just trace that shadow shape, we're gonna get a good look at it again. It comes forward here straight where the thyroid stuff is, and then here we have a cash shadow. We'll talk about, you know, cash, shadows and form shadows later. But, you know, that plane would wrap around meeting the under side of the draw, and we have this kind of thing even though the model is bearded here, we can still see thanks to the shadow that clear playing that again triangular sort of plain rounding out here, going all the way back, coming forward where the front of the neck is and then going back to meet the break in direction of the skull, which, as we know, is right there. The camera is located underneath this guy's head so we're seeing a lot of the under side of the head here. This brings up another important point. The width. The thickness of this plane is much greater here at the front weren't extends out to the chin. Then it is here. In fact, the whole thing kind of tapers pretty gracefully. If you started the start at the mid point of the chin, its longest there and then it just progresses shorter and shorter and shorter, again longest here where it goes to the chin and then shorter and shorter and shorter to the point where the underside plane ends, which is basically right where the jaw changes direction. This is where the underside begins now it never really tapers to a hair thin point. There is even in its smallest point there there is still thickness. If I were to do a bit of cross contouring tracing a line sort of down that rounded jaw like we talked about when it meets the underside, it turns under there is this, you know, turning action this thickness to how the jaw turned is not a razor thin line. You can see that quite clearly in this diagram that mandible bone has thickness to it as it turned. It's not like a piece of paper that, you know, that goes from here to here. It goes like this, like that, and then in there's a thickness here. Just be careful. Another error that you sometimes see is this thickness is not represented, and it just kind of sort of this unrealistic, overly box like change. Yes, the head is like a box, but it z far from a perfect box. You know, it doesn't have the perfectly sharp corners of the box. There's always this kind of thickness to where these planes change, you know, probably the closest we get to a really sharp edges up here in the temple, which we talked about. That's a pretty fine change right there. But even that will have a little bit of thickness anyway. Getting off topic. This diagram reinforces how handy that under side of the mandible is. It's all subcutaneous. We have that front of the chin going in this direction, side of the chin, going in that direction, the jawline a slight change in direction from that. Then, of course, it matches on the other side of the head. Be careful with perspective here. This. This is a plane that should be studied carefully so you can understand what perspective does in each different view again, that's that's your homework. But keep in mind where the thyroid cartilage is up here, basically this sort of boxy plane here that the underside plane will come forward to meet it. And then it tapers back to meet the change of direction in the job, but still has thickness even way back here. Then it has the most thickness up here. I should point out that on a heavier set model, that plane does get disguised under sort of hanging flesh. You know, gravity takes it's toll and because there's nothing for the skin to attach to, there's this sagging action here, and this will even mascot subcutaneous parts here of the mandible. Now it's still subcutaneous, but because flashes hanging right down from it, it appears to be this continuous line. However, the mental per true prints of the chin usually still will jut out, and the person's chin will still be obvious. This person is neither thin nor overly thick. Also, he's older, so you have some of the you know, natural effects of sagging skin. That happens to all of us. But that subcutaneous mandible is still there. And you know, this is in shadows, little hard to see it, but especially in the light, we can trace the subcutaneous mandible underside there and because this cameras below the eyeliners I'm tracing thanks to the zygomatic bone there. Let me just trace the cheekbones down to the front of the chin, This side as well, being careful to observe the knowledge we've gained already down here to the bottom of the mandible where it meets the front plane of the chin. Then we have this kind of shelving action coming up front to meet the thyroid area and then ducking back a little bit in space again, This is foreshortened. So it's, you know, it's only a little bit. We're seeing this from the front view, coming back to meet that change in direction of the mandible right there. And of course, the same thing happens on the other side of the head. So we have this subtle yet still noticeable under plane of the head again. It's very common. Teoh miss this plane because you don't always expect to see it. You know, we tend to think that, Oh, it's the underside of the head. Therefore you don't see it, but it's very common to see this plane. And what's tough about this plane is its unless you're looking directly underneath the person's head, which you almost never are. It's almost always foreshortened. So this is that deceptively simple plain that is very worth your time to understand and study. So just do a few drawings here. Maybe the first thing we can try is getting that under side of the mandible, which we know subcutaneous. This triangular shaped pretty easy to draw some basic perspective lines in We know that draws aside playing. We know this is the front plane of the head. Other jaws also side plane. This will allow us to kind of block in our cheekbone rhythm going down in the front of the chin. This would be that kind of this would be that sad face rhythm right in here. We know these planes meet the thyroid slash front of the neck area, and then it's in perspective, so it's a bit foreshortened, but this does go back a little bit and then meets the mandible right where that change of direction occurs in, the mandible will go up like this. We're looking at such a localized section of the head here, so it does help to throw in some values. Let's let's map in the side planes first with the value like this and then with an even darker value, will get that under plane, the underside of the head again. This plane is usually in shadow because usually the lights coming from above, we can even get the side plane of the chin here. If we wanted Teoh always helpful to do some cross contouring xgo down the jaw, get that thickness there and then in and down the side of the draw thickness there and in. And this is a solid piece of geometry that is a good understanding of how the planes of the head are working. If you wanted to gesture down the front plane of the neck, we could just to continue that down, we'll talk about the actual neck connection to the box of the head. Later on, let's try a lower 3/4 view. I'll just block in some basic perspective. Here again, it's always helpful to get the front plane of the chin moving into the side plane of the jaw because it's subcutaneous. It's always gonna be there. We'll get that angle of the jaw here where it breaks changes in direction. If we want, we can kind of map out that front plane of the head meeting the cheekbones. We know these two planes point up to different degrees. You can even kind of map out the chain itself here if we want. Let's trace the mandible around to the other side of the head. Let's get that front of the neck right in here. Let's get a quick center line. It's a very foreshortened head. So the centerline comes will come down like this. We'll get that front plane of the neck, maybe a little bit further back than that. Maybe over here. Then trace this plane up foreshortened on the other side. The net comes down. Give this plan a bit of a value, then deal with the back of the head, which we haven't talked about yet. But the neck will connect somewhere in there. If this plane feels too small, you can always just edit it right I feel like it needs to be more of a shelf, especially in this perspective where we're seeing more of that underside. Let's do the requisite cross contouring to make sure I get a full sense of form in there. How about even more of a profile view? This is the front of the face the chin represented here. I'm not gonna draw the channel. Just draw that lower point. I kind of landmark where the It's always nice to landmark. Sometimes let's get that angle of the jaw turning up again, respecting that angle. We'll wrap this plane right around like we did here, but this is more of a profile, so it's gonna be a tighter. A bit of four. Shortening on that neck is gonna come in down here. The head is very wide from the profile, so the neck connects way back there. We'll talk about that later. Right now it's important is to get this shelving action of this plane always handy if you want to map out where that jaw would be and where it separates from the zygomatic in the front planes of the cheek through a little bit of tone on here just for emphasis, a little bit darker at the bottom because it's turning way under as it's turning more aggressively underneath. And we'll even throw in a little cash shadow on this one. I'll talk about that stuff later, though. Just for fun. We can even build on this, getting the change of the brow, the overall direction of the head. We know the chin comes out a little bit more. Constructing the head can be fun piece by piece. Let's try another profile view, but one that's less aggressively pointed up. So more of a neutral profile this time. Let's build in that chin just so we can see what we're doing here. This time we're getting more of this neutral profile where we're looking, the cameras kind of looking more or less directly at the jaw. But even in this view, we will see this under plane come through a little bit is that Chin turns under right there . It's under plane, although it doesn't go back that far. Goes here again, meeting that front plane of the neck and down we can draw. Our center lines were just slightly looking up at the head, but it's more of a neutral view. In fact, I should mirror this so we can compare this drawing to our previous one. We've raised the camera just a little bit, and we're seeing less of that under side of the plane. This is how you can deal with, you know, subtle perspectives. And we can trace the jaw, their side plane and, you know, just to make this one a little different. What we can do is simulate more of a heavy model by getting rid of these lines will keep them ghosted so we can see them. But based on what we learned earlier, we know the chin will remain pretty obvious. The flesh kind of drapes from this point, and it comes down. If it's a saggy sort of fleshy effect, it'll come down here and instantly we get a heavier looking model. Of course, this neck will be also soften. It'll just soften itself right into the neck. And we probably won't get much information playing change information here. This will be more or less a smooth kind of line, and when this happens, you know, the sagging skin forms it, its own plane changes, and we get this sort of thing. All right, That should do it for the underside. Let's move on now to the features of the face. 7. Chapter 1 - The Nose: much like the chin. The nose is a box. Essentially, it's got a front plane. It's got to sigh planes. It's got a bottom plane. Um, there's no top plane, of course, because the top of the nose goes rhythmically into the brow in this beautiful little shape . See this kind of wedge like shape? It's almost like a keystone, the top oven archway. That's how it wedges in with the brow, so we'll look at that. And like everything else, even though the nose is essentially like a box with the front and sides in the bottom, it does get quite complex. In fact, the bottom plane alone. There are six different planes in here, if you can believe that, and we'll look at all of them, including things like the nostrils, and see how those fit in. There is a lot of little subtle rhythms that come in here. The nose is not just flat at the bottom. There's like a little s curvy shape in here is it twists and turns around. Um, the other thing that always strikes me is impressive. With the nose is the just the sheer depth and our breath. I should say of the side plane. This is such a big plane critical to understand how this plane articulates and moves in and out of the cheek and then how it feeds up into the eye socket. So we look at all that, and we'll also start discovering another important rhythm, the laugh line area. As the last line kind of comes down from the knows. This will become important later on in our discussion with the mouth and the chin, these all kind of linked together and we'll begin that rhythm here in the nose chapter. So strap in. There's a lot of stuff to get to, so yeah, I'm not gonna lie. The nose has a lot of planes and it can be pretty complex. However, at its core, it's basically just a box, so I'll draw this box like this. And of course, it's angles on the head. And let's just draw the underside of this box through a little value on it. And there, if you can draw that, you're well on your way to being able to draw the nose. Let's take it one step further. Same box side playing here. However, this time I'm going to add some more information at the bottom. Namely, I'm gonna have one more plane like this, another plane like that, slowly turning under. Then I'll just connect these guys and my box no longer lines up. So I'll just erase the side plain and just kind of make it line up like this, you know, widening the birth of the side of the nose here and then seems before any plane that points down, I will just give it this quick value. And now this is looking more nose like, right? Still very boxy. If I want to further modify this particular drawing, what I would do is I would chisel away this chisel away that this makes a new plane here, a new plane there. All right, let me just move these over to the side. So I want to do another one. Yet another iteration. Let's start with the box again. Side playing here. Let me just anticipate the widening of the side. I'll grab those same planes here. The nose turns under this. That that Now I want to do something here. I want to get rid of this, and I want to make this the widest part goes in and then let's have it come out. And in there something like that and then at the top is gonna create this little wedge shape like this would shaped like that. Don't forget to throw in our value for the under planes just to clearly signal what turns under. Also, this part of the plane is turning underneath, so get a value there. And just for fun, let's throw value on the entire side of the nose just to show the dimensions of this box. And in that three step process, we've gotten something that pretty much encompasses the planes of the nose. Now, I've got some actual finished up diagrams here that show a little more clearly the shape of each plane, and we'll look at these as we go. But again, just like a box. What we essentially have are two side planes, side side and a top plane. Of course, in 3/4 view, you only see one of the sides and the top, and the top is foreshortened. It appears thinner because of the four shortening, and the side appears wider because they, of course, were perpendicular To this plane, we can see it flat on versus from the front where we see this plain flat on the side plane is foreshortened looking at the Andrew Loomis diagram of the profile view of the nose, Let's look at that front. Most facing tip. This is the tip that points out the most. This is like the peak of Mount Everest. In fact, the nose reminds me of like a mountain. It's like a jagged landscape protruding out of the face. This is the peak point right in there. This is draw a nice horizontal, and we noticed that the bottom of the wing of the nose is a step down. It's a significant step lower than the tip. This is important because it creates a rhythm. It creates maybe yet another sad face. Rhythm is this curve that goes up when you see the nose from a front view. These planes from the wing of the nose, the front of the nose in the wing of the nose. They kind of have this curve rhythm to it, and the lower angle you have on the head like if we're looking at our sorrow head here, which is a lower angle, that curve is intensified. That's a little tip from the front view on a 3/4 view. It doesn't quite work because this side playing here kind of throws that rhythm off its, you know, its goes up and then down. I mean, you could just remember that rhythm. Also, it's like a little bit of an S curve. But this downward sloping curve or another sad face rhythm is a nice trick for the front view of the nose. Also, the side view you can think about this sweeping curve. Also, while we're still looking at the bottom of the nose, it's important to note that the nose raps under before coming back up. There is this circular rhythm that it has. Then it comes out here looking at it from a front view. Here. These plains extend lower fire to draw a horizontal line. They extend lower than the wings. This series of middle planes here are groups together and called the septum pretty common anatomical term you've probably heard before the septum. The septum is the thing that people get pierced sometimes again. If we were to draw that horizontal line, which in this case is in perspective, the septum is lower than the wings. So the septum comes down, sweeps up and turn to get this circular s curvy kind of rhythm. And you get it both in the front view and in the 3/4 view, Although it's more emphasized in the 3/4 view because we're looking at it more obliquely. Another look at the nose from the front view this time. Can you see the sad face rhythm There also this plane here too, right there on the nose that ah, high point. And then that septum begins to come down. And then that plane dramatically changes angles. It starts to turn even more underneath. And then we have that s curvy rhythm to go up to the wings like this. And we can complete this quick diagram with this. And if we want all of this points under and if the lights coming from above, you'll get this the nose of being shadow. All of this will just be in shadow. All right, moving on. Let's now switch our focus to the top of the nose. Specifically, I'm interested in this wedge shape. This guy right here. This is an important shape because it connects the nose to the brow. Here's a fantastic model showing this wedge shape in action. In fact, it's hard to find a bad model for this because it's such a prominent piece of geometry on the head. The thing I love about it rhythmically is. Remember when we did the brow? We had this line. It could either be straight or boat upward or downward. Whatever. We're looking a little bit up at this model, so the line here is pretty bowed upward. This top line right here follows the eyebrows. Essentially, you can trace that top of the brow. That same line we're drawing before also covers this top part of this wedge. This wedge is called the Globe Ella, By the way, the globe Ella comes down to this point here, which on the model is right here. It's a convenient little thing to remember, because it basically aligns with the top of the eyes themselves. That is the upper eyelid. The go Bella is more or less in line with that, and the shape itself is wedge like, so it's, you know, it's got this pie slice sort of shape to it, except it doesn't come to a point. It stops, you know. It's got a thickness both at the top and at the bottom, wider at the top, narrower at the bottom. And it also has a side plane these side planes here, which you can see on a front view. Build that geometry of the knows that we looked at just a minute ago. Remember, we had side plane, front plane side plane. Well, it's the same thing with the global aside plane front plane, side plane on the Andrew Loomis diagram. Now this is in profile. So the plane, the front plane of the globe Ella is extremely foreshortened. It's there, but it's just very narrow. The same with the front plane of the nose. The front plane of the knows he's here. It's very foreshortened in a profile view, but it's here, and you can see the thickness of the side plane. This plane right here, the thickness right in there. Now in the profile, it's also hidden by the eye, so it kind of goes behind the I will talk about that connection when we get to the eye, and the thing to remember is, remember we had the brow protruding out and then it came in. We did that in the brow section. Will. That in line is the rubella. So we're just adding to that chapter here, looking at three different pieces of reference here. This guy has a pretty small go Bella. It's compressed in. Obviously, this plane, like any plane, will change a little bit according to the face. I mean, it's No one has the exact same planes everywhere. We all look a little different, right? So this guy's got a very narrow one, and the two women on the right have wider ones than he does again. You can follow this line now. Don't be confused by her eyebrows. Look at the rhythm doing this. I know her eyebrows go up there. You know they've been adjusted. Let's say instead look for the rhythm that the actual planes of the brow make, and anyway, you can see the global a coming in. Here's the other side of that front plane. Here's where it stops and then changes direction out again. The globe L. A. Goes in, the front of the nose goes out, and here's that side plane that connects it to the brow and of course in a 3/4 view. We're not going to see the side plane on that side. It's just that the front plane forms the contour. Same situation on the right kind of following this line, which is fairly evenly straight across her head, I think very easy to spot the globe l. A. In a 3/4 view because it forms the contour as the nose comes in. As the you know, as that brown turned inward the contour of the globe. Ella follows that same parallel trajectory, and we can see the other side here the thickness of that plane. And, you know, it would just connect like that. Speaking of its connection to the brow, one important thing to note is the GLA Bella points in but does not go as far in as the actual browed it. Remember here in our brow diagram, we had that con cavity in the skull. It digs into the head of quite a bit. Well, the global a does not go that deep. The eye sockets dig in pretty deep into the skull. The globe l A is out here so doesn't go in as much. If I were to adjust my center line thinking about adding the globe L. A. To this, it would look like this. Let's get the front plane of the nose. This is more of the center line view of the nose. In a different color, I'll retrace our original center line, our original central line, when we were not drawing the nose went like that. The nose, like I said, juts out like a mountain, which dramatically alters the center line. Now the globe, Ella often is gets a little bit of light, which we'll talk about in the value section of this lesson once we get into how light affects the, you know, the values we see on the head. But the global is often in a little bit of light because it does not go into the skull as much as the actual eye sockets dio. But the thing to note, though, is that the global A does go in. It does go in this way, so from a top view, you're not going to see it. Or at the very least, it's gonna be so foreshortened that it's almost nothing like we know the global is there. But because his head is pointed so extremely down the global A is simply hidden by the portraits of the brow. All right, let's switch our focus now to this front plane of the nose, all the way into what's usually called the ball of the nose. Pretty sure you've noticed that is generally thinner here, thicker here. Models are subject to change from person to person, but in general, the ball of the nose is wider than the ridge of the nose. I bring up a skull diagram and we can see what's happening. Ignore all those numbers, by the way. I think it's pretty common anatomical knowledge to know that this is actually a hollow, our noses cartilage beyond a certain point beyond about here, which is right here on our skull. This is all Cartlidge. There's no there's no superficial bone. However, this part of our skull is subcutaneous. The ridge of the nose here is subcutaneous, and if you look at the skull, can you see how the skull kind of widens out here? There's a widening to it. This is reflected in our nose diagram here. There's a widening out right where that bone is, and then where the bone goes away in here. It can not always, but it can narrow in. I think it's more common than not to see a knows That narrows after the bone goes away. Going back to this model, we see that same rhythm, see it widening out just a little bit and then narrowing in just a little bit. Everyone will have a different Siris of angles going on there. But look out for this rhythm widening, narrowing before hitting the ball of the nose, which widens out again. And in fact, it widens out and then comes in again to meet the septum. So it's like narrow, wide, narrow, wide, narrow, constantly switching back and forth. Even in very flat, photogenic lighting like this, we can see that widening action, narrowing action, widening out for the ball of the nose and then narrowing in for the septum. Now the front plane itself is pretty flat, like there might be a little bit of roundness to it, but in general this is a pretty flat surface. But once again I'll remind you that everyone's different. The front plane of his nose is more round. The front plane of her nose is medium round and the front plane of her nose appears to be a little flatter. Maybe the maybe ever so slight, rounded but pretty flat. And I can hear some of you asking Oh, there's highlights on the nose. Talk about that. I will. In the value section, the highlights on the nose sure are fun. But before we get dessert, we gotta eat our veggies, right? Probably the least understood plane of the nose are the two side planes. The thing that's less understood about them is how wide they are. What many people do is they narrow them like this. That kind of draw them like this. And that, ladies and gentlemen, is not correct. No, they are very wide plains. And if I just move our guide down here a little bit, you can see on the a Sorrow head, you can see how wide it gives you. It actually extends further out than the wing of the nose. Now, this is something that can change. You'll see different diagrams. Sometimes this plane, like the Sorrow head shows, goes out. Sometimes it's sort of rhythmically in sync with the wing of the nose like this, but it does kind of take off from the sort of tip of the wing, if I can call it that and it moves upward and bows out slightly before coming in and giving room for the eyeball, specifically the tear duct of the I, which would be down here. So it's this unexpectedly complex plane. You can see it pretty clearly on him, thanks to the lighting, if we find this point this tip of the wing here which would basically be right in there, see how that side plane goes out slightly before coming in and then going straight up. So it's this action out, in, up and then it meets the global, which we've already talked about. Of course, that same rhythm here, out in, up and this up part is very narrow. I mean, sometimes we'll see. It is just like almost a V shape. Sometimes there will be an actual plane a little straight part there, but it's a very narrow little crevice right there. In fact, I've kind of shown it differently on both sides, which is not an accident. And you know, there are different ways to draw these planes and you'll see if you look up different anatomy diagrams. They don't all agree. But what they do agree on is this overall rhythm out in up and it meets the globe. Ella, the straight on lighting in this photograph gives us a fantastic view of the side planes of the nose. Here's that tip of the wing. We go up and out slightly in up gla Bella. And of course, it's the same on the other side. And of course, it's the same on the other side, just drawing some plumb lines, some measurement minds, just to make sure I'm roughly in proportion. Here. You can see it forms. Is rhythm basically meeting the wings of the nose there, So the nose is a lot wider than you might think. Remember? Remember when I was first learning about these planes, it really shocked me how wide they were. I suspect the reason that the wide nous is deceiving is because oftentimes there is a balling of flesh that happens here. That flesh happens to lay on top of these side planes and can kind of disguise the fact that there is a very wide plain here, and as a result of that, people will define the front plane here and kind of put the side plane very narrow, like something like this. But again, that is incorrect. That's not nearly enough depth for what the skull is doing. The skull is giving you something much more thick looking at a quick diagram here, Can you see how much side there is to cover? That's a lot of depth there that needs to be accounted for, which is exactly what the side planes do Now you'll notice. I have indicated some lines that are basically the laugh lines. I don't want to focus on these yet, but I do want to quickly intro them. This laugh line rhythm or the nasal labial furrow is going to be an important connection to the mouth, which will cover in the next chapter. The's laugh lines come in an overlap the side plane of the nose. They lay on top of it and, as a result, can mask that plane a little bit. So we'll continue on with the nasal labial furrow in the next section. But that's how they interact with knows. The thing that's important rhythmically with the nasal labial for or laugh line is that they are essentially an offshoot of the wing of the nose. It's the same sort of rhythm it's they're almost parallel. It's just the last line continues further down where the wing of the nose stops right there . All right, there is one more thing to cover before we wrap up this chapter on the nose and just for fun, let's change the diagram. I was getting tired of looking at those other ones. We have to discuss the wings of the nose, which will also include the nostrils. Alright, the wings of the nose you can see in the diagram are essentially like a box, but a box that's been severed. So it's kind of like this sort of shape, this being the bottom plane of the box. So we have a top plane and a bottom plane. The wing of the nose meets the side plane of the septum. This area right in here, there is some thickness to be dealt with there, and what I'll do is all first ball park where the frontal part of the noses and connected that rhythmically down. And then back in the beginning of this lesson, we remember this kind of s curvy rhythm, right. So I consider this also part of the wing of the nose. The reason I consider it part of that is because the nostril actually rests on both of these planes. The nostril laterally goes across this plane and then kind of foreshortened towards us comes out in this plane and then down this kind of thing. So the nostril is actually a three dimensional hole if you want to put it that way. And I just need a little bit more space on this bottom partner. There we go. So to take away. So far, the wing of the nose has a top plane and a bottom plane. A secondary bottom plane goes like that, and the nostril lies on both of the bottom planes. The tip of the nostril kind of exists on that one. The septum side plan, if you want to call it that and comes out laterally this way, a complex piece of work, the nose. Here's an even lower angle view, which provides us maybe a little bit of a better outlook at that same Siris of planes. We have that top plane of the nostril, which is foreshortened in this perspective angling down underneath and yeah, that plane meets the side of the septum here. So it comes down steeply here and across. And as we discussed the nostril lays over both of those planes and going back to our front view right here, this creates a kind of teardrop shape. Fibres had just draw the shape of the nostril. The top of the nostril kind of overlaps like this. And it's this teardrop e shape. So this this being the opening of the nostril itself, this is the way to kind of graphically indicate that tricky little perspective that's happening here. So don't draw your nostrils like this. That looks like a sewer grate or something. They need this little overlapping bit when drawn from the front view. You know, despite all those planes, the nose is not actually that hard to draw. I'm using her nose for inspiration here. I'm not gonna copied exactly using choppy lines, which helps when dealing with planes like this, you can also throw down. You know, these perspective lines. Make sure that you know this line going up this lingling slightly down even more can also block in angles. Just things that make your life easier. So at this point, instead of like doing the front plane, why not undo that? And instead sort of estimate where the nostril might be already Know that it's gonna have this sort of overlapping action to it. I know that the wing of the nose sits lower than the septum. Aiken shade that nostril in real quick. Remember, this s curve the rhythm, which is pretty subtle in this view. I mean, again, every nose is gonna be different, but there's this s curve, the rhythm to it. My block in line for the wing is not in the right spot. It's the right angle, but not in the right spot. The wing of the noses wider out. Here's that top plane. When we come down for the bottom, trace it rhythmically to the side plane of the septum. Here's where we confined the septum, remember? Gets a bit wider, as as it comes up where it finally meets the ball of the nose and this side is incorrectly drawn. So let's update that I'm not trying to copy exactly this person's nose, just using it as inspiration, and then we can find this widening and shortening rhythm for the ridge of the nose as it leads us up to the globe. Ella a little hook here for the wing of the nose. And just to prepare us for later, we can extend the line downward, which as very hidden on her. That line extends down this way, you know, following roughly parallel with the wing of the nose. Then the side plane of the nose on her looks like it's sort of just does this kind of thing coming in to meet the eye and then and then up. Let's get the tip of that front plane that sticks out the most in terms of value. The bottom planes owned before that. Remember this kind of sad face rhythm? This is also a plane right in here. So when you playing that points down, gets the value will give the globe L. A A value as well, because it points under. And then just for fun, the areas that point the most up, which is the front plane of the nose, we can apply a light value to like we did with the cheekbones. Perhaps also the top of the wing could get a bit of a lighter value. This is not lighting per se. It's just kind of diagramming the nose with values that correspond to the angles that the planes face. We'll talk about actual lighting in another chapter. If we wanted to throw that side plane into just a bit of shadow, we could, just to tell the viewer that it's also turning. And if I really wanted to complete this, I could find the side planes of the septum, which would be something like that. And this side plane of Lukla. Bella. Okay, Is that everything? I think that's everything. Let's do another one. Let's try a nose from a low angle. And to do this, I'll first start with the box. You know, the rough kind of box that we began this entire chapter with Throw this line here because low angles could be very complicated, and it helps, you know, to break it down, using the fundamentals that we looked at. Let's get this sad face rhythm. Of course, this is in perspective heavy perspective, so it's gonna be very foreshortened like that on on that side. I just want you remember that it's the rhythms that make a drawing of the head look good. Not any little plane that's correctly in alignment. If your rhythms air off, it doesn't matter what you dio. For instance, let's get some perspective lines in just to help me with the septum. Then from here, I can go ahead and find it the nostrils. Nice, Because I know the national spans two planes, so blocking in the nostril is often a helpful thing to dio on this side. It's gonna be extremely foreshortened. We're not going to see this plane on this side of the national. This is going to kind of come out in perspective like that, the wing of the nose here, going like that to match following my rhythm, my sad face rhythm across contour. The directions of these planes always helps underneath like this. Let's make sure we get that s curvy rhythm that we talked about earlier. It's actually bit flatter here from the bottom view. And then that side plane will come up, come out, come up like that to meet the globe. Ella, let's get some more perspective lines blocked in. These lines are great just to they helped me visualize, you know, what needs to be where I can. Now I know I should probably erase that line out a little bit. Get Theglobe Ella up here, the matching side here. We know that the brow line is here. The eyebrow would be somewhere there, probably somewhere here and then to complete our diagram. Let's just throw things into shadow again, starting with the under planes of the nose, which is always a good place to start. Let's do the same to the globe, Ella. Here Globe L. A. Is just a fun word to say. And I didn't deal with the thickness of the front plane if I wanted to put that in essentially, What I would do is why didn't the ball of the nose make sure that my perspective stays in check? And there we go. I could get rid of this red line. Now I don't really need it. It's kind of blocking my drawing of the wing. And speaking of the wing, we would still see just a sliver of the top plane of the wing from this view, were not totally looking up at the nose, and that nasal labial for or laugh line would probably come out somewhere in this direction somewhere in that direction. And I know that side plane looks very big, but remember, there will be fleshy areas that lay on top of it that will help mask it. Well, look at that Later, when we start painting the head. OK, let's do a 3/4 view slightly from above. So we're looking just a little bit down at the nose. I remember it. The nose does not cut flat like that. That's a common mistake. This meaning this could be an aesthetic design. This is okay. You can break the rules as well as much as you want, but it is helpful to know what the actual nature of the thing you're drawing is before you choose to do that. Here is the high point of the nose or the point that sticks up the furthest. Which, of course, gives us the septum turning under. Get. That s curvy rhythm. Get the wing. I was going a bit faster through this. Get the the width of the bridge where the bone is of the skull. Coming down. Widened a little bit for the ball. We're not going to see that nostril opening because we're looking slightly down at this knows. So it's just gonna appear to be this kind of flat sort of plane. Get the side playing here and there we go. A bit of a quicker sketch of the nose. Always nice to throw a little value in there just to solidify this. Oh, and I didn't get the globe. Ella. We're looking slightly down, so the global is gonna be a bit differently shaped as it gets distorted by perspective. Of course, this whole thing just feeds into the underside of the brow, right? The stuff we discussed in the brow section the global A being slightly higher than the Depression of the eye sockets, though. So you get a bit of light there, we'll get a light value just for fun. Throw it into the front plane of the nose top plane of the wing here also worthy of note. In this view, we're not seeing the very bottom plane of the septum. This plane here is invisible here. This plane is that plane again. Knowing these planes will really, really help you with all kinds of subtle perspectives supercritical for, you know, realistic portrait arts or character design things that need to adhere to nature a little more than, you know, wild stylistic choices. But even your wild stylistic choices could be very informed by this kind of fundamental knowledge. And I'm just thinking that this is too low for looking a bit down at the knows. This s curve rhythm would be a little bit more pronounced more like that. Here we go. Get some laugh lines in their block him in, all right, and we'll end with a profile view. The only major view were missing. Here's where the no sticks out the farthest, probably blocking that slanted plane of the cheekbone, tracing with septum down Ruffin where the wing might be. Get that nostril crossing planes Find that sad face rhythm here for the under plane. Just so we know what rhythmically it will look like. And we confined. Maybe the septum plane the plane that goes down to the wing in a profile view. These are all very straight aligned now in the profile view, you will still get a bit of thickness on the front plane of the nose. Also a little bit of thickness for the ball side plane following the angle of the cheekbone cutting in a little bit. Now we know the globe. L A will start here, but this is a little weird. The arrangement of the globe L A. In a side view, you might be tempted to draw an angle like this, but that's not correct. Perspective will distort this. It looks more like this. Get the top of that plane here and find the side plane of the nose here. So the side plane of the globe, Ella kind of looks like this in a profile view. Let's give it some value. Let's put the entire global A plane's both side in front and shadow as usual, Get the under planes in shadow, throw the side and just a little bit of shadow as well. And I know the globe. L A looks a little weird in a side view. That's because later on the I will begin to overlap this area, which you know, kind of mask south of La Bella. So this is an odd view to see it in. But just to give you some context, I'll expand on this drawing just a little bit. The cheekbone would lie somewhere out here. The break in the brow plane would be about there just to give you context for how that know this fitting. All right, that'll about wrap it up for the nose. I know I got a bit ahead of myself in that last drawing, but without further ado, let's move on to the mouth. 8. Chapter 1 - The Mouth: perhaps second only to the I. The mouth is the most complex part of the head. In fact, a lot of artists have more trouble with the mouth than they do with the I. That's because a lot of people kind of categorically mistake the mouth for simply being the upper lip in the lower lip. Of course, those air there, but the mouth sits on this entire maxillary area, this entire muzzle. Think of like a dog or cat like they have that long muzzle we have a muzzle to. It's just a lot shorter, not it doesn't stick out as far. But you know, we can see if I still ahead here. There are these planes that take us up in front to the side. It's all again. It's like it's box like right. But of course, it's not so box like that. It points to the side like the jaw does. These planes largely still point forward to the front, but there is some subtle articulation here of three different planes we need to look at than the lip, kind of like juts in here. And another plane that's very important is the one that happens underneath the lower lip and the one that kind of links up with the chin. Remember in the chin, we talked about the upper plane, the top plane of the chin Will that top plane of the chin links with the under plane of the mouth. And there's this beautiful little stair Step the rhythm. Look at the shadow that my brushes casting here. See, it's like a little stair step rhythm. We're gonna look at that. That is very important when it comes to understanding the mouth. In fact, let me just show you with a quick experiment. Let me put my brush right here and tilt the head. Look at how much room is on the side Here. The mouth wraps around, is what I'm saying, and we're gonna really gained a respect for that. A lot of people will flatten out the mouth too much and not respect the fact that the mouth turns around the muzzle so much like the I. There's a lot to get to hear. Thankfully, though, a lot of this connects rhythmically. For instance, we'll look at a rhythm as the last line of the nose comes down, which we introduced a while ago. The last line comes down. It's gonna link right up with the plane, the under plane of the mouth here, and that'll help us draw the mouth correctly as well. So let's get right into it and start breaking this stuff down, all right, so the mouth is not just the lips, it's an entire region, and it kind of has an overall circular rhythm to it. That circular rhythm is defined on the top side by the nasal labial furrow coming down from the nose, which we looked at in the nose chapter, and it changes direction right here just to the outside of the corner of the mouth. So it comes down, changes direction and sort of hooks up with the member of this sad face rhythm of the chin . Remember that it hooks up right there and, of course, the same on the other side, coming around the mouth, separating a little bit from the corner of the mouth, coming down, hooking up with the sad face rhythm of the upper plane of the chin. This is why I put the mouth at this part of the class after the nose and chin, because the mouth is the mechanism that connects the two of them rhythmically, not to mention the fact that it has its own Siris of interesting planes, but the planes of the mouth or not that complex. They kind of come in threes and I have another diagram here. Once again, it's linked with the nose. We remember how the nose had sort of three planes, two sides in a front 123 while the muzzle which is this area of the mouth the muzzle also has 123 and I can continue this down to the lip. 123123 123 The trilogy of planes kind of hook up from the nose all the way down to the chin . Now, there are some of these outside areas that are external from that which will also talk about. But this 123 action is very handy to remember. These planes are incredibly important because they articulate the roundness of the mouth. The mouth is not flat. It almost looks like it appears, maybe a little flat from the front view, because we're looking at it straight on. Like if you look at Theus are ahead you could almost mistake the mouth for being flat, and a lot of artists fall prey to this. The mouth is not flat. The mouth wraps around what's called the tooth cylinder. And let's just take a moment here to appreciate how not flat or how round this is. Our teeth are like, Well, they're half cylinders. That's why this area is called the Tooth Cylinder. There's nothing flat about this, and you can kind of see you have a plane here, a plane here and a plane here now. Also, don't confuse this. The mouth does not wrap this dramatically. It doesn't fault they you know that the mouth does not follow the teeth like their subcutaneous. It's more like this. The mouths kind of like that straight here and then like this so it doesn't hug the teeth directly. The front teeth, more or less kind of touched the front of your lip, but the's back teeth recess further back from the skin. You know, in this area there's a lot of muscle that pushes the mouth outwards, and here's a quick look at it. I'm talking about this circular muscle called the Bobic. You'll Aris Oris again the name is not so much as important as you know that it exists in this muscle you can imagine is incredibly developed. We can move our mouths in a wide range of gestures on dso thes muscle fibers are pretty thick, and they pushed the mouth out at the corners. And again, that muscle is all in here, and it pushes the lips a little out from the back teeth. Also a handy little piece of anatomy to know this part of the skull here is called the Max Illah. So we've got the Max Ill a working in tandem with the O Bikila rece oris muscle, which all work together to create the muzzle. The word muzzle often reminds me of animals we could, you know, dogs and cats and other animals have very long muzzles that really sticks out of the face like this, right? Well, you know, we have muscles to it's just ours are compressed more. It only comes out. You know, it comes at a fraction of the way, but it does protrude outward on this photograph of me. If you'll excuse the extremely unflattering angle, you can really see the protrusion of the muzzle, and it works in those three planes, right? 123 Let's map it from the nose. First of all, let's get that outer rhythm coming down from the laugh lines, changing direction just outside the corner of the mouth, coming down, hooking up with the sad face rhythm of the chin and the same on the other side. It's a bit foreshortened here, so you gotta be careful with that. Don't push it out too far. We know we have the septum planes here now. They don't just come down straight. They widen out a little bit with that Cupid's bow that we have. And there are some minor players, a little minor playing change their. But for now, let's just keep it flat. Meets the upper lip here. Then it comes back in like this. When it comes back out on the lower lip, you just lower this line here, back out on the lower lip, and it does not come back in like that. It actually continues out a little wider, and then from the tips of the wings of the nose, we go down. We go down to form the side planes and then down like this. So it's that one, 23 arrangement 123 And this outside part is not part of the 123 It's separate. It's more of a rhythmical element that connects everything. The muzzle itself is confined to this 123 area. Let's go back to our swimming friend here and do the same analysis, but from a front view again, notice how much flatter the mouth looks from the front. But we should know now not to be fooled. Um, we could go down from the nose and get the Cupid's bow plane. This is a narrow sort of middle plane. Let's get the side planes that go from the wing of the nose down to the corner of the mouth . Let's just remind ourselves of the sad face rhythm of the chin. Here. It's also just ball park, just outside the corner of the mouth, where that circular rhythm is going to change. Now let's go ahead and get that circular rhythm coming down from the nasal labial furrow here, the last line changing direction here, meeting up with the sad face rhythm of the top plane of the chin and again on the other side. All right, let's go back to our 123 rhythm here, which narrow out for the upper lip. Why didn't back out for the lower lip and then continue widening underneath the lower lip? There are two side planes kind of meet somewhere down here. In fact, I'm a little bit off on my circular rhythm. The sad face rhythm of the chin goes a little bit further into its side planes, and this links up. It's got a little bit of ah flatness here before it turns up like that. And then let me just fix this line. Fixing is good means we're thinking, and then we come down and we meet the rhythm like that, and the last thing we'll do is just separate the upper lip from the lower lip. We can also separate the lower lip here like this and complete our 123123 And then remember , this outside is separate, but kind of binding them all together. All right, let's actually draw this so we can make sense of it a little more. Now, let's simplify this. I'm not gonna try and copy every little undulation of the guys lip, but let's just simplify this. This is the upper lip I'm drawing right now. 123 Let's ballpark where the bottom of the septum is, Which would be up here. You know that septum comes down for the Cupid's bow area, the upper lip, which we'll talk about in more depth in a moment. For now, I'm just gonna block it in like a simple plane like this block in the bottom of the lower lip. Here, one to three. Let's get these planes in as we go in for the upper lip, out for the lower lip. We know it's gonna go out even further for the under plane of the lower lip. We know it's gonna meet up with the sad face rhythm of the shin. Also, it's ballpark this point just outside the corner of the mouth. Let's ballpark the where the corner of the wings of the nose would be, which I didn't draw. They'd be right here. Let's go ahead and connect this rhythm like this. Connect this rhythm like that. I have a little too much room here on the maxillary. Let's bring that nose down a little bit more like that could have just cut this out of the video. But I want you guys to know that I'm always making mistakes and revising. Got a double check ourselves. Even professionals will make mistakes. Of course, they're not mistakes. As long as you are guided by them, they will lead you to a more accurate final. And of course, exact proportions will change here from person to person. You know, this whole area is considered the upper lip area. Like the maxillary area. Some people will have larger ones like take a look at someone like Stephen King. He has a very large muzzle Max illa area from the knows. There's a lot of distance there versus our swimming friend up here who has a very short one . Let's just now connect the wings of the nose with the outer planes of the lips, the other sides of the lips to complete our 123 action Here, get just a little bit more space in here, which will allow us to complete that 123 rhythm like this. In fact, if you look at this guy, we could see the sad face rhythm here, and then it has a large bit of straight to it before going up. This is also something that can change from person to person. Now, just to throw some values down here. Let's just get of the under planes in shadow. The upper lip points downward, so when the lights coming from above the upper lip will be in shadow. So this is a handy little thing to know. We can usually ballpark the upper lip in tone. The lower lip faces up. So if anything, you might want to get a light value and put it here just to show that facing up in this middle plane underneath the lower lip faces down pretty dramatically. So let's get that in shadow. Can you see it on him? This plane that's in shadow underneath the lower lip? This is an incredibly important plane. It sets off the mouth. It allows the lips to protrude out properly. However, these planes come out more. These planes air not so much in shadow there. This the recess is not the same. Perhaps we can put these in a little bit of, ah like half shadow to show that they are coming out again. Same with the outer planes here on the maxillary. We can put these in like partial shadow, Let's say just to show that they're turning slightly. It's not such an abrupt plane change, but it is a plane change. Let's just quickly address the shape of the lips. I was using a very simple shape here, which is fine to start with. And in fact, I can start with that here, the kind of 123 thing. But the upper lip is very well known for having a little dip right in the middle little, graceful Boeing action. And then right at the end, it kind of flattens out again like this to meet the corner of the mouth. In fact, on the model above, it even kind of tilts upward just a little bit. It's very subtle, sensitive area, and people will have different rhythms there. Now let's work these planes to understand how to connect these areas. It's kind of like this and coming out from kind of behind that the lip wraps around to the corner, out from behind, wrapping around to the corner. The lower lip, by comparison, is much more simple. It's just this kind of overall you shape that traces its way back to the corners of the mouth, and it does not have this narrow little front part. It's again, it widens out. We know this already widens out here. Like I mentioned the upper lip overall faces down, so when you're just throwing a value on it, you can mass a dark value here to show that that lip is pointing downward. Now, if you want to break the upper lip down one step further, there is even a plane here that points down even more aggressively. You get an even greater playing change here as the lip wraps underneath and you know, going towards the inside of the mouth. It's such a subtle plain it's not even shown on the A Sorrow head. You can see it on her a little bit, right at the bottom, like the bottom eighth of the lip is that kind of wraps under. Similarly, the lower lip has a top and front plane. You can separate it like this, and if we wanted to show that with a value, we could just maybe throw a little lighter value on the top plane. These planes are evident when We're so close up to the mouth. But in general, what we did here is usually good. Just throwing the upper lip in shadow bottom, lip in light. Oftentimes, that's all the information we'll see, because usually you're not painting a portrait that's this close up. But if you ever are, this is good to know. And just to complete our diagram, we have the Cupid's bow here. Now the Cupid's bow is not just flat like we've been drawing it. It has a little dip. That's why it's called a bow. And if you want to be extremely technical, there is a little thickness to it. It's like that will use the red pencil, actually to draw these center line here across contour. So you know, I'm adding complexity to our 123 action. I realize that, but again you want to understand. It's simply first, and then you add the complexity, layer it on top and last but not least in our diagram here. Let's just continue outward for the under plane of the lower lip, following that sad face rhythm of the chin. It's very narrow on her. We'll get that in. Nonetheless, it faces under it faces way under, so let's throw a value on it again. This plane is so important. I did not know about this plane for the longest time I neglected it. I find this under plane of the lower lip as important as like the lip itself, because it gives the mouth like a platform to rest on. And then we know this plane traces up back here, but it turns. It's not in as deep shadow. It comes out of shadow. It's still faces under a little bit, but it comes back out often times we were. You know, when we go to paint the head, you'll see that this edges very soft. It's not a hard plane change. It is a plane change, but it's a very gradual one, so it can often soften out like this. That's more of a painting thing, though. We'll get into that in the next chapter. We already know the bottom of the nose will be in shadow and not to get too far into the painting stuff. But often the nose will cast a shadow, and the only reason I'm saying that is because a cash shadow could be a great way to cross contour the form, using the shadow to go over the Cupid's bow down into the Cupid's bow and then out again. Well, surely examine that more in painting. But you know, when you're blocking in values like this in these diagrams, it's something to keep in mind. And I always find it helpful just to complete these diagrams with this basic rhythm that comes down the nasal labial furrow meeting out here and coming down to meet the under plane of the lower lip. Of course, it goes without saying the rest of the chin exists down here. In fact, let me remind you that this contour we've been drawing is the same contour for the top plane of the chin, right, the sad face rhythm of the chin, the under plane of the lower lip shares that contour with the chin. Let's draw some center lines over this. Remember in the intro to this chapter, I put my brush like right here, and it cast that shadow stair stepping down. Well, that's because it's following planes that are going in and out. So the Max Ill a plane here comes out dipping in for the upper lip coming back out for the lower lip and then dipping back in for the under plane. So out in, out in and then out again for the chin. Very predictable, Almost monotonous rhythm there. All right. Sorry for moving these diagrams all over the place. I want to talk now about something very important. The roundness of the mouth already intro this earlier, but let's really get a sense for how the lips wrapped around the tooth cylinder fiber to just draw a cylinder. Just block one in real quick. This kind of represents the teeth. You know that wrap around this way and the lip sit on top of that, respecting the curvature. We'll start with a quick center line. The center with the lips will be along this axis here, so that makes me able to draw plain number one. Plain Number two will wrap around a corner of the mouth, you know, changing that little bit of direction here, and then the corresponding plane on the other side will be severely foreshortened. As it wraps around that cylinder, you might see the corner of the mouth just sticking out a little bit there and look at the difference in with that plane is that wide. The same plane on the other side is only that wide. Unless you're looking at the lips dead on, you will have to deal with this heavy foreshortening. That's how round the mouth is. The mouth is actually one of the round ist forms on the face, perhaps second only to like how the lids wrap around the eyeball. Now, from here, we can get that Cupid's bow in. I always like to block it in straight first. It helps me keep perspective. Then we can get the Cupid's bow. In fact, we can find the rest of the Cupid's bow, which also has a bit of depth to it. Kind of like kind of like this. Now the upper lip has this plane here that juts out a little bit. Plain number two comes out from behind it, wrapping around and from this angle you can get a bit of articulation. Here is it meets the corner of the mouth of little change Here. It could become evident from the side. Or, you know, when you're looking at it 3/4 on the other side, it will come out wrapping heavily around that cylinder and meeting the corner of the mouth like that. The lower lip, remember, had this plane that's coming out. It's another shelf like action. I'm fond of the shelf analogy. As you can tell, so many things in the head kind of jut out like a little shelf, and the lower lip does. That juts out, comes down the U shape here, and it just meets the basically the corner of the mouth somewhere it meets somewhere in this rhythm. Here usually falls just shy of the corner like it'll be pushed in this way. The corner of the mouth is like this little bawling like dimpling action here. So to block in these planes, we know they widen out for the lower lip. Now, underneath the lower lip, we know that plane comes out but down, meeting the sad face rhythm of the chin. It's a good time at this point to block in some values. Let's start with this under plane. The entire upper lip points under points downward, I should say. Therefore, we can mass it in with this value. This technique is called massing, by the way, not sure why it's called that. But it's a age old sort of charcoal terminology massing, perhaps because you're just blocking this in as if it were one big mass. If we wanted to get that front plane of the lower lip in a bit of 1/2 value, we could do that. It's not turning quite as aggressively under is pointing to the front, but it does turn a little bit. All right. Now let's continue on with our rhythm here. We know that we're gonna trace this guy up here to meet somewhere outside the corner of the mouth, which then traces up the nasal labial furrow up to the nose and on this side of the cylinder is very foreshortened. To be very careful here, the distance between the corner of the mouth and this rhythm will be very much more narrow than it is here. And it will come down and meet that. Yeah, and then we know the chin will come out here, come down, turn around, extend its way out to the jaw, and before long, we're connecting these pieces together Anyway. Don't get ahead of myself. Let's just put a little value into this plane just to show that it's also under its turning under the lower lip, but not as much as that first plane there on this side. It's very foreshortened. We're just barely going to see that plane. But it is there on this side. We can really see it on this side. We can barely see it. Okay, one more little piece of complexity on the lips and let me just swap that diagram out for a profile view in profile. You can clearly see that the Cupid's bow goes in this way and then out that way before then ducking back down for the upper lip. We've got that same rhythm in perspective here. I just want to point that out. So I don't think I have yet. But this is important because there is a very narrow little plane change that kind of runs across the entire upper lip, sort of terminating there. That's actually quite similar to the brow. If we look at Theus are ahead, the brow came down and then jutted out in this little protrusion. That kind of that same sort of thing happens with the lips. The maximum comes down and then there's a little piece of protrusion that comes out. It's this tiny little plane that much like the lower plains here, gave the lower lip a little platform. This plane gives the upper lip a little platform, and commonly you'll see a little bit of a lighter value happening here was blocked. This in this. This is just a subtle little plane change. You won't even find it on many diagrams of the plains of the head. But it is there. Oh, and I just want to be clear on something. This is not the Contour. Like if you were drawing a portrait of a person from this angle, this would not be the contour. You would see the jaw here and the job would form the contour. And this, You know, you can throw this in the tone and that job would climb up like this. I just want to make that clear, just in case I was misleading anyone by accident. But speaking of four shortening that jaws very foreshortened rights were getting that nice side plane, that diamond shape, we hopefully remember lots of foreshortening going on with the head. Basically, no matter which angle you look at it, there's gonna be four shortening somewhere. All right, let's finish up our section on the mouth with a profile drawing, and the first thing I want to note is this overall angle that goes this way kind of flowing diagonally. Keep in mind that the nose is the furthest out point of the head, the tip of the nose like Look at that. It really protrudes out the farthest. So from the nose to the chin is this angle. And if we were to break that angle down even further, there is this kind of stair stepping action where we're going in, out, in, out, in, out in that monotonous thing that I talked about earlier. So when we draw it, let me first just ballpark in where the noses in here, You have to make this a bit smaller. Let's just make this knows a little bit more pretty for the drawing. Okay, new piece of information. The Cupid's bow is essentially halfway down the nose. If we were to dress, draw a little line there. It's like halfway. So this is where the Cuba's boat comes out. We know what ducks in, comes out, comes down for the upper lip, remember that tiny little plane that ducks into the mouth. We can put that in than the lower lip shelves out a little bit, but not too far doesn't go beyond the upper lip. In fact, let's just throw a vertical measurement. That lower lip has to stay resting just behind the upper lip. So it comes out. There's a front plane there. I was gonna draw the contour. For now, we know there's a dramatic scooping plane underneath the lower lip before jutting out to the chin. Now the chin. Well, this changes from person to person, but often the chin can line up vertically with the lower lip. Some people have stronger chins than others, of course. But something along here that I met Shin dips in for the front plane and then, you know, circles back out for the jaw, which will just ballpark in here. Don't forget that under plane, we're gonna see that an under plane probably dropping a vertical from the wing of the nose usually gives you like a halfway 0.2 from the front plane of the upper lip to the corner of the mouth. So just replicating that here we can get the side of the Cupid's bow, which we can see from the profile just that one side of it, and then comes down about half way beyond here, getting that little corner of the mouth. Remember, that plane is like this, and the other plane comes out from kind of kind of behind it and wraps around. Has a bit of a downward action to it before coming up to meet the corner of the mouth than the lower lip has that wider plane, wider plane We confined now the contour, which is falls just shy of the corner. Remember that, and we already know the chin planes. Now let's grab that rhythm as it comes up, meeting the nasal labial furrow around here. The nasal labial furrow it like it wraps right in with the wing of the nose. So it's following right up to the where the wing of the nose is. Perhaps I'm a little narrow with it. Let's do that again. We'll go a little wider because we're in profile. We might see a little more distance there. Come in a little water with it again. Just look at the model. Everyone's gonna be different here everyone's got the same rhythms, same planes. But But when it comes to minute proportions, everyone will have differences. Or else we'd all look identical. Let's just grab some under planes here, under plane of the nose. I was throwing a little cash shadow just for fun. Get that Cupid's bow plane. Let's get the underside. I mean, the under plane that is the upper lip. Get this under plane of the lower lip, get this plane and kind of that half shadow that we've been doing. And, you know, in my haste to just draw that chin, I made it to narrow. Its got more length to it. I'll talk more about proportions in the very last chapter, but essentially from the bottom of the nose to the bottom of the lower lip, it's gonna be equal to the chin. We contest that on this diagram here it's gonna be equal to the bottom of the chin, and often the number. One thing that happens when you draw too fast is you'll ignore these basic truths and you will come up with something that is just out of proportion and therefore wrong, well, wrong. When you're trying to learn what's actually there and we'll just throw that under plane into shadow as well. And if I were to adjust one super nit picky little thing, which now is the time to do it this lip, remember, it has that shelving action, right? Because of that from the profile, you can actually see it wrapping around the upper lip. You can see it on him. You see, the contour of the lower lip does not meet exactly like it's not that it's that and the upper lip comes down. Let me just adjust this even further. So we get a sense that the lower lip is wrapping around the upper lip as the whole mouth wraps around the tooth cylinder. Another thing, Sometimes you won't get this line so prominent. In fact, if you look at the model here, the line of his lips really cuts in its wide here at the start. But then it really starts cutting in before meeting the corner of the mouth again. These are all little nit picky little things, but a this is the time to be nit picky, right? And OK, so we have a cool Siris of drawings here, but just before I move on, There's one little thing I want to remind you of. I said it earlier, but I want to be very clear about it. If you look at Theus, are ahead. Remember, back in the jaw section, we talked about how the jaw kind of cuts into the mouth like it's sort of culminates where the mouth the corner of the mouth is. But also in the previous section, I mentioned that there can be some spacing here. There are planes that overlap that that can change it well. That is the space caused by the O Bikila Aris Oris muscle, that mouth muscle that wraps around our mouths that can cause a lot of spacing toe happen. I'll show you a picture. Look at this guy here. This guy's jaw plane is all the way over here Now. This is very wide. Usually you won't see someone with this wide. It's almost like his mouth is smaller than the average. I'm not sure if that's actually true, but that's the appearance of it. There was a great bit of distance here, and I think a large part of that is owed to the fact that there is that circular Hobica Larrys oris muscle that is wrapping around the mouth, causing this spacing around the outsides. It's a lot thinner on this mouth here. The jaw sort of terminates. They're a lot closer to the corner of the mouth, but again, because of that a Bikila resource muscle. We do get a bit of distance between the jaw and the mouth, leaving room for our circular rhythm that I've been talking about this whole time. This could be very relevant when it comes to painting the head, because, as you can see, we have a, ah, large bit of shadow here. But that little space is in light, so we have light plane shadow plane. So just remember when you're drawing your job planes to not have them come up too close to the mouth, even though that's how I intruded in the jaw section. Now we should have a bit more of an appreciation for the muscle that is in here again, wrapping around the most. That does cause a little bit of spacing toe happen, and I'll say it again. Different people, different amounts of spacing. So keep your eye out for this stuff, all right, that will do it for the mouth. Let's move on 9. Chapter 1 - Ear: you know the ear is such a weird piece of geometry. It's so complicated, and it's so not to the point of the head. Like when you're painting a portrait, Who cares about the ear? It matters that it's there, of course, but it's so overly complex for its own good. Now we'll get into that complexity, Don't worry. But overall, it is this again, box like sort of thing. It's got TA planes side planes got a bottom plane, has back planes. Essentially, that's mostly what you need to know for the here, and we'll start simple. In fact, we'll see that rhythmically. If you can write the letter C, you can basically draw the ear. The ear is like a letter C, and we'll also find out how there are these little sub sea rhythms inside the era's well. So we will get into all that, and we'll also look at the critical part, which is where the ear attaches to the jaw. This angle is of critical importance, and that is a nice part about the ear. In terms of its location, it kind of takes up where the jaw leaves off, also, from front to back It is located basically perfectly halfway between the front part of the head and the back part of the head kind of the halfway point there, anyway. It's a fun, little, quirky piece of geometry. Let's look into it. If you can write the letter C, you're on your way to being able to draw the ear. We just need to adjust the proportions of this letter C so I'll undo that, and I'll chisel it out just a little more something like that, like that. And then it tapers down in a long arch like this before flattening out right there. We're looking at this year somewhere between 3/4 and straight on. One important feature about the ear is that this point and this point are not vertically connected. There is a diagonal here that diagonal is the jaw, which is also not straight but has a bit of a slant to it. You remember the angle of the jaw from a few chapters ago going to duplicate that diagram. Just erase out the top of the letter C a little bit, make it a little bit more flat up here. Everyone's here is shaped differently, but this is another common shape, a little flatter up top. I'm gonna add yet another feature to it, and that is at a bit of thickness here, which tapers off and becomes thinner right around this point. I will then carry that line down the ear. But I will bring back the thickness down here where the ear lobe is. And now to draw that shape in perspective, looking at it like as if we're looking at the head front on it would look something like this. And in this you we still have a slight angle between the top and bottom of the ear. It's not a straight up and down thing, and then in perspective, I will just get that same sort of thickness. Bring this down, widen it out for the ear lobe, and already we basically have a near not fully filled in yet. But that is identifiable as an ear, at least again, a distorted letter C in perspective with some thickness. That's the ear. Of course. Right now I'm keeping this interior part just flat. The plane's kind of go like this like this, and there's some thickness here, right? The other characteristic of the ear that's important to know is that the top area sticks out further this way than the bottom area. So if we were to just shoot a direct line down, you can see that the top overhangs the bottom. You know, the years kind of rotated this way just a little bit, and it goes without saying mirrored on the other side of the head. I'm choosing a very pixelated picture for my example right now, because even in a low rez example like this, the forms I just spelled out our what our apparent to us that is the overall see kind of shape of it. Notice the slight rotation that I just discussed that is the top point overhanging the low point. Let's get this thickness, which tapers out into a thinner area of the year, which continues down before getting thicker. And this guy has a larger ear lobes, which is common for older folks, and we have this angled, not quite vertical connection to the jaw. In fact, if you wanted to connect at this point to this point to complete our geometry of the ear, it would be a very thin connection like that. But This is the part where we have to now deal with this inside of the ear. The inside of the year is far less importance than the overall shape and the overall forms that we just went over. Trust me when I say that nobody is going to look at your painting and say, I love everything except the inside of his ear no one is ever going to say that now. If you missed the shape of the year, yeah, you might be in some trouble. But when it comes to understanding the interior forms, let's just try and keep it simple, accurate but simple. Here's one of my favorite diagrams of the year I ever received as a drawing student. This whole bent y shaped thing really stuck with me. It's just the letter y but bent at the stem. And what I like about that is the letter y describes a flow, a rhythm, which is always how I love to understand. The head is rhythmically. The other thing about a bent why shape is a kind of mirrors the C shape you remember the c shape that we started with while the Ben why shape is kind of just a interior C shape except to the interior. C shape has a little fork in it, making it more about why so let's reconstruct are here from scratch. Doesn't take too long to just draw out these shapes. Get the thickness in here, tapering up to a thinner part. This dinner part maintains its thinness all the way down to the ear lobe, where it will thicken out. Now I can either thinking out, down, or it can thicken out up everyone's ears or different. Let's let's go down a little bit Just so it matches our diagram here. I always find it helpful to check my work with the angle of the jaw. It's very weird to draw an ear in isolation, completely. Get some context for what it connects to and okay, this bent, Why shape? The thing I like to start with is the negative shape of the why that is. I like to draw this contour here. It seems to give me a sense for the positive shapes that are to come right now. So I start there, and the thing to note about the why shape is that you need to leave behind a lot of room in here. That's why it's a bent. Why shape, right? It bends out this way so it leaves behind room in here. So when I draw that bent, why, I'll make sure I taper it out roughly like this. Probably need a little bit more thickness there, and we and we have something in the realm of that now. It's always nice at this stage to fill in some under planes. We have some thickness here, so the underside of that will often just be and we'll just be encased in shadow and the negative space of our why shape will usually be dark as well. Maybe some of these tight little planes in here. We'll just recede into darkness just just for clarity in our diagram here. Okay, great. Now, just to cross contour the y shape a little more. There is some tricky little depth going on, like it's not just a flat plane like this. The why shape itself has a bit of roundness to it. In fact, I'll just show you a photograph here. Here we go. So in this photo you can see the sort of pitchfork of the why the stem bending again. Everyone's here is different so that the exact bend of this stem is different than the bend that I just drew. But the idea is that it's bent outward, forming that C shape now the why itself you can see has some depth to it. It's like a little mini mountain shape there is. It goes up and around. Then it dips down like a valley and comes back up. And that's consistent throughout. Let's now apply this to our diagram here, coming up, dipping into the valley, coming back up, up Valley back up. That's the same all the way down here. The ear lobe is simply a wider mountain area cross contours again, being a fantastic way of understanding the form without having to render it. You just kind of draw over the form with your pencil and okay, so we're almost done here. We just gotta tackle this area here, which we've been leaving blank. Folks who have had experience with piercing their ears probably are already familiar with the names of this area and this area. This is the Travis, and this is the anti Travis like the septum before. A lot of people have their Travis's pierced. However, let's start with the anti Travis because it connects to our why shape here and all. It is like this little speed bump kind of thing coming off the why in a little little bit of a bump, then it takes a U turn and does another little speed bump. So you turn speed bump and we have the Travis almost like this little road map. The rhythm, like we're going on a little adventure here I have a thing to note, though, is that the Travis lies just a little bit to the right of this part of the year, so make sure we respect that in our diagram. The reason that's important is that the top of the ear, this part here, which currently just kind of ends in a blank spot, actually tucks under to the left of the Travis. This area just kind of feeds into a broader pool of darkness. I'll fill value in there in a second. Now, don't do this. Don't overlap the Travis like that. That's not correct. If anything, that Travis is in front of this part of the ear. The top of the year just kind of goes like that just to connect to the rest of the head. You know that area right in here? It just kind of forms this organic connection like that. You can see the Travis is in front here as the top of the ear turns under very complex bit of form. But again, probably not gonna have to deal with this that often. Just to wrap up our diagram here, I'll throw this part in the shadow where the where the top of the years turning under this can all just get a nice little bit of dark as it's a fairly recessed area. And we have a very nice looking here now. And yeah, you know this area in here there's a little bit of depth to it, but I don't think I've ever, ever painted that thinking about all the thousands of paintings I've ever done. Not sure ever have had to paint that little mound, but it's there. And if you ever are painting a portrait of the ear, maybe you want to observe that. And while I'm on my little aside here, one of my favorite anatomical names is for this little spot here, the U turn area that is called the Inter Tragic Notch. So maybe I just earned you a few points in your next trivia game. Let's jump right into drawing some ears. I'll pull up some reference, I think. Probably the most common angle we see the ear from is this angle, which is looking straight on at the person's face. So we see the ear in a dramatically foreshortened view. And once again, the first thing I like to do is get the overall C shape, that inward, slanting C shape. Or maybe I should say, the rotated out word C shape observing that angle of the jaw. Then the next thing I always go for is that thickness, which tapers out into somethin nous here just kind of ballpark where the ear lobe rests right in here. Now, instead of going to the Bent, why shape on the interior? I find it more handy to get the rhythm between the anti Travis and the Travis the Bent. Why shape is gonna come out somewhere around here, and her anti Travis really comes out. We'll just do something like this. We get that you attorney rhythm now This is in foreshortened perspective, right? So it's not nearly as dramatic as it was here. We get that you turn, and then it goes into the Travis, which we know rest somewhere there. And while we're here, we can continue our top part of the year down. We know it tucks into the ear right in there. The bent Why shape from this angle is pretty hidden, like the bent y is happening underneath this plane right in here. And the other characteristic about it is that when you see it in this perspective, it has a outward pointing trajectory. So when I go to draw it, you want that? Why? To come out a little bit again. Everyone's different, especially in the ear. The year is a lot of cartilage. It's actually it's entirely Cartlidge. There's no bone in the ear, so Cartlidge can really, really dramatically change from person to person. The shape of it, that is, I'm just seeing that big, sweeping mountain shape here, and what I would do is just start throwing into shadow. You know this area where the where the ear turns into itself here, talks under, I should say these little these little type planes around here get shadow, maybe even underneath the your load there but a shadow. And just for fun, even back here, a little bit of shadow, just to show the viewer remind us drawing this diagram that these planes are behind. Maybe even as the year starts turning under, we can throw that into a bit of value as well. I mean, if you wanted to show more of this, why I don't see it on her because it's hidden. But I mean, you could do it. You could just kind of give yourself this sort of rhythm. If that year looks a little too weird, you know, you can bring it back to the diagram we just drew earlier. Maybe this would look a little more aesthetically pleasing in a drawing. This is the same perspective we just saw, but the Travis anti Travis relationship is a little bit more clear here again. It's in severely foreshortened perspective. So when we get that little road bump for the anti Travis that you turn happens very abruptly. It's very squished in space because of the perspective coming back up. Meeting the road bump for the Travis and I do really love that rhythm. It's just one of those things that say ear when you would have you received that It says, Oh, that's an ear. It's a rhythm that's unique to the air. The other thing about the Travis when you see it from this angle is that the Travis we're seeing pretty front on. We're kind of seeing its full whipped. And then as it bends backward to reach the anti Travis. Sometimes the anti Travis could even be behind the Travis. So just be careful when you're drawing the ear from the when you're looking at the person from the front and you're drawing the ear and foreshortened perspective that you're not flattening out the ear and just to give you context, the ear lobe is actually down here and we go up with that C shape. Yes, so the anti Travis we're seeing from the side, the Travis were seeing kind of front on. You'll see me get two more years in context when I do some painting demonstrations. For now, let's go ahead and move on 10. Chapter 1 - The Eye: you know, when I was first starting to draw on pains, I had a lot of trouble with the I and I think I'm not alone there. It is true. The I is a complex part of the head, probably the most complex part. However, it's not complex because anyone part is necessarily harder to draw than any other part is the fact that the eyes made of so many little individual elements like we have the eyeball . You know, the spherical part of the eye that sits behind the eyelids. We have the islands themselves and upper eyelid, a lower eyelid, each of which consists of their own Siris of planes. We have the tear duct area, which connects the two of them, not to mention the fact that the whole assembly is kind of seated inside the eye socket. Remember, in the brow section, we started to carve out this the eye socket. You know, that kind of hole in our skull that kind of goes in Well, we got to figure that out, and then we have to figure out how that recess starts coming back out to meet the cheekbone . The I kind of sits inside all of that madness. So it is a complex element in terms of how it's placed and, you know, perspective and health drawn. You know, things like the eyelids have their own planes and they're very box, like we have a side plane here. We have a front plane here. We have another side plane here, so there are very manageable elements. We just have to break it down into a system. The thing I like about the eyes, it links up and articulates with the side plane of the nose, sort of where the side plane of the nose ends. The front plane of the eye begins, so that'll help us. Also, there is this one other element. This overhanging element right here you can imagine like an eyebrow would be sort of sitting right here, right? Well, underneath that eyebrow, it doesn't just change to the eye structure. There is this kind of shelf like overhang that we have to deal with. Eso that and that shelf overhang sort of overlaps the upper eyelid to return to a certain degree. So we'll look at all that and we really got a lot of stuff to break down with. the I. This will be the longest chapter in the entire lesson, but I'm confident that we can break it down into a digestible Siris of things that you can easily begin to draw on your own. So let's not wait any longer. Let's get right down to it. So let's start with the part of the eye that probably everyone wants to draw first. And that is the opening between the two eyelids. A quick little construction tip starts by thinking of a rectangle now redraw that but tilted on an axis like this, then the only thing I want to do to that is kind of erased this out and put a little hook like shape in there for the tear duct. And this is a good starting point for the opening. Of course, the iris would be somewhere in here, and we'll talk about the eyeball, the tear duct, the eyelids, which get built on top of this. But this is a great little starting point. Now. Don't think I'm letting you off the hook that easily. The eye has a Siris of planes. Of course, it is a three dimensional object. Ironically, that's something that people commonly forget about the I. This is a close up of the sorrow head to retrace what we just did. We have this box tilted on its axis like that with the tear duct shape as kind of sort of an end extension piece, you might call it now. This is probably very obvious, but let's point out, that's inside. The eye is around eyeball, which is literally a ball that sits inside the eye socket. It's actually a little bit smaller than that, something like this and those eyelids that we just drew. That slanted box goes around it both of the top and around it at the bottom. And it does so in a series of planes. Four planes to be exact, this flat plain here, one to which is this plane that is heavily tilted in perspective. Three. This large flat plane at the front and four, this plane that tapers off in perspective to the side. So again, this one tapers forward in perspective on that one tapers around. So you get this overall round rhythm to the I, as as those islands wrap around the eyeball and of course, the same planes are represented down here roughly in a mirror like fashion fire to just draw the borders between these planes. It's like this. Okay, so going back to our slanted box diagram with the tear duct shape in here, let's identify the planes that this graphic shape represents. Here is this plane. Here is this plane and then right. It's hard to see from a front view because it's not such a big change from a front view. But we have this other plane. Let me draw this in black so we can see it more clearly. Here is this plane coming down on this plane wraps around and we have the same Siri's of planes here. And if we want to just cross contour them just to help us understand the flow and orientation of the form, we can do that here. Okay, Before I move on from here, just a couple of important pointers. If you were to draw a center line across the I, the corners would not line up perfectly. The tear duct is a little bit higher than the corner on the other side. You noticed my horizontal line is intersecting somewhere along the lower eyelid. There just a little bit lower than the exact corner. This is something that again changes from person to person, but in general you'll get this kind of thing where the corners don't precisely lineup. The eye dips just a little bit lower on the right side or on the far side, I should say, because this would, of course, be the left side on the other side of the face. Good. Now the iris usually sits high. It's not something that takes up the entire I. Usually usually it sits a little bit above the center line, and we'll just throw it into a value just for this quick diagram. It is often overlapped right in here by the upper eyelid. Now let's figure out where the eyeball sits here. The outer edge of the eyeball is right here. It does not interfere with the tear duct. The tear duct is its own bit of tissue. It's called the curricula, but the eyeball falls outside of it like this. The other edge of the eyeball is roughly in line with where you know the edge of the eyelids are, and I just want to remind you that the eyeball is a sphere well, it's It's actually not a perfect sphere, but it's spherical. It's very close to a perfect sphere, and it also has, you know, planes. It falls into light and shadow as well. So sometimes when you're paint the eye, you can see this sort of shadow effect happening here. Also oftentimes, the upper eyelid. If the light is coming from above the upper eyelid, cast a shadow on to the eyeball, which is something that a lot of people miss as well. I think this often goes overlooked because there is thickness here. Even in this straight on view, Can you see that there is a thickness happening along the underside of the lid? It's not a paper thin thing. You can see it much better in the lower lid. See this thickness? It's like a shelf that protrudes out, and there is thickness here, and it follows these planes same with the tear duct. There's the thickness to it. So just to quickly readdress our diagram here, there is a thickness that should be apparent in our diagram, which I'll just quickly indicate we'll do more drawings to make this more clear. But just to complete this, let's throw these side planes in shadow. You can probably throw these planes in shadows. Well, just because they also are turning. But we'll leave the tear duct planes not in shadow because they are flattening out again. Now we're getting somewhere quick. Little handy note here, the thickness of the tear duct, which is like this, right? This area in here basically lines up or shares a border edge with the side plane of the nose. Remember how the side plane of the nose went out and in and up? Well, this little hook area right in here is the same contour as the tear duct. We go straight in from the side claim of the nose into the structure of the I. Speaking of structure, it's critical to remember that the I is a three dimensional structure that becomes extremely important when you're showing the I from any kind of 3/4 angle like this. Let's bring back our straight on diagram. You notice that in this view it's this top plane right in here that forms the contour. In this 3/4 view, the bottom plan is a bit softer. You can still see evidence of this plane although it's very foreshortened right in there, you know? And this plane still is, ah, noticeable to the camera. Also, in this view, we can really get a respect for that thickness that occurs underneath the upper eyelid. And I don't think I've said this outright, but this is the upper eyelid. You know, this area here, this series of planes and this is the lower eyelid. Think that's obvious, but I just I should make sure I say it. So we've covered the upper eyelid, the lower eyelid, that tear duct that kind of connects them the eyeball itself. But we're in this 3/4 view, which changes air drawing pretty dramatically. So what I like to do is think about the eyeball and remember that upper eyelid is now coming around the form. The tear duct is still visible in a 3/4 view, but it's much foreshortened. So what? It appears somewhere in there, which then branches out into our lower eyelid, which again goes around the form, and I find it helpful to draw the contour of the eyeball itself, which helps me find the thickness of the plane of the under side of the island. which helps me, then find the top of the upper eyelid. This this line right here. And then I confined the corners of the plains. The upper eyelid, by the way, extends further beyond the I like this. Now let's go for the thickness of the lower eyelid. Now we can get the planes themselves, the front planes of the lower lid, something like that. Let's get this plane figured out. Throw a quick value on there to indicate which planes turn under, which we've been commonly doing throughout this series. Also, planes that heavily change direction like the side planes. Here, we can throw these into shadow just to get an understanding of the three dimensional depth occurring here. Let's get a little center line for the eyeball, and because we're in perspective, the iris becomes an ellipse. A circle and perspective becomes in ellipse. So we have this kind of thing. Remember, the Irish sits above center. Let's just throw it into a value. Let's get the thickness of the tear duct plane in here and there we go. We can throw some of the eye into shadow here, which is a common thing, and if you want to exaggerate these prominent front planes of the island. Weaken, you know, put some white. There's also some light value for the top plane of the lower eyelid, because this plane points up much like we did with the cheekbones that also pointed up. We can represent that plane change with a lighter value, and we'll throw this side of the eye into shadow just to remind ourselves that it is a ball three dimensional spherical object sitting just behind the upper and lower eyelids. As usual, it very much helps to draw central lines or across contours around the form, so we fully understand what we're dealing with here. Here's another one over here just going along the form out in just getting the thickness of things, making sure that we understand what it is we're drawing on a form level. So it's just do one more on this side. Get that thickness roundness of the eyeball thickness and down, kind of like a laser scan or something. Let's now look at the profile view of the I. I'll bring in this Andrew Loomis diagram as well, and one of the first things it's very important to note is that there is this angle, this kind of stepping back angle to the eye when seen in profile. It's not straight up and down. This is another very common error in profile view, drawings and paintings of the face. Much like our previous drawing, the contour right here is still this line, like the line of that plane. It's just this plane is foreshortened now it appears the narrower in perspective, and by comparison we get a full view of the side plane, which in our first drawing right here was very foreshortened because we were looking at it from the front. All right, so too quickly just blocking a drawing here. I like to sort of get that overall angle. First, let's remember to start with sort of an overall eyeball ever important to remember that the lids wrap around the ball, some getting that here, the eyeball coming out and then that lower lid wrapping around the eye. We know that the upper lip extends further, which we can really see from a side view profile view. Let's get this plane. Get that thickness. Make sure we get the thickness of the lower lid as well. Is it is like this big shelf that exists in the closer. You look at the eye, the more you can see the thickness of that shelf, and then that goes down. We have our other plane here, and that plane wraps underneath the upper lid. Now to get technical here, there is a slight protrusion that the cornea makes. The ball of the eye comes out a little bit. It's more like this kind of action. This is something that is not evidence from a distance, but if you are, you know, just to be technical about it. There is the slight protrusion. It's kind of kind of spherical in nature like this. The iris itself sits behind that again. You will not see this from any kind of distance, and because it's pretty rare to paint the I this close up in an actual illustration, you probably won't have to deal with that, But it is there. Okay, let's figure out the rest of our planes. Top plane. I always go too far on that plane. Let's just erase that out and then down for the side of the eye, capitulating here. Important to note, you cannot see the tear duct in profile view. It's simply it's you know it exists back here. It's hidden by the three dimensional form of the eyeball. Just connect these bottom planes and, like we always do, let's just throw some values in there, casting a shadow over the eye. Let's get the side planes into some kind of tone. Just get this spherical nature of that eyeball. And here's that center line of the eye and, yeah, just to be fully diligent, let's get our cross contours in there. Just a few of them. And I feel like this is probably as good a time as any to talk about eye lashes specifically where they sprout from. And that is, they sprout from the outer edge of both the upper island and the lower eyelid. This edge here, let me draw it on this diagram here, from this outer edge and for the lower eyelid, the eyelashes sprout from this outer edge, so it's the outer edge of both. Now the actual hair growth in length and thickness obviously will vary dramatically from person to person. But one thing to keep in mind is that naturally, the eyelashes from the upper eyelid are thicker, perhaps to shield our eyeballs from the sun. I'm not sure. And they kind of follow the You know, they kind of flow with the form, and the lower eyelashes are thinner and, you know, a little bit more sparse. And they also you know, that their direction changes with the plane. So if we were to apply that to this one, the upper eyelashes are thicker, and their direction sort of follows the direction of the plane that they're sprouting from . You often get a lot of thickness in this corner of the eye here and then from the outer edge of the bottom lid. Just try and get some kind of variety in the spacing. But more importantly, just look at the model that you're drawing or the character type you're designing and that will determine how you treat the eyelashes themselves. Okay, next up on our grand tour of the I, look at this monster right here. Look at those planes. We have not accounted for those planes yet. If you remember the brow lesson, we were doing drawings like this where we just had this hard line right there. But let's now add to that because there is a considerable thickness that happens here. And I consider this thickness part of the eye because it's very related to how you draw the eye and how the I actually appears. The thing about this plane, the one simple truth, is that it lies in front of the eyelids and the eyeball and overhangs it. It's got a bottom thickness to it as well. If we just shoot a few vertical lines down, look how far it overhangs the I. This is probably a good time to remind you that the eyeball sits inside the eye socket. It is buried deep within our skull. Well, maybe not so deep, but it's buried inside the skull just to roughly sketch it in. It's kind of like this sort of thing. We have the planes running down. Just gonna do a quick drawing of this something in this range here, you know it's inset. The top edge of the brow that we learned in the brow section was here, but now we're dealing with this plane that comes down from that part of the brow, overhanging the I, and as it does so, it partially obscures the upper eyelid And just to throw this in value, it often also causes an entire darkening area here. What's we'll talk more about in the actual painting section of this class? Also, while I'm on this diagram? Remember that when we did those brow drawings, we were scooping out the brow like this like we had that plane that just cuts in like this . When we're doing the brow just to make this clearer, I'll bring up one of our old drawings. Yeah, we had this scooping action as the eye socket is basically a hole in the skull. And then as that whole comes back because of the zygomatic bone, we have that, you know, returning action. You know, like a big scoop, right? Well, the eye itself occupies both the area that goes in and the area that comes out, you know, the upper lid lies on the area that's going in, and then the lower lid will lie on the area that starts scooping back out. Okay, now we can start figuring out this kind of overhanging plane that I'm saying is largely part of the eye structure. Let's take a look at some photographs. Okay? So when you look at this. You should clearly recognize the upper eyelid that we just talked about. We're looking now at this big behemoth here. It's a very large plane. I've already said that it overlaps the upper eyelid and it does so the most prominently along this plane here, which corresponding to the photo is this plane right in here. Can you see that area? That is where this flap of skin is the most prominent. You can literally see it cutting off the island in this area. Like if I were to trace the upper eyelid, it would go underneath that flap of skin and then come back down. The contour of the island kind of re reveals itself may be in that area there, but largely when you're drawing eyes, the contour of this part is not going to be the upper eyelid, but it's going to be determined by this overhanging fold. If I were just to trace the plane of that fold, this being the underside. Now, when we get up into this region here, this area here it becomes less flappy and we can see the upper eyelid a lot more clearly again. The overhanging takes place mostly in this overall region. Here. This ridge is so significant that even when the head is tilted just a little bit down, you know, this had here is looking just a little bit down. This big flappy plane here overlaps the I. Significantly, look at this. It's it's cutting off the entire upper lid. Except for this area right in here. We can see the upper lid there and we can see the upper lid coming down to meet the tear duct right in there. But this broad region right here is completely over taken by that plane. And of course, same thing on the other side. Is this nice straight that comes down and again, it kind of allows that side plane of the upper island to reveal itself right there. Also down in here, where the tear duct is, you can see that upper eyelid plane. This is why I'm including this plane is part of the eye chapter instead of the brow chapter . Because I think it impacts the eyes much more significantly than it does the brow. You know, oftentimes, when I draw the eye from this angle, I'll start with that flappy plane then work my way down to the tear duct, Get the wrapping of the lower lid. Find where the upper eyelid reveals itself right around this area than it sneaks back underneath this overhanging plane here while we're here, let's just find the thickness of that lower lid. And then, like I pointed out, it overlaps the I so significantly that the irises partially buried underneath it and just for completion. Let's get the corner of the eye ball here, and we can also maybe find the thickness of the tear duct plane right in here, depending on the lighting, it's not uncommon at all for this to be entirely cast in shadow, and then for the sake of completion, let's just get are lower planes blocked in here. And while I'm here because we know that the upper eyelid is being overlapped, the eyebrow hairs just kind of protrude out from underneath here kind of a strange angle cause we're looking down at the head and then the lower eyelid, you know the hairs will be protruding from the outer playing here. And remember, there is a great degree of thickness to these planes. The eyebrow itself grows along that thickness somewhere in here. This is the point. We were ball parking on the brow, that big change of direction. The eyebrow will change direction there and come down the other side in accordance with the form that it's following. And, you know, there we go. That's a pretty complete study of the plains of the eye from this angle. Remember the plane overhangs the most in this region. That means as the eyebrow moves away from the nose, which, of course, is the opposite way on this side of the face. As the eyebrow moves away from the nose, you're gonna get that plane looking thicker as the overlap of it increases in this area. And in this area, the particular amount of overlap on this model is a bit less than what we just saw. Previous, that is, you can see a pretty complete set of planes for the upper eyelid here. Perhaps it's buried just a little bit here. Hard to tell, but it's certainly less than what we saw before, and it bears repeating that this is something that changes from person to person. So watch out for differences. Here was try study based on the outer eye. This time I'll start with the eyebrow itself, and what I'll do is I'll block in the change of plane that we looked at with the brow section. This is where the brow changes direction. Here, I'll get the overall sense of this eyebrow, which is very evenly thick, which is nice. Now I'm gonna get that overlapping plane trying to block in the planes here. Looks like that's the front of it, thins itself out over here. And remember, it's got some thickness at the bottom, which we can see in this view just a little bit of that, another kind of shelf thickness of the bottom. Now the upper eyelid comes out from underneath. It may be roughly around there. It comes around and down to the tear duct region here. I'm, of course, imagining the eyeball, which is nice, because now we know that the upper eyelid has to overlap it like this. The lower eyelid wraps around it as well. Make sure you get that thickness of it. It's always helpful to carve out some of these planes of the island itself. Just be accountable to all that structural information that we're working so hard to obtain . The eyelids are really thick on her, so they're obscuring a lot of the information here, which is complain to our favor. So if we start throwing in some eyelashes here, keeping the thickness concentrated on the outer side of the eye, the eyelashes thin out when they approach the tear ducts inside of the eye, same with the eyelashes that sprout from the lower lid. It's gonna just my outer contour line here at the the thickness of the upper eyelid. Just gonna pronounce that a little bit more, and then her Iris is kind of doing this, leaving just a little bit of negative space to the right of it, and I'll throw this in a value. Speaking of value, what I can do is I can get the entire upper eyelid to be in shadow just to enforce the fact that it's being over. Hanged by the planes above it. I was gonna throw the planes of the lower lid into shadow as well, and cast a bit of a shadow over the eyeball itself. Just make a few general tweaks, maybe throw the top plane of the lower lid in a little bit of light. Oftentimes that lid does catch a little bit of a highlight. I'm not trying to copy the lighting in the photo. By the way again, all value stuff like fine tuned painting stuff will be reserved for the second section of this whole class. Right now, I'm just using values to delineate. You know, if something is turning or something is being over hanged by something else. For instance, this plane here turns, so maybe you could throw it into shadow. The eyeball itself turns around there so we can maybe throw that into shadow. And oftentimes, although it's hard to see on this photo, the pupil which lies right in the middle of the iris, can often be even darker, providing just a slight, darker passage here and okay. And I think it's important to point out that the plane essentially ends along with the brow . Like where those planes of the brow ended the end of this overlapping, you know, piece of john machine we're talking about here coincides, you know, right here with where the brow also terminated. So, yeah, this series of planes is very much a part of the brow, but again, putting it in the eye section because this upper contour is so influenced by this overhang . But you're asking, What about the Asian I What is it about the Asian I that makes it look different from the Caucasian I? Well, it's based on the same structure that is. This overhang is still here. The big difference, however, is how that overhang terminates. It has a much broader influence. The anatomical name for this is the epi can thick fold, and it obscures either all of the upper island or a large chunk of the upper eyelid. On this model, we can see the upper eyelid right in here. Essentially, what's happening is the overhang element comes down a lot further and in general is a little less bulky and a little more flat. So it comes down and abruptly changes plane right in here. And like I just mentioned, its range of influence covers the entire upper island. So it continues all the way down this way, this overhanging piece coming down like this and we get this rhythmic, graceful, almost like a spline curve contour right here. So when drawing it, what you can often do is start with the EPA can thick fold get the overall shape. Now, Um, remember looking at this model, we can see the upper eyelid coming through here. So I'm gonna kind of taper off this line here and then come down again with another indicator as to where the upper eyelid might terminate somewhere here, the tear duct also is pretty evidence the bottom of the tear duct, I should say. Then we'll just go around for the usual bottom lid, which remains unchanged. Get that thickness in the front planes of the lower lid in there as well. Tucks underneath the upper lid as usual. Plane turning, you know, right around here. One thing I want to correct. I got a little too Caucasian with the curvature of the tear duct area. This is a sharper transition. Kind of goes more like this. That epic, antic fold really cuts through the eye, creating a pretty noticeable angle. Something more like this. Remember earlier on where I measure that horizontal and I said the I was on an access like tilted on an axis. The amount of tilt can change this person's eyes. Air tilted more than the eyes. We've been looking at before now. This is not just a Asian. I think this can happen across many different races, but yeah, don't forget to measure that horizontal to see where the crossing point is on this side of the eye, the eyelashes air coming out from underneath the epic antic fold for a natural look, I'm just trying to bury the direction and the growth. Same thing with the lower eyelid. Just trying. Vary that. Of course, if you're trying to illustrate someone with heavy makeup or something, you would make it more uniform than the iris itself comes in. Just, um, nothing much different here at all. Just gonna fill this in messily on this. I you can see the pupil a little bit more clearly. It's this darker passage, so fill that in the EPA can thick fold is really casting. Listen to shadow, you can really see it on this particular reference could also indicate the thickness of the epic antic fold with just a little value, you know, indicating the plane coming down and then turning under and just for fun will get a lighter value and put it here on the top plane of the lower eyelid, and I haven't put any highlights in any of these eyes yet, which is kind of funny, considering that that's the first thing most people go to. But, you know, the I being a spherical form and being a very wet surface, will definitely, you know, kept some reflections from the environment or from the light source. The highlights of the eyes can change dramatically, just depending on what's being reflected, how close the camera is. We'll look at those a little more in the painting section. I'm sure now you might be wondering about the thickness of the tear duct playing here. But you notice you don't have that clear tear duct shape as you do in a Caucasian I, because that epic, antic fold is so responsible for the contour of the eye that it kind of obscures it. So here we would not have this, instead of just kind of, you know, softens out. It's always helpful to draw the cross contours, indicate the flatness of the eye area. Let me just move this diagram over a little bit. This is the overhang plane we've been talking about. But of course it's much different for Asian eyes and the eyebrow just starts growing along this plane. Turning about at this point, notice I'm changing the direction of my stroke to help the plane turn, but also the direction of the hair growth. Okay, And there we go. Okay, so we have amassed quite a collection of I drawings here. I'm like previous chapters where I saved the drawing to the end. I've kind of been doing it along the way here and we're almost done. There's one more little rhythm of the I that I have not touched on yet. That is very important. Let's take a look at it now. The first thing I have to do is remind you that we have a giant orbit here. This is called the orbit. By the way, I don't think I've mentioned that yet. And we know what's happening all through this half of the orbit. You know that we had the brow terminating here. We had the big overhang area here. The eyeball sat in here, you know, the lower lid came off it here, but we have not yet accounted for this area of the orbit like the lower orbit. This is a very sharp ridge right here. This bone where the orbit ends and the zygomatic picks up, it's very sharp ridge. You can feel it right now in your own face, and it's no surprise creates a rhythm on the head that we really should know. Now I really want to be clear about this. The lower eyelid does not touch the orbit at the bottom. The lower eyelid sits up here like in the you know, someone. The lower third of the orbit. This ridge is here. It's lower than the lower eyelid. And there's this thing commonly known as like the bags under the eyes. This thing here, this is the orbit, the bottom of the orbit. Again, I encourage you to feel this area on yourself right now. It kind of comes up around here, wraps around. You can see it on both side. This is my face, by the way, you see it on both sides of my face. It's strange, like sometimes when you're tired, this shows up more. I have no idea why, but rhythmically it echoes the shape that sort of, you know, downward sort of see shape of the lower eyelid. And, you know, just branches out further. In fact, if you want to draw someone who looks very tired, just give them a lot of ah, bags under the eyes is like a cartoony convention. It's not realistic, but it does the job anyway. Sorry, sidetrack, but going back to the drawing I did earlier. Essentially, you can start from the point of the tear duct there and just kind of trace it down somewhere down here. This represents the bottom of the orbit, and in theory it covers the entire circumference of the orbit. But usually you can't see. This entire curve usually has just relegated to kind of this 1st 3rd area, and here it is on another person. I know very low rest photo, but you can really see the rhythms right. This is the lower eyelid. Here's that rhythm of the orbit, these two curves kind of mirroring each other on the side. It's in shadow. It's a little harder to see, even on photo retouched, silky smooth Angelina. You can kind of see it. It's there, and it's here, and the reason we can see it is that it's a slight indentation right next to ah place on the head where the skin piles up. Do you remember when we were drawing the nose? I had this rhythm coming off the wing of the nose and down wing of the nose and down, and I called it the Laugh Lines or the nasal labial furrow. Well, that rhythm sort of visually mirrors this rhythm, and we have this bulging of flesh here. The cheeks basically, but the flesh piles up there and makes a little mound. And because, by contrast, the flesh sinks in here on most people, you will see this rhythm and again. What I like about it is just that it's rhythmical. It's, you know, it's kind of they rhyme with each other. These curves there is a beautiful little designed to it, pretty dramatic in a photo like this, where the light is coming from underneath the model because we have that mound of flesh that I talked about and you can really see where it terminates right where the orbit is, where that plane abruptly changes as we go into the orbit and then up, and we have the lower lid just slightly above it. You can see it on this side as well right. The orbit, the eyelid, the nasal labial furrow. And on the other side the orbit, the eyelid, the lower eyelid and the nasal labial furrow all making this rhythm. This lighting is actually pretty cool to see the scooping action I was talking about before , from the brow, how it comes down and then out again, down and then out again. Can you see that? You can see it here to a plane that kind of is facing up. But then it scoops under and then comes back out to meet the brow. All right, that's a lot of lines I just drew on this guy. And just to wrap up too quick art examples we got Anders Zorn on the left and still living artists. Great painters skip Leap key on the right. The leading situation is very different on both of these in the Zorn painting, the lights coming from directly above. So it's a shadow pattern. It's a dark pattern in the leaky painting. The lighting is a little more flat on, and when that happens, you can often get a bit of a highlight. There. We'll save value analysis for part two of this whole class where I actually paint the head but enclosing on this section. Just remember that the lower eyelid is one thing. The lower orbit is another thing, and then it nicely kind of rhymes with the nasal labial furrow, which is down here. It's kind of 123 pattern again on this side. One, 23 All right, that should wrap it up for the I. Let's now move on to our final chapter in part one of this lesson where we take all the parts we just studied and assemble them. 11. Chapter 1 - Assembly: all right in this final chapter will take all the stuff we know about each individual part of the head, and we'll just look at the assembly. We've already talked a little bit about this, like we know how parts connect to each other. But overall, what's the proportion of the head? You know? How does the bottom of the nose line up with the ear? How does you know how big is the jaw compared to the top of the head? How far back does the cranium sit? We haven't been talking about the cranium yet. It's a very simple structure. But how far back does it go? What are the proportions? From the brow to the nose to the mouth to the jaw? What are these elements that we haven't talked about yet? That are critical, of course, because overall proportions are just, if not more important, than getting each individual part right. But because we now know the breakdown of each individual part, I think assembling them will be quite a simple task, and I can give you some basic ideas and pointers as to how you can arrange them proportionally. So let's get started with that process. Okay, My goal here is to kind of give you a sort of checklist, like different ways to measure the head measure. One part against the next. I'm gonna start with perhaps the most well known piece of information. So I'm sorry if I'm a little redundant here. Let's just draw a line from the top of the head from the bottom of the head that is the top of the skull. The bottom of the jaw go down vertically and the eyes, like the middle of the eyes, are exactly 1/2 way down. That is assuming you're looking at the head dead on. I'm not talking about perspective here because obviously, if you look at the Asar ahead here, these eyes air higher than half. But that's because perspective is making them look higher. Structurally, though, the eyes lie 1/2 of the distance from the top to the bottom of the skull. It's a simple truth. A lot of people get it wrong. The thing a lot of people do is they'll, you know, draw a little head here like this and they put that I line way too high, which leaves no room for the brow, which essentially means there's no room for the brain, which is kind of hilarious. So when you're blocking in ahead and you know you're relatively looking straight on at it, get that I line halfway. You know what's perhaps an even more useful measurements? At least I find this more useful. The tip of the hairline will draw a horizontal. The plane where the brow turns under horizontal, bottom of the nose, bottom of the chin, thes air, all equal measurements, you know, 123 I love this. This is such an easy way to check your proportions. But be careful here. A lot of people will get this wrong and they'll draw this line. They'll assume that this line cuts through the eyes. No, it's the brow line. So this is a slightly different measurement than what I just showed you, which was the eyes being halfway. Also, keep in mind with this measurement that this line right here is not the top of the head. It's the front of the hairline, which is a little bit of an odd place to measure from, I know, but it's there for you. If you want to try and visualize it that way. Unfortunately, I don't know of any trick to measure this distance. This is obviously not the same as that, but what you can do, though, once you have this figured out, you can kind of figure out where your eyes are. And with that, you know what your eyes are. You know where your chin is. You can do the halfway measurement thing if you want to find the exact top of the head. I mentioned in the mouth section that the distance from the bottom of the nose to the bottom of the lower lip is the same as the bottom of the lower lip to the bottom of the chin. You know, half in half so you can cut this line right in half. And boom, you have the bottom of the lower lip. Here's a little mock up of a head and 3/4 view scaled to the same size is the head on the left here. So, you know, if I wanted to find the middle very quickly, I could just throw a line there. But the only thing on ahead and 3/4 is you can't draw straight across lines. You got to go around the form like this just like we're doing with our center lines, right? Throwing our center lines down the midline of the head. So now we know where our eyes are halfway down. You can find the hairline roughly around here. Now that we know the hairline and we know the eye line, the brow is probably not too hard to find it just a little higher, Probably about there and let's, you know, let's wrap that line around the head like we've been doing. Now all I have to you Now I know the hairline. I know the brown line. I just got to duplicate this distance to find the nose And let's just leave it like this. Duplicate that distance again and well, we're already We already have the chin, but there it is. It lines up nicely also for to take that line, divide it in half. We know that this is the bottom of the lower lip. I don't know about you, but I can look at this little crude markup and I can already see a face forming here. And you know what? I don't know if there's any mathematical trick to determine exactly where the break in the jaw is. That change in direction is angle here. What I do look for is the bottom of the lower lip, which we have right there. The bottom of the lower lip roughly puts you close to it. Now that break of the job will can be different to like. Sometimes it could be up here a little bit like this is not an exact at least. I don't think it's an exact science. I could be wrong about that. I don't have any tricks for the corner of the jaw, But again, I like to think it's somewhere close to the bottom of the lower lip. It's in there somewhere, and I know that's vague, but that puts me in the ballpark. And then I just use aesthetic judgement from there. Okay, the bottom of the ear roughly lines up with the bottom of the nose. Now everyone's ears or different sizes, So this is not an exact science again. But somewhere around here, it lines up. You notice. In the Loomis diagram is different. The bottom of the airlines up just a little bit higher than the bottom of the nose so long as you're in the lower region of the nose, I think you're in the correct zone as far as the top of the year goes well, remember the zygomatic lined up with, like the base of the top of the year when we were drawing that brow plane? We traced the zygomatic to about this point, while the top of the year essentially lines up with the top of the brow. You know, the protruding front of the brow right in here top of the year will line up nicely with that. And while I'm here, let's just enhance our diagram a bit with some of these planes just for fun. The side plane of the brow, by the way, could just continue all the way back to the back of the cranium. I have not talked about the cranium, and I'll do that in just a moment. I already pointed out in a previous section that the jaw is essentially the halfway point of the skull from front to back. So if I were to just draw a little center line here, we have that. That's also a handy way to find the base of the year. We talked about that in the year section as well. So this is just a quick reminder that the years sits just behind the jaw. Here's another thing that will change on everyone. But if we were to go and trace the cheekbones again and get this rhythm the planes that point up, I'm sure you remember those. Where is the point right here where it changes in direction. Well, if you imagine the ball of the nose here, this being the septum, this being the front plane of the nose again, just a ball park it somewhere in this range is where the cheekbone will change direction and, you know, go downwards to the chin. This really depends on the model, though. You know, some people will have cheekbones that are more steeply cut like down here. It really depends on the exact model you're drawing. But in general, somewhere around the ball of the nose is where this change in direction will happen from going this way to going that way. Oh, another little handy measurement. And see these two lines right here. Well, if you get halfway between those, your roughly gonna ballpark yourself to the upper lip. So again, if I just measure about halfway between the bottom of the nose and the line that determines the bottom of the lower lip halfway this will give me the top of the upper lip. Roughly. I mentioned in the lip in the mouth section that muscles can change from person to person. So watch out this. None of this is an exact science again. If it were, we would all look pretty identical. A few other hot tips for you, the corners of the mouth roughly will line up with the side plane of the chin. So if I just draw this vertical up here, this is roughly where the corner of the mouth will end up. Be careful on the other side. It's heavily distorted by perspective or foreshortened, I should say we looked at this well, in the mouth section, the upper lip and lower lip are pretty equal. So halfway distance between upper and lower will give you the middle of the lips. All right, how about the eyes? Wealthy tear duct area will usually line up pretty well with the wing of the nose Now in perspective, you gotta be careful. We can't just draw a vertical line. That is not correct. You got to go over the form. So wing of the nose over the form, your roughly gonna find the corner of the eye right in there. Same on the other side. Corner of the eye, Right in there. Okay. If I measured the width of this I and duplicated that line, the eyes are one I with apart. So if I just Yeah, I put that line there. The end of this line gives me the tear duct of the next I. And of course, from here we can measure one more I with and get the end of that I in perspective, this is harder to use because it's so foreshortened. We can't just measure it like this, right? So when the head isn't perspective like this, what I usually like to do is figure out the brow plane, you know, like, where does the brow come in? The other handy thing is to figure out the globe L a All the stuff I talked about in the nose section, and I don't want to repeat myself too much here. But finding the side plane of the globe Ella, you know, will lead me to the corner of the eye. Often it's helpful to find the plane between the side of the brow. And, um, that overhanging element can sometimes reliably lead you to the corner of the eye. So I know where the brake is. I confined this plane and I know that the corner of the eye will be somewhere here Kind of points to it, You know, my eyes roughly going to be in here somewhere. No. One thing I don't think I mentioned between the nose and the I lectures because the globe l A is such a prominent plane. It obscures the other eye in perspective. The other I exist somewhere in here. You're not going to see the corner of that I. And now that we're in the assembly chapter, the globe l A leads you right into the eyebrows. Look at that. It's like a straight shot right into the eyebrows. Is beautiful rhythm going on there so I can trace that on my model Here, go right up to where I know the break is and then follow that break down to other side of the head. Of course. Same on this side. We're foreshortened here. It's a little bit trickier to draw this one, but it wraps around the side plane of the brow, which is hidden in this perspective. Okay, here is Lady Agnew by the incomparable John Singer Sargent. This portrait is basically perfectly drawn. Let me show you another few rhythmical tips that you can use to assemble your features and check your overall structure of the head first. If we find that center point of the nose right before it turns to the septum and we find the corner of the eye, a line here will line up with the edge of the eyebrow. Essentially not with the plane where the eyebrow breaks direction but like the end of the eyebrow itself. And of course, that measurements is the same here. If you then drew a line through the brow itself, you basically have unequal lateral triangle. Now, if you just continue these lines, you will hit the corners of the mouth kind of handy, right? Another thing from the center point of the chin to this same point right in here. You will also pass by the corner of the mouth. So it's like a handy double check reference. And here it is on the other side. Her head is ever so slightly tilted, which is why this is not, like, mathematically perfect from a front view. I particularly like the equilateral triangle from this point of the nose to this point of the brow passing through the corner of the eye, that same on this side and then just connecting the brow plane here. This is a nice rhythm that I find quite useful. It helps with symmetry. It helps with proportion two things at once. And then, of course, the midpoint is the middle of the head as well. Unfortunately, this kind of thing Onley serves you from a front view. I don't think it be worth your while to try and warp this into perspective or anything, but okay, I think that covers some good tips for the front and 3/4 view. Let's switch to the profile view and see if we can uncover anything else. And right away here is something a lot of people get wrong. The cranium is massive. Our brain has to fit here. A lot of people will cut off the cranium like right there and you get this odd kind of overly rectangular head shape. You know, that kind of looks like this. It has no has no room for the brain. I've already pointed out that the back of the jaw is the halfway point between the front and the back. So 1/2 1 half. So when you're drawing a straight on profile view, this is easy. Easy measurement. Of course, in perspective, it's a little harder. You have to kind of eyeball it. But knowing this will really help keep you on track, Okay? We'll bring in the Asar ahead. One thing to point out, the mandible would lead you to believe that the angle of the jaws kind of straight. But remember that big massacre muscle that kind of changes it to slant at a more diagonal angle just a little bit. And that center line comes up in wraps around. Don't be confused with this. This just a seam line from how they manufactured the Asar ahead. The center line is here. Now there is a angular plane change at the base of the cranium right in here. And the top of that angle lines up roughly with the septum of the nose if we did the same thing on the skull, I mean, obviously there's no septum here because this is all cartilage. But you can imagine the nose would come out, the septum would come in here, and it lines up roughly with the septum somewhere in there. And the actual base bottom of the cranium, which is also right here, is somewhere in line with the upper lip or perhaps the middle of the mouth area. Somewhere in there you'll get the bottom of the cranium. This is where the back of the neck comes out from. For the front of the neck, I kind of roughly start somewhere in the side of the brow. I trace a rhythm down and I've come out this way. Just remember to leave enough space for the Underside plane to jut out like a shelf. Who and I should really clarify something about this halfway measurement because you might try and measure it all the way to the front of the nose. No, it's not here. It's halfway to the brow. That's half, and that's half. All right, let's move on to one final part here. I just want to give you some tips on getting started on a drawing from scratch. The first step. You ready for this? Draw a ball and I know I'm betraying the box. I know, but not really, because watch this. The first thing I'm gonna do is turn this ball into a box by giving it a kind of side plane . And what I can do is I can split this ball in half and this is going to become my brow line . Let's get a center line coming down the middle here now. What you want to do is extend the center line down the chin will be in this area somewhere . There's cleanup, are drawing a little bit as we go. Let's find a little bit of a hairline now, which I'm gonna just ballpark here. I know the brow. Now. I could just visually duplicate that distance for the nose and do it one final time for chin and just kind of bring this down a little bit. And keep in mind the head over all of its not vertical. Remember, we have that angle of the jaw, so the head is kind of this overall giant funnel shape that comes down this way. So when I draw my little rough in here, I'm making sure that I kind of respect that. I'll keep my lines look nice and loose. Find the chin. Now I want to make sure I have enough room for the cranium, which usually means adding just a little bit. We'll go back with the top of the head. I'm kind of chiseling my lines very in a very hard way, like I'm going like this and chiseling. I find it better to do that than to, like, go like this. That's just me, though, but I, like chiseling, just reminds me of sculpting. It makes me think about planes and delineating form or deliberately the midline on this side, which I'll draw in red on the lateral side. It's like this coming out. This is a good way to find the top of the ear. We know the eye line just gonna be a little bit lower than the brow. So I confined that that will help me find the zygomatic, which helps me find the bottom of the ear. I can start blocking that in course. The bottom of the nose helps me find the bottom of the ear. And then from here we're just clicking together the pieces, right? All the stuff that we looked at can simply be worked in. We'll get the jaw in here and now I'm just gonna speed up the video and go through the same process we did where I fill in the head piece by piece, using any kind of measurements I want mix and match them. You don't have to use all the measurements. You know, sometimes you can do things on intuition. You can do things just visually, and I'm just constructing a generic head. My goal here is structural accuracy, not like a good character design. That's the whole point of fundamental practice. We'll try. Another one here this time will invent a more extreme angle, like looking up. And I'm starting by land marking the hairline, the brow, the nose, the chin. Using that ball that I shave off into a box and then iterative lee go piece by piece. There's the two cylinder coming in. You can just use whatever tools you need to construct that head. Now, if you're brand new to this, I recommend using reference for these constructions. At first, a routes untangle like this will kind of give you fits. I mean, even for me. It's tough to get angles like this, correct, without reference. But, you know, with the construction tools, you can do it. I gave her some quick hair, Although it looks very strange, I probably change that here in a moment. In fact, in general, the more construction lines you use, the more mail it tends to look. I'll draw female model after this, and I'll use fewer construction lines so that will. Hair will go and I'll get more of a masculine haircut. There seems to fit better. That's a nice part about these planes. They don't change. And so once you know them, you can start orienting them in space however you want. All right, let's draw. Female had this time, and for this I'll use an overall different approach. I'll start with like a boxy form, like a funneled box. The midline is the eye line and then the center line of the face. Then, from that, I can figure out the brow line, which is gonna go just a little bit above the eye line and then from there I could get hairline, nose, chin. And using this measurement, I'm realizing I'm a little long with the box on the bottom, so I'll shave it off there, I'll start figuring out. Um, I like to start with the nose cause it's such a prominent like, landscape like element that juts out of the face. The nose leads you to the globe, Ella, which leads you to the eyebrows, so I use that a lot. The hair adds thickness to the entire head, so just lay a quick hairstyle. Overtop will paint hair more. In the second chapter of this lesson, the lips are coming in. They are wrapping around the two cylinder, although I have not drawn the tooth cylinder. I'm thinking about it, the lips turning even from this kind of straight on angle ever so slightly. Actually, this is not totally straight on. We're looking at somewhere between a straight on and a 3/4 view. When I drew the upper eyelids, I was thinking about the overhang element without actually drawing it. Just kind of thinking of what the final contour would be as a result of those overlaps, just fixing up the hair to kind of wrap around the cranium properly, and then I'll just add some subtle shading, you know, looking at the plains of point down. Also, add some whites looking at the planes that point up keeping the plane soft, which could help inform a feminine look. Of course, we'll dig into this more in the painting phase, where will properly paint ahead with color and lights and everything. But that is for Chapter two. As for now, this has been quite a journey through the head. I hope you've enjoyed it. Class is not out yet, though. I will see you in Chapter two. 12. Chapter 2 - Value Control: I'd like to start off Chapter two with a simple declarative sentence. When you paint, your biggest hurdle is controlling value. If you can control value, you're on your way to a good painting. Even if you're working in color, value is the most important thing. The reason value is the most important is that it is the fundamental that reveals light and form. Value is also one of the more difficult things, because whenever a plane changes, that is changes direction. It comes with a value change, and I'm in this three D software here, and I've got this sphere loaded up. But it's a sphere that's made of a lot of planes. There's a lot of little changes of plane in there, so it's not perfectly smooth, and I've lit it with a light. This is a light right here, and the light is, you know, coming down from this top right sort of angle in its causing light and shadow. Now the light and shadow is very obvious. You can see like the bottom area that's very dark. That shadow on the top area is comparatively much lighter, so it's light. But within those families within the light within the shadow, we can see that each little triangular plane change is getting its own value. Like this value here is slightly lighter than this value here. And this value here is slightly lighter than that value. And then we can look in the shadow. This value here on this plane is slightly darker than that value. This kind of represents the complexity of nature. When you look outside in real life or just around your room right now, you're going to see a lot of value changes. And again, one of the reasons painting is hard is that it's difficult to keep track of these values. So we need a system by which we can simplify. Otherwise, we'll just go crazy with trying to replicate all these tiny value shifts. So I'd like to show you now the method that I use for simplifying values in all of my work , be it realistic or cartoony. It doesn't matter. Everything starts with the light source. The light source determines how the planes will be illuminated. And, of course, the angle that you're looking at the object does not change the light. The light will still cast all the same planes and shadow and all the same planes and light , despite the angle that you're looking at it from. So knowing where the light is is a critical first step. The second step is to determine the dividing line between light and shadow. I think of light and shadows to families and their two families who don't get along with each other. They fight if you mix them, so we have to draw a fence between the two families houses to separate them. In this example. Here, I would draw that fence line like this. This tells me that everything on this side of the fence is where the light family lives and I should use lighter values. And conversely, everything on this side of the fence is where the shadow lives. So I should use comparatively darker values. And this brings me to perhaps the only rule of painting. Are you ready? It's the only time you'll ever hear me say the word rule. The rule is your light. Values must remain lighter than the shadow values, and conversely, your shadow values must remain darker than your light values. This is the key thing we do is painters to keep our values separate and therefore readable as light and shadow. And the first step I recommend taking in simplifying light is to average out the light values and the shadow values into just one value each. So one value for the light, one value for the shadow average values and block those in first. So you're not getting caught up in every little plane change. You're looking at the big picture, big area of light, big area of shadow. So this fear, when simplified down to average light average shadow, would look something like this. Notice I've group to the cast shadow in with the shadow on the sphere, the form shadow. So they're all just one value, and likewise in the light. It's all just one average value. So essentially, there are no little plane changes anymore. Think of this is like a comic book style rendering where you just have black and white, And if your fence line between light and shadow is accurate and you're using comparatively light versus dark values, you should be able to see the beginnings of form and light here, and a sphere is a great thing to practice on because a sphere is so easy to draw in just a moment, I'll show you this exact lesson on the sorrow head. But for now, let's just continue on with this, okay? The next step is to introduce a little more complexity, and I'll go back to our three d model. The complexity we want to introduce has everything to do with the light side, and this is not a rule. But in general, the light side should contain mawr information than the shadow side, mostly because our eyes respond to light. That's what our eyes do, their receptors for light. We don't do so well in shadow, comparatively speaking, so a lot of painters, both painters of the past and modern day painters, put mawr information in the light than they do in the shadow. Now the information we want to introduce in the light is called 1/2 tone. Ah, half tone covers the planes that are turning away from the light but are still getting light. In this case, it's all these planes on this part of the sphere thes planes air still being hit by the light source but are turning away from that light source so they're a bit darker. Half tones can be quite confusing because we can see a lot of value changes here, like each one of these little planes here has a different value. And what we don't want to start getting is mired into all these value changes. So just like we did with light and shadow, giving them both one average value, we do the same with half tone. We take all these little half tones again, the planes that are turning away from the light but still in the light. We average them together and we give them one value. So let's go back to our diagram here, and I will now simplify all those complex half tones we just saw into a simplified half tone that looks like this. Now. You might be like, Oh, but you're losing so much information. Yes, that's the point. You need to change reality to a simplified reality in your work. This is not to say you could never add complexity to this. In fact, in later painting demonstrations in this class, I'll get progressively more and more. Let's say, realistic or detailed, but this is how we have to think in order to maintain value control. Remember, value control is all about structure. And what I'm showing you here is not a finished painting of the sphere, but a system we can use to simplify the complexities of real life and get down to that core essential structure. And the best part is it's simple. It's manageable. I've only used three values so far on average light on average shadow and an average half tone. Those, according to me, are the most important things to know for value control. Now, the lesson is not finished here. But I'm going to move on to some demos where I will show you how to use this, and we will then expand on it. So let's go ahead and do that. 13. Chapter 2 - Asaro Head Value Study: All right, so I'm looking at that. Asaro head on the right. I'm blocking out the top of the head and bottom of the chin with some markers. There are some lines. Then, with a red line, I'll block out the eye line. Now, this head, we're looking slightly up at this head, so my eye line is a little higher than halfway and I'll get the brow line, which is just above it. All these tools I explained in Chapter one and then evenly down for the nose or something, roughly, even again. We're looking a little bit up at this head, so these won't be perfect measurements, but this is just a block in. I will always modify my drawing as I go. Just putting down this is not even really a value. I'm just kind of defining my work area. It's kind of a habit that I have. I don't like drawing straight in with dark lines. I'd like to have some kind of texture there. Just a personal preference. Anyway, Now I'm using my, uh, guidelines and landmarks to just rough in the head. And I'm just using whatever tools I need to block it in everyone will be different. I like the globe. L a. A lot. I like the under plane of the nose, these airplanes that I find easy to draw, and I just kind of search around in the beginning for these landmarks and then, like a puzzle. As these landmark pieces start coming together, it's easy for me to draw the rest of it. It becomes easier and easier as you kind of construct the head one piece after the next. So with Chapter one's fundamental knowledge of the plains, their placements, their overall orientation and how they're all assembled, you can begin to define your own preferred process of constructing the head. There's no right or wrong in terms of which order you choose to put things in, long as things end up in the right place. So, you know, there should be nothing mysterious here. Assuming you've seen Chapter one of this lesson, I'm using the cheekbones here to define a large part of the forward facing part of the head . I'm using the side plane of the brow I'm using, You know, the area of the eye sockets for the brow turns under, um, just some basic using the jaw, the side planes of the jaw just to determine those front and side planes of the box. That's usually what I'm interested in now. Now I'm getting into to the nose because the nose again is very box like so it's easy to determine the front and side planes. I'm not going for perfect accuracy yet. I mean, I'd like this to eventually end up accurate, and I'll make sure my blocking is as accurate as I can get it. But im always for refining as you go. So don't worry. Don't get hung up on. Making sure you're drawing is perfect before you start painting. In fact, a whole part of being a big part of painting is a There's a sculptural aspect to painting. I mean, that's kind of what you're doing with painting as you are sculpting with values. So a large part of finding those forms and refining them is better off left for the painting process itself. So with my line drawing, I just want to make sure it's accurate enough and, you know, your level of accuracy may vary. Sometimes I will go for things that are not even really accurate now, find the accuracy in the painting. In this case, I want something, you know, fairly accurate. After all, this is a lesson on understanding the head and would be a little disingenuous of me to start with something totally rough. And here comes the structure of the I, specifically the eye that's in light. Remember my value scheme where the shadows air just reduced to one value. So I'm not gonna have to worry with the eye on the left too much in this study. So I make sure the I on the right has a lot of information on it because there's a lot of light and shadow there. And then on the left, I'll put something in just to make sure its construction aly sound. But I'm not gonna worry about its planes too much because this will just end up in this study. That's gonna just end up in one value in shadow anyway, So put a few basic planes in. They're just gonna convict to convince myself that it's kind of ready to go look around the head, see what other planes might need a little touching up little rhythms. You want toe put in there and correct before you start. Okay? Now I'm gonna plot out my two values. Average light, average shadow. There they are. All select average shadow and just start painting in wherever there shadow. Following the exact same logic as I just showed you with the sphere in the last section does not matter to me if it's a form shadow or a cast shadow like the nose here is casting a shadow on to the face. That's just a shadow. It's gonna merge right in there with the form shadows, for instance, the shadow here on the upper lip. It's caused by a plane change or a form change, so we call it a form shadow. As long as it's a shadow, it gets one value. You notice I'm not trying to be perfect with that value, like it doesn't need to be like a posterized value. You could just make a big selection and just fill bucket tool. But I'm just using a brush and working with one value. If I happened to make minor variations that value, I'm not too worried, but I'm not trying to model anything with subtle values. I've picked one value. I'm painting with one value, and that is what I'm doing. And I'll just work all across the head. A Zilong as it's in shadow, I'll use that one value. I'm trying to make hard edges to. I'm not trying to make soft edges. I'll show you the soft edge process a little later. We'll start into that in this lesson, but just work with hard edges. For now, that's the nice thing about understanding the head via planes. Is that planes reduce all the softness? They make it into just hard. Everything is hard edged now. That's not true of reality. But when it comes to your fundamental understanding, that's why planes air so useful. It removes the extraneous, and we're just understanding things in this case, with hard edged shapes, hard borders between the planes. My initial line drawing, by the way, is on a multiply layer on top of this, so I can still see my lines Through this, I will eventually flatten those and amalgamate them so my lines disappear. But just to start your block in, it's nice to have that line layer as reference, which is also why I tried to make it somewhat accurate. Now the value you pick for average light average shadow. It doesn't really matter like there's no such thing as a correct shadow value. The only thing that makes a shadow value correct is that is darker than the light. And when I recommend is that you just leave yourself a lot of contrast, you notice if you look at my values there on the top left, I've made sure there's a lot of contrast on them. They separate to a great degree. There's a lot of room later on for me to put 1/2 tone somewhere in there, so just keep your lights and shadows separate. That's what I really recommend for these studies, not only for the studies for paintings in general, but especially when you're first learning. I really recommend giving yourself a lot of contrast. Toe work with that will give you the best and most clear results. All right, so I'm still working away with the average shadow value, and you notice I'm refining my drawing as I go, like changing little contours and little forms and planes. That's all fair game like refine as you go. That's what you should be doing, and I've probably flattened my layers by now so I can erase my line drawing and just put a value over it. I'm I'm all for refining as you go. I really, really don't think it's beneficial or even useful to try and get everything perfect with each step. You simply won't be able to do that with any degree of reliability. Whereas being free to change things and not being afraid of making mistakes than you know, accepting the fact that you'll probably have to change things later. We'll give you the impetus to just kind of get in there and start and, you know, start moving these values around. Now the planes that Aaron shadow should be predictable. It's the planes that are facing away from the light. That's why it's so nice to understand the head in planes. Which, of course, is what Chapter one was all about because the planes that turned dramatically away from the light are going to be in shadow. So it's very predictable when you look at Theus are ahead. In this case, we can see it on the right or when you're inventing Ah, head from your imagination. If you know the directions that these planes face. You can easily move your light source around and knowing that when the plane turns away from the light, it will be in the shadow family. And if a plane faces the light, it will be in the light family. This is how a painter understands the world with changes in direction of plain matched up with the direction of a light source. That's the key information of painter needs. Okay, so what I'm going to do now that I'm finished with Shadow is I'm just gonna put an average light. Now, this is just silly, easy. Anything that's not the shadow which I've already defined. I'm putting an average light. In theory, I didn't even have to do this step. I could have just used the value of the canvas that was already there. But I like when the head is a little bit darker than the canvas. Also, it gives me and yet another chance to refine what's there. You know, I might sample my shadow like I'm doing here and just adjust the shape of it and go back to my average light and keep putting that in. It gives me yet another stage for quality control. So let me just quickly get this value in here. And just like with the shadows, I'm keeping my edges hard. I'm not painting a human here. I'm painting the Asar ahead, which has, you know, hard planes. You can work this way with a human as well, but we'll get into that anyway. Bear with me while I just finish up the average light stage just refining things here. And they're getting those rhythms in where I need them. And ah, at this point was put in 1/2 tone. So I'm gonna add a value to my little list half tone. Remember that 1/2 tone is in the light family, so I like to bias the half tone lighter rather than darker. Don't just split the difference between average lightened average shadow. Make the half tone closer to the light. Remember, the most important thing is to keep the lights and shadow families separate so they don't fight. So 1/2 tone and the average light are both light values. Think of them as brother and sister. Keep those siblings together. They are in the same family. So I'm looking at Theus are ahead. and it's pretty clear to see the planes that are, you know, slightly turning away from the light. The light is coming from above pretty clearly right. So any plane that faces slightly under or turning around to the side or what have you is going to get a slightly darker value. And again you can visually just spot them on the A. Sorrow had reference there notice, just like the sphere in the last section. Those half tones have different values, depending on the exact orientation of the plane. But I am not looking at that. I am on Lee, looking for the fact that it's 1/2 tone, and if it's 1/2 tone, it's getting that one average half tone value again. This is a structural choice on and also again. You can add complexity to this later. I don't want you to think that you can't use multiple half tone values, but when you're first learning and even if you're a professional artist, you can limit your half tones toe. One I've done many paintings were even in my final painting. I only amusing 1/2 tone value that largely comes down to an aesthetic choice a stylistic choice. If I'm creating multiple half tone values here, it's incidental. It just cause I'm using a brush with, you know, pen pressure and I'm a in perfect human beings. So I my pressure is not always the same. So if I'm creating different values that is purely incidental, you should not be reading into that. I could have just selected this and fill bucket ID tool everything. But I decided to go in with the brush because that helps me draw better. I can make revisions like I said, as I go, so I'm just looking at these rhythms and the other thing to keep in mind when you paint. Painting has a very qualitative difference to drawing. In that painting, I'm grouping planes together well, that that goes hand in hand with grouping values together, like every plane that's in shadow gets one value. That inherently means that I don't have to draw all the planes that we learned in Section one now. Intellectually, I know where they are. I know that they're there, So if I had to, I could audit my work with my knowledge that we got in Chapter one of this whole video lesson. But in painting I'm largely discarding most of that. I don't need to indicate every plane. I'm grouping them together. This is also the nature of simplification. You take a lot of knowledge and you represent it broadly. Another way to say that is your very conscious of what? You're not showing the viewer because what you're not showing the viewers still has to be correctly placed. For instance, I still have to have a difference between the jaw and the cheek. Even though those areas air both in the same shadow value, I still have to know where they are. Because otherwise how can I be sure if I'm, you know, painting it correctly. Painting is largely a problem of drawing. So in chapter one of this lesson understanding the head, we looked at the head mostly from like a drawing perspective. Now we're shifting gears and looking at the head from a painting perspective and one important difference happens here. When you make that shift, the two dimensional shapes you make when you group values together really start to matter like I've grouped. If you look at the shadows of this painting, I've grouped the brow the eye socket, the side of the nose, the jaw, the lip. All of them are connected in one big shadow shape. That shape is important. That shape needs to be drawn simply and well, because now not only does that shadow represent multiple planes, it is part of the design of your painting, like the two dimensional design. So painting is this interesting hybrid, which takes a lot of three dimensional understanding but represented with simple, two dimensional higher cliffs. Okay, let's use this as an opportunity to take our value lesson one step further. This is something I did not cover in the sphere less in a moment ago. I'm adding one more value and no surprise. It's a value in the light, because again, light is where we see the most information, so this value will help us model. The for me even more you can think of this value is kind of like a reverse half tone. You know, half tones were planes that were turning away from the light. Well, these planes are the planes that most directly face the light or planes that are maybe perpendicular to the light source. They're going to receive the full brunt of that light and therefore gonna get a little lighter again. This light value is not necessary, but it's something you can add to your painting as a way to model the for me even more and , you know, restrict that modeling to the light area where we want the most information. So I'll be very careful here. I'm thinking about planes that you know are directly facing the light so you know this part of the upper lip. The maxillary area quite directly faces the light when it's coming from this particular angle, and you notice that upper lip value is connected in with the side plane of the nose. Just like I connected my shadow values. I connect my light values. I try and maximize the amount of visual connection I make in my paintings. As a design principle, it makes for the most clearly readable paintings. You want to take your knowledge of all these little individual planes and group them into shapes that are clearly readable. It's very tempting to keep all these planes very separate because your knowledge you're like, Oh, I know all these little planes. I want to separate them all, and you can become very precious or proud about your knowledge, and you want to show everyone everything you know? Um, go the opposite way, group them together. That will give the viewer and easily sort of digestible version of the light and generally makes for paintings that just read a whole lot better. Okay, so add yet another stage of complexity. Let's go in soften. Semaj is This is something you can't really look at Theus Aro head for because the Asar ahead on Lee delivers hard edges. But I'm just taking, in this case, my smudge tool in photo shop. Or you can use a soft brush or whatever tool you like to soften things or blend things. And I'm just I'm just softening edges to various degrees, and I'm trying to use some knowledge of, like the forms itself. It's like if it's a bony form, like the side of the brow or the ridge of the nose, I'll use a harder edge. If it's a fleshy form like the nasal labial furrow like the last line or the lips, I might use a softer edge. We'll look at edges Maurin future demonstrations, but I just want to get into it very quickly here in a very rudimentary way, just to show you the difference between hard and soft that can give your a sorrow, head knowledge, a more fleshy kind of feel because, after all, human beings are not made of perfectly hard edges all the time. So in Chapter two here and painting the head, we want to start broaching the topic of edge control. And in this stage, I'm not being too technical about it. I'm just I'm just exploring with various degrees of softening the edge. We'll look at more paintings and more reference in depth in the next few demos, and I'll discuss you know why things are softer and how soft I'm going to make it here. I'm just playing around, playing around with some various soft edges again, mostly just thinking, if the form is more bony, I'll keep it harder. If it's more fleshy, I'll keep it softer. Oh, I'm also fixing the I. I noticed that I was just a little small looking, but here's the nice thing about having a structure that works. I can change little things like that. I was stealing too small. You know, changing it or moving in or doing whatever you have to do. The surgery you have to do to it is not going to cause huge aches and pains on your end because the structure is there. I said earlier in Chapter one that the structure is far more important than the features, and this is why within good structure, I could make that I a little bit bigger and it's fine. It just fits right in the structure. I've allowed for it, whereas, you know, if the structure of the head weren't there, changing something like that even a little bit would cause, you know, gigantic ripple effects and they would be an overall nightmare. And, you know, just like that, a few more refinements. But there's are finished a sorrow head value study, a very helpful way to start bridging the gap between drawing and painting. All right, let's move on 14. Chapter 2 - Adding Color: So what you see on screen right now is a small reference photo of a ballet dancer that I used his reference on an illustration I did recently. This was my painting here. Well, part of the painting. Anyway, it's cropped in and they're both quite low rez. You're seeing these paintings. You're seeing this painting at 100% size. Interesting. My reference at 100% size. And you notice that while I changed little things here and there, the thing that I did not changes the structure of the head. And while this painting has color, it's largely doing the same thing I did with Theus are ahead before, and that is I'm using a lot of contrast between the light and dark values, and I'm letting the shapes be very clear. If, like, if you look at the light shape here revealing that front plane of the cheek, we learned all about that shape in Chapter one. If you look at that big shape of the brow, this is the planes of the head that face forward the front planes of the box. Here's the Max Ilo. The upper lip area here is the top of the chin. All these areas face forward. They're going to receive that direct light, and as a result, they're gonna pop out value wise from the darker shadows and the shadows, this entire area here is mostly merged together in value. Now I know it's not quite merged together. I'll talk about what I'm doing here, but just for the moment, I just want to follow me here. As kind of the shadows make one overall connected shape, you can see that it's this one little shape that comes in like that. Now there is an element that I've added to my understanding of the light in this painting. This is what I want to introduce. In this lesson. A swell is color, and that is reflected light reflected light is light that comes in from this spotlight. Here it comes in, I'll use a different color. It comes in, strikes the shoulder in this case, and it bounces back up, and when it bounces back up, it's going to illuminate the shadows. In this case, there's a lot of light coming down here that is striking the shoulder region and bouncing up into the underside of the head. So the underside plane as well as some of the neck is going to receive the most reflected light in this scene. Reflected light is also known as bounced light or ambient light or diffuse light has many names for it. So what I did in this painting, I could have simply painted it like this. Like just keeping all the shadows together and, you know, painted this general idea and it would have worked like structurally this would have worked . But just to make the painting a little bit more toe have the feeling that there is a strong light in the scene. I added this bounce light and all you have to do if I just switch this whole canvas to gray scale. The main trick with reflected light is to make sure that its value is still darker than the light. Remember the rule of painting the singular rule of painting Your shadows have to remain darker than your lights. So if we just go if we God with other picker here and we sample the legitimate light like this is where the light is directly hitting, you know, somewhere in here in this value here, look at the shadow. Look how much darker it is. But switching back to color, you can see how it's almost fooling you into thinking that the bounce light is actually as light as the light. It's not, though. I've just shown you that it's not. It just feels like it is because the shadows air so dark that when you lighten them, especially when you like them to the degree I did here, you'll get this heavy sense of illumination, and that's kind of what I was after here. Now bounce light is ubiquitous in nature. It exists everywhere. It doesn't always exist in this quantity, but I want to show you it in this quantity, just to show you how I deal with it and then, in later paintings will tone it down a little bit. The thing I do to control my bounce light is I kind of pick one overall direction that is accountable for the most bounce light, and I focused my bounce like they're so in this case, it's the bounce coming up from her shoulder, illuminating the underside of the head that is kind of like the master bounce light and everything else is toned down, like all the areas here are toned down, not getting as much bounce light. Now. That's true of the reference as well, which is why stage lighting can often be quite good to study from because stage lighting is very dramatic. It's like caricatured light, and a good lighting director on the stage is very good at mimicking nature but heightening its effect, which is kind of what's happening here. Now, on a color level, this is what I would classify as a cold light source, meaning the light. The temperature of the light is somewhere in the blues, like the white ish blues. This is, to me, a cool color as compared to a stereotypical warm color, which might be in the yellows and reds. And as a result, when I'm in my light values, I'll be using colors that are cool, abusing blues like in the in this range in the Purple Range, I might gray down some of my yellows to make it closer to grey. When things were closer to gray. They also become closer to other colors. I've talked about this on my YouTube channel a lot, and I'm gonna try and keep this lesson centered around the head, not get mired in color theory here, but I'm using colors that are in the cool range in the light in the shadow. I will use warmer colors, mostly because in the shadows this is where the true flesh tones in this case air coming out because that light is so dramatic. And it's such a dramatic cold light such a bright light that it's gonna bully a lot of those colors to be very cold colors. And the shadows were getting a little bit more of an honest look at what the flesh tone is . And because she has darker skin, I'll be using colors in this range in the in the shadow side. Now for the bounce light. One thing that bound, slight or reflected light can often bring with it is intense saturation. So when I'm in the bounce light colors, I'll really ramp up these reds kind of accent, the flesh tone colors that I've put down here. But ramp it up and, you know, use use the various selection of you know pink reds and orange reds and purples reds would have you. This is the kind of color scheme I'll be going for with the flesh tones, so be prepared for a dramatic reversal of process. I'm going to abandon my line drawing and painting, actually, how I'm normally pain, which is with big swatches of brushwork. I normally paint this way, not because I don't want to draw. I'm still drawing, even when you paint with big swatches like this. It's just that the drawing is happening with bigger shapes rather than with lines or with contours. So right now I'm just kind of blocking out where the head is going to go. You can kind of see a profile view coming in here, and I'm also keeping my brushwork flowing and colors mixing up basically at random. You know what it's like. It's not quite random, like the flesh tones air kind of in the reddish range. The background is somewhere in the neutral range, as long as I have some basic direction with color in mind. In terms of ah, family of color, I'm going to use in the light, which I've already explained is like cooler colors because it's a cold light and a family of colors I'm gonna use in the shadows, which in this case is warmer colors. I can kind of just go a little crazy with those colors. I don't need to feel like I have to pick the right color. And here's a little secret. And I learned this from think it was Geoff Watts who said it. Great painting instructor Runs his Own Until EA Geoff Watts said that a lot of students come up to him and ask, How do you paint flesh tones and his responses? How do you not paint flesh tones? Any color is a flash tone. Go ahead and pick a color in your color wheel. Boom flat stone Done. Um, every color is a flesh tone. The problem is not had a paint flesh tone. The problem is, how do you paint the planes of the head? How do you draw good shapes? How do you control your values? That's the problem. If you are ever critiquing your own work and you think you're having a color problem, I'm willing to bet that it is either a drawing problem or a value problem. Anyway, What I'm doing here is I'm drawing, but with a big shape of a brushstroke, big shape of value I should say, and I'm bringing in all the same stuff all the same shapes that I would or could draw with a pencil. But I'm just doing it with value here, some kind of skipping a step. I'm skipping the line drawing step, which which brings a different result, because when you work with these big, patchy brushstrokes, the painting starts feeling more painterly. Not to say that you can't achieve a painterly look when you do a line drawing, but when you do a line drawing, it's very easy to become rigid about it and get stuck to it or overly precious about it. Where is now? You know, there's nothing quote unquote good about what's on the canvas Now. I'm I feel very free to paint right over it, and that's how I will build my painting. I'll use that mindset of revision the whole way. It's kind of re sizing the campus of it. I want to get a little bit more of the back of her head. Showing the cranium is very important. I talked about this in the drawing section, where a lot of people will actually miss, draw the cranium and not give it Enough room. I've even thinking composition. Not cutting off the head of the cranium is an important thing. There's just something really unflattering about Ah, cut off cranium. Probably again. Something to do with the fact that the brain fits in there. And, um, yes, So you notice what I'm doing. I've already got some color relationships built up in the painting and just in terms of basic families cooler lights, warmer shadows. And when it comes to the exact color I'm picking, I mean, just look it. Look at the sketch here. I'm not thinking of that way. I'm just thinking about abroad. Um, general relationship again. Cooler lights, warmer shadows as long as I'm maintaining that, for the most part, I mean, I can even break that rule. But as long as I'm maintaining that, it will allow the color to feel like it's following a structure just like it's important for the head drawing toe have structure. I mean, that's of critical importance. If you want to paint representational E, you have to have that you're drawing be structured. The colors can be less structured. The old cliche is true. If your value and drawing is good. Your color can almost do anything, but in order for your color to feel like it has a structure, what I recommend is just looking into adhering to basic family relationships cold, light, warm shadows in this case that can flip on its head, depending on the light source. This, unfortunately, is not the class. To get into that, that's its own 10 hour course. In fact, I teach an eight week class at C. G. M. A. About lightened color, and I also plan to doom or classes like this about lightened color. I'll give you some general pointers here, but in terms of every color I'm picking, the thing that you can trust me on is that I am barely even looking at the colors I'm picking. In fact, sometimes I'll just pick a color that I know is way too strong, and I'll just mix it in with my tablet pressure, right? Like every brush I'm using here is responding to tablet pressure, so sometimes I'll pick a color that's way off, but I can mix the color on the canvas. Um, where the half tone is because you see where all those lights are right look at the cheek right now. So where the cheek is, you see where the cheek starts rolling into shadow. We get 1/2 tone there, right? You notice I'm pumping. Some read into that half tone. There's something that half tones do because the half tone is turning away from the light. What can happen there is the bully effect of the light member minute ago. I describe the light as a kind of bully. The bully effect can be diminished a little bit in half tone, so the half tone in this case is getting less of that strong blue from the light that strong coldness from the light so I can reveal a little bit more flesh color in the light through the half tone. This is particularly helpful in this case because the temperature of the light and shadow colors air so dramatically different. The half tone is kind of my bridge. Not only is it a bridge from light to shadow values, I'm using it as a bridge to light from light and shadow colors as well. So you know, those half tones can really make a difference now when it comes to refining your sensibilities about this stuff. It just takes practice. No course or professor or anything is going to just give you a magic pill that makes you able to paint in color. It took me and I still study Ah lot. But I spent years in the life drawing classroom, you know, with live models in front of me with different lighting sources on them. And I would paint, I would paint in oils from from life, and I would just do sketches like this. Like this sketch in real time you're seeing it sped up a little bit in real time. Took me about 30 to 40 minutes, and I feel like that's kind of what I would do from life. Although with oil paint it takes a little longer. You gotta mix your colors on the palette and stuff. I'd spend about 2 to 3 hours on any given oil sketch on a life drawing night digital again . You could move a bit quicker, but it's the same kind of mentality where I'm not here to make this a perfect representation of the photo. I'm not even trying to copy my painting on the right. I'm just showing you how I would approach painting this way. And when I say painting this way, what I'm basically doing at least what I think I'm doing is I'm taking all the fundamentals we learned in Chapter One and applying them in a more artistic way and less of a technical way. I said this in the intro of this very lesson of this very course that Chapter one is a more technical understanding. Chapter two is a more artistic understanding. Eso You can see that with a lot of the artistic stuff, at least for me. In my own personal bias, you kind of have to be willing to throw out technical perfection. And I gotta be careful here. This is not to say that you're painterly. Paintings can't be technical. You have to have a degree of technical proficiency. But I've always looked at technical proficiency as something where you have to build those skills in order to earn the right to throw them away. So what I'm doing is I'm editing this painting not based on, not based on the decision to show the viewer every plane like in this painting, I don't care to show the viewer where the mandible is now. I know where the mandible is, and I can point to it. If you were to audit me, I'd say if you were to come up to me and say, Hey, where's the mandible? I would say it's right there. I know it's there, but I don't have to announce that knowledge to the viewer. Now, in Chapter one, you very much do have to announce that knowledge because that's how you gained technical proficiency. Then, in painting like this, you kind of put it in the back of your brain. So you're never forgetting about it. But you're able to focus on other things. Things like that wild array of color I just put down and how that relates to the overall color design of the picture. You know how these colors resonate emotionally. You know, I I care much less about the mandible than I do about the emotional quality of a painting. So for me, and if I can point out one of my own flaws with arts, it's that I sometimes catch myself going too far on the emotional side. We're all actually draw badly. And, you know, even in this sketch, I'm like, OK, I have to fix a few things. Tweak proportions. Make sure things are getting distorted, but the structures there so I can always tweak it. You know, if you use like photo shops, liquefy tool, that's all fair game. If this were well, if this were an oil painting, I would be too far to I'd have to, like, actually scrape out paint, which I have done on oil painting studio paintings. I remember once I was working on a commission. It was like a four foot high canvas and, ah, like hours and hours in. I woke up one morning and just scraped away half the person's face because I had elongated the cheekbones too much and, you know, stretched the face like a gummy face or something, and I just repainted it. This said the structure above the cheekbones was good, but but not below. So you know, these are things that you're gonna have to check. For now, Photoshopped or digital media makes this much more painless. You can just pop into the liquefy tool or any kind of warp tool you might have in your software and adjust things accordingly, and that's fine too Dio s. So long as you're structure is there You could make little tweaks like that now, past a certain point, you probably can't fix something. Some things will just need a redraw. That's inevitable. But that's the other reason I like working in a painterly style like this. I feel like I can modify things at almost any point here. I'm starting to ratchet down on exactly the contours of these shapes of light. The cheekbone, in this case flipping the canvas will help you gauge your drawing. It'll you'll point out you'll notice little inconsistencies and structural errors that you might want to fix, so I haven't done it here. Shame on me. But I I usually flip my canvas quite often. I'll even flip it upside down sometimes just to look at the patterns of shapes that I'm making, although that's more of a compositional thing, but little tweaks to shape. Whenever I'm doing this in a little sketch study like this, I know I'm almost finished again. I'm not trying to make this a finished painting. In fact, the only thing that differentiates a sketch like this from a finished painting is the exactness of the shape, honing the shape to be exactly what you want. Whereas with a sketch, I'll often be satisfied with an approximation like something that is certainly moving in a good direction. But you know, the edges aren't quite fully sanded down yet what I will not sacrifice in the sketches value control and structure those you can't like. It's not like when I schedule like, Oh, I don't have to have structure No, that can never go away. That's why when you look at like an artist, you like a professional artist. Their sketches still look good because they're still prioritizing structure and they're finished. Paintings will still have structure as well as every other little thing being refined according to their taste. Like even in this, I'm doing a little sketch study here. If you compare the painting I'm doing right now to my own painting, just to the right of it, the painting to the right of it, which took me like probably like three hours. Whereas this one's about 30 minutes in the three hour one, I didn't change the brushwork. It's not like I rendered things more, but I became more exact with the shapes and I think I don't know if you've noticed this, but if I'm looking at the one on the right, if I'm being honest here, there's a certain, like, poised to her like there's a element of more consciousness in the one on the right than the one on the left. And it has nothing to do with the structure. It's There's just something about all the shapes, all the edges, all the little color harmonies coming together in a way that looks very considered, thinking about three dimensional structure and anatomy, but also marrying that with two dimensional shape design. Then on top of that, also making sure that all those little rhythms are doing exactly what you want them to do. That is where I will spend a long time on. My finished work has nothing to do for me, doesn't have any to do with the brushwork of the rendering of the detail. I'll still stay loose like If I were to work on this for another two hours, it would still look like this. I mean, stylistically speaking. It's just like the little things little shaped designs, little edge control things. That's what I'd refine and you know in a sketch, I don't really think you should worry about that too much again. The fine line here is that your structure can't go away, has to have good structure in order for me to consider it a successful study, whatever that's worth. But don't burden yourself in your studies with having to finish everything. Be willing to drop that painting and move on once it's past a certain point. And I'm arriving at that point very soon. One thing I just wanted to add about the color. Overall, you notice I'm following the scheme that I laid out for you in the beginning of this section, where the lights air dominated with cooler color choices versus the shadows, which are dominated by warmer color choices. But within the look at the shadows now, within those shadows, there are still elements of cool or color mixing in there. Like if you look at the side of right where the zygomatic bone is, where it recedes back to the ear, there's some blue swatch is there, even in the jaw. There's some cooler tones there in the jaw, which are also presence on my painting on the right those are nice because they kind of link the shadows with the light. It's like when I say I'm using cooler colors in the light, warmer colors in the shadow. In this, it's not like categorically. Every color has to be cool in the light, and every color has to be warm in the shadow. In fact, just the opposite. I kind of like to play this little game where I link thumb, where I have cooler warms in the shadow in this case, and maybe even some warmer cools in the light, like if you look at her chin, that's in light. See, there's like even little elements of yellow in there and orange in there. That's a little again, a little game. I'm playing where I'm trying. Teoh. Have all the colors exist everywhere, just in different levels of saturation, different strengths of temperature? You might say. That's how I can kind of keep pallets cohesive while still using a lot of color. Anyway, I think I've taken the study about as far as I want to take it, and there we go a complete sketch study. I think one good way to evaluate this, as always, is to flip it to gray scale. Make sure your lights air separating from your shadows on a value level. Make sure that all your lights are lighter than your shadows and all your shadows or darker than your lights. You can also check for rhythms like remember how the nose had that circular connection to the chin. You notice that that rhythm is there, and I know I didn't talk about that while I was painting, but I was thinking about it, and I'm just mentioning it now. Make sure that that is, they're looking at the brow. Make sure like there is a solid plain change, you know, right in here that separating the side of the box from the front of the box. Here's that brow line we looked at underneath, which digs into the eye sockets. There is evidence here of the zygomatic bone retreating to the ear, which would be somewhere here. It's hidden in this view by the hair. Remember, like the stair step e part of the lower part of the head member. This, you know, just check for these little rhythmical elements. You can trace the cheekbones, making sure they're making that nice funnel shape coming down. These are all things that I do just mentally while I paint. But you can literally use them to audit yourself at the end of any sketch to evaluate what you hung onto versus what you accidentally let slip. It's a great addition you can do after you sketch, and I recommend giving your sketches a bit of time. Like, you know, walk away from them for a bit, then come back and use this method of evaluation. Don't do it right away. Oftentimes we see things fresh once some time has gone by and once some time went by on this one. I noticed I had given her an unintentional little goatee right there. It's actually part of the background, but let's not do that. Let's, uh, let's give her a clean silhouette a little bit more like I did on the painting on the right . No unintentional facial hair, even in a sketch. I feel like that's better. OK, let's roll right into another painting 15. Chapter 2 - Direct vs Diffuse Light: this section comes with a bit of co requisite viewing because direct light and diffuse light are such a big subject and I have a YouTube channel. You might know youtube dot com slash mark Obuchi. And I've done to extensive videos on this subject that I would like you to watch as well as the content in this chapter. So if you go to my YouTube channel and click on videos and just scroll back into my archives a bit, there's two videos. Part one is this one entitled Ambient Occlusion and Ambient Light for painters. Ambient Light is also called Diffuse Light. That's the same thing. This is Part one, Then, when you're finished with that, scroll up a bit and look for Part two, which is called Understanding Shadow Colors. Ambient Light, Part two. These two videos taken together are 45 minutes long, and it's like a whole extra chapter. I mean, I could have easily put these videos in this lesson instead of releasing them for free on my YouTube channel. But they are relevant to this lesson, and instead of repeating this information, you know, I put a great deal of effort into those two presentations, so please watch them as well. I will be revisiting those concepts, but also demo ing further about them in this chapter. The first thing we're gonna do is look at this three D object. Here. It's a box like objects just like the head. It's made a very simple planes, and it's being lit right now by a direct light. One of the key characteristics of a direct light is that it's a very hard type of light. When I say hard, I'm mostly referring to hard edge and clearly delineated values. For instance, if you look at the cast shadow where my mouse is pointing right now, see how it's gonna pretty hard edge. Also, look at the cash shadow on the floor. It's got that hard edge to it. This is similar to like a sunlight effect. The son is also a direct light, which means it's also a hard light. The sun will produce very hard edged delineations of light and shadow. Another quality of direct lights is that they are singular points in space. If you look at my light source here, this light icon, it's represented by a very small circle that is a point in space because light is only emanating from that narrow point. The areas of the object that that light can hit are very specific. For instance, the light can hit where my mouse is pointing here, but it cannot hit where my mouse is pointing there. The slightest change like that's not a big change. There's like 100% direct like there, 0% direct, like there. That's a quality of direct light. It's comes from a small point. It's very hard light as a result. Now you might think the sun is a very large object, and it is. But its location in relation to the earth is very, very far away. So for all intents and purposes, for us, the sun is actually a very small point in space. Just like this light here, this light is pretty emblematic of like sunlight. Direct lights like this also illuminate planes very clearly like this plane is clearly getting a lighter value than this plane here. This is the same thing I talked about in the a Sorrow head painting a few chapters ago. But diffuse light opens up a whole different world of lighting and I can turn this light into a diffuse light right before our eyes. Here, watch the light source. I'm going to increase its size. See this? I'm making the light more like it's coming from a giant card rather than one point. And now look at our object. Doesn't updates. You notice that hard cash shadow is basically gone. It's It's slightly darker there, but the light is able to infiltrate these areas because it's the Rays are coming from a broader area. And I'll just adjust my view here so you can see how big I made that light was going off screen a little bit before. So instead of light rays Onley coming out of this one dot now light razor coming from this entire card. So where before no light rays could hit where that cash shadow was. Now, some of these light rays not all, but some are able to get at it because they're coming from a bigger area. In fact, in three D programs, diffuse lights are called area lights because they span an area like this. And when you're walking around day today in nature, chances are you're gonna be seeing a combination of direct light and diffuse light. Here's a photo of a plant that I have in my house, and the lighting is very clear. We have sunlight coming in from the window coming in this way, and it's striking the pot. Let's just look at the pot area. For now, it's striking the pot in a very classical hard, light way. I mean, look at that hard edge responsible for dividing light and shadow. The fence line is I called earlier, the fence line between the light family, the shadow family, extremely hard edged. Look at the hard edge of the shadow that's being cast by the planter. But there is also a diffuse light at play here, and it's this area of shadow in nature. Shadows are dominated by diffuse light because, as you've seen hopefully in my YouTube videos, that is the realm of ambient light. That is where you have a lot of bounce light. So in this case you'll have sunlight coming in like this very directly like parallel lines , and they'll strike the floor on the wall and the great and who knows what is in the scene, and they will start bouncing around and it will appear random cause there's so many light rays, there's, you know, a 1,000,000,000 might raise. Maybe they're all bouncing around. It appears like the bounce light comes at random directions, and because of the bounce, light is coming from so many directions. What we get in the shadow is a very soft lights kind of thing. In other words, a diffuse light. Diffuse lights are a bit harder to paint. You notice it's like a little bit darker there, a little bit lighter. They're a little bit lighter also there, and different colors to like here. We're getting, like influence of the orange floor color here. We're getting some bluer color here. It's some kind of mix of the two. So diffuse light can be tricky to paint because we have to consider the entire area that that light comes from. Where is comparatively a direct light is actually quite simple because a direct light is predictable. It only comes from one spot. Diffuse light because it's coming from a larger area, is able to kind of wrap around objects a little more and light them more broadly again. Please watch those two YouTube videos for a deeper dive on those few sentences that I just said. I'm purposely leaving room for you to watch those videos. Okay, here is the reference will be painting from in this section. I consider this a difficult piece of reference toe work from to produce a good painting from for two reasons. One is it's heavily lit with diffuse light. Also, it combines direct and diffuse light. Now, this photo is the result of some high budget Hollywood photography. So what the artists are doing here, the art directors on set is there kind of simulating nature, much like a stage director would do is we saw in the last section the lighting directors here simulating a kind of sunset look. And just like we saw with my plant in my house, the sun is a very direct light. In this case is coming in kind of from below, like diagonally up into the scene. Remember parallel lines. So it's going to hit Onley. The planes that face it's directly. We can see that it's all these side planes of the head, you know, the jaw playing the side plane of the chin, the side plane of the brow, the part of the zygomatic that faces the side. All these side planes face that sunlight, and the sun is hitting them. Or the lighting that they're using Onset, which simulates the sun, is hitting the model with that predictable sort of hard edge. You could kind of trace that termination line, that fence line between light and shadow. Here, it's got a fairly hard edge to it. Not pixel hard, but hard enough. Arrested, kind of easily draw a line weaken, delineate that shape. No problem. But that's like 1/16 of the face. This entire part of the face is lit with diffuse light, and you're probably familiar with what diffuse lights look like on like a film set There. Like this kind of thing, there's these lights called Kino Flows is the one brand that I know of, and it looks like this. Remember in three D? I had that card drawn out for my light. Well, it's the same thing. It's like the light is coming from this rectangular area, and those light rays can emanate from from that large area and be responsible for illuminating mawr planes than a simple direct light could and again because the light razor emanating from a larger area, It's more apt to create softer edges, which is precisely what's happening on this model here. So when I'm looking at diffuse light being in nature or in a photograph like this with onset lighting, it doesn't matter. What I look for the most is where that light card or that diffuse light. Where is it generally coming from? For instance, is the diffuse card placed up here shining down this way? Or is the diffuse card place down here shining up this way? Now, when we're analyzing nature, the answer to this question is usually pretty easy. Usually it's the sky that's providing the most diffuse light because the sky is such a big area of light again. See my YouTube videos for more on that. And in this photograph, I'd probably wager that the art directors are trying to simulate a natural light. They're just kind of heightening it for filmic effect, So they probably decided to place a diffuse light somewhere above her like way off screen, obviously, but somewhere above her scattering light rays down this way, The reason I know that is because all you have to do is look at her face with our knowledge of the Plains, for instance, the cheekbone planes here. We know that this is a general area that points up right. The cheekbones point up, as do the planes on the front plane of the nose here. These also point up and same with the planes of the top plane of the chin. They also point up, and I could just visually see that those planes air lighter. So even though the diffuse light is much softer, there is still evidence of its general direction. And now that I know that I can take the next logical step, which is to say that the planes that point to the side, for instance, the jaw here that does not point out that kind of points this way, it's not going to get as many of those diffuse raise. It's still going to be available to some of the race because again, the diffuse light comes from abroad area, so this is still lit by that diffuse light. Although most of the diffuse lights rays are concentrated on the planes that point up there available to like all of the diffuse light, whereas you know some of the side plains of like the jaw. Some of the side planes of the chin are available to, you know, a fraction of the diffuse lights raise, so they're gonna be a little bit darker. Now there's 1/3 thing, and that is ambient occlusion. And I hope you've watched my YouTube video about this. The area of ambient occlusion in this photo there's to the main one is directly underneath the hat. The hat is causing a very tight space. You can imagine that very few light rays are gonna be able to bounce into that hat area. Despite the fact that a diffuse light is very large. Very few light rays are gonna be able to get in there. So we see a general darkening and you notice the further up you get to like the crevice of that hat where the hat meets airhead, the darker the values get. Let me just get rid of those arrows. You could see the value gets much darker in there, and as it progresses down the head, that ambient occlusion area gets lighter. I would still say that if I were to draw the entire area of ambient occlusion. I would say it's like this. The ambient occlusion looks like this. That's the shape of ambient occlusion. But closer to the bottom of that shape, the values get lighter because the light razor less secluded Ah, light ray can more easily find its way here. Then here. So you can see how diffuse light kind of takes a lot of, well, a lot more analysis, let's say, than a direct light, which is kind of either owner off. Where is diffuse light? You have various degrees of light, and again, that's what's going to make this painting particularly difficult. But we will persevere, and I'll explain my process as I go. So here we go. I'm gonna duck my reference in there on the right. I apologize that the hats getting cut off, but the hat is not the most important part of this anyway. And I'll just do my sketch on the left. So I'm gonna block this in. I'm gonna go back to my line drawing and just put something in. That's gonna help me, because the other tricky part about this model or this reference is that there's a slight tilt to the head like the eyes were not completely horizontally aligned. Well, I mean, they are, but But the head is tilted. So two dimensionally her left. The guy on the left is a bit lower. The I on the right has been higher, so I'm putting in some general marks that will help me get there. And, like I always do, I pick and choose the planes that are the most friendly to me, and that's just based on experience. You'll probably have noticed by now that I tend to like the nose a lot just for me. It's a kind of an easy geometric shape to draw, and, you know, it's got clear front and side planes. And whenever I have objects that have that, I'm more apt to get them right. So I usually do start with the nose. The nose is also It gives me that dividing line between the brow line and the chin, right? It's that halfway point. So I like to start with the nose and I'm using that funnel shape of the head to kind of block in an overall shape direction. Here, um, the global A leading up to the eyebrows. I'll use that rhythm and the eyes themselves are just making sure they're placed about. And I with the part again I'm and I'm here. I'm using those triangular measurements to that cross the wing of the nose. You notice I'm a bit off here so I'll adjust where the mouth is will adjust where the nose is just kind of moving things down a little bit. So I am accurate with that now, in terms of representing different ages in your drawing, the model here is obviously younger than all of the reference we've been looking at so far . She's like a no young teenager. Maybe the planes are all the same. The proportions air even all the same. The difference is the softness between the planes, like you can imagine, like, think of like a rugged mountain man would, you know, you think of, like generally pretty hard edges on those planes, kind of like Theus Aro had itself. Whereas, you know, generally, females have softer transitions of planes and kids, and, you know, including teenagers in this case, have even softer planes. So, you know, think of a baby. There's no hard edges on a baby, right, and ah, a teenage person is is kind of that in between phase between a baby and an adult, they have they still have that evidence of soft edged youth. Let's say, um, I don't know. I'm not dealing with the soft edged youth right now. I kind of actually want to make her face look a little bit harder edged in terms of its planes, because that's how I could better understand it. But then in the painting, that's where I will take full advantage of soft edges and stuff like that. So you noticed I've got my drawing in there in a way that is construction Aly Sound and it's it's just a starting point again, I'll emphasize that I I don't like to get everything. I don't need to get everything perfect upfront. Not that I'm looking to make mistakes up front like I'm checking My measurements here is you can see, but I I'm not too hung up with getting everything perfect. Okay, let's go into some color here and I'll break down. This is I go. This is similar to what I did on the previous painting, but the diffuse light is generally a cooler light in this case, which is true of nature as well. If you seen my understanding. Shadow colors video on YouTube Ah, lot of ah and B, it might from the environment is cooler. A lot of it comes from the sky and you can see it on this model. The light in the shadow, the diffuse light, the shadows very blue purplish. So I'm going to use blues and purples in the shadow. I'm not showing you my color picker because it's not important what colors I'm picking I'm doing. This is an exercise here. I showed you my color picker before. Now I'm hiding it because it's I don't want anyone to be fixated on the color of the pixel in picking. What matters is that it's warmer or cooler. We'll see how I build up these colors in a moment. I mean, look at the colors on her face right now. They're just They're so ugly, right? There's nothing nice about that. I'm giving myself a bunch of options, and I'll hone in on the singular sort of family of cools I'll use as I go when I when I say family of Cools, am I gonna bias my cools to the blues, to the turquoise science or to the purples. You know, which. Which one am I going to bias the most toward? I'll find that later. Right now, I've given myself kind of equal doses of green, blue and purple, blue and you know all kinds of stuff, and it doesn't look good yet, but that's OK. The color doesn't matter as long as your values are good. And right now my values aren't there yet either. So I have a lot of work to do. I'm getting in a bit of that ambient occlusion. Remember that shape I described of the ambient occlusion? That's a key part of this lighting. Whenever you're dealing with diffuse light, you're gonna have ambient occlusion. So, um, I'll get that in and I have a basic shape. They're blocked in. It's given me a sense already that the hat is resting on her head, and now we'll just just like the ambient occlusion. I'll look at other planes that face dramatically down like the under plane of the nose. I'll get another area vampy seclusion that I forgot to say earlier thesis and area of ambient occlusion is under her jaw. like where her neck is. That will also be heavily occluded and therefore much darker, which I have not blocked in yet. But I'll get there. But now I'm gonna start working into the direct light. The nice thing about the direct light and this is true of most direct lights and well, in nature, there's only one direct light the sun. You know, whenever you have sunlight, the sun is a very strong light, so it's going to just pop right out. In terms of its value, it's gonna be a much lighter, stronger value. So I'm going to get that sunlight in there right now. You notice I'm using a relatively hard edge, and I'll just block it in. Not worried about perfection yet. I just I need to build relationships. So now I'm getting into the shadows or into the diffuse light area, and I'm picking a bluish sort of color, and I'm aiming at the planes that are going to show me The direction of the diffuse light, which I've already described is coming from above simulating a kind of skylight. So I'm here. I'm just using my knowledge of the plains of the head. Um which direction which planes point up? Well, I know the cheekbones. Do I know the top plane of the nose does here this plane of the maxillary like above the upper lip? I know that points up, so I'll get some lighter value on that. I'm making sure that this light value, though, is still darker than my direct light. The sun is the lightest value, so I got to keep that relationship. But in terms of the world of this diffuse light, the lightest values are hitting the planes that point up because that is generally where that diffuse card is coming from. Okay, so that's what I'm doing here and this, and because the edges air so soft that diffuse light is, you know, a large area. I have to be very careful with my edges. I can't light it. Like if this were a sunlight, I could just block out planes like chisel them out here. The chiseling needs to be softened to a great degree. Here's some of that dark ambient occlusion on the neck, by the way, coming in, which pops the rest of the skull out from the neck area. All right. Always a good idea to check your stuff in values as you go and what I'm doing here. I'm actually painting in color, but looking at black and white knowing that the color doesn't matter. I don't even know what color I'm picking here. I can't even see exits in black and white, but it'll look fine as long as the values air. Good. So sometimes we'll actually paint in black and white. A little bit of the warp tool. I had elongated her face vertically. I noticed. So I'm just bringing that down a little bit again. The structure, the structural integrity of the drawing will make this okay. This warp tool would not work. You can't fix bad planes with the warp tool. A t least not without some major surgery, but little adjustments are okay. I would rather just get it right the first time. But I did notice that was a little off vertically there. But that is one of the perks of the digital medium. You conduce that for free, Just keep, you know, keep your eye out on the drawing Whenever you do resort to things like that. Anyway, just building up these planes that point up looking at the model, the reference on the right and just looking at how those values air delineated. You know, in general, like logically, the more strongly the plane points towards the area where the light is in the in. This case points up the more value it's going to get. But because we're dealing with a soft, diffuse light, those changes in value are very minuscule. So the training here, the discipline is to train your eye to see subtle changes in value. This lesson I've given you the reasons why it exists and where you can find it. But you're your practices to do studies and train your eye to see small changes in value and then link those with your knowledge of the plains of the head because they are very linked. You know, like the jaws gonna be darker than the cheekbone in this case. And you can use the knowledge of the plains of the head to kind of predict that action and then use your eyes to visually see it and then link the two Ah, lot of art to me is a combination of those two things. Your knowledge, which kind of enables you to predict things, predict how things are going to look and then your eyes, which will either. Well, hopefully will confirm your predictions, and then you can act on both of those accordingly. Now, sometimes we know when you're learning, you'll think you know something, but then you'll actually see it in reference or from life, and it won't conform to what you think it should be. In that case, trust your eyes. Don't trust your knowledge because your knowledge might be patchy. Your knowledge that the whole nature of knowledge is you kind of don't know what you don't know. And sometimes people could get real stubborn in saying, Well, it should be like this when it's probably more likely that there is actually a hole in your knowledge that you have to patch up. So again, if what you see in your reference does not conform to what your knowledge says it should be , trust your eyes and then use that as impetus to continue your studies and, you know, patch up whatever gaps might exist in your knowledge. That's what art learning generally is all about. Unearthing those gaffes that you didn't even know were there and then act accordingly. Um, all right, so you can see what I'm doing here. I'm using my smudge tool, which is my one of my favorite photo shop tools. There are smudged tools available in any package. They may not be called this much tool If you're using, like critter or something I don't use. I don't know what other Softwares call them, but different. Different maps have different kind of things. The idea is that a smudge tool allows me to kind of move the paint around as if it were like wet oil paint or something, or wet acrylic paint. Hogwash. Paint allows me to manipulate edges, and I can soften edges nicely with that tool. So a lot of my painting and photo shop is done with the smudge tool. For those of you using photo shop who would like to simulate my smudge tool settings, I turn on finger painting, and I set the strength to about 95%. And then I I prefer looking for flat brushes for my smudge tool use they They kind of act a little bit more like in Pasto brushes. I think the defaults in photo shop is a round brush for this much tool, which doesn't really work for me anyway, just to take stock of where I'm at in this painting, I'm always trying to move forward in terms of presenting critical information in the painting. That's how I start paintings in general. I think a painting should progress pretty quickly at the outset because what you want to do is get all that critical information in, like we're the in this case, the direct light against the shadow in terms of its value in its color and then within the diffused light. We're getting that. You know that softness here. I'm just kind of working at the subtle planes, the side plane of the chin, the under plane of the the jaw area. Because this light is coming, the direct light is coming from kind of a lower angle. So it is going to hit the kind of where the jaws turning into the underside. But I'm trying to present critical information first in my paintings. That is how you can progress in your work like progress with a piece, and then you'll get to a point later in the piece where you can kind of slow down and evaluate little little designs of shape and little changes in edge and modulations of color . But at first I don't I don't want to get caught up in that. It's not time for that yet. First, I got to get my planes right. My drawing right, my values right. And if you're focused on those efforts, your picture will progress very quickly. This is what makes it possible to do, like a speed painting or something. Just get the critical information in or, you know you couldn't go to, ah, life drawing session like I mentioned in the previous chapter and do an oil painting from life and like, an hour or something. As long as you're only shooting for the critical information and not dilly dallying around with fancy brushwork or anything like that, that stuff can come later. Get the information down first. That is what will progress you the most. So I think this class is actually pretty good in terms of you can just kind of emulate the way that I'm drawing and painting here in your own studies. I'm showing you this as a way to study, and I'm showing you a few various ways of painting here, like the last section was kind of more roughly done, and this one's a little more refined and little areas in between. You can emulate my problem, my progress. That's right. My process here in your own studies here, I'm just using my smudge tool. The kind of carve out the top planes of the hat like the brim of the hat is facing up. So it's getting more light, and you can clearly see that in the reference photo. And I don't want to get too crazy with the actual textures and patterns on the hat itself. That's not what this demo is all about, but I'll just block it into the hat. Kind of looks blank a little to blank there without any of that information, but I just use a bit of a quick texture brush. If you're looking for more information on brushwork, I have a whole separate class called digital brushwork techniques. Um, you know the nature of these classes. I want to stay focused. I don't want to get caught in this whole tangent on brushwork when I have a whole class about it. Um, were strictly aiming at the head here. In fact, I'm trying to tame down my brush work. If you know my work from my online galleries, you'll probably notice that I go a little more crazy with brushwork in my, you know, just daily personal work here. I'm being a little more controlled with it because I want to present a method of study that is more focused on analysing the fundamentals. So I've adjusted my painting technique to be very straightforward. And then in your personal work, you can add all that little those little emotional flares. Let's say, like for me, it's a lot to do with brushwork and texture and how the paint is applied. That's something I look for in my own work, but that's not what I'm doing in this study. But again, if you want to learn more about digital brushwork, application and just brush work in general, yeah, I've got a different class about that. It's available now, so I'm working into the eyes now, and I've purposely kept this area pretty blank and very soft because, um, it's an area of shadow, and it's an area of ambient inclusions in particular. Now, remember if you see my YouTube videos. Ambient occlusion is not technically a shadow. This whole area shadow Ambien Inclusion is simply the part of Shadow. That's the darkest, the most included from the ambient light or diffuse light. So what I'm doing is I'm trying to make it even softer in my study than it appears in the photo. In the photo, like the way a camera sees a scene, the camera's gonna put kind of detail everywhere. I don't want to be a slave to that. I want to use a painterly aesthetic, too. Bring out the information where the most light is. This relates to something I said earlier in this in this class, where our eyes respond to light, not so much to shadow. Shadows tend to just play in a more amorphous kind of dark space. So I will soften my edges and shadow often, and I will eliminate information and shadow. Um, and that's not just shadows. That's any kind of dark area. So in this case, we're dealing with a gigantic area of shadow. The entire face is in shadow, basically, but the ambient occlusion is the darkest part of the shadow, so I will eliminate the most information in the ambient occlusion area. Now, having said all that, I still will make those eyes a little sharper like I'm doing now. I'm bring them out with just a little bit more contrast in their going in there with some slightly more dark values, slightly harder edges. But overall, I'm kind of taking this approach where I start something like this very soft in the dark's . And then I'll, little by little, make it a little more contrast. Ian, a little harder edged just a little bit on bringing that out as I go, and then I'll just find we'll try to find the right place to stop and keep it still fairly subdued in the dark's because even in the photograph, a lot of those edges and her eyes are becoming softer like I don't see a lot of hard edges there. So in my painting, I want to further exploit that kind of difference and caricature it really and make it even softer so you can do that with any kind of thing with art like, for example, planes. If if if two planes have a difference in direction, you can exaggerate that difference. That's where character design comes from, or caricature, which will actually touch on later. In this class, you can apply exaggerated differences in values. If you notice something is lighter versus darker, you can exaggerate that contrast and make it even more so. Same with color. If you notice something is warmer versus cooler like I'm doing here, I made the warm light a little warmer than it is in the photo versus the cola cooler light . Now, by comparison, is a little cooler, like the difference is exaggerated in warm vs. Cool in my study here, and the same is true with edges. Again, harden soft. If you notice hard and soft edges in your reference, you can exaggerate it. That's where your study uses your creativity and your imagination. I'm not trying to replicate this photo like the last thing on my mind is like getting a perfect likeness here. That's not what I'm doing this for. I'm doing my studies and not just this study, but in studies in general. I'm doing it to capture relationships of all kinds. The more visual memory you'll have at your disposal when you're working and you'll find that will be. It will come to the point where you probably don't even need reference for certain things anymore. Like if I'm doing a human character design, I probably won't need reference for it cause I know the planes of the head. I know different lighting scenarios. I know about color harmonies and stuff like that. You the use, the utility of reference becomes less useful to you Now, reference is always gonna be handy for things that you have no idea how they look like, you know, Still, I'm ahead. Sometimes. If it's a really crazy angle, I'll need to look up some reference or take a quick photo of me or something in that pose. Um, but you know, all the time they're objects. Like I was drawing an airplane a few days ago. And I don't I don't really know how an airplane looks, so I need a reference for that. But with study of the fundamentals in this case, you know, head fundamentals like planes of the head, you should be able to look at reference and get away from copying it. You should be able to look at reference and understand it. That is what your studies should be focused on. So when we know whenever you're studying, be it from this class or finding your own photographs and doing paintings or whatever it is you're doing, try to distance yourself from simply replicating your reference. I think that's of limited use. It's okay to do go ahead and do it. But also remember that your studies should be aimed, in my opinion, more at capturing the relationships between things like value and things like changes of direction, of plane color and stuff like that. Because those relationships are universal, those air not just tied to one specific reference. In other words, you'll be able to use your knowledge of relationships on any subject. And what you learn on the human head can be applied to human head. Or it could be applie