3D Modeling In Blender 2. 8 For Beginners - The Modeling Toolset | Danan Thilakanathan | Skillshare

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3D Modeling In Blender 2. 8 For Beginners - The Modeling Toolset

teacher avatar Danan Thilakanathan

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      3D Modeling Tools Introduction


    • 2.

      The Extrude Tool


    • 3.

      EXERCISE - Create A Table Using Extrusion


    • 4.

      Working With Loops And The Loop Cut Tool


    • 5.

      EXERCISE - Create A Table With Loop Cuts


    • 6.

      The Bevel Tool


    • 7.

      EXERCISE - Bevel A Table


    • 8.

      The Knife Select Tool


    • 9.

      EXERCISE - Create A Smiley Face Using The Knife Tool


    • 10.

      The Spin Tool


    • 11.

      EXERCISE - Make A Coffee Cup With The Spin Tool


    • 12.

      Smoothing Your Model


    • 13.

      EXERCISE - Create A Simple Door


    • 14.

      Introduction To Modifiers


    • 15.

      The Subdivision Surface Modifier


    • 16.

      The Array Modifier


    • 17.

      The Bevel Modifier


    • 18.

      The Boolean Modifier


    • 19.

      Introduction To Sculpting


    • 20.

      The Sculpting Brush Types


    • 21.

      The Sculpting Brush Properties


    • 22.

      DynTopo: Taking Your 3D Models To The Next Level


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About This Class

In this class, you will learn the entire modeling toolset available in Blender. We'll cover the different 3D modeling tools and what they do as well as what they mean (such as extrusion, loop cuts, bevelling and so on). We'll also look at modifiers to help you with 3D modeling and also look at all the available sculpting tools to help you get awesome looking 3D models.

This class is a continuation of my previous class "3D Modeling Masterclass For Complete Blender 2.8 Beginners - The Basics".

This class is most suited to beginners.

Meet Your Teacher

Hi, my name is Danan. I am a Software Engineer by day and a filmmaker/animator/educator by night.

I started out making an animated short film for fun using Blender a few years ago. It was during this time did I realize I had a huge passion for 3D filmmaking. I have spent the past 5 years making animated short films and have learned a great deal about the entire process of filmmaking and animation.

This is something that I do as a hobby. Animation and filmmaking are both something I'm quite passionate about and I spent a few years trying to learn and master this skill. Through heaps of trial and error and researching on my own, I feel I have come a long way. I would now like to impart this knowledge towards others who feel a similar w... See full profile

Level: Beginner

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1. 3D Modeling Tools Introduction: blender has a number off standard and also advanced modelling tools that rivals even the most expensive treaty software currently available. Today. You can find all the modelling tools in the three D V port. You need to be in edit mode off the object in order to view all the modelling tools. The modelling tools are just witches that can be found in the left hand side off the tree TV port. Similarly, with most things in vendor, you can also use shortcut keys to toggle between them for the different modelling tools. I earlier mentioned that the modelling tools are like the tool set that a handyman keeps in his shed for building stuff. That's exactly what the's modelling tools are. As a treaty modeler, you are pretty much the virtual handyman, and you have all these virtual tools at your disposal for building anything that you want. Best of all, you don't need any muscles or heavy lifting to perform, other than just pressing a few buttons and cooking stuff, the three D modelling tools are the tools that will help turn your plain old, boring cube into almost anything that you can think off like a vehicle or a character to use a tool. Just click on the widget to activate that mode to switch your tools. Like, for instance, you want to change from using a hammer toe a chainsaw. You just click on another widget to change to that mode off the model intell. You can also switch modelling tool modes by using the shortcut key shift space bar. If I hover my mouse over this one, you can also see that short hockey of a debt should Spaceballs. If you do that, it is pretty much open the same thing that you see over here as well throughout the remainder. Off this section, we will go through the most commonly used modelling tools. These tools are also used in other commercial three D modeling software. So if you ever decide to change three D software in the future, you'll be at an advantage and will have the know how off the three D modelling tools once you must. To the three more lentils, you will be a few steps closer to mastering three D modeling, and you have the resources to be able to make pretty much anything off the top of your head the most commonly used three demanding tools. Pretty much in any major truly software are the extruded to be knife toe. They look up to be bevel toe and also the spindle, just to name a few. So let's start off with the extrude tool. 2. The Extrude Tool: first up the extrude tool. The extra tool allows you to pull out Neuvirth disease edges or faces through a process called extrusion. This is the 1st 3 jargon that you will have to get accustomed to. And don't worry, it's super easy to understand once you get the hang of it. Extrusion is mainly used to pull out a flat two D shape so that it appears as a three D object. In Blender, you can select either of Vertex an edge or a face here. I'm just going to go ahead and select a face. I go to face like mode than selecting that face of the death can be any facts, really. Then we will change to extrude mode. So actually click on extrude and make sure you're in edit mode Tabby intended. But if you haven't already, you simply start to click and drag to extrude out a new face like so you can also use this one to constrain it on the excess. I can set this face and then click and drag out to extrude another face. You can like this face over here and extrude out another face, so that is the process off extrusion, and you know you don't have to do one face in time. You can extrude out multiple faces at once so I can select this one and then shift. Select a few other faces and they click and drag to extrude out multiple faces at a time. Also, you don't have to extra just faces. You can also extreme voter sees. Maybe I can select this vertex in this Vertex, and this protects click and drag. And then we extrude out with a new set of faces were just extra at one Vertex. Like so and the next readout on edge, you can go to edge Select, and it's like this edge and extra it out Onda. We extrude out a new face from that, so it's pretty straightforward stuff in Bender. The shortcut key to extrude is the letter E on your keyboard so I can go ahead and select a face. We will start off with this one difficulty. It does the same thing when you do e it by default uses the access that the normal is facing out of. You can also use the accents to change directions everybody and then many ex We now extruded on the X Axis e and why extras it on the Y axis and so on. So that's just a way off forcing the direction of extrusion. You can still use the shocker key to extrude without worrying about which mode the widget isn't. So if I mean look at murdered that I can still go d and it was still extrude as normal. It doesn't matter which emoted isn't so when is the best time to use the extra It'll well, you were generally used the extra tool in modeling to expand out and build your three D objects, shape and form. 3. EXERCISE - Create A Table Using Extrusion: Now let's do a little mini exercise and create a really simple table using only extrusion. So first off, I'm just gonna go ahead and select the camera and deleted photo object leaked. Same with the light. So we're just gonna start with the Cube over here, and we're going to scale it to make it look like a table leg. So let's go to this scale mode over here. Then I might increase it on the Texas, like so and then overall, to scale it down by just clicking and dragging our side off the object. And we'll create something that looks like that. But you can skill it up on the Texas A bit more. But the front view and I think that's a good starting point to make it about. Let's just say two squared higher for now. Yeah, something like that. It's a two squares high. The side doesn't matter. It's up to you to smaller squares. Something like that is a good starting point, I guess. Okay. Okay. It's another start to create the tabletop frame, so I'm gonna go into edit mode now and then. Ah, wanna go ahead and changed the face like mode on this, like the top face. Then let's go to the extra Tal so distracted house we can see the name will clearer extra it'll if they want to take and drag this yellow, which it over here. And this is make it to about the height off a simple table frame like so. So now I'm just going to quickly go ahead and extrude a bunch of these faces a number of times until we get the overall table frame shape someone like this face extrude out to about how long wants the table to be so in front of you I might go 12345 squares. Something like that. I don't want extremely against my just quickly go and move it for this one on the X axis. So get something that looks like that and then we'll go back to extrude again. Looks true. Just a little bit out, something like that. Then select the bottom face of here and then extrude it down to be with the same height around around about where this is. So we have one side of the table now done. Let's go ahead and set this face and this face, unless extruded thes ones out. If we extrude out of region like this, if you want to change the with off the how far you want this to go, don't click. This plus just uses arrow in here and click and drag. If you click this plus, it'll create a new extrusion that you can see over here. So why are wasted policies for no reason? So we just do that now it's gonna create it anyway, because we don't have a narrow, but you have to first click over here and then you have that arrow. We can make the adjustments. So from top view, I might make it about, let's say, 33 squares wide. Okay, so now I want to take the plus and then drag out to round about there. Let's like these two faces over here and then from side view, click and then extruded downwards to create table frame. So how do we finish off this table? Model parts? Well, one ways. You can select this place over here that extrude out and make it collide with this, but when it comes in three D modeling, that's not very elegant. It's generally not very good for modeler to do that. It's much better. Just connect all the pieces directly because you don't have too many adversities. Edges overlapping. Every China is just too messy. So what I would do without sex but these faces over here and just delete just the faces so you can either hit X on your keyboard and great faces, although to mesh delete faces. So there's something like that. Now this is a simple matter off connecting the dots. So if you remember watching the previous videos in this course, you know that we can use the fill it'll so I can go ahead and change the edge. Select. That's like this edge and also this edge hit F to fill it up. Same with this one. The bottom one, that one kid. After fill it up, top one talk. One could have to fill it up, and finally it was like this edge this edge on his F to fill it up completely, and we have our finished tabletop frame to finish off the table. E you can tap out. You can go ahead and add in another cube, but on shift a mesh cube and then scale this to be around about the size of a tabletop. So in this case, I'll click on this blue box over here, skillet out, re scaled down the Why go to move, moving in place like so and live it up. So now we have a finished table, obviously just scale it down. So it's bit more centered. And we have what? I was scared up over here a little bit as well, and there we go. We have a finished table, but in this case we have two models to create a 10 model. If you want to put them all under one model, what you can do the in. Select the cube, then shift. Select the table legs. You can go control J joining as one mesh. Now, when you select them, you devastate both, you said one, because it's now part of one mesh and the object of your sect. Last the active object that becomes the name off the main object. So Control J is a shortcut that stands for joint. Alternatively, you can also go object and join. You can see the truth cocky over their control. J that does exactly the same thing. So that is the basics of creating a table using the extra tool. So now go ahead and spend some time trying to get comfortable with extruding stuff. Start with a cube and try extruding out random faces. Vergis ease and edges on your own, so have fun and keep lending. 4. Working With Loops And The Loop Cut Tool: the next most important three D modelling tool in your tool set is the loop capital. Before we look at the loop cattle, we need to know what loops in general are thinking. Conceptually loops are something that starts at one point and ends up at the same point in terms. Off blender, we tend to work with either edge loops or face lips. In blender, you can have a closed edge loop like this, so it starts at one edge, goes completely around and ends up at the same edge. But you can also have a terminating edge loop like rest, like this loop of here. It terminates over here, and it also terminus over here. So this is not exactly a fully closed edge loop. It's a terminating edge loop. So what exactly constitutes an edge loop? Mathematically speaking, well, the definition is more like a Siri's off connected edges, like so where each vertex, a long, be connected edge, said these ones over here are connected to exactly two edges, or vergis is that are not part of the look. So in this case, these ones over here. So as you can see each vertex along the loop is connected to exactly two edges or you could say to overseas, but they're not part off the loop. Once that rule breaks, the absolute becomes terminated on the edge. That pretty much stops there. So in this case, the edge loop terminates over here because it doesn't have exactly two edges connected to it that are not part of the group. It has many, many edges that I can't do it that are not part of the group. Ah, face loop is pretty much the same thing. So if I go to face, select and then select this group, you can have an entire loop studying from the face and going all the way around and ending up back at the face again. So we have a closed Facebook. You can also have a terminating facelift as well. Like if I go like this, the face loop terminates over there. Well, a face group is pretty much all the faces between two parallel edge loops. So we have this edge loop of it here, which is parallel to this edge loop over here. But then over here it intersects and does not become parallel. So that is not so that will terminate the face slip of a day. Since these two edges are parallel to each other, that face enclosed within it is part off that face. Lip like so, can be a little bit tricky to get your head around. But generally it's easy to visualize one to keep working with it. So how do you select Facebook's and edge loops in blender? Well, the short cut key to doing that is boat. So how am I selecting these edge loops in Bender? Well, I'm using the shortcut key Old select When I say old selected, it could be either old left like or all to write, like depending on how you set up your preferences to select INGE's. So to select one, and she might go left like or right click. But to sent entire loop just at the shortcut key bolt. Tow it so old. Select. If you understand vertically, just hover your mouse over the edge. That's very cool on an old select to select multiple loops and once just hit shift bolt and inflict the same applies to face lips as well. Got a face like mode, then hold my mouse over one of these faces over here, it will selected vertically, but if one ago more on the horizontal side, just go out, select on on the edge over here and respect horizontally. If I want to select multiple loops at once, I can add us. Go old sector sector first loop and then shift old selected multiple times. Shift on select should hold select ship old Select, Not Conflict Multiple loops at once, As I've been doing throughout this course, if you don't like show car keys, you can always rely on one of these many options so you can go select select loops and loops. Andi will settle the address that is currently selected, but generally I tend to prefer to select Um, it's like them using a shortcut keys just a lot more easier. Have a good inch select that's like this end over here, Then select loops. Edge loops. Respect me that loop of here. But if you look very cool and stuck that one, then go select and slips. It looks like that is, look over there. Influence are very commonly used in three D modeling, and they're especially used when it comes to a modeling organic double objects like characters and plants and animals and things like that, pretty much anything that needs to bend, deformed or move edge loops become really, really beneficial for this case. So now let's look at Luke cuts. What is a loop cut? Well, a Luca is when you add a new loop between two existing loops in vendor, you can add an edge loop using the loop cut to which you can find over here. Luca to can be used to either at one edge loop or multiple edge loops between two existing edge loops. And when we add a new loop, Bender will maintain the rule for EJ Labs, where every single connected Vertex will have to edge is connected to it that are not part of the loop. It's quite straightforward in blender to add edge loops using the loop kuttel. So just click on Luca Tool and you'll see this yellow holland over here when you hover your mouse. This indicates where the edge loop will be added when you click your mouse. The first is the former added edge. Look over here. It will Holland over there and in fact, like an edge loop will be created, like, so quite straightforward. Alternatively, if you want to use a short jerky, you can use the show. Cocky control are. So if I just change out of the road for a second and federal control are, I can scroll up and down to control how many loops I want to add between the two existing edge ellipse if you want. You can also use this little widget over here to control the number of cuts, and you can also smooth it out if you want. When you use the show, cocky control are and click. You can also slide it after you click to choose where you want to add the look at between the two existing edge lips. Usually you use this slide effect to sharpen a corner, so that's pretty much it. That is really the basics of using the loop cattle 5. EXERCISE - Create A Table With Loop Cuts: with his newfound knowledge. Let's now go backwards and rewind time and make our table again. But this time we will use lip cuts. Sometimes I go ahead and open up a new version of Bender File New General generally. Okay, I don't really want to save my changes. Some Scott discovers changes on what I won't do is I was gonna go ahead and, uh, delete the camera and the lamp by setting them both getting extra weight. I will use the cube to start off the table, so I'm now going to quickly model a quick tabletop. So let's just scale us down on the Texas so you possess the thickness on the table a little bit. You can make a table around that. Think too little boxes stick like so when viewed from the right of you from the top view, I'll increase it on the X axis so that it's about four 1234 But full meters long, uh, by let's say three meters, I guess. Now let's just keep that two meters. But I want to make a less thicker than that. Actually, you might go one smaller box, something around there half and half should equal one. Something like that should be good for a tabletop that is tapping into edit bird. Andi want to now start adding in our table legs. So what I wanna do is I want to use the loop cattle now, and I want to start to actually had a loop cut for the tables. I wanna have two loops over here and two lives over here. So what I would do is I would have full cuts, like so make sure nothing except by going Slackman. Then this old select this one. Shift out like this one and to say s point to Sorry, this 6.2, something like that. Let's just move this across to the corner. Like so Same with this one. Polt, select this one shift also this one this to scale X to constrain on the X axis point to Teoh making about point to make about 20% off the original scale. Let's also new this to the site. I would do the same thing on this side as well. Well, I'm going to go to the loo. Cut too. Let's add a loop over here 6. The Bevel Tool: next up the bevel tool. This is a simple modelling tool to understand. Straight off the bat, the beveling tool is used to smooth out sharp corners of your three D model. Here is a modeling tip that you may not realize if you were to learn three D modeling on your own. Nothing in the real world is 100% shop. There are no corners on any object that you would find in the physical world that are completely shop. I mean, all you need to do is just go out and look at everyday objects. Try and find anything that looks extremely shop. Even the sharpest knife in the world has some smoothness. If you zoom in super close, I guess when it comes to the lives, you could sort of get away with it without adding some smoothness on the blade in your three d world. But most other objects haven't smoother corners, but there's the corner of the building, your smartphone, your table or chair anything. They all have smoothness on the edges. It's extremely subtle, but if you don't include some bevel in your model, it tends to break the realism off that model At first glance, you may not be able to tell that your table doesn't have smooth edges, but some part of our subconscious can actually tell that our model looks off when we don't have some sort off Beverly Going on. Beveling also helps catch light and add a bit of glint to your model. Smoother objects are also nicer on the eye than Harsha sharp objects, so it's imperative that we know how to use the pivotal. So let's use this little smiley face just to start off with. But you can also apply to a cube sphere or any other three missions will. So what you do is go to the bevel mode in the modelling tools, select an edge or a group of edges when, in this case, until selected this edge loop over here by old selecting maybe this one as well. So I have the entire smiley face, and I August also slipped the eyes the loose around the eyes. Excellent. So this is These are the engines that I find to me too harsh to shop, and you want to bevel it out. So all you need to do is just click and drag like so and now it looks a lot more smoother. But of course, if you wanna make a look even most middle, just turn up the segments So many three segments made. Look, Macon Look, even most middle, the more segments you add, the most middle look. But bear in mind that it will add up more verses in your model and may end up clogging memory if you were to use it in a more production environment. Generally, I tend to stick with three for my own models. The shocker key for the bevel to is control be so. Even if I was in battle mode, I can't go. Can I can festival select all the edges that I want to select? Say I want to take this entire Angelou people here around the face. Excellent. And I want to Bevin it wanted to do it, had controlled be on my keyboard, and it will do the same thing. It already remembers the three segments that I stood up previously for the Blue Cut that so it's automatically and those three segments. But of course you can change it if you want to as well about going to this many options. If it isn't open for you, just click that arrow day and you can see there's options there. I'm not sure about you, but to me this looks a lot more pleasing to the eye than the one we had before. So if we can try it on the Cuba's well because see immediately how much better it makes our Cube look. So we have this cube, which is quite boring. But if I not go to select motives like all the sharp edges off our cube, something like this I shouldn't want, just inspect everything like so by hitting a all those little and then go to Bevel Select mode and then click and drag turn up the segments safe more. And does that not look better than the old, boring, bland cube that we had before? I think this all looks a whole lot more better and a lot more realistic, as would appear in the real world, so that's pretty much it for the devil to 7. EXERCISE - Bevel A Table: Okay, So let's quickly bring back the table that we created from the loop cuts tutorial. Unless I'm in a bit of bevel to our table to make it look more smooth and more realistic, I don't wanna do them. Simply just gonna go ahead and select each of these engines over here. Well, I think it's a little too hush. I'm gonna go ahead and hit control. Be to add a looker to add a bevel, and then we turn of the segments to about two or three and instantly we have a more smoother wooden leg. And that looks more realistic. Just a safe time under the same thing. Tow away the other engines low by selecting each month. These edges. I'm sorry, this one on this time, I might go ahead and use the bevel selectable. Sorry. What? Where is it? This one. And then it's click and drag. Turn up the sickness to three, and we'll call that pretty much good. So now our table looks a lot most of the day. We can also do the same of the top of the table as well, so I can just go ahead and select these loose but old writing that one shift. All right, this one shift old ride like this one and shift old right click this one I guess we could through the bottom of the table as well. Schiff told right, Like all these loops over here and then just go control, be adding a little bit of a bevel and that's good enough. And now our table looks a lot more smoother. May also bevel out these corners as well be I don't want to smooth. It has to be has been very, very subtle when it comes to things like this. Don't make a too smooth, but it don't make a just smooth enough. So there you go. We've now created a more realistic three model off a table. 8. The Knife Select Tool: The knife tool is another handy modelling tool you can use to effectively cut your geometry so that you can effectively shape your geometry with more control. So you basically draw in new vergis, ease and edges directly on your model. To use a knife tool in blender, you can simply go to the knife selected mode like we have over here. If you highlight your mouse over there, you can see it. Then you simply just click on your model and then just drank. Then just randomly click in places where you want to advertise. He's like, so I'm just writing a ticking, clicking and taking. You can keep clicking to keep adding new Vergis is to your model, and once you're happy with your changes, you simply hit. Enter on your keyboard to apply the change and will no longer appear purple. Alternatively, if you if you're not happy with the changes like I have something like this, if you're not happy with the changes or you need to do is hit escape on your keyboard on it will reverse those changes. So when these knife edges are purple over here in the case that the knife cut is active and not applied yet. Until you confirm the changes, these red lights over here indicate where the verses will appear. And if you intercept within existing legacy, it will appear green like so. So what it will do is it will merge there. What it will do is, instead of creating a new Vertex, it'll just merged with the existing Vertex so it won't create a double vortex in the same spot. We're just merged with the existing one over there. The shortcut key for life Select is K K standing for muscle it civic. Okay, I can't do the same thing as well. Nothing if u k and then click and drag It automatically advertises when it comes into contact with an edge to something like that. Like that. Like that. Like that. So you don't have to let go of your mouths once you want. Like of emails, you just hit enter to apply the change. If you click and drag and then just click out, let go. Sometimes your mouse will click in a new direction and probably don't want to. The duration to start from here, so you need to do is just simply hit D on your keyboard and then choose the new place to select where you cut somebody on a cut over here and then click Go Dunham and he e could a new location to click. So in the nice like mode, he does not mean extra. He means just to simply create a new cut. So I don't have this kind of a here doesn t remove that, and I can choose a new location when I want to add a cut. And again, once I'm happy with those changes, I simply hit Enter on my keyboard toe. Apply the cut so pretty straightforward stuff once you get the hang of it. 9. EXERCISE - Create A Smiley Face Using The Knife Tool: exercise time. Now let's make a simple smiley face, mostly utilizing just the life too. Okay, Someone to open up a new instance of vendors or profile new general discover changes. Because I don't really to use that. Let's get rid of everything. Some scholars select everything sect all and then just delete it. Now it's gonna go ahead and add in the shape of our face. It'll be a very simple smiley face. I'm son of the shift A or you can go add mesh circle. I can play around with some of these changes you want, but I guess I didn't need it so high, Polly. So a magic school, maybe 24 ver disease. That should be that more workable. And also I want to fill it up with, um, an end gun like so and end gone. If remember, from the previous two totally is a face that has more than four overseas. Whereas if I used Thea other option but the circle and I used to feel top to be triangle fan. It'll just create this type off Amish. Everything is triangle. It's already want that I want a cut in a smiley face on my in gun, so that's I want to use this one. So what? I'm gonna do the moment to talk to you by hitting seven on my numb pad. We can also view navigation, never get a viewpoint and go top. And then this now used in life to select to cut in a simple smiley face, it's got object more to edit mode. Let's use Thean Life Tool Select And then I'm going to go ahead and start clicking in areas where I want to draw in the eyes. Some might be fearless. I don't like that one. So I've seen Escape. Let's try something like this. It's not gonna be the most prettiest looking eyes I'm. So it'll go to rush to this later on. I'll show you in a better way of creating smiley faces. But for now, I guess this will be good enough. So I'm happy with that. I something to go ahead and hit Enter. Once you have been in the loop, make sure the click on the Vertex that you first clicked. So it needs to get his big Red Square like that but hit enter and I'm just gonna join in a another one. So this time it was a shocker, KK And then that's just drawing in another circle. Yes, doesn't dissected that. But now I hit. Enter. So now we have two eyes for character, something Bennett us create these odd edges of here. Maybe some limitation on the end gun that causes that. But it's just a little artifact that I don't really mind it. Finally, I'm gonna go ahead and create a smiley face. So this knife to select let's just randomly click sign that is running to create a little smiley face. I won't give him a very big smile. Like so his center. I think it's a little bit off sums going to reposition this one. Yeah, something like that. Like to select this entire loop, live a little bit to the side. This in turn, leads to lose by ship. Selecting also that one shift old setting. This one. I don't want to take this one shift, right. Like that one I noticed in a little, and I have a basic smiley face. So now you want to do it, you know, with a face like mode selected these three faces where the eyes and the mouth will be, and then simply just delete those faces. So I think I can do it over here. Gomes Military mish delete faces And we now have a mish with a And now we have a circle with a smiley face. So to create a sort of three D looking smiley face, I guess we can extrude the whole thing. So in a to set everything or go select all and then go to the extra tool and we may either extrude up or down. It's up to you and so extreme up to see something that looks like that. So now we have a nice smiley face. That's it. So just keep on practicing with the knife to select. Remember, the shocker key is K to add a knife cut um E to create a new cut, and you can either hit enter to confirm the changes. Or you can hit escape on your keyboard to roll. Doctors changes. So keep practicing that, and you've pretty much mastered the life too 10. The Spin Tool: next up the spindle. The spindle is used to sort off extruded your selected edges a number of times radiantly around a central axis, which is usually be a three d Kerson. So the spindle used to create things that are more rounded rather than straight and blocking. Like we have this cube over here. You can use this been told, to create things like door handles, wine glasses or even a kitchen sink tap. The general workflow is to usually model a portion or a two D cut away off the object and then use the tool to effectively just spin around. Your object doesn't make sense with a cube, I know. But let's just say I removed all these fantasies and I just add in one vertex over here that is extruded up and creates a weird kind of shaped like this. And then I expect all the edges, and then I just spin it around and create interesting shapes like so. So as you can see, we start off with this two D cut away over here, and then we just spin it around to effectively create the object that we desire Spin to don only spin edges. It also spends Verdecia and faces as well. Like we saw with a cube that have random playing over here that's checked everything and spin it. It still does. The same thing can create help us create forms like these, which is more interesting. As you can see, it's always it's using this three D cursor as the central pivot point upon which to spin your three D object. So can be a little fun to work with when you want to create this sort of rounded, cylindrical type of objects, sounds a little difficult to explain, but hopefully a little bit more easier to demonstrate with an actual exercise. 11. EXERCISE - Make A Coffee Cup With The Spin Tool: so exercise time. It's good. Out of edit mode, Candice removed the default object and its start fresh with a new one that's going to do everything in the scene. But I select all and then just object elite. Then until a position this right to the center of the world go shift. A shift s closer to world origin like so let's go ahead. And I didn't Cube to start off with like So then let's typing into edit mode. Make sure all varieties are selected bubbling, select all sweet old him to merge everything at center. So that does. It will select all the verses and then murdered into one vertex right in the center like soup. That little orange doctor we have. So I would do right now is going to create a very basic coffee cup. Okay, so I want to extrude out basic, um, to be cut away off a coffee cup. So if I just move this over here extrude one more beginning e extreme one small by hitting e extrude once more My heading e That might is reposition this more to make a lot more coffee cup copy. Captain restarted a flat surface and then it starts to around itself out. I guess. Now I'm gonna use the spindle to create the entire coffee cup. So right now, if I go to spin tool and then click and drag this blue thing over here, it's spinning the vert Izzy's which is not right, because at the moment I only have this one Brit ex elected. But I want to spend the entire thing on this three closer point over here. So go ahead. Now respect all the policies off your coffee cup and then spin it around like so. So we have some lentils at that. Not that it will spin on this treaty cutter over here. So if you accident, click somewhere else and within three cause elsewhere and then attempted spin it. You may get a very, very different results, which is what we don't want. Bear in mind that you need to keep your three course right on the origin, right? It's like the accident moved. It became discovered shift as positive world origin. That's where we initially positioned Wilkerson. But sometimes if you don't have your object in on the world origin, you can simply just go something like set this one shifters selection to so it closer to selected, like so in a position. It right back that selected Vertex. Okay, So sect all the voter sees unless a spin it around to get something that looks like that. Okay, we sort of have a basic coffee cup shape, and we don't have anything to feel up our cop. So I'm just gonna do this manually by using the usual feel tools that we that we're familiar with from the previous section dissect these three verses, but it f to fill. It's like these two. But these four verses can have to fill in fact, things differently than this keeping f to fill up the entire cup. And now we have the base off the cup completed for the coffee Cup handle I will use in life to select like so let's just cut in a little portion over here. And I guess over here it's an Inter to apply those changes on may be I didn't a little portion of a here as well into Let's just like this. Just get this out of little get more. Something like that I won't do is I'll go ahead and go to face select. I believe those faces. And then let's go and select this edge that edge and then let's go to the spindle. But this time I don't want to just spin and randomly like this. So I want to do is I want a position three d close up where I want to pivot to be so in this case, and I use the people as that one. But this time we don't select this one, because if I do that and click out and drag, it goes in the horizontal direction. We want to come out of destruction, so I won't do that. Good one on my keyboard, three on my keyboard so that I can see the side view. It's McDonogh's to a point, and instead of taking this looked like outside on the drag. So click and drag. Do we get something like so you wanna control how many segments you want? You can change that over here. Well studied steps. So the less you put out, the less detailed look, the more you put it, the more loops for creating a more detailed look. Okay, so let's keep moving it more to get something that looks like that. So from their own inwards, we just simply just tie this up with this loop. So just go ahead and fill these ones that second to fill biting effort. If you bowed and f on a kid hopes I that one, that one like that one and that one that you have to finish off the selection from here on in words, we simply just week can use this proportional editing to over here and then just move it in . So for a beginning tutorial, this is good enough for a basic on pickup. But there is an exercise in the section on how to create even better looking coffee cup than this very, very rushed example that I showed you right now. So I would suggest you to check out the tutorial on how to create a coffee cup in the exercise part. That's it. That's the basics off. Using the spin tour in Bennett, 2.8 12. Smoothing Your Model: We now know how to smooth the harsh edges of a model using the bevel tool in Bender. But how do we smooth the model over all when the way our model looks right now, the shedding looks a little bit too flat. We can seems lines that's quite obvious that these are faces in a training model. If you showed this in a three D render, people can tell straight away that it's fake. It's computer generated, so this is obviously problematic. If you want to rent your model for a movie or some kind of still image render, we can hide this by using smooth shading, So to do that, you can undergo W shade smooth and little immediately employs some tricks to get others visible lines was visible edge lines, So this will use a little simple trick where it'll blend in those edge lines so that you can tell that it's edges when you render it out. Even viewed in the view port, like so, alternatively the same thing. You can also go to object and shade smooth, or go back and shade flat again if you want to. Alternatively, another way to smooth out our object is to use a modifier. So we need to do is go to the modifies panel Goto Admiral Fire subdivision surface and that'll make your model smooth. Overall, you can turn up these if you port steps to make it look even smoother but doesn't let you know. The subsurface modify is what Pixar generally uses to really smooth out their amazing three D characters on models When using subdivision surface. Modify in conjunction With this moving, you can get really, really nice smooth looking results, and your final models can really end up looking professional. Really, really great. If you have organic models, models that move come to life. You don't really need to apply some division service form or hard surface objects, but it definitely has its uses in those types of objects as well. So I know at this point it doesn't look right to the Cube. Someone made this cube look like a sphere, but generally will employ some tricks in there to make our cube look like you by adding in lieu cuts just shopping out the corner, some to control our I'm just going over all the model and shopping out the corners and now we get a really nice and smooth looking cube, much smoother than we've ever created before. So that's really the secret off, creating super smooth looking objects in Blender Generally, when it comes to three D modeling, we generally uses smoothing effects as a sort of last stage or polishing effect to our model. 13. EXERCISE - Create A Simple Door: let's now work on a more interesting and the most slightly challenging three D modelling exercise. Let's make a door a simple dough that you would find in your home. I want to go ahead and read the lab and the camera before you just go ahead and copy me step by step. I just want you to take a moment to look through the modeling tools That would be pretty much been covering in this section, but just try to come with what tools that you would use if you want to create a simple door for house something that looks like this. So what tools used to create something that looks like this. If you want to embrace the challenge, go ahead and see if you could model the door by yourself. So use the morning to that recovered and see if you can model this store over here. Come back to this video to see how I did it, and compared to yours, good luck. Okay, so hope you had a good shot at making the door yourself. Here is how I would approach making the door. There's no exact one way of making the door so There's no right or wrong answer. There's just different varying techniques, that's all. So first I want to start off with this cube. Let's scale it to look like a door. So I might use the front view to rub it in the door, and I'll select the top face over here. Unless this position it to about the height of a door. Do that. I think about two. Two and a bit meters long. I'll select these two faces over here and then all scale it in on the X axis. So it s picks on a scale in to some human represents of roundabout with often average door like so now, sex, uh, this face of it here and or minerals and both the faces and scale on the Y axis to represent the bigness off the door. Yeah, run about one box size. We're slightly. Listen, that Okay, so we now have our door shape. Great. So now we just need to add in the fancy little design patents, so I'm gonna go ahead and use the loo cattle for that. So I'm sure looks like one loop over here and then just turning up to about full blue cuts and their position right about the sentence. I'll just leave it as is. I didn't another look over here. And then again, I will need four Luke cuts on again. I'm quite happy with that. But the only difference is this time we'll go back to sleep mode on the old select this loop and this sleep over here. And then the kiss said to move closer together and also increase the height off the design pennants. Same with this one and shift select. I should also like this one. This is Ed moving up a little like so. Now go to each of these faces were on the design parents to occur. Andi, I want to extrude in words. But instead of using the, um, 1,000,000 point, I went to use the individual origins that scale on its origin. So the scale on the face rather than this three d closer over here. So you might be thinking, I want to use the extra tool to do this. But I guess this is where I want to let you know about another tool which is similar to the extra tal is called the insect faces toe it is basically be extra tool, but what it does it don't scale in or out its scales on the same the same plane. So the scales inwards or outwards. But it does create a new face, so technically speaking, it is extrusion. But it's not extruding out or in a sadistic sort of like extruding in place from accents. So let's see what it does for click and drag. You can see that extrusion is now taking place in place so it doesn't go out or in it just stays in place. So that's pretty much around doing with this bevel to click and drag again. It will create another incent, which we don't want to do. So I'm gonna go back and go to the select mode or so the scale mode, a skill it up a little bit, skillet out on the picks, and I'm kind of moving inwards like So, do we get something that looks like that now I'm going to go ahead and and use the A proper extrusion tool and then extrude it outwards. But this time wanted to stay. Sorry, I'll go back to sleep mode, live it out a little further and now I'm going to scale it down. She will scale down the center, skilled on the X and create something like that. So hopefully that looks more like a door. I think I should have made the door a bit more symbol of empty space over here, so I guess I could here radically moved, repositioning in place. Also, that again, I'm I slept all these ones over here, all of them. I think that by the way, to show Holstein transparent seconds like the backers will keep everything consistent. Let's widen it out. Do the same for this one. So why did they, By the way, I think alter a lie keyboard just like none, and then be on my keyboard to box Little. These ones have been repositioned that Okay, let's go back to a work. And now that door looks like a proper door now, Okay. So that the design pattern on the door is now done. Let's not go ahead and adding a door handle. The door handle is gonna be quite simple. I guess I'll start off with a cylinder. Answer will click somewhere over here or wherever you are. The door handle too. stick onto your door. So I started for the cylinder. Making us should be fine. Let's go Our X 92 rotating on the X axis by 90 degrees. Scale it down a lot. Let's get on the Why something like that. And then over here, good edit mode. Select this face of here. Scaling down, I said, What's right? Well, extrude out a little. Scale it down. Have an extra don't one small like so maybe extreme. One small, this little scale it up. Let's move it backwards now Go to the select mode, moving backwards and this extruded once more front ones. Front woods, skillet up He stood once more. It's going down a boom, Richard once more scared on a lot and then extrude once more and move it in and skillet dough. So we credit a very, very basic door handle there, my question and another loop of here and just scale up just to round it out a little bit. Like so. Okay, so the door handle is now done very, very basic. So at this point, I think what we can do is we can simply just go go right ahead and smooth out the door just to make everything more professional right now, it looks realistic, but not realistic at it. Potentially could be. So. It's time into edit mode off this door. Select, although harsh edges. So in this case, I was gonna go ahead and select pretty much all these faces of here and, uh, bevel it with a little tool. Bevel it. Let's use three segments given three sevens. Looks like it might be a little too much, but nevertheless, there you go looks little smoother. Now go to it's like load and select. Each would not face select, by the way, but each of these lips of here this is pretty much polishing my model to make it look Smith . That looks really nice. Now let's go to the corners of the door. Select H of the edges, Same on this side. I guess I'm just for the river to this to Toronto to skip doing this side. But if you want to make a complete door, you can also do the same thing we did over here on this side as well. Or you can use what's called a mirror ball of fire, which I'll cover in the next part. So don't worry about the backside. Will to look at the front, suddenly controlled be. And then I'm not gonna go overboard with the bevel. I'm gonna be very, very subtle with it, because the edges of a door generally more shopper, uh, to give it a little bit more shopper, make it very, very settled, like so. So he may not be able to tell. May not be, as obviously, that video settlements really does make this door look a lot more better for this one. Alarming the handle look a lot more smoother by adding in a subdivision surface modifier. So that makes it even better. And also smoothing out by using W shades doesn't look very Heidi told. This is where we're adding lube countries to sharpen things out over here. Maybe over here. Maybe over here. Uh, yeah, I think that should do it. That looks like more. Better handle on the side of medals at a look up, but sure. Well, okay, so that's it. That's our door. If you want to use it straight in your product, you can either join it to your mish by selecting both of them in a controlled J. But then when you do that, you lose the subdivision service, modify that it applies. So what? I want to. Instead, it's I wanna undo those changes can. Oh, yeah. On what I'm gonna do instead is I'm going to a parent, the handle to the door so you can do that by first selecting handle, then shipped. Selecting the door. Make sure the door is the actually door has a lightest orange highlight or that your ships like the door last, then a control P said Parents to object. Nobody move the object. The handle. Move along with it. This can use straight away in a three D product off yours that you're working on now that when you move the door handle, move along. But if you knew the handle, the door went along because it's the child that follows. Apparent, apparently, really for the child. But parents all set up the interested that's generally used for things like when you add a hat to a character so you can move the child around wherever he wants A later on. If you decide that you want with the door handled to this side instead, you can do that, but it won't affect the door anyway, on the handle will move along just fine. You don't even know those types of details, especially as a three D model of just let you know that better has that feature if you are working on those types off projects. Okay, so that's it. 14. Introduction To Modifiers: in this section, we're going to take a look at modifiers modifiers our operations carried out to modify your object in a non destructive manner. You can do the same operations on your objects without the help off any modifier. But this may be tedious and in most instances be destructive in that you can't easily undo your operations back to the original state, so modifies helped to simplify and speed up your workflow. Ah, modifier is nondestructive in the sense that you can modify your object in various ways, but it will still not affect the underlying model. In vendor, you can add a modifier to any object type by selecting the object, then in the properties window. If you go to the modifiers, tamp one with the spanner and then go to add more to file. You can then go ahead and select the modify that you want to apply to your object. The modifier works by using a modified A stack in the sense that you can add or layer on multiple modifiers on your object. The ordering off modifiers in the modify stack goes from top to bottom, where the top modify will operate on your model first on the subsequent modifies with an add on top off that result. So if we have something like this type of modified, for instance, and then we have some division service modifying top, it will then apply this mortar fire on top off this Spotify. Here are the types off modifiers that you can add to your object. You can modify our object. You can generate objects out of your existing object. You can deform your existing object, and you can create simulations from your object like cloth, fluid, oceans and things like that. If you want to make your changes permanent, you would just have to go and hit apply and this apply button is available on most modifiers. So let's now take some time to look at a few off the most popular modifies available in Blender 2.8, and hopefully it will make more sense by seeing some examples 15. The Subdivision Surface Modifier: Let's start with the subsurface modifier, So selector object goto add. Modify our and select subdivision surface Subsurface stance for subdivision surface sound super fancy. But really, all it does is it smooths your three model overall and can help your model looks super detailed due to the fact that it Smoothes a three D model. Overall, it lends itself very well, more to organic types off models. But it also has its use in those hard surface types of objects as well. The fact that it can give you a highly detailed and smooth organic look makes it a really popular WaterFire for use in films and games as three D models can still work with the underlying mish without having to deal with tons off. Vergis is and edges and things like that. If I increase this viewpoint. Actually, the number of viruses are being generated are a lot more, but we only control just eight of them. 2345678 Seriously speaking, when we move one Vertex, it'll move a number of other verses in the subdivision modifier on its own, so I don't have to do with all these vortices, edges and faces were doing with a very low amount of them. But if I apply the subdivision service model file now, we have to work with all these vortices, edges and faces which could be a miss. So under that controls the Okay, So how does this subdivision service modify a work? Well, the subdivision service modifier actually subdivide your voter sees edges and faces overall , when we have no subdivision at all zero we have our original object. But we then apply one subdivision, you know, divide all the variety. So these two political will someday if I have one Verdecia right there, Thies to overseas will subdivide and have fantasies going over here, another edge going over here Same over here and enjoyed making up same with all these ones as well. So we have something like that and then at the end, it will smooth it to make it look like a sort of bullshit. And of course, when you increase the levels, it will subdivide that result even further into even more parts. So it's just subdividing your existing mish. Here is Suzanne the monkey. Let's go ahead and give Suzanne some stuff like so if I turn the levels up from people. It will increase the number of varieties but also make our model look even smoother. If you turn the render levels up, nothing will happen in a few points. But when you give it a final render, it will appear in the actual render itself. This controls how much sub divisional goal in the render. And this controls how much subdivision will go in the report. The more you sub divide, of course, the more smoother or look at the same time, it will use up more memory. Just tip. Don't go crazy and keep increasing these values. You may slow down Ben Drew and possibly even crush it. This has happened to me quite a few times before. I'm not too sure if this is the case with Bennett upon eight, but just something to keep in mind that this way too much magic standard going on your computer's memory may not be able to handle it. As you can see, Right now we have 31,000 emergencies. Even realistically, we don't have that much by starting all of them. I only have I've only selected 507 medicines, but the subdivision surface has made it appear like is 31,000 policies for increased that number. We certainly got 100 tracings talent, jealousies and then 504,000 very scenes memory usage going up 213 megabytes. So don't go too crazy with it. Keep it reasonable. If you don't want to see these weird artifacts, just like in the previous section, you can always go w shape smooth, and that will make a look super smooth. Recently in Bennett to pollinate, the developers have integrated open subdivide into blender. This is the same subdivision service technology that was created by Pixar and is also used for their characters and models to help their models look super smooth and detailed. So what is open subject? Will open subject is actually used to enable fast subdivision and pixel was kind enough to make an open source for us. Open subject can actually use your CPU or even your GPU and calculate subdivisions super quick using pixels algorithms. That means you can now start creating super detailed missions with high levels off subdivision and inborn pressure. Report that much when I play back my frame, you can see that is going out frames per 2nd 24 frames per second. Even when I increase it quite high, we can see that dropped off a little bit. But now it's back 24 frames per second. In older versions of Bender, where open subdivision wasn't integrated. Every time you added a subdivision surface modifier onto your object, it would slow down your report. And when you pay back animations, it would look super slow and quite Laghi. So this is one of the most celebrated features off Blender 2.8 means you can now start creating super detailed and super smooth services in your truly report without as much leg as before. So one tip don't mistake the smooth shading to be the same as subdivision service. Smooth shading simply uses tricks in lighting to sort of blend those weird lines and is weird artifacts that we get when we have a flat surface. So if I turn down this view port, we can't see that we have so much Vertex Donna. But because more apparent when we have less voter season a model we can easily see this weird line artifacts from this new shapes nude. It uses tricks to sort of blend the lighting. Between this, you can so much as if it sorts smudging the light in between these lines. So it appears like that, so it doesn't really make your model look super detailed, but it does make it look smooth. The subdivision service modifier actually modifies the objects and adds Vergis ease and edges and actually makes your object appear smoother due to the increased number off disease. But you can still always use the shade smooth on top off the subsurface modifier to give your three D models a nice, smooth finish. So right now, when we apply a subdivision surface modifier on our Cube, it's making it look like a sphere. And the more we increased subdivisions, it'll make him look even more like a sphere. This is not a bug off the subdivision service modifier. It's doing his job of actually smoothing your object. It actually thinks that your cube is too harsh into shop and smoothing and out to make a lot more rounder and more bloody. So if you don't actually like that feature a few things you can do to actually sharpen our your objects. The most common one is actually adding a loop cut. I've been sliding it, uh, in each corner, like so That could be one effective way to actually make your Cuban look more like a cube with more smooth corners. But there is another tool you can use with in a blender to actually shopping out these edges. And we're gonna use a technique called edge creasing so to actually add increasing all you need to do let's transfer back to the move mode or really dislike mode again to enable increasing. All you need to do is go to shift E. So right now we have everything selected amigo shift e. We can increase it to make it look more shop. If you go all the way, we have a completely sharp cube. That's one cool, effective it can try. For example, the phone goes, if it's like this edge of here longer shipped, he we can edge precent This to go away of a here and make this workshop one. We can select these engines of here and increased this further shift e and make this look a lot more flat. A lot more shopper. So using increasing, we can actually define which parts tomorrow should be sharp and which ones shouldn't. If you don't remember Shakaki shifty, you can actually go to edge and then go edge crease and you get special cocky over their shift e as well. 16. The Array Modifier: next up. Be a ray and modify theory. Modify helps to create an array off your model. In other words, it will duplicate instances off your model and arranges them linearly, similarly with the other. Modifies and looked at you just like your model. Then add an array modify like we just done. The count over here determines how much duplicated instances that you want to create off your model. So right now we have to duplicate instances. I can increase that count. I have 345 and so on. These values here indicated distances off the X, Y and Z locations around. Now our array modifiers going along the X location on we have a distance said as one. If I increase this distance, we can create a little bit of a gap between our models. Note that if I make a change over here, it will automatically apply to all our array instances as well. We can also make our model duplicated and go upwards or even along the y axis. Not only that, if I go back to zero and make zero, we don't have any location. If you put this at zero as well, you'll stack each of the instances on top of each other, so it looks like one model but actually has three models on top of each other. When you actually drag these values out, then you can see that those are actually separated models. The bulls are separated, recruiting and distance offset off 1.6. We can also add multiple array modifiers on top of the modify stack. So if I go ahead and another arraignment of fire, we can see that we've created another instance over here. This time we're making a go on the X and location again. But this time I can say the score on the Y location. So if they have one, or maybe a bit more than one, something like that. If I increase account, I can create something like that. So I can use these to modifies, to create very interesting shapes and interesting types of things. Maybe all the 2nd 1 I can, uh, give it back a little and increasing on the zed and very quickly I can create this top off stare shape so you can very quickly see that you can have a lot of fun with this modifier. and create a whole bunch of interesting things. Like again create stairs. You can create an army of people. You can fill a hole with lights. You can even fill an entire stadium with chairs or have a line of wooden fences for your home. Anything that needs to be repeated a number of times. The arraignment of fire can help you with that, since the array modifier is quite straightforward and we've pretty much covered all the important features already. I'll leave it to you right now to spend some time and have a bit of fun with this. You don't only have to use a cute you can use any type of objects. You can even use the monkey and create a bunch off array instances, so theory modifier is generally quite straight forward. 17. The Bevel Modifier: We're already quite familiar with the bevel tool for smoothing out sharp edges and corners in our objects. But blender also has a better modifier as well. So what's the difference? Well, the bevel modifier aims to smooth out every single sharp corner in our object, whereas with the bevel tool, it allows you to manually select which edges to bevel or smooth out. Sometimes the bevel modify it may not work properly, depending on how you model your objects, and that manual control you have available may be more appropriate. If you look at the settings is generally quite straightforward. The width determines how. How Why do you want your beveling to go? The really large Do you have a very, very white, wide Beverly going on? If you're very small, the beveling is almost pretty much subtle. The number of segments it's Merced before tool. It just makes your edges look most middle. If you increase the number of segments, it will make you look really, really smooth. But of course, you had a lot more Vergis ease, probably unnecessarily. So generally, when I go with models, I tend to stick with about two or three. And although it looks quite horrible. I'd general go one at a subdivision service modifier on top of that, and then go w smooth to make it look really smooth. Although some it might increase the count The view port Count off the subdivision service. So you see that we have a really nice, smooth looking cute that is now nicely beveled out. There are also these other settings that you can play around with with the devil mortar fire thes. And these tend to be a bit more advanced so that I might leave these for one of the exercises. So that's pretty much it for the government file. Quite simple and straightforward. 18. The Boolean Modifier: the final modified that we want to take a look at is the bullion modifier the bullion modifier performs. Mathematical, bully and top of operations on your mission is to this is probably a more fun modified to work with as it simplifies tasks that can be a bit more complex to do manually. One of the most popular ways of using the bullion modifier is using an existing object to cut a hole into an existing object. There are mostly three different operations. You can apply with a bullion modifier. You can intersect. You can union. You can difference if you're still familiar with high school Mets. Thes operations may make sense to you, but I remember back in high school where you had those diagrams with the two circles and union, then you get an even bigger circle. Things like that inventor modeling. It's sort of similar to say I have this cube over here. I want to cut a hole right in the middle of this cube. Well, I can go ahead and add another object, maybe a cylinder, and then rotated on the Y axis by match degrees and then scale it on the Y axis also the X axis. Let's move it in place over here. So maybe this is the part where I want to. I want to cut a hole into my cube. Well, I can do that. So we have. Right now, this object is called the Cylinder. If I go ahead and set the Cube, I can say intersect with the Celinda. Also, my Met is not so great. The Media's Union union. It's very difference. Yep, I think that's the one. So if I go ahead and on, put difference now the cylinder is cutting through our cube. We can't see that. And even from Rudisill, nine really doesn't do much. We can only see it once we apply them on a fire. So go ahead and apply. And then I moved to keep out of the way. We can see that we have, unfortunately ended the life of our cube and with cut a hole right through him, which is quite sad. But that's pretty much what the bull and what if I can do for us? It can cut holes into object. Maybe I can add, Suzanne, the monkey wrote in her around. Can you stick her face right into the Cube. Um, like so I can go ahead. It's like the Q Begin had a modifier bullion, and I can select the object to be Suzanne this time. And let's also make a difference. Let's apply the difference on then when we move out. We have called the Suzanne's face right into our cube. So as you can see, the bullying modifier can be a whole lot of fun. Another cube, Um, like So if I go bowling, modify this time and so different fellow union with the cylinder and then apply remove it out. It's no union that both. So I think union is sort of like include this and this together as one object. Okay, so just under the change control C and instead of union, if I go now, difference on the different done that intersect had been apply. We have not created yet another cylinder from our cube. I think the Intersect part is only show the part of mission that is intersected with the Celinda. So I guess that doesn't really make much sense. Uh, in this case, this will make more sense with a Suzanne model. So if I have her Suzanne's faced something like that, and then I apply. Avoid modifier, and I intersected with the cylinder, then apply. And if I move us is and we can see that we only have her eyes because I stuck her eyes into the cylinder so that the Intersect operation can be more useful for those kind of scenarios where you just want to get a portion off your object, using another object as the sort of base or the sort of guide. There are plenty of awesome different use cases off using the bully modifier, the most popular one that I can think off the top of my head is in creating houses or rooms . For instance, if this is my wall over here so, she said, That's my wool, and this is my window quite thick. That's no window. I can now cut windows and doors and things like that into my warm to select. This one bullion will be in difference with the second cute that I created this apply, and now I've cut a little window in my wall. That is the most popular use case off the bowling ball of fire. You can add in windows, doors and things like that very easily 19. Introduction To Sculpting: sculpting is another way off modeling objects in three D. It's less technical and more suited to the artist. It's less technical in the sense that you don't need to deal with Verdecia edges, faces and so on. And you also don't need to know terminology like Extrusion and Luke cuts and things like that. With sculpting, you can awaken the inner artist within you and essentially sculpt out your three D model. Using just sculpting brushes. You may need to train up your sculpting skills if you aren't experienced already. If you've done some kind of sculpting before, like clay sculpting, you'll have an easier time learning sculpting in vendor. Basically, it's sculpting allows you to create models. There would be more difficult to do using traditional modelling techniques. In fact, it allows you to create those really photo realistic results to start sculpting and bender . You will need to change to another mode so you would select your object and then go from object mode to sculpt mode. You then be presented with a number off different brushes over here, like so, and you can see what each of these brushes do. If I just click out and drag this menu, you can see exactly the names off each of the brushes. Each of these brushes behave in a specific way to help you. The sculpting artist to mold out your desired three D model. Bear in mind. You do need to have enough Verdecia in your mesh if you want to bend and twist your model by a sculpting, as the brushes will only modify the Vergis ease underneath. So if there is not enough, Vergis is underneath. You won't really notice much difference when you sculpt. Sometimes it will appear like nothing much is happening. Depending on how do you tell you when you're stops to be, you'll need to have enough. Vergis is to allow for that. So in this case, if I go into edit mode and then go w subdivide, I do this a couple of times, have a lot of geometry now and now attempt to sculpt. You can see that we get a lot more geometry to work with when I sculpt so pretty much. The requirements to start sculpting is to have festival a measured enough overseas. Then go ahead and select a brush and then start sculpting away by just clicking and dragging. You can do things like increasing your model. You can do things like smoothing your model. You can do things like drawing stuff on your model and so on. You can also change the size of your brush by hitting F on your keyboard and then moving your mask in and out, depending on how large you want to brush to be. So in this case, I have a large influence, and I can move Mawr or sculpt more off my object within that region off influence for his effort and go back small again. Now I have a smaller region rack and sculpt my object. Right now what I'm sculpting like friends insisted on doing a draw. You'll notice that it's being copied onto this side as well. That's because by default we have symmetry enabled in sculpt. So right now I have symmetry on X. So on the X axis, when I paint on one side, it will have a symmetry on the other side. If I turn this off now, I can sculpt and it won't affect the other side. But I think by default they do allow symmetry because one of the most popular use cases off sculpting is when creating characters on account. It tends to be symmetrical. So Bender is actually trying to help you out by, uh, reducing half the number of working to do to sculpt a character. So now let's take a brief look at each off these sculpting brushes. 20. The Sculpting Brush Types: So I'm going to start fresh and just remove the camera and left and then on the Cuban just going to add in a subdivision surface modifier, turn off the view port a few times and then just apply. So now we have more varieties. Maybe I can go ahead and add one more level on one more and then apply. So have a lot more vortices now to work with now can change this from object mode to sculpt mode to start sculpting. I just drag this out so it's easy to see what brushes I'm using, and we're now ready to start sculpting eso. First off, let's start with the draw. The draw brush just allows you to draw on your model like so. No, you don't always have to go out words. You can also go inwards as well. So if I hit control on my keyboard and click and drag at the same time, it will draw it into the model. Okay, so is it. Just clicking and dragging will draw on the model control and then click dragging will draw into the model. The same pretty much applies to any of these brush. This will the claim brush? I don't know. This is also quite similar, but I think they're more used as a painting brush rather than drawer brush. You just gradually adds form on human model place trips. This is also a similar thing. So clay clay strips draw. They're all pretty much do a similar thing that is behaving sort of different ways. This one accumulated a bit better. Another brush is thean flight brush. It does exactly what it says. You can inflate your model. So if I go like this, I can click and drag. It will just inflate the model in that area. Uh, likewise, if I hit control and click, it will deflate the model in that area. Okay. The blood brush. Sort of the same thing, like in flight. Uh, it just adds a sort of blood onto your model. So again, standing random bits of blobs here and there the crease brush. We'll add a little crease in your model. So it was sort of like a pinching effect. So get out. Little bits increases here and there. So just so that you can see that looks and crevices off your model more clearly, the smooth brush just allowed you to smooth out your model of rule. So there's something looking too harsh in to smooth things out. Make it look nicer. The flattened brush. Will you just flatten out part of the model that are, too, to bending? I guess If I just cook and drive like this, I'm flattening it out, making it straight next. So what else? To see some important ones. The grab brush just grabs a portion off your models. If your f and then click and drag, you can grab an entire portion of the model and just drag it out. It's very good for just overall reshaping the form off your model. The snake hook brush, uh, you know, just pretty much had it in their stake seconds at things like a horn. It allows you to just drag out new form into your object. You can also add in a mosque, so the mosque brush. So, for example, if I say I like the eyes and I was masked this part out and maybe the mouth as well the mosque, this part out, and now if I use any other brush like, say, the drawer brush and I can draw anywhere. I wanted my model, but it will not affect the eyes or the mouth, but it fix any everything else. But that's because we must out the eyes and the mouth so we can't. Actually, no matter how much was sculpt on this won't do anything. So if you get rid of the mask we need to do is click on Hide mosque and, uh, should clear mosque. And now it goes back to normal again to control the that. So those are pretty much the main sculpting brushes. 21. The Sculpting Brush Properties: It's quite nice and Danny to know about Aled these top two brushes. But there are also settings within these brushes that you can play around with to get even more fine grained control. Only need to do is you can either go to this tabula in the properties window called the Active Tool and workspace sittings. Alternatively, you can drag out this panel over here and go to two, but these should show the same screen, so you have the exact same options here as well as here as well. So here, every time you change the brush, you can see that the brush is being changed in the active tool settings as well. On within these brushes, you can go ahead and make something other changes like. For example, if I'm drawing this and I find that the strength of it is too strong, I can turn down the strength a lot and make it more subtle. So now adroll, it is drawing, but it's a lot more subtle. It was too slow. You can sit on your people. Yeah, that's a bit more clear. It's very, very subtle, so it allows you to have more kind of fine grained control like that. And remember the shocking I used for control, which will do the opposite off whatever you do. So in this case I'm drawing. But then, if I have control and click, it goes inwards rather than outwards. Well, you can do the same thing over here, So if I can't subtract now, we find these click. It'll go in words. But then, if I have control in, that comes outwards. So this just sort of flips the direction. The radius. It's like the exact same thing like we would have been doing with the F. If I move this up, the brush gets bigger. If it runs down, the brush gets smaller. If you click on this one, this just enables tablet pressure sensitivity. So if you're using a digital pin and drawing tablet, that means as you apply pressure onto your tablet, this will change both. The radius and strength is kind of odd to enable this for ideas, but it's generally used for strength, so when you drawn lightly on your tablet, it won't apply as much sculpting strength onto your model. But when you push down even harder on the tablet, then the influence becomes a lot more greater, so it gives you even more control on your to remodel, almost like you're drawing it on a piece of paper you can see going through each of these brushes, we can easily create very, very stylistic or even photo realistic types off objects using the sculpting brushes. And we don't need to care about about the placement of Verdecia edges, faces and things like that. We just start away to our heart's desire. Another interesting thing that I should let you know about is using textures, so this allows you to create even more interesting textures. So, for example, if I go ahead and create a new texture for this drawer brush, it's recorded something like Bumpy. And then I go to this texture tab over here and then changed to Bumpy, which is already there. You can load in your own image so you can go open and find an image that you have somewhere . Or you can use one of the inbuilt procedural textures in vendors. For example, I can choose noise, and now when I go back to the scope settings, we have the noise texture loaded in our draw setting. So now, on a sculpt, it sculpts the draw to but now with noise enabled. So this allows you. For example, you can load in an image off reptile skin. So when you draw on your three D model off a reptile, the reptile skin will start to stopped out so it can do really, really hyper detailed, realistic type of text a ring like that. Likewise, if you load in a a texture off skin pools, you can literally sculpt in skin pores onto your three D model. Right now, it doesn't look that great. That's because I don't have enough burgesses. I only have just 6000 disease. If you have something like 80,000 very season this, then this would look a lot more realistic. If you've seen some awesome three D renders were like, for example, you see a character's face with awesome skin, Paul's and pimples and acne bumps and scars and things like that. That's because they probably have a model with a million's off overseas so that they can have those detailed textures sculpted into the model. That's pre mercy basics off the sculpting brushes and how to add textures and how to work with these settings. There's also these stroke settings, and you can change by default is space. But if you choose something like another one, like, say, anchored and then draw, it allows you to sculpt by clicking and dragging and drawing this little details in as you go. So this is also good for drawing in things like pimples and bumps and acne polls. There also this other options, which we probably won't cover in this course. So I'll go back to the default space. Another one is the fall off. So when I hit F on my keyboard, you can see the fall off over here. It's quite snoot, so in these corners over here, a kind of a mouse over there. But as you can see that the texture looks very clear and sharp around the middle. But then it starts to fall off and fade into nothingness as it goes towards the edges. But if I change the fall off this to say shop like this that I had kept, you can see that there's no full off. It'll there's an even texture ring across the entire model. So what I paint you see that more visible when you have a lot more geometry so you can control the phone off, you can have a sharp fall off, and it really depends on the type of model you're working on. But before I tend to find smooth, fall off tends to work well for most kinds off objects. Okay, another one is symmetry. So just like we've been doing over here sculpt, we have a signature on the X. You can also change it here and well, now we have so mature the X and Y turn off the X and just have it on the way exactly the same thing. So I'll just leave it on X. There's also these other options over here. Unified brush. What this means is do you want to keep the size, strength and color the same across all brushes like, for example, if I take off size and I have a brush this large, then I go to play. I have a brush this small. That's because this side is not gonna find across all the brushes if I do take size, and then I keep size this large, like so change the brush. It still stays that lodged in the metal, which brush. I changed it, so just unifies all the size as well. If you want to the strength and color off the brushes, all their settings, I don't think you really need to care about. So I'm just going to ignore it. And, oh, there's another sitting with this one. You can also Jetta Gender is just another way of just random izing. It struck. So other than that, I think that's pretty much it for the sculpting brushes. 22. DynTopo: Taking Your 3D Models To The Next Level: Now let's look at a relatively new invention to Blender 2.8, and that is Dina Turbo. So I deliberately left this out in the previous video because I want to cover it in this video on its own. Donald Tebow is just awesome. I tell you, y Donna Tebow is awesome. Well, it does not care about the topology off your missions down. October is great because it now means you don't have to worry or care about the underlying structure off the mish. You don't even need to care about how dense your mission is with purchases. If your model is super detailed and you choose not to use Donna Tipo, then you will need to have a large amount of urgencies, which may kill your memory, as there may be parts of your model that may not need that much detail. Will. Some parts of the model may need that kind of detail, so you're just wasting memory on parts of your model that don't need that kind of that kind of density of disease. With Donna Turbo, Bender will pretty much create density in areas where you need to create in states and ignore the parts that don't need it. Therefore keeping your mesh light and less memory intensive. So how do we enable Donna Tipo? Well, I deliberately left this out in the previous videos. You just have to take down a turbo in the active tool settings or this tool to bar in the treaty report going and click that he okay, voting started. Detective. That's fine. Okay, what is enabled? Now, if I sculpt well, previously we saw that we don't have. We haven't measured. The low amount of odysseys is just added in this random. And just because I ticked down a triple, uh, but what I start sculpting in detail like this it dynamically created Vergis is for me. So I didn't need to care about that kind of stuff. I don't need a hand little back on the stuff or I didn't modifies or think that that increased density it's increased the destiny in areas where needs to increase density and ignore the areas, or at least not put place too much emphasis in areas that don't need it at all. So if you want to sculpt for super detailed, you would then play around with the settings over here, this detail size tells you how much detail you want to sculpt ful. So if you're going off on overall for than 12 it's fine. But if you make it really, really small like they to pixels, then it allows you to really, really sculpt in super super detail. But this is only best to use if you want to stopped in things like Skin Paul's or us acne scars or bumps or reptile skin or things like that, you really, ever needed just to sculpt out an overall form, because when you go into edit mode, you'll see just how much verdicts are being added. So what exactly does this detail side me? Well, at 12 pixels in meant that it will create a new Vertex every 12 pixels white, where is now with two pixels. It means it'll create a vertex every two pixels wide. But so that is clearly why it appears so detailed of here. Where is it's not a detailed over here, so generally when you sculpt models, you'd start high and slowly make your way as you polish your model and refining model and go lower and lower. But when you start off always start off high 12 pixels tends to be the best one brother. When I zoom out and then sculpt, it's different than it was when you sculpt out, it's using the pixels on your actual screen, so not actual pixels off the model. It's the picks is the distance between the pixels on the screen. When you zoom in, you'll get obviously pixels that are more closer together, because when you zoom out, pixels will appear far away on your cute. Sometimes, if you are unsure, you make you made a mistake like, say, for instance, you accidentally sculpted this with too much detail and you want to make a low detail. That's fine. Going to do is just stopped over it. That will automatically remove those very, very dense vergis ease of the day. Just paint over and you remove that density, and you also free up a memory along the way. So I'm just gonna give away this big secret that is used by three D models to create these kinds of awesome, extremely detailed characters and creatures. In vendor, it's Dinotopia. This is a secret to creating those really, really realistic. The super detailed three D models in Blender. In fact, I used a notable for my protest regularly, especially when it comes to character modeling this character that I use for mine movie were the characters wrinkles and pause and bumps was created using data Topol. Another advantage off Donna Turbo is with this snake hook tool. So this is no damn it up involved. So is using the existing measures to actually sculpt out so that doesn't work at all. But with Donna Tebow enabled, let me just under that with Donna Tebow enabled, and then I use a steak took two. I can literally build out new form, my 20 model so literally I can start with a cube and build out an entire three D character from it. So that is why the Dinotopia two is really, really awesome for creating those really, really super fancy, super detailed kind of stuff. That is, why don, atop a It's very, very popular amongst three D artists. So pretty much with that Donna Tempo you could only nudge and fiddle with the existing topology existing burgesses. But you can't really transform your object into a completely different shaped like what we have over here was with Donna Tebow. You can do that. You can actually build out new form and new shapes. So that is why Donna Turbo is awesome. And when you're ready to start taking your three moles to the next level, Donna Tebow can help you reach that kind of level.