Knockouts in Illustrator - Holes in Shapes - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class | Helen Bradley | Skillshare

Knockouts in Illustrator - Holes in Shapes - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Helen Bradley, Graphic Design for Lunch™

Knockouts in Illustrator - Holes in Shapes - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Helen Bradley, Graphic Design for Lunch™

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8 Lessons (37m)
    • 1. Making Knockouts in Illustrator - Introduction

      1:02
    • 2. Pt 1 Shape with a transparent edge

      4:46
    • 3. Pt 2 Knockout for multiple shapes

      6:26
    • 4. Pt 3 Text with Sophisticated Shadow

      8:41
    • 5. Pt 4 Layered Shapes with cutouts

      5:08
    • 6. Pt 5 Layered Icons

      4:48
    • 7. Pt 6 Holes in dots

      5:01
    • 8. Project and Wrapup

      1:21
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About This Class

In this course you will learn a range of techniques for making holes in one and multiple objects in Illustrator. You'll learn tools and settings for creating transparent knockout effects which are fully editable and which use smart design skills. Along the way you will learn to use some important features of the Appearance panel and how to layer knockout effects so they impact other shapes. Each of the six techniques share similar concepts and build to give you a solid grounding in creating knockouts in Illustrator.

And it wouldn't be an Graphic Design for Lunch™ class if you didn't also learn other Illustrator skills and techniques in the class that you can use every day. 

More in this series:

10 Adobe Illustrator Layer Tips in 10 minutes - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

10 Adobe Illustrator Pattern tips in 10 Minutes - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

10 Illustrator Pen tool and Path Tips in 10 Minutes - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

10 in 10 - 10 Adobe Illustrator Align tips in 10 minutes - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

 10 in 10 - 10 Adobe Illustrator Type Tips in 10 minutes - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

10 in 10 - Ten Top Adobe Illustrator Tips in 10 Minutes - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

10 Interface & Workflow tips for Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

20 Adobe Illustrator Appearance Panel Tips in 20 mins - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

20 Adobe Illustrator Color tips in 20 mins - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

20 Adobe Illustrator Recolor Artwork tips in 20 mins - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

20 Illustrator Gradient tips in 20 mins - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

20 Illustrator Reflect and Rotate tips in 20 mins - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

20 Path, Crop & Cutout tips in 20 mins - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

20 Things New Illustrator Users Need to Know - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

2022 Calendar from Scratch in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

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3D Perspective designs in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

3D Y Shape Pattern in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

4 Exotic Patterns in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

4 Handy Patterns in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

4 Illustrator Shading Techniques in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

5 Cool Text Effects in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

5 Hexagon Patterns in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Abstract Ombre Background in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Add a Background to a Pattern in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

All you need to know about Brushes in Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Banner and Award Badges in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Bends and Blends in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

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Color Schemes to Sell in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Complex Patterns with MadPattern templates in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

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Creative Half tone Effects in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Curly Frames in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Custom Corners for Pattern Brushes in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Custom Organic Patterns in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Custom Project Backgrounds in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Cute Furry Creatures in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Cutout Text Effects in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Design in Black and White in Adobe Illustrator - Create Positive/negative images

Designing with Spirals in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Designing with Symmetry in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Diamond, Harlequin & Argyle Patterns in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Doodle Flower Design & Pattern in Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

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Easy Isometric Art in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ course

Export File Sizes & Resolution in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Faux Tissue Paper Collage in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Flat & Dimensional drawing techniques in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

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Knockouts in Illustrator - Holes in Shapes - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Large Scale Repeating Patterns in Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Layered Paper Style Collage in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

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Master Masks in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

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Organic Spiral Pattern in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

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Pattern in Pattern & Irregular Patterns in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Pattern in Pattern in Adobe Illustrator - Doing the Impossible - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Pattern Know-how in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Pattern of Lines and Dots in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

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Pop Art Star Pattern in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

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Wave Pattern in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

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Whimsical Diagonal Line Patterns in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

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Whimsical Text Effects in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Whimsical Tree Design in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Wreaths & Floral Designs in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Zentangle® Inspired Pattern Brushes in Adobe Illustrator - A Graphic Design for Lunch™ Class

Meet Your Teacher

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Helen Bradley

Graphic Design for Lunch™

Top Teacher

Helen teaches the popular Graphic Design for Lunch™ courses which focus on teaching Adobe® Photoshop®, Adobe® Illustrator®, Procreate®, and other graphic design and photo editing applications. Each course is short enough to take over a lunch break and is packed with useful and fun techniques. Class projects reinforce what is taught so they too can be easily completed over a lunch hour or two.

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Transcripts

1. Making Knockouts in Illustrator - Introduction: Hello, I'm Helen Bradley. Welcome to this Graphic Design for Lunch class, Create Knockouts in Adobe Illustrator. Graphic Design for Lunch is a series of classes that teach a range of tips and techniques for creating designs and for working in applications such as Illustrator, Photoshop, and Procreate. In this course, we'll use a range of knockout techniques to make holes in objects in Illustrator. These effects can be used when making icons for custom text effects, for social media images, and more. We'll be making them using a combination of techniques including offsetting and transforming paths, using Illustrator's knockout options, and making dotted strokes. This wouldn't be an illustrator for lunch course if you didn't also pick up some handy tips and tricks along the way. By the time you've completed this course, you'll have a much better understanding of creating knockouts in Illustrator and you can apply this to your own work in future. Without further ado, let's get started. 2. Pt 1 Shape with a transparent edge: So the very first of our cutout effect, which is a quite a simple one, I'm going to create a brand new document. It doesn't matter what size your document is, I'm just going to create mine at screen size, which is 1920 by 1080. Now, I am going to fill my document with a pattern, Just saw that I've got something to look at. So I'm going to the rectangle tool, I'm going to create a rectangle that is the size of my art board, 1920 by 1080. Click "Okay", I'm going to center it on the art board, I'll remove the stroke and I'm going to fill it with a pattern. Now, you can always get two more patterns in Illustrator by clicking this library option and go down to patterns. There are a whole heap of patents that I installed automatically in Illustrator. So let's go to the nature foliage ones. I wanted a fairly dark pattern. This one will be just perfect for my needs. I'm going to lock this rectangle down. You'll find it handy to lock the background down from time to time so that you just can't select it, just makes life a little bit easier. So we're going to replace a rounded rectangle on this background, and it's going to have some transparency built into its outside edge. Let's go to the rectangle tool, select the rounded rectangle. I'll just drag over a nice, large, rounded rectangle. It's filling with the same pattern I used a minute ago, let's just go and fill it with white. I'm going to bring in the corners a little bit, which of course in the most recent versions of Illustrator you can do by just clicking and dragging on these corner widgets. Now, what I want for this particular shape is I want a border around that, so I want a gap and then a border. Now, you could do this using a knock-out effect, but in this instance it's actually simpler to do it a different way. So to think, not in terms of a knockout, but in terms of a stroke that is offset around the shape. So I'm going to click on the stroke and I'm going to make a white colored stroke exactly the same color as the shape we're working on. Although of course it could be different if you wanted it to be different. In fact, right now let's make it a different color because it's going to be a little bit easier to see it. I'm going to increase the stroke width, I'm thinking to probably around 30 pixels. Now, at the moment the stroke is centered over the edge of the shape. You can see this line here, this path that's telling you where the underlying shape is, and so the stroke is straddling that half in and half out. Well, I'm going to put it on the outside. What we're going to do is move this stroke out a bit. We do that by making sure that we have the stroke itself selected in the appearance panels. So you'll want to have the shapes selected. You want to go to the appearance panel, which you can also get to by choosing "Window" and then "Appearance". Make sure that you've got the stroke targeted here, because what we want to do is push the stroke away from the rest of the shape. We do that by choosing "Effect" and then "Path" and "Offset path". You can see that the default of ten pixels will automatically jump that line, that stroke away from the edge of the shape. All we need to do now is to just increase it to whatever value we want to allow for this spacing between our stroke and our shape. I'll just click "Okay". At this point we can just finalize the shape by selecting the actual color that we want to use. Now, one of the really nice things about this approach is that we've just got a single shape with these effects applied to it. We can also adjust the transparency. Now, we can adjust the transparency of the whole shape. Or we could adjust, for example, the transparency of the outer edge or the inner fill. So let's just go and dial this opacity down to about 50 percent. So there's an opacity on the stroke. There's also an opacity on the fill, and they can be different values obviously. But you can also set the opacity for the entire shapes. So let's just take this back to a 100 percent. Let's go with this one, bring this up to a 100 percent. If you want to adjust the opacity of the whole shape, everything that makes up that shape, then you can go down to this opacity and just change it. So this is an important concept to grasp hold of in Illustrator if you haven't used the appearance panel before, now it's going to be a really good time to get a handle on it. If you have used it before, you may be familiar with some or all of these approaches. But certainly every element in the appearance panel has its own opacity that you can set, and then there's an overall opacity for the whole shape. 3. Pt 2 Knockout for multiple shapes: For this next knockout effect, it will help us to have an image on the screen so we can see what we're aiming to do. What I've got here is three ice cream shapes and there's a knockout around the edge of two of them. Now this is a little bit tricky to do, but I promise you once you've done it two or three times, you're going to get the hang of it. Let's have a look and see what we've got. I've got a document that's 1920 by 1080, but your document could be whatever size you like. I've got a rectangle filled with pink at the back and I'm just using that as my background. I'm going to lock that down because it's going to make life a whole lot easier. Let's go ahead and create our ice cream. I'm just going to click away from everything, let's target a color to use and this time I'm going to choose a different color for my ice cream. I'm going to make them a really deep red. Let's go and get our red color. I'm going to the rectangle tool, I'm going to choose the rounded rectangle tool and just drag out a rounded rectangle for my basic ice cream shape. I'll drag in on this little corner widgets to round the edges. Then I'll go back to the rectangle tool, the rounded rectangle tool, and drag out something for the popsicle stick now that doesn't have to be so rounded. Remove this into position, just line it up so it's centered on the shape. If I'm not getting that right, I'll select over both of these and go here to horizontal lines center, that's actually aligned it to itself and also to the center of the document. But that's just fine, I can move it back. Let's go to the pathfinder, which you can get to by choosing Window and then Pathfinder. I'm just going to click here on Unite so we have a single shape for our ice cream. Now I'm going to drag two more away. I'm going to Alt or Option Drag and then Alt or Option Drag again. Now the layering is really important here. To help you out, I'm actually going to change the color of each of those ice creams just slightly. We're going to make them slightly lighter at the front. Then this one's going to be a little bit in between. Then we've got the one at the back. Let's just go and see. It's very clear as to the ordering here. Now we're going to place them in the position that we want them to be in. If you want to make sure that they're spaced evenly, select over all of them. Let's go to the alignment tools and I've got them down here and you can also get to them by choosing Window and Align. I've got my option showing here because I want to align just to selection this time. Then I just want to space them evenly. I'll click here on horizontal distribute center. Let's make sure that they are nicely centered. If I want to arrange them vertically then I'll come here to vertical distribute center. I've got nice alignment here on my ice cream shapes. Now we need to look at this knockout effect. What we're going to do is select over the top two ice creams and we're going to add a stroke. Let's just go and add a stroke. It can be any color that we like. We're not going to see that shortly. Then we're going to adjust the stroke width until it is as big as we want it to be so we want to measure out roughly how big the space is going to be. I'm going to drop it down a little bit. You'll see that again. My stroke is over the edge of the shape. It's evenly over the edge of the shape. I'm going to put it on the outside by clicking on Stroke and let's just move it to the outside. Now I think it can come down a bit in white as well. We've got two ice creams with strokes around them that is the width of what we want to see ultimately as a space between these objects. We're going to go back and select just the two ice creams that we're working on here. Let's go to the appearance panel and for each of them, we're going to set the opacity of this line to zero. Everything should disappear. What we're using here is a trick or a technique that Illustrator has that says, "If you set the opacity of something to zero, then you can use that as a knockout." In other words, Illustrator is going to offer to make that a hole in an object, that piece of object that you just set it to opacity to zero. In this case it's a stroke, but it could be a fill. We're going to see that in a later example. But what we're going to do now is we're going to tell Illustrator that all that yellow area, we want it to be a knockout. But for us to be able to use a stroke around this object to knock a hole in this one and a stroke around this one to knock a hole in this one, we're going to need to put them in a group. I'm going to select all three of them at this point and choose Object, Group. Now, what we're going to say to Illustrator is everywhere you see something that has an opacity of zero, we want you to punch a hole in everything that's underneath it. How we'll do that is go to the group appearance and we'll go to opacity and click here on knockout group. Immediately you can see that those zero percent strokes have been used as knockouts. This is a fully editable effect. We've got three shapes in a group. I'm going here to the group selection tool. I can target any one of these shapes and I can move it out of the way and as it moves, you will see that it takes the knockout effect with it. We could fine tune the look of this group object by simply dragging and moving any one of these shapes and they bring their knockout effect with them. Just to recap, what you're going to do is you're going to take the objects that you want to have knockouts around them. You'll add, in this case a stroke at the width that you want the knockout to be and you're going to set the stroke opacity to zero, and so that's going to disappear. It's going to look like nothing has happened. Then you're going to select over everything and put it in a group because the knockout is going to be applied to objects within that group. Then you will select your group and go to the appearance panel for the group. You can of course get to that by choosing Window and then appearance. You'll see up here that you've got group, and then contents, and then you've got opacity. I'm going to click on this opacity and click on Knockout Group. This is the result that you get. 4. Pt 3 Text with Sophisticated Shadow: For this next knockout effect, we're going to create some text that has a knockout between it and a shadow around it. I'm going back to creating a document that is screen size. Again, you can create a document that is any size that you'd like. I'm going to fill this with a rectangle that's filled with color, just so we have something to identify that we actually got this right. So 1920 by 1080 is my document size. Let's just go and align this. I've lost my align options, so let's just check them over here. Let's make sure we are on Align to Artboard, which we're not. No stroke and a fill. I'm going to lock this down, so I'll go to the last panel, open up the layer and just lock the rectangle. Don't lock a layer or you can't put anything else in this layer, just lock down the rectangle. Now I'm going to type my type, so small I can't even see it. Let's just make it about 200 points, and let's go and get a nice font to use. I'm using channel slanted, but you can use any font that you like, so say, script fonts look particularly good. Now there's a couple of things to know about type in Illustrator. With our type selected, let's go to the Appearance panel. You may already know that you cannot fill a piece of text with a gradient in Illustrator. Here I've got my text selected, I've got my fill selected. Let's just go and find a gradient because it's not going to work anyway. Click on it. You can see it's got a gradient fill, but it's not having any effect on the text at all. Now the reason for this is the way that Illustrator treats text. Let's just have a look at that. With the text selected, let's go to the Appearance panel. You will see that we don't have any fill or stroke here. We're not even seeing those options. The reason for this is that the options are inside the character areas. So if I double-click on "Character", now we see our stroke and our fill. But the rules of Illustrator are that you can't fill type this way with a gradient. Let's just go here and let's turn that fill off entirely. No stroke, no fill, can't see text. But that's just fine. Let's just come out of here to the Type. The text is still there, but because it's got no fill and no stroke, we can't even see it. Let's come across here to our Appearance panel and let's add a fill to our type. We're just going to click here on "Add New Fill". Black fill, black text. Let's click here on gradient, and now we can apply a gradient to our text. There are two different sort of working in text in Illustrator. There's a character level and a type level. The action that we want in this case is at the type level. You'll see here that we're working on type. Now the reason we've done that is because I wanted to show you that you could add strokes and fills to type and fill it, for example, with the gradient. But let's go one step further. Let's add a solid shadow behind this. What we're going to do is add a second fill. I'm going to click here on "Add New Fill". These are stacked, so this one is on top of this one. I'm going to make this a solid color. But because I want my shadow to be offset, this is just going to be a throwaway color. We aren't actually going to use this particular color, so it can be anything, let's just make it a red. Right now we can't see it because the fill here, this red fill is immediately below the gradient one. Well, we can see it if we push it out of the way. The way we push it out of the way is to transform it. With this fill selected, you got to make sure that you've got the fill selected not the type because we're only going to move this one fill. You're going to Effect, Distort and Transform, and then Transform. This is the tool that you can use to move things. I've got Preview turned on. I'm just going to move it horizontally five pixels and vertically five pixels from just tapping the Up Arrow key five times. For now you can see the shadow text effect is happening. But in actual fact, in a minute we're going to make that to cut out. What we want now is another one of this fill, so we're going to duplicate this. I'm just going to actually grab this fill and drag it onto this little plus icons because that gives me a second version of it with exactly the same effects applied to it. If I open it up here, you can see it's got the same transform effects. We can't actually see it because, again, this second fill is not only the same color, but it's immediately below the previous red one. This one is going to be a shadow, this one's going to be visible, I'm going to make it black. Again, we can't see it because it's under the red. In this case, because it's already got a transform effect applied to it, we can't go to Effect, Distort and Transform, Transform, or we're going to apply a brand new effect. What we want to do is actually edit the existing one and just move it a bit further. We'll click here on "Transform", and I'm going to move this a further five pixels. see what's starting to happen. We've got another layer underneath. We've got three pieces of type; we've got our gradient fill type, we've got a red one, and then a black one. What I want to do is make the red one disappear so the black one just looks like a really interesting shadow around our text. Well, we already know how to do that. What we need to do is go and make this fill zero percent opacity. We're going to target the fill, make sure that you are seeing the opacity for the fill, so you might need to open this little triangle, click here on "Opacity" and set it to zero. It disappears. You've got a black version of the type under the gradient fill version. It looks okay, but we're going to make it look so much better. Because what we're going to do is we're going down to the opacity for the entire shape. This is the opacity at the very bottom, it controls the entire shape, which is made up of multiple versions of this type; a gradient fill one, a red fill one, which we now can't see, and a black one. When we go down to this one here, you'll see that there's a knockout group option. We're going to click that until we get a checkmark, and that causes the red filled layer to totally disappear and block out anywhere where it was over the black one, so that's a totally different effect. Let me just turn it on and off. You can see this is the effect without the knockout, and this is the effect with the knockout. It is a more sophisticated shadow effect, and this is all editable type. It's just one object, so you can go and change the type, and the entire effect is just going to be rebuilt. Let's type shades. You can say, just change the type, and all of it rebuilds automatically because it's all built in to the appearance of this type object. Let's recap on this because this is a little bit tricky. Firstly, we've got a piece of type, and remembering that we had to go to characters, and we had to disable its fill and its stroke. Then we went up to Type and we added a fill, so that allowed us to get this gradient fill here. Then we added another fill, made it a color that we could dispose off because this was never going to be seen. We transformed it by moving it a few pixels up and across so that it would show up behind the original text. Then we duplicated this again, made it a color where we didn't want to see the color, this is going to be the ultimate shadow color. We clicked on the "Transform", and then we increased it so it could actually be seen. We made this fill just zero percent opacity because we wanted to knock it out. In this opacity option down here, we said knockout group because without that knockout group, this is the effect that we get. With the knockout group selected, with a checkmark on it, we get this way more sophisticated shadow effect. Now all of these is editable; you can go and get a different gradient, you can go and get a different color. For the stroke, you can change the typeface, the word, the size, everything is fully editable. 5. Pt 4 Layered Shapes with cutouts: For this next set of examples, let's have a look at these two options we're going to create both of these. Just want to show you what's happening here. This is a fill and this is a fill, but around here is something that is transparent. So when I move it over this shape, you can say that this is a transparent edge. So we're going to create that. Here what we've got is, we've got a rectangle with an oval in it and there's a stroke around this. Then the middle of this is transparent. Now, this is particularly handy because you can say that while we could have knocked a hole out of this rectangular shape, for example, using a minus front, we couldn't get a stroke around just part of the shape because if you stroke this shape, it's going to have a stroke around all of its edges not just the one in the middle. So the knock-out effect will allow us to create this effect where we've got essentially a stroke in the middle of this shape, but not around the outside edge. So I just wanted to show you those two and we're going to now create them. Let's create this one first. We can start off with a rectangle and it's going to have a fill but no stroke. Let's just go and add a slightly different color fill to it. Then it's going to have an ellipse over it. Let's just drag out an ellipse. We're going to fill this ellipse with a lighter color. Now this ellipse needs to have a stroke around it. So let's go and target the stroke and let's apply a stroke to it. Now it doesn't matter what color the stroke is because it's going to disappear obviously. Let's just increase the size of it and let's make sure that it is on the outside of this shape, which it wasn't. That will allow us to be a bit more accurate as to exactly how big this cut out area is going to be. Now we probably want to line everything up before we go too much further, although it is fully editable later on. So you could align it later on, but I'm just going to be a bit prudent here and align it before we start. Now remembering that anything that we want to be transparent has to have its opacity set to zero. We're going to target this oval. We're going to the Appearance panel and we're going to set the opacity of this stroke to zero. So it will totally disappear. but because we want to punch a hole, the width of the stroke in this underlying object, we have to group them together, so illustrator knows what we want to punch a hole in essentially. Let's select both of these and let's group them with object and then group. Now with the group selected, we're going to the opacity for the entire group. We're going down here to this knockout and we'll just click it once and that is this effect. Everything's in a group. Now as I said, I didn't have to align it perfectly before I began. Because if we go to the last panel, this is a group. Inside the group is our oval and our rectangle and so we can target the oval and we can just move it wherever we want it to. It doesn't actually have to be set in concrete exactly as its position before you start, because it is a fully editable effect. Now let's have a look at this one. Again, we're going to make a rectangle. It doesn't need to have a stroke, so we're going to remove the stroke and then we're going to fill it with a color which is a slightly darker of these browns. Then we're going back to create our oval. The middle of this oval is going to be transparent. This is a disposable color. Around the outside, we want the color that we're going to be using for that stroke. Let's give that a disposable fill. Let's target our stroke, and let's make it the color that we want because this we are going to say ultimately, and I'm going to increase the size of the stroke. I'm going to make sure it's on the outside as well so we can get a really good look as to how big it's going to be. We've got an oval with an edge that we want to cave, a middle that we wanted to discard. So let's target our oval. Let's go to Appearance panel. Because this is something we want to poke a hole within, we're going to set its opacity to zero. Then because we want to poke that hole in this underlying object here, we're going to have to group them together so illustrator knows what we're about to poke a hole in. Object and then Group. Then we're going to apply the knockout to the group. With the group selected we're coming over here to Opacity and we're going to Knockout, and there is our effect. So that's a handy effect when you want a border on the inside of something, but not on the outside because really that's the only way you're going to achieve that effect. 6. Pt 5 Layered Icons: For this next knockout effect, we're going to look at something that could be used, for example, for icons. What we've got here is two rectangles, but we've got a double knockout effect here. It just needs you to have your wits about you as you're designing it. It is actually simpler than it looks. We're going to start with a rectangle. I'm just going to draw out a rectangle that's going to be this back one. It has no fill, but it does have a stroke. Let's turn off the fill for it and let's settle on our stroke size. I'm going to use a stroke width of 12 and it's going to be on the outside of the shapes. There is my shape. At this stage, I can just rework my shape if I need to. I'm going to make a duplicate of this. I'm going to select it, and then just Alt or Option drag a duplicate away. I'm just moving it down to here. Now, if it were a different size shape or a different shape, you may want to remake your shape instead of just dragging a duplicate away. But for us, that's going to be perfect. I just need a duplicate, let me just move this one down a little bit. Now, this one needs to have a fill because we need to use the fill to knock out this black underneath. With this shape selected, we're going to give it a fill and the fill is going to be disposable, so let's make it a disposable color like a pink here. The other thing that we need is this edge around here, and so that is done with a stroke, a second stroke for this shape. It's got a 12-point stroke around it. It's actually lost its size. Let's just go back and make it a 12-point stroke. If you don't know why that happened, it was because I scaled the object and so it lost its settings. You can see, I've lost it here too. This is an Illustrator setting. Let me divert for just a second. Edit, Preferences, and then General, it would be Illustrator Preferences General on the Mac. There's an option here for Scale Strokes and Effects because I changed the size of that object, and because Scale Strokes and Effects was selected by making the object slightly smaller, the stroke got slightly smaller. If you don't want that to happen, just disable that, and then when you scale an object, the stroke is going to stay the same width. I'm going to leave it as it is, but just be aware that that is a setting that will have an impact on the width of the stroke around shapes when you resize them. What I want here is this as a second stroke around my shapes. I'm going to select my shape. Let's go to the appearance panel. We know that we can add another stroke using Add New Stroke. This is going to be a disposable stroke, so it can be any color. Let's make it a color so we can say it clearly. It's going to be orange. Right now, it's on top of the other stroke, but we can move it, where you move it using the path offset. Let's just go and select this stroke. We'll choose "Effect," "Path," "Offset Path," and then we can push it out the 12 pixels that it needs to be pushed to get on the outside of the existing 12-point stroke. If we take it any higher, you will see that it just starts to have a gap underneath it. The gap, you might think that that's the gap that you want, but you can see that the gap is just showing through the content underneath, so we actually need to use a knockout here. This is going to be our knockout and it's offset by the same width as the stroke around the shape. Let's just click "Okay." The two things that we need to knock out are the fill here and this stroke. We can do a double knock out all at once. We're going to this stroke, We're going to its opacity. We're going to set it to zero. It disappears exactly as it should. Now we'll go to this fill, we'll go to its opacity, we'll set its opacity zero well, because it's going to be a knockout as well. Now we'll select everything because we want the zero opacity areas of this shape, the one at the front and the top, to be used to knock holes in the one underneath, so we have to group them. Object, and then Group. Then once we've grouped them, we now tell Illustrator, "Hey, you know those areas we made zero opacity? Use them as a knockout." Here is the knockout option, and so we get a set of shapes that is fully editable with this sort effect around it. We can change the size of any one of these shapes. We can change the stroke width of any one of these shapes. It's just a fully editable effect. 7. Pt 6 Holes in dots: For this final effect, I'm going to show you how you can create dots around a circular shape that have a knockout in them. This is a kind of fun effect to create and it will teach you again things about the appearance panel in Illustrator. We're going to start with Ellipse tool. I'm just going to press D to get my default settings and I'm going to drag out a circle, so I'm holding the Shift key as I drag to create my circle. Now I lost my mouse there for a minute, so let me just make sure I've got things in the right place. I'm going to turn off the fill for this shape and I'm going to give it quite a wide stroke. I'm going to give it a 60 point stroke. Now, you can give it any width stroke that you like, it just might help you to remember what size that you've used. Now mine is on the inside at the moment, that might not be the idea, we can see in just a minute. With this shape selected we're going to the Appearance panel. We're going to turn this stroke into a series of dots. We do that by clicking on the "Stroke" option to open up the little Stroke box. We're going to use a dashed line and it's going to have a zero length dash. You always want a zero length dash if you want circles. The gap is going to be equal to the weight of the line. My line was 60 points, my gap is going to be 60 points, if I want these little dots to be lined up butting against each other. Then we'll go here to the round cap option and that gives us our circles. Now there's an option here that we could select, to make everything aligned properly, but it's grayed out at the moment and it's grayed out because our stroke was on the inside here. If we go and put the stroke on the center, we can say that the shape gets a little bit bigger. Well, it's not actually bigger, it's just that the stroke has moved over the edge of the shape. When we get that as a selection, then we get access to this option which is just going to square things up. What it does is it adjusts everything so it's a perfect fit, and you can see that it just jumped a little bit. Obviously, there's something wrong over here and here, it's tidied up. At this stage, if you want your dots to be a bit further apart, you can just increase the gap. If I increase the gap, you can see that I am getting a space, so it's the gap that's controlling the space between the dots. The weight is controlling the size of the dots and you're always going to have a zero dash. Now that we've got that, we want the holes. The simplest way to get the holes is to take this stroke and just make a duplicate of it because it's all set up perfectly. We're going to grab it and drag it down here to a plus icon and we get an identical stroke. Now, this is going to be our hole, it's going to be disposable. Let's make it a color that's easy to see so that we can see that we've got things right. Right now the holes are the exact same size as the circles. They need to be smaller. We'll open up our Stroke panel. We know that this gap controls the spacing so that we don't want to change that. We know that the zero dash controls the fact that these are circles. The only other thing we have any control over is weight, and this is how we make our dots smaller. I'm going to make mine 30. Now the dots are smaller than the original circles, these are going to be my cutouts. Now this is going to work exactly as everything else has worked. If we want something to be a cutout, we set its opacity to zero. We go to the opacity of this blue stroke, which is the blue dots, they're going to be our holes, and we set the opacity to zero, and they disappear. Well, we expected them to disappear because that's what happens. Now we go down to the overall opacity of the entire shape, the opacity at the very bottom here. We click here on "Knockout Group" until we get a check mark, and this is our holes. Now this shape doesn't have a fill at the moment. If you want it to have a fill, you can give it a fill. Let's just go back and get orange color fill. Now the fill is placed behind the circle here. We can put it above everything if we want to by just dragging it to the front and then you get this edge effect. You can drag it to the back behind everything else, and obviously you're getting the knock-out effect through the shapes, so the knock-out effect is not only knocking the blue holes out of the black circles, but also from this fill. Now those circles could be along a line. They could be around any shape that you like, but that's a way of getting dots, and of course they could also be dashes if you wanted them to be dashes, just make a dash length for them that have holes in them and that go along a path of some sort. 8. Project and Wrapup: We've now finished the video content for this course, so it's over to you to complete your class project. Now your class project is to reproduce one or more of the techniques that you've seen in this course that are of interest to you. There might be one or two, the particulars speak to you as being the kind of effects that you would like to be more familiar with using. Create these effects and post an image of your completed artwork as your class project. Now as you were watching these videos, you would have seen a prompt asking if you would recommend this class to others. Please if you enjoyed the class and learned from it, would you do two things for me. Firstly, answer yes, that you do recommend the class. Secondly, write even in just a few words why you enjoyed the class. These recommendations really help other students to see that this is a class that they too might learn from. If you see the follow link on the screen, click it to keep up-to-date with my new classes as they're released. If you'd like to leave me a comment or a question, please do. I read and respond to all of your comments and questions, and I look at and respond to all of your class projects. My name's Helen Bradley. Thank you so much for joining me for this episode of Graphic Design for Lunch. I look forward to seeing you in an upcoming episode soon.