Getting Started with Pro Tools | Alessandro Bencini | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

12 Lessons (1h 47m)
    • 1. Class Introduction

    • 2. Creating a Session

    • 3. Playback Engine

    • 4. Working with tracks

    • 5. Edit Window overview

    • 6. Mix Window overview

    • 7. Routing basics

    • 8. Inserts and Sends

    • 9. Recording audio

    • 10. MIDI basics

    • 11. Bouncing and exporting

    • 12. Final thoughts

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About This Class

Learn all that you need to start using Avid Pro Tools!

This class aims to get you to know the interface and comfortably move around Pro Tools.

We will go through the basics of the software learning how to set up a session, to record and to prepare the audio for mixing.

Not only Pro Tools is a terrific tool to bring your music from the sketching stage to the ready to release track, it is also the industry standard for music production, therefore knowing how to use it is a precious skill. From making records to mixing blockbuster movies, any professional will encounter Pro Tools down his or her path.

This class is meant for beginners as well as for people who already know the software but want to review their workflow.

Meet Your Teacher

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Alessandro Bencini

Composer + producer + educator


Hi, I'm Alessandro, composer, producer and educator based in Milan, Italy. I have been composing, recording, arranging and mixing for over ten years and worked with the main DAWs in the industry (Pro Tools, Logic, Cubase...). In the last couple of years my focus has been on composing music for media, but I never stopped producing and mixing songs for other artists. Alongside music my big passions are education and teaching and I graduated in Science of Education at the beginning of 2019.

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1. Class Introduction: Hi and welcome to my studio. My name is Alessandro and I'm a composer and producer based in Milan, Italy. In this class, I'm going to take you through what you need to know to get started in Pro Tools and how to do it with the right foot discourse is what I wish I had when I started using Pro Tools over 10 years ago. I really hope this will save you the struggle I faced reading hundreds of forums, watching tons of YouTube videos, and keep referencing the manual just to fix those things that should be done right from the beginning in order to work smoothly in Pro Tools and just focus on making music when you know how to use the software and to avoid bumping into problems the whole composing and mixing experienced take a hugely and your creativity want keep being stopped. But what is supposed to help you your DAW? In this class, we will take a look at how to set up your session, how to select and route your audio interface and Drake's correctly how to record audio and midi, all complemented by a complete overview of protons and its main tools. Finally, we will export our work to be shared with the world or to collaborate with others. I'm glad you decided to join me for this journey. Let's get going. 2. Creating a Session: When opening up brothels, that dashboard with a show up, Let's have a look. This is the dashboard and it will open up every time you launch Pro Tools. If you do not see a dashboard like this, you just go on file, create new, and it will pop up if you want to, be sure to see it every time you launch the app, just click on Show on startup. Here in the bottom left corner. On the left, we've got three tabs and we can choose between creating a new project, opening a recent one, or look at projects which are the ones that are stored in avid Creative Cloud in the Create Project tab, we will need to choose a name for our session. And so we will do Skillshare, creating processional for the S, spelled it, right? Yes, it is. And then we decide the storage destination, which could be either local storage, which will mean your computer hard drive, or you can choose to collaborate on Cloud backup, which is the one I showed you in the project menu down here. We can also create from a template. Templates are both the stock one that preserves comes with and our own templates. If we created one in the best, templates will come with a set of precreated tracks that can also contain media or some plug-ins in the channel strip. And it's very useful to create our own templates, especially to maintain a consistent workflow across project, especially having a mixin template or a composing or a songwriting template. But we want to have a look at those today is just nice to let you know that they are, they're further down the dashboard. We find some option to tell protons the properties of the audio that we want to work with. Particularly relevant are the sample rate and bit depth options. So for the sample rate, you can choose from a vast variety of settings and they have to be compatible with your audio interface. So your audio interface, which actually converts the audio in the analog domain to digital and vice versa, needs to be able to handle this settings. And for the beak depth, we have either 16, 24 bit or 32 bit float. It is very important to properly set up these parameters, especially if we will collaborate with someone else. Whether you're going to make someone else's recording or you're going to record and mix your own music to then send to make single Mastering. Getting these file settings right will ensure the best results and less headaches. If you create a project for your own and you don't collaborate or think of collaborating with someone else. You can use any settings you like. But just as a general reference, for CD, the standard is 16 beat and 44.1 kilohertz. While for broadcasting the standard would be 24-bit and 48 kilohertz. Keep in mind that if you are importing prerecorded audio with different settings from the ones you said up here, the phase will be converted to your project settings when importing. So even if you're a beginner, this stage of greediness session needs some choices. Debt will be key to the best quality of the audio possible. I would say that I usually happen to do two things if the recorded audio comes from outside. So I receive a multi-track from McLain to be mixed. If it's recording in a kind of a standard quality, which could be, again, 16-bit 44.1 or 24-bit 48 kilohertz. I will generally set up the session with the same settings as the client, all of your files. Therefore, avoiding conversion because conversion uses algorithms which are very good in proposals to convert these digital file and can sometimes creates some problem, especially if you keep converting the darks again, again and again, going through doors or through various exports. As a general rule of thumb, it's in my opinion best to set up your project with the properties of the incoming file. So the file that, the files that you need to import. And then when you're exporting, if you need to, you can down sample. For example, if you get a very high-quality recording at 96 kilohertz, it's better to import the tracks with the same settings. So set your session with 96 kilohertz setting. And then when you have to export for SGD, for example, you will explore them at 44.1. And because if you convert all of the individual tracks, your risk of summing up all the artifacts due to changing the resolution of the audio fire. Well, if you do eat when exporting, the software will just do it once with your stereo file to complete your session setup, all used to do is choose the location for your project. You can do it by selecting location and the wind is coming up where you can set your location. I already did. And all you can tell proposals to prom for location, which will then do absolutely the same when you click on create today we're going to start with a blank canvas. So just click on Create and I'll see you in the next lesson. 3. Playback Engine: It is very important before doing anything inside of Pro Tools that we check Up Playback Engine settings. They determine what engine or interface we are using, as well as other important computing parameters for Pro Tools. Let's have a look. To check your Playback Engine. You just click on Setup and then Playback Engine. For this course, we won't be looking at more under the hood features, but it is fundamental that the playback engine menu is showing your audio interface of choice selected. As you can see here, I've got my focus right, thunderbolt selected. And in the dialog, you can see that we could also choose the Mac Mini all my monitor, or produce aggregate, which is something we are not going to touch in this course. Selecting your interface in the playback engine menu means that all of the audio, both in and out, will be managed by your interface and protocols. We'll be able to do the rousing accordingly. The second setting that I think is worth mentioning is the buffer size. In general, the lower the buffer size, the less latency you will experiment. Less is also the computing power that Pro Tools can use to handle your plugins. On the other hand, a higher buffer size means more computing power, but also more latency, and that protocols will be more CPU-intensive. I suggest not to go over 256 samples when recording and to freely go up to 1024 when mixing if needed during the mixing process, latency isn't that much of an issue and you will have more computing power at your disposal to run your plugins more smoothly. And other quick tip before ending this lesson is that if for any reason you need to change a session settings after creating it, or you need to set up your session for handling videos or time coated material. You can go to Setup session or use the keyboard shortcut Command 2 on your number pad or control to if you're on Windows. And these will open up a dialogue where you can tweak your settings. We will not be able to change our sample rate, but we will be able to change a bit depth and as well as the audio format. And then you will be able to set up tank god related features like the frame rate if you're importing the Vizio and more advanced feature, which are not the aim of this course. Therefore, we will not be looking at them, but they all come here in recession setup window. Since we've checked that are Playback Engine and our session settings are as we want them. Let's move on. 4. Working with tracks: Before having an overview of the interface, Let's quickly go through Trek types and create our first tracks. Here we are back in protocols and you track can be created by going to track and new or using the keyboard shortcut Command or Control if you're on Windows Shift. And I really recommend learning shortcuts for the things that you will be doing more frequently as it will save your harbors in the fullness of time. Going back to creating a track, the dialogue lead to choose the number of tracks of a given type to create. Whether the truck or tracks should be mono or stereo when applicable. The track type, whether it should be sample or tick based, and the name of the track which you will be able to change later on. By the way, now, as for track types, we have a full list of tracks and I will briefly go over them since one of the latest updates in protons, we have folders and we got to kind of folders. One is routing Folder and one is basic folder. I'm not going too much in depth of d difference between the two. Just know that with a routing Folder, you can route the signal through the folder and we will go over what routing is further down the line. Where would the basic folder or enables you to do is just taken a set of trucks and put them inside a fall that therefore you would be able to unclutter your your edit window. And now the truck is an alto truck, which we can use both to record are doing or to just import an audio file. And occiput is what in other DAWs may be also referred as a bus or also a group or effects channel. And that's because an occiput has all of these functions baked within itself. And basically it allows you to route a signal. So an audio to the occiput do some processing and come out of the occiput with a prospect signal. And we will go more in depth on how to use auxin parts again, when we do routing in talk a little bit about effects. Master Fader enables you to monitor your master level for a certain outputs on your audio interface or within your DAW, and also lets you add effects to the master signal that goes through it. We want to talk about VCs in this class. Then midi track and instrument track are ways to work with me. The end we will be looking at them soon to conclude, we track types. We also have improved the ability of creating Track Presets and detract preset is able to store not only the name and the routing of a certain track, but also any effect, channel strips or any other processing that you're doing on a trek. Therefore, if you are as I'm doing a recording, for example, videos for a series or a podcast. You could easily just save all of the processing for your audio in a truck preset. So that if you record with the same level and see microphone, you can just import the audio you recorded in that track. And it will be a little bit like having a template, but just for their tracks. So all of the processing that you may have done the first time you needed it is automatically. Ready to go for any new audio you put inside. Now, if you already know what the structure of your truck lists will be, you can go on and click the plus button to bet create further tracks. And for the purpose of this class, I already know which tracks we will be needing and I will do it now. Feel free to follow along. So we're going to be needing to stereo audio tracks. And if you're wondering how I changed monitor stereo, you can use Command or Control and left and right arrow to change the stereo or homeowner. And you can use Command or Control up and down keys to go through all of the track types. So we will need two stereo audio tracks. On to mono audio tracks. We will also add one Stereo Instrument track to stereo ox's ox inputs. And last one, stereo master track. If I manage to find it. Oh, there it is. Rate. The last thing I'm going to do is I'm going to quickly rename what I can from here. And we will do, the instrument track will be four Drums. The axes will be effects. And I think that's it. Yep, create. When you hit create, all of the tracks that you decided to create are ready to go. Once you can now do to rename them, is to double-click and just type what you want to type. And another very useful keyboard shortcut, if you don't want to click on next or previous or click Okay, and then go into the next step to rename, all you need to do is hold down Command or Control and right arrow to go to the next track and left arrow to go to the previous self. The first stereo audio track will be four keys. The second one will be ethos, and the first mono audio track will be base. Then we're going to have a shaker. And then dramas, we already named it inside or the batch creating tracks. And for effects, you can see that when we are creating multiple tracks at a time. So let's say two are, the rules will take the name, will put, and then just go number after a number, so 1, 2, and so on. So this third effects track is going to be reverb, which I call rev, then delay the y. And the last one is going to be just a master. To move tracks around, just click and drag them, or select more than one with Shift, Command or Control to move them in groups. Just keep in mind that if they're all selected like they are right now, you need to command click one and then click the one and it's free. So if you want to move one, just click and drag. And right now I'm going to have on, from on top followed by the shaker and the base. And then we've got an have keys and guitars. And again, if you want to move more than one at a time, you just do this and move them around in groups. We will go through how to record your own audio or midi further down the line. But for now, let's have a look into how to import audio and how to edit to your tricks. So just click on File, Import and ADU. And the dialogue should open up and let me quickly go to the correct folder. And so now let's select the files that we want to bring over. And I suggest to always copy the file using Pro Tools session directory instead of just adding them. So unless select, Copy All. And if the sample rate or beat death of the FISA different from your settings in the session, you will see a convert instead of copy here. This means that when you click Done, brothels will not only copy the files in the session directory, but also convert them, as we discussed in the lesson about setting up your session to your session score in settings. Detail on fire you're about import are shown here. If I select just one of them. And here you can have an overview of all of the settings that we talked about earlier, but in the context of other tracks that you're going to import, let's now just click done. And we have to select the destination folder since we decided to copy the tracks. And I always double-check just to make sure. But by default, when you create a session protocols also creates an audio file folder. And it will default to this folder where important tracks, but just check, this is the name of our session and this is the audio files folder. Just click Open. And after put all of this done processing the tracks you want to import dialog opens offering the choice between creating new tracks with those phi's as events or to empower the tracks in the clip list. And I will choose the second option. The main difference between the two options we had was that if I used the new track option, are protons would automatically, as the name suggests, create new tracks for each of the audio we are importing. While on the clip list. Protocols just puts all of the track we imported over here. And you will see that in the clip list, every track you have in your project as well, not only the important one, but also the recorded ones will appear on the right here. If you do not see this, our clips, a section of the interface, it must be this leader are on the bottom left of the screen. Just click that from here is very simple. We can just drag and drop our tracks onto Edit window and the timeline. And let's do this for the base and do the same for the electric panels, which goes under the keys. To wrap up this lesson, Let's also create a click track. And in Pro Tools, you have to do that manually by going on track and create click track. And this will give you click rate. I usually move it up or down the project. And by clicking this little arrow here, I will choose a smaller track height, and there you have it. You have just created your first drafts and imported your audience proposals. Have seen the next lesson. 5. Edit Window overview: In this lesson, we will go through the main elements of the Edit window. Quick disclaimer here, if your Pro Tools UI looks different than mine, it's because a dark version of the interface was added recently. And if you're on a version of Pro Tools that allows you to change it, you can go to protocols and preferences and then up at the top, be sure to be in the Display tab. And under UI theme, you can choose between dark and classic. As the name suggests, the edit window is the main window where we can edit our audio and midi and everything is displayed in a timeline fashion means that if you're going left to right, we are going on in time. At the top of our canvas we have the timeline itself, our main rulers. Unity is the one defined by the main selection up here on top, but we will explain it in a bit along with the timeline here we can add other very useful conductor rulers such as stem, MPO, meter, markers, key and chords, as well as adding other timeline ruler. So we have the bars and beats that again is defined by the main selection. Then we can add minutes and seconds timecode feed-in frames and so on. Therefore, if your session just comes, for example, with bars and beats, let me replicate the stage you can be in. So if it just comes with bars and beats on top, which is the main ruler, you can right-click over there and select anything else you want to see. These, again are called conductor rulers and you can customize your view not only in terms of what you can see, but also you can reposition any of them if you want to switch their position. So if I want my meter on top of a temple, all I do is click and drag it on top of a temple and you can just configure it as you see fit. The Plus sign here to the left of your ruler lets you edit key point according to the track you're working with. And we can add markers. So if we want to market to start at bar free, we just click on the plus for the marker ruler. And dialogue will pop up where you can enter the name of your markers or let's say verse. Just click OK. In the same way by clicking Plus, we can also change the meter. So let's say that when the verse starts, we want to have a change instead of 441234 and so on and so forth. And you can do the same with the temple by adding temporal variation to your song. Keep in mind that to add changes, oh, variation to your temple, you need to be in conduct to mold and to check if you are, you just click on Window and then transport or Indies command plus one or your pet keyboard. And here at the bottom right you can see this little icon of a conductor. And if the conductor track is switched on, we can then again with our plus button at any change. And let's see, let's say that here we want to go to 130 and you see that Pro Tools will mirror your decisions and you can create ramps and all these kind of things. But if we switch off the conductor mode here, you can see that it goes into manual tempo. And you can set the tempo by double-clicking here in the transport window and just set it manually, Let's see, under 10. But this temple would be consistent throughout the songs. And again, if you try to locate yourself wherever you want and click on the Plus button here, nothing will happen. So if you want to handle your tempo and add keyframes to your temple trap, you need to be Incan that to mod. Let me quickly erase anything that we've done over here, as well as the change in the meter and the markers. Let us close that transport window for now. And I will show you later how to get all of this feature as a god them here in my top bar. And before moving on with all of the different controls, let me quickly show you how to display or hide the mixed features I have here on the tracks because you can see that the insert sends input, output options are something that we usually see in our mix window here. So we've got inserts and the sands and the input, output options, but it's very useful sometimes to have them write in the Edit window. My setup, for example, gives me what I need to prevent me from jumping too often from the mix and edit window. But of course it can be scaled down if you're on a laptop and the width of your screen is something more precious to edit. The mixed controls that you can view right from the Edit window. You need to go to View, Edit window views and select which one you like. Again, I always keep the first insert slot, the sands and the input output. And I find particularly useful to have the input output view because it enables me to quickly have access to this track fader. So for instances, if they just want to change the fader level of the drums, all I do in the input, output section is click on this legal mediator of a fader. And I will have control over my fader as if I were in the mix window. And other quick overview that I wanted to give you about the tracks in your edit window is that sometimes especially if we're working with templates or maybe in an album, we've got one sound that is not used in the next songs or something like that. You can decide to hide an even make inactive any track just by right-clicking and select Hide and make an active. This drag will not be displayed now in the Edit window. But if you go on your trek list on the left here, you can see that guitars is still there, but the legal gray dot, instead of being light gray is now bled out. So you don't lose, you're not deleting it. So if you ever need to bring it back again, it's there, but at the same time is not occupying any useful space on your edit window. From here, you can also click on this little arrow saying track options. And you will find that you can modify the height of a track. So I can have it from micro, which is very small, too extreme, which will take almost all of your edit window. I like to keep them. I usually keep them in small when I'm not when I'm not using them, but you can do all sorts of things with this. And from here you also have all of the controls of your tracks so you can record, enable it. You can monitor your input with his eye. You can solo each, you can mute it, and you can choose what you want to display. So in this case, by default, the audio track is displaying the wave farm. But you can have the view for the volume if you want to write other missions. And all of these automatable parameters are also showing by clicking on this little icon in the bottom left corner of each Trek. And again here you can select what you want to show. In this case, we've got the option to show all the mutant ban. Any other automatable parameter will also showing this list and you can add our many lanes. You would like. Let's move on to the top bar. Starting from the left we have the edit modes, and this is at a basic level option for different snapping behaviors. The ones who will most likely use are the greed and slip molds in grid mode clips the dark more of that stream or inserted with snap to the selected width value. So for instances here, let's select agreed value of one quarter naught. And let's show the great. And if i now in read mode and move around this clip, it, you see that it was nap. I cannot move it in between the lines. Snap to the set greed value. Of course, we're now in beats and bars mode. But if we change the Greek value two minutes and seconds, we can then set 1 second for a 100 milliseconds and so on. And this will snap to the value selected here above. So let's go back to bars and beats. Grid mode also have a relative grid mode that you can switch to by right-clicking on the Greet button here in the top-left. Let me show you what relative grid mode does. Let me move this clip so it starts between the lines and as you see, I'm using sleep mode, but I will get more in depth in a second. So let's say that this clip does not start on the grid. If I use Greet as we did before, this was snap it back to the grid. If I use relative grid, this will move it accordingly to degrade, but keeping the relative distance between the grid lines always the same. So as you can see, I keep maintaining the same distance between the next and previous line in relative fashion. And this is very useful, especially if you're recording and you don't want to start exactly under great to have maybe a breath of a single coming in. And then if you need to move that part of the recording, but don't want it to snap to grid or to risk losing its exact position relative to the chorus or other instruments you can use the relative grid mode, slip mode lets you move and trim clips freely. So as you saw a second ago, I was doing it. If I am in slip mode, I can take heat and drag my clip wherever I want. I can trim it however I want. And this is very useful when you are editing because this four instances, and by the way, to fastly zoom in and out, I'm using just a t and our keys on my keyboard. And they will work as long as these legal ASR button is showing orange. But back to sleep more if I'm editing and a 1 to move this fight over here, and I hit B to trim it. If I'm in Greek mode. And I want to move it just a bit, I cannot because it was snapped to the great. But if I am in sleep mode, I can then take these and be very precise with ME movements as well as with my trimming. So it can be exactly where I want. And the same thing applies to inserting fades in proteins. You will see that when you go into top right corner of a clip, this little square will pop up and if you click and drag, you will draw a fade out if you start from the end and a fading if you started from the front. And if you're in read mode, the phase as well, let me show you it will snap to the grid so you can see that. It lets me only fade to agreed value. Let me quickly undo what we've done here. Just so you know, you can quickly switch between sleep and greet mode by using the F2 key on your keyboard to get grep mode and F4 to get slip mode. Again, very useful shortcuts. Quick mentioned to the spot mode. In spot mode you can specify the position in which you wish to move your clip. And let me show you here. I selected spot mode and if I now click on the base clip, it lets me define the start position, the end position. And this is very useful, especially when working with timecode, moving along with the top bar, if we move to the right of the edit modes, we can find our Zoom tools and he, you got the audio zoom tool and the media one. If you click on the up or down arrows of these are wooden, have a meeting, our body does exactly the same. You can see that it magnifies the waveform in these scales. These won't result in a change of volume. It's just a visual change. And it's very useful when you've got very LO, signal source, something that it wasn't recorded with a very low volume and you are editing it and you don't see the waveform clearly. You can just use this Biden's over here. And you can do the same by using these two very tiny buttons here, just below the baton, and they will do the same. So if you click and drag up, you will magnify it, drag down, you will make it smaller. Moving on, we have our edit tools. So very quickly you got your summer tool. If you selected just click and drag. You will zoom on proportion you selected. Just hold Alt on your keyboard or Option, and click to go back to where you were. Before moving along again, we got the trim tool and these lets you again tree. Let me get out of spotting notes for a second. And dislikes you dream your clips. We got the selected tool which lets you select any portion of your audio. And you've got the grabber tool, which lets you grab and move along your clips. If you recall, a few seconds ago when I was showing you the edit modes, I was doing all of it without changing tool. And that's because anything, this is the way you will work 99 percent of the times. If you click on top of these three tools, proposals gives you the option to intelligently recognize what you're doing. So if you see now all of the three tools to trim tool, the selector tool and the grabber tool are selected. And if I just stay on the top portion of a clip, I will have the selector tool. If I move on the bottom part of the clip, I will have them move the grabber tool. And if I go to any of the borders of my clip, the trim tool will pop up. Then we have a scrubber tool which led us scrap through the audio. And last we got our pencil tool coming with freehand or all these kind of shapes. Pre-configured shapes that we can use. Let's elect triangle. Let's say I want to automate the volume for a creative effects. I'm in pencil mode with a triangle selected NFA. Just now click and drag. If I move up or down, I change the amplitude. And if I move horizontally, I determined for how long they wanted this effect. And is we'll in this case, effectively automate the volume with this shape. Moving along, we got our counter and edit selection indicators. Here we can select our main counter. So let's say one time called. As you can see when I was talking about the conductor rulers. Now, the main one is showing minutes and seconds and we can change our sub counter. So let's say I want it in minutes and seconds or in time caught. And then we've got our edit selection. So now we have our base clip over here selected. And this is telling me the except start of the clip, the end of the clip and its length. And this is displayed accordingly to the unit that we set in our main counter. So if they said minutes and seconds, you can see that now it gives me the start end point and a length in minutes and seconds. Again, we add a phosphate peek at what grid does. If I switch the grid on and off, I can show or hide the lines. I can decide the interval with the grade displays. In this case, I'm in quarter notes, I could do in bars or any other form of it. And then down here we can determine our new values. As I told you a few minutes ago. Here on top, I basically have the same controls that we have on the transport window. So if we open it back again and you look at this, they look almost exactly the same. I do that because I don't really fancy having the transport window around because I find myself moving it over time or closing it and open it. So if you want to customize what you have in your top bar, all you do is just click on this arrow in the top right corner of the screen and just select exactly what you want to see. In this case, until this line, you will change what it's displayed on top. And if you go under this line, you can decide what's displayed either on the right side. So Clip List, left side, track list, or even show the midi editor right in your edit window screen. Very quickly, the transport window are, or this version in the top bar of the transport windows. Let us control things like pre-roll so it can give you the amount of time you want to before going into recalls or when you play from a certain point in your song, it will actually start playing it. The amount of time you said here, postural does the same, but when it goes out of recording or out of playing key, we got the place election start, which in this case we will take the same values as the selected clip. And then to conclude we go this section where we can control our count off so differently than the pre-roll. These is two bars, as you can see here, that Pro Tools will give you before even starting the playback. So it will give you two bars in with a click and then go into recording. And again, you've got the meters and temporal which you can set from the conductor rulers as we went through at the beginning of this lesson, if the conductor track mode is activated and a here below you got the Click on an off button. You've got the midi merge, which is very important. Let's say you're recording drums with your keyboard in midi. And you don't not want to record all of the drum kit at the same time. So let's say you start recording your kicking your snare. Then you do want to do a second pass of recording recording just the hi-hat. If meat emerge is turned off, what protocols will do is when you record in the high hat, it will remove what you recorded before. In our case, kick and snare. If meat emerges on it with merge, all of the layers that you're going to record one after another. And the last button we have here is the weight for naught, which means that Pro Tools will not start recording before it reads that you started playing your midi controller. So if I wanted to start playing the piano, but just recording as soon as I play the first key, this will do it. This is going to be all for our quick overview of the Edit window. Quite a long lesson here I know, but protons offers so many things. And I thought that at least the ones we went through, even if we did very quickly, are extremely relevant for an efficient and proficient use of Pro Tools. I'll see you in the next lesson. 6. Mix Window overview: Now that we've gone through the edit window overview, let's move to the mix window. To toggle between the edit and mix window. You can go to Window and click either on mix and edit, or you can use the keyboard shortcut command equal. So let's now move to the mix window. Similarly to the edit window, we can configure what we want to see in each track channels tree by going to View, mix window views, and then choose what we want to display. Let's say that I want a graphic representation of my EQ curve, which protocols we'll pick up from any compatible plug-in loaded in one instance lot, I click on EQ curve and then the EQ curve display will pop up in our mixed channel strip. Let me turn that off. A very useful feature found in the View menu is also narrow mix. So let's say that you're lacking space or you want to see more channel in your mix window, then what you do with all of the features display, you just click on narrow mix. And as you can see, pretzels were reduced. Every control you have to a much smaller width. Again, this is very useful if you are in the balancing stage of your mixing and you want to see all of your channel because you're just tweaking the fader level and the pen for example. Let's go back to the normal view. So as per its name, this window is focused on mixing and it mirrors the looks of analog consoles. Removing the sequencer function of the Edit window. And what I mean by analog console, if you're not familiar with them, usually, for every channel you had what is called a channel strip. A very standard one in, there is more analog desks. You can have, again knob for your input level. Then you will have maybe a compressor and then any q, which can have 34 bands, whatever. Then you've got your pen and your fader. And protocols looks kind of similar to an analog console. So if we take, for example, the bass track, We do have inserts and we will explain in much deeper detail what inserts and sends are in a later lesson. So you've got your inserts which basically will allow to add any processing which could be compression, equalization or effects. We've got our sense, which are also referred as OCS sense. Then we can select our inputs for each channel, and we can choose between a physical input of our audio interface or a bus against something we will dive deeper into later. And we got the selection for an output which again can both be a physical output of our audio interface or can be a bus. Or in the newest versions of protocols also attract and you can select one of your existing tracks as the output of the selected truck. Or you can also create a new track which will immediately be set as the output of the one you're setting up. After that, we can select the Automation Mode rearing. So if we want to be in write automation mode or lateral touch, we can select it from here. And then we got our groups. In this case, there are no active groups, but if they where we would be able to toggle on or off the assignment of Vis selected track to a certain group. Then we've got our pen control and produces very good at planning. Because what you have displayed by default is for mono tracks, of course you've got the single fun. But for stereo tracks like the t's, you don't have one knob, which in other dose usually what it does is when you pan it to write in a stereo track, all it does if you pen it right is reducing the left channel volume. With Pro Tools, you can pan independently the left and right channels, but panning the left channel towards the right will not lower the left signal in volume. It will actually move it in this theory of fields. And it will make it more center or even to the right. And this is very useful if you just want to reduce the stereo width of a stereo track, right with the panning. So if you see here, if they are both hard pan left and right, you will have the original stereo width of your stereos drug. But if I just want to narrow it, I can move both of them towards the center. And if I want to take a narrower signal and move it across the stereo field, or I can do, is just keep a relative distance between the two and just move it around. This gives you a very nice control with panning and ensures that you are not compromising or losing the left or right signal while painting, you're just moving the information, the audio information to one channel, to the other. Uveal stereo outputs. Just below depending we've got the same controls we saw on the edit window. So we can input, monitor our signal. We can set the record enable button, we can solo, we can mute the track. And of course we've got our phasor to the right of our failure. We got the meter here at the top. These two squares or this one in case of a mono track, We'll stay red. If you clip the signal, just one. So if you have a clip, They will stay on and red, bright red. So then if you have a look at your tracks, you can see at a glance of an eye, if you clicked any of the signals, both in recording or when mixing, just below that, you will have the name of your truck. And we won't go into detail of this values here. But all of these, if you want to dive deeper into these things, there are many resources on the Internet. These, these old that has to do about delay compensation. So innately when we load the plugin, plugins are nothing more than algorithms that. Computer have to calculate. So if I boost the mid-frequencies with my EQ, what the computer is doing is taking the original audio signal and applying what the algorithm of our plugin, in this case, our EQ is telling him the processing, all the inserting of processing and effects is going to have an impact on the latency side of things because the computer actually needs time to process and to make calculation following the algorithms that come with the plugins and protons will by default compensate delay so that you could have one track which has absolutely no processing on it, so that it plays back with no delay at all. And you can have playing with their track attract, which on the other side has a lot of processing inserted. So it takes more time to, for the computer to figure out what the final result, the final audio signal will be. And proposed by default what it will do, it's going to delay the faster treks to wait for the more heavily processed ones to be ready to play back. And without you knowing, it will sync it up so that you can hear all of your tracks in seeing, even though each one of them could take more or less time for the computer to figure out in terms of processing. And he will see the delay of a certain track and the compensation that protocols is applying to wrap it up with the mix window overview of results offers a useful feature, especially when you're dealing with hundreds of track. And by clicking here are the top on this little arrow, we can show or hide certain tracks to better for cues on what we wanted to see you on the mixer. So for instances, you can show only selected track if you have any selected track or you can decide to only show folders, audio tracks, basically, all of the different track types which we went through one of the first lessons. And you can also decide to hide tracks based on the same concepts. So if for example, I want to hide all of the abstracts, which in our case are the reverb and delay track. I just click on Hide, OK strikes, and we will only have all of the others. And again, show all tracks with bringing all of it back. The recent addition of for those in Pro Tools also helps with this aspect. Because you don't need to necessarily go and show or hide with this menu here, you can, if you want to just declutter your mic. So have only the relevant things to you at that moment in time displayed on screen, you can would fall this right now. Just decide to put all of your drums in a folder. And when you're working on drums, just keep that folder open. But knowing that this show and hide functions are there is very useful. I personally did not notice it until maybe four years into using protocols. And when I did, especially dealing with a lot of orchestral scoring type of things with hundreds of strike, made all the difference in the world, especially before folder Trek scheme about I personally do not use disorder track options. So you can also impose all sought your tracks by name, type, edit group, mixed group, et cetera. But since as I showed you before, I tend to be very programmatic on how to create my tracks. Or if I happen to create a new tracks along the way, I will immediately put them where I want them to be. I don't use this feature, but it's there. Now that we have overviewed the two main windows in Pro Tools, the best way to get comfortable using them is to get our hands dirty and start working with them. Let's go to some routing. 7. Routing basics: Routing determines where the signal is coming from and where it should go. The best way to explain this is to give some practical examples. First, by clicking on any input and going to see your bus menu. If you don't see any bus showing up, you need to go on setup, input, output, then on the bus tab and check that they are there. If they are not, just click on the default and it will give you back what ProTools comes with by default. In my case, the first are the outputs, the physical outputs on my interface, and the following ones or bus from one to 24 are the default ones in Pro Tools. Now that that's out of the way, let us start doing some basic routing. So what I want to do now in order to be able to process my mix bus is to create a mixed bus and then route all of my tracks to the mix bus. So I will go just after the click for the mix bus. And as we learned, click Command Shift N to create a new track, make it stereo and make it an ox input. And I'm going to name it straight from here and call it mixed plus, and click on Create. So the first thing I want to do is to tell a Pro Tools where the signal should be coming from to go into our mixed bus. And I will select bus 1 and 2. Then I'm going to select what I want to go to the mix bus. I can go in and do this one by one. So for instances on the drum track, and I'm going to set its output to bus 12, which again, it's mixed bus. Or I can just select the tracks that I want to route in the same way. And while holding Alt and Shift, I can click on the output and select bus 1 and 2. And this will change all of our trek at one time without having to go one by one and said their outputs individually. Now that I've done this, let's do this without a volume. But now that I've done this, if I go back to the edit window and go select a region where some algebra play and go back to the mix window. When I hit play, you will see that the base and keys will have their meters moving because we got all the regions in the range selected. And then also our mixed bus is going to display some audio coming in, which is the one we outputted from all of the tracks going into the mix bus. So let's hit play. And there you go. You see that the mix bus is receiving the audio coming from the base and the keys tracks. Now, an important thing to do to be sure that when a solo, any of my Track going to a bus, I do not stop hearing sounds is to solo safe. Any bus such as a mixed boss or a group bus. Solo saving means that when I solo any track which are sending to that particular group or bus. That bus is not going to be muted because in Pro Tools, when you solo a trek, you imply that all of the other tracks which are not in solo will be muted, So therefore you will not hear anything coming from them. So if we solo safe, the mix bus, it means that even when we sold or any of our trek that are sending audio to the mix bus, to the mix bus will remain transparent and we will be able to hear what we're doing. And to solo safe attract and you just hold Command or Control on your keyboard and click on the S and you will see that the solo is now grayed out. For example, you see that the click track is that by default, which means that if I solo my guitar channel and want to record it, I don't have to go on in solar eclipse every time a deal. So last but not least, a very handy trick, especially when you start having more complex routing with lots of group buses and effects is that we can actually rename our buses right from the mix window. And you do that by right-clicking. It doesn't matter if it's on the input or the output, but you right-click on the bus name and click rename. And we're going to call this mixed bus. And this is very useful because you can clearly see instead of just Bus 1 and 2, because when you start having like Bus 20 and 21 and so on, it will be very difficult to trace or to remember all of your buses based on their number alone. When you rename a boss, you can see that as an input or an R mixed bus occiput, we got the mix bus and as well as the output of any other trend here. And again, also when you're going to select if for example, we add another track and we want to route it to the mix bus. It will show us mixed bus also in our bus list here. So very useful trick since we are adding up our tracks and routing something that almost every, so a producer does is Kahlo their track, and I'm going to do with it now. There's no right or wrong color for your tracks. But you will, you'll find out that you will have a lot of benefits by having a consistent coloring system for your tricks. Especially again, when you've got lots of tracks knowing that, for example, for me, drums are yellow and the base is purple. Knowing that when you scroll on your edit window or, or, or indeed on your mix window and seeing at a glance the colors that you're used to C, I'm looking for all of the drum kit where I have two mikes for this near two mikes for the kick and so on. Having them colored consistently throughout all of my projects or mixing sessions or composing session is very useful to call on a track. And you can do this equally by doing it in the mix window, as well as the Edit window, you just double-click on the color of the track and select the color that fits your choices. So I'm going to do this very, very quickly. So the shaker, I consider it a precaution. I would call it the same astronomers in this case. The base for me is dark purple and the keys are usually on the pinkish, purplish side of things, but bright one. And the effects I tend to leave them with standard Pro Tools scholar because I'm very used to having them that way. If you do not see any color going on your channel strip, so you can see my, my colors are not just on the bottom here as well in the mix window I not just on the left of the track, but are expanding and our coloring all of the channel strip. You can do that by clicking on this icon here. So if you click this icon and if they are gray and you want them to be colored, you just click on this button here and then you can adjust the saturation. So how color you want to see the channel strip as well as the brightness. But again, everyone has his own settings. If you want to have a track collared black, which I usually do with VCA, is which we're not talking about right now, is you just click on none. Routing, like in our case, can be extremely simple, but it can also be extremely complicated if needs dictate. So tracks can be routed to buses that serve as groups, then they go to the mix bus like the one we created here. And more processing is applied over there and so on. Can have different oxygens, four effects. You can have side chaining, you can have a lot of things. And all of them is based on a correct routing of your audio signal. So it has to be really clear to you the path that your audio is going to follow. I think that 90 percent of setting up a session and or especially a good mix template, for example, consists of carefully planning their housing. So whenever you want to create a template or a complex mixing environments in Pro Tools or any other DAW for that matter, you need to sit down maybe with a piece of paper and carefully planning the routing. This is not the case. We could just have used the stereo output 12 of my interface and all of the channels. And these would have been perfectly fine with this kind of project. But I really wanted to show you a bit of routing in this class because the sooner you get used to it, even if it's just very simple things, the less problems you will have in the future. Again, I told you at the beginning of the introduction that these are the things I wish I knew when I first started using protocols. And that's why I'm telling you we are going to finish this class by just assigning an input to our effects. And this is done the same exact way as we did for the map, the mix bus. So we select for the reverb, the bus 3 and 4 n from the delay, the boss 5 and 6, right-click on the first one and colleague reverb and right-click on the second one and call it delay. And although we're going to explain later on, the House sends work. I will anticipate you that for reverb and delay, we are going to use these two buses not as an output for a channel, but as a send. So we will be selecting them from here, from the center. Many mastering the routing comes with experience. So don't worry if at first you don't find very clear, feel free to watch this lesson more than ones too. If you didn't get something and please, absolutely as a learning experience and as a personal growth, if you are looking forward to collaborate with musician recording them, and so on. Have a look around. There are plenty of resources on routing which are not related to protons but will apply to any other DAW or recording environment. The only thing that will change is the way you do this things, but the concept of how a signal is routed and how to use routing to create effects or to manage your mix differently, is all the same. That's about it for routing. I'll see you in the next lesson. 8. Inserts and Sends: Insert and sends are at the core of the mixing process. They mirror the wiring of an analog desk, but manage it inside the box. Quick tip, since I'm going to play back my tracks without leaving the mixed view, I selected the base clip and then I'm going to set my playback mode to loop. To do so you just right-click on the play button and choose loop. So now if I press Play or space bar on my keyboard, you will hear it start from the beginning until I stop it. So as you can see, if you press play while in Loop playback, it will just keep on looping until you stop. So now let's go to the mix window and let's have a look at Inserts and sense. Inserts are use aspart name to insert audio processing tools into the audio chain. Theology we recorded or imported goes through the inserts before reaching the channels output. So in this loss here at the top where it says inserts, we can add EQs, compressors, or any other type of audio processing that we see fit. So for example, if I want to put an EQ on my base, I just click on the first available slot in the inserts and then go on and choose an EQ. Let's use the SSL dequeue right now let me mute the keys for a second. When I change something in these EQ for bass sound will be affected. So as we were saying, the idea comes from our clip. It goes into all of the chain. So starting from the inserts and then out of the output we selected for their track. So now I'm going to press play and play around with dislocate filter. So as you can hear, the EQ inserted in the inset for the base is directly affecting the sound that we hear coming out from the bass track. Inserts can be bypassed, for example, to hear a before and after of the work we have done on the plugin by clicking the Bypass button inside of the plug-in itself. So if I said quite a high frequency for the low cut and we play again, you can see that when a press bypass, the effect of the EQ goes away. And this gives us a before and after. You can also bypass the plugin by right-clicking on the plugins lot itself and select bypass. And you see that every time a bypass the plugin, it will become blue rather than gray. Or you can bypass the plugin by holding down Command or Control on your keyboard and just click on the plugin, insert plugins can also be made inactive mainly in order to reduce CPU load when they are not needed, or to eliminate the latency that some plug-ins introduce if we need to record and it creates problem doing so to make one plug-in inactive, always do is right-click on it. And instead of bypass, we have the option of clicking to make inactive. This will effectively completely disable the plugin when working with instrument tracks, Inserts are used to insert the instruments you want to play back via midi. For example, the contact or the one that comes with Pro Tools, which is expand. So let's see how it will work for our drum part. So we just click on Insert. And now within the multichannel plugins, we are going to go into instruments and select expand. So quickly for expand as this is not a topic for our course. But here you've got a lot of different instruments. And they are all organized by category. For our class project, we are going to need drums, so let's just find drums and I'm going to select session runs. So now in order to audit our drums, we need to set our drums record enable on, on. Now if I play my keyboard, we will be able to hear the drum kit we loaded. So here we've got our drums. When talking about instrument tracks. Mixing processing has to be inserted after the instrument plug-in in order to affect the sound. Since our audio sources, not a clip or a clip of audio in our edit window. The sound is coming from the sampler itself like expand. Therefore, if we want to EQ eat, we have to use the inserts below our sauce, so our instrument plug-in when using inserts, the order matters. Any change made to the sound from one plugin is carried to the following inserts. Therefore, any processing done from the second insert onward is affecting the sound already processed by any plugging coming higher in the list. So if for example, let me make active our EQ. If I load, for example, air compressor, just below the EQ, anything that goes into the compressor is affected by the EQ which comes before it, unless of course, the EQ is bypassed. So you have to keep in mind that the order really matters when using inserts, going on to sense they do exactly what their name suggests. They send the channels signal to where we point them to send it. So for example, if we want to put some reverb on our keys, which right now sounds like this. So they sound quite dry. If they want to use reverb, what I have to do is go into descends. And I was telling you in the last lesson, here is where our reverb and delay impulse comes into play. So from the sense of the keys track, we are going to select a bus and we're going to send it to reverse. Now, if we used our send to the reverb right now, all that we will hear is just the keys sound made louder because we have no plug-ins that is telling the reverb to act as a reverb just named the track doesn't make it a reverb. So the first thing is to load the effect you're after in an insert. Of your ox effects. So let's go for a reverb and let's use our verb from waves. So now I'm going to select a room, a generic one. And now this fader that popped up when clicking on the reverb send enables us to control the amount of signal we are sending to the effect, as well as the pending. And to specify if we want to send the signal pre-fader or post-fader. But for now, let's just audition what pushing the fader of the sand up makes to our sound. So you can immediately hear the difference. We are now actively sending our keys to a reverb. And in the analog world, this would be done with cables. So you would take the send from your keys channel on your desk, send it to an external reverb, and then bring it back on your console on another channel. So basically what arcsine plus 2, It's exactly the two steps that I described for the analog world. So they received the sand as if they were the external reverb. They process the sound and they act as a channel on their own, as it would be the one that you use to come back from the reverb. So you have the phasor for your ox that is basically a return Fader. Now coming back to pre-fader of post-fader, a pre-fader send volume won't change when we move the main channels volume fader. So let me demonstrate if I use this center pre-fader and I hit play, I will be able to change the volume of the dry key signals so the key track itself. But the amount of volume of level that we're sending to the river will remain untouched to the point that when I hit 0 with my key strike week will not hear the original signal, but we will keep on hearing the reverb signal. So as you can here, if I use a pre-fader, send the volume, the amount of signal that I decide to use here want change, even if I change the value of the main fader of that track. On the other hand, a post-fader send volume will be affected by any change to channel faders. So if I go back to post-fader and I play that again, you will hear that the proportion between the dry signal, so the keys sound itself and the reverb will remain the same. So as you can hear, when I change the volume proportionally, this send level will change as well for each channel, sends are usually preferred when creating custom mixes, for example, for a recording musician. So we want to create a different balance for the one we hearing for a musician recording. And we will have precise and sensor that for all of the recording process, he's going to have the same level, even when we touch the faders and change the volume for our own personal listening. While a post-fader sends are usually a default when using them to add effects such as reverb or delay. So in this case, using a reverb, it's better to use post-fader send. Unless of course, you are going for some creative effect or particular effects. These are just examples of the common use, but no rules is just up to what processing you need to do. Another useful feature is the follow main pen feature, which is FMP right here. And this will tell the sand to exactly replicate. So to send to the effect the exact stereo position and fields that we have on our channel itself. So if I select as the Follow Main Pan, you will see that the pen control for the sands will be grayed out. And when I move on my keys, the left pan, you will see that it is perfectly replicated on the sand. But we can also use the send pens separately in the same way, insects can be bypassed, sense can be muted, and you can do so by right-clicking and select mute. Or you can hold Command or Control and just click on the center, mutate and unmute it. This will effectively remove the level that we're sending to the effect. So as you can hear before and after of what you've done using plugins to your track, you can also hear the dry signal compared to the sound affected by effects. Let's hear how it sounds. So we start without, with one very important thing when using oxy inputs as effects. So like our reverb and delay, where we send our signal is to solo save them as we did for the mix bus. Now that a signal path is figured out and that we learned how to add plugins or to send our signal two effects is time to learn how to record something of our own and seeing the next one. 9. Recording audio: In order to record audio inside of Pro Tools, you need a source connected to your interface. May that be a microphone is sin for a base or a guitar engineered to run the proper input in the track that you wish to recall the OG going. Especially with audio gain staging, is extremely important. And the first thing to do is to set the correct input gain on your audio interface. To do so, start with the input volume of your interface at 0, then click on the track input monitor button in Pro Tools, and slowly pull up your interface volume while playing. If you have meters or less on your interface, it's best to reference them and not ProTools meters to ensure that no clipping occurs. At the first input stage, your interface, once you level is set, you're ready to record in ProTools. But first, a side note, while recording with hot input levels was necessary in the analog world, mainly to deal with the noise floor of analog gear. This is not the case for digital. In fact, it's better to leave more headroom in terms of the volume and recording because while unlock saturation was kind of pleasant and we are full of plug-ins that can emulate the saturation of analog gear. Clipping the signal in the digital domain results in very unpleasant clips and pops. At the same time, keep in mind that you are actually recording with an analog piece of gear. At least the first stage of your sound, apart from your microphone or your instrument, is a preamp that is inside of your interface. That preempt is an analog piece of gear. Then the sound that goes through the preamp gets sent to a converter that changes the analog electrical signal into digital and send it to your computer. Therefore, I suggest that she find the best and most pleasant input level for your preamp. I find that with my pre-amps, for example, recording at very low level doesn't excite the preamp enough to give me a nice warm sound. Why a given it's a bit more push, given it more hot, hotter level, it gives me a more pleasant sound for the preamp. At the same time, I pay attention not to clip the input signal so that I can send Pro Tools a nice level with enough headroom not to hear any digital clips. So I suggest you do the same and find the sweet spot for your preempts and for your interface. But first of all, just leave more headroom. This is not analog. The sound is usually transparent when it comes from your audio interface. There is no need to cover any noise floors of your preempts. But it's definitely, definitely important that you do not clip the digital signal because Nothing worse and completely unsolvable. Then having a sound recorded at its clipping. With that out of the way, click on the Record Enable for your truck. I will do this for the shaker. And when you're ready, you press record and play here at the top. Or if you are using your transport, just do it on your transport. So first you click on Record and then you click Play, or you can just use the keyboard shortcut three on your number pad to start recording. I'm going to record the shaker, but feel free to record whatever you want if you're using the multi-track I gave you. And if you don't feel like recording or you don't have a microphone, but still want to follow along, open the session recording in pro tools that you can find in the resource material for this course. So I'm going to use the same Mike that is here above the dam using to record my voice. And at the same time you will see that while I'm recording, I've got my audio interface down here. And I will be keeping an eye on the meters. The sound is going into portals twice because I have a channel that is hidden for my voice and the same input is used for the Shakers. So you may see the red clip lights appear on the master, but that's just because it's summing up the sound. The sound is not clipping on my interface first and most important and will not be clipping digitally inside of Pro Tools. So what I suggest you do, and that's very important is always give yourself some time before going into recording. What I mean by that is that if you have to start recording here or the base is starting, don't just press record and start from there. This will make it quite difficult for you. What I suggest is never start your track to the bar number 1. I always start on band number three or even five if I'm doing other kinds of projects. And what I usually do is that if I have to start recording above three, I will position my cursor one bar before that, and then I will add one bar of pre-roll wire will happen here is that I will hear one bar, just the clique in this case because we're not when we're at the beginning of the track, not in the middle section, but you will hear a bar of sound without recording, then you would get into recording. But before the moments you'd need to be recording in and after that one bar when you are already recording, then you will be recording the section that you are really looking to record for your track. It will be even clearer. When I show you, I will just use the click. So the clique is activated here on top. And another thing that I really advise you to do is start plaguing before you reach the moment where your sound actually needs to be in your composition or in your recording. Because especially like for percussions, if I start recording or playing when a need to, I will most of the time be late. And this way, I've got one bar more than a need of recorded sound and it can adjust the start of the clip when they finally get to use it. So we'll just stop talking and start recording. Now, if you're not happy with the result of your recording, you can do a couple of things. You could undo and record again. Or you can go on your Treg. I'm going to make it bigger so it's easier to see and click here. And instead of waveform, you select playlist. Now move your take down by dragging it down or by selecting the clip and using the keyboard shortcut hold Shift N. And you can see that now my first recording has been moved as shaker or one in a playlist section. When you're done recording, if you are using playlist this way, you can then choose the best steak or you can come and take with a BSW and pieces of different takes. I am going to record another couple of these and just fast-forwarding the process. And then I'll show you how to select your favorite take and how to compete. So as you can now see, I am left with three recordings of the same part with my shaker. And what you can do now if you want to audition them in context, one by one is just click on this solo button that you have for each one of your tags and have a listen through them. I'll give you an example here. In this second tape I was doing that she saw as a time-lapse or fast forwarded here. But you can also see it from the waveform. I was a little bit week. So I'm not definitely want to use this part, but maybe especially if it was a singer performance, you will find that for the rest of it, the steak is very good. So let's say that for example here I can see that on take three, I've got a nice sharp transient for the first part. So if I now want to take this, take for the first beats of my recording, I just select the part that I want to use and then click on this little arrow, and this will copy it to your main target playlist. I want to avoid this section, which because you can see again week. So I didn't play it exactly as I was supposed to. And I'm going to start back from here. And you can see that here is week again. I actually don't use your eyes to judge takes I'm just doing it to make it a bit faster. I listened to eat and that's just shaker, but always play back by, keep soloing the different takes. And usually, for example, when I. Do a calm for a vocal track. And I've got five or six stakes are usually go through each sentence or fret musical phrase by each steak, compare them, go back and forward and then decide what's the best. And then before choosing the next bit, I will always make sure that is coherent with the Tambora, with the intention, with the dynamics of the previous bit. And that's more complex. But here is just to show you how you can do this kind of thing. Now I want this part of the first stake to go next, and then I will end with a tape that we ignored so far, which his stake to now, when you are done selecting takes, you can go, you can un-solo this and go back to waveform and listen to the final result of your coin. Now I'm going to show this very quickly again without keep listening and fine tuning. But just so you see that it's possible to do, to make sure that when going from one state to another one, you don't hear clicks or pops, as you can see here, the waveform doesn't perfectly align. So what I will usually do, and this is pure editing. I would go into sleep mode. And I will make sure that either I take the previous transient or the next one, but not have something where it transitions in that way. And once I'm happy, and you see that here is transitioning quite well between the two takes. I will take a portion of both and then click on Command F to create a fade, I'm going to use an equal gain fade and click. Okay, and now Pro Tools is going to fade between the two. And you want to be able to hear the change between takes, take a listen while here. If you've got very good hearing and the compression of the platform is not squashing it. Here, we had a little click. So again, I will do the same. I'm asleep more that they can do very fine edits. I'll go to a section where there's no transients and it will be easier to fade. Select the portions that I want, and just click on Command F to create a fade. And that's done. Is, is that now my shaker is perfectly as they wanted. I selected the best steaks I could possibly wish for. And now, if you really want to wrap it up, you select all of the clips that she chose between the takes and that you carefully faded between one another. You may be being made sure that you have Alito fading also at the beginning, not to be too harsh when coming in. You select all three of them. You go into Edit and Consolidate Clip. And this will actually create a new audio file with the changes and the take selection that you made and make it into a one-way form, a one file saved on your computer in the audio files and folder as shaker or four. I can see that it's really hotter than the base and the piano. And I will take this little fader and this is called clip gain. So this will affect the volume of the clip. And this is the first gain staging step that you have in Pro Tools to lower what's going in. I usually like to have my signals coming in at minus 18, minus 15. Lots of reasons for that, not the scope of this course. So we'll just bring this down here and check my meter. And I guess that's quite nice. Good. So let's hear it altogether in context. Let's now add some reverb to the shaker as well. As you remember, I've got my Sends also on my edit window. And that's one of the times where I wanted me to jump back and forward, but I will just be able to go here, select my reverb and why listening will add a nice amount of reverb. And now as a final touch, I'm going into my mixer and we'll just penn the shaker to the right and control the volume with the fader. Later on we will see how it works with the drums. You can edit your recordings to your heart's content. And once you're done, join me in the last lesson where we'll have a look at how to record and edit some midi. 10. MIDI basics: Recording midi is similar to all jail, except you don't need to do any routing if you're using an instrument track, insert your instrument in the first instance, lot of your channel, as we saw with expand for the drums, plug-in a midi keyboard and you're good to go. As we saw earlier, click the Record Enable button on your instrument and you will be able to hear sound. If you're not hearing any sound, you can enable the instrument view from again, view, edit view and instruments, and check that your media out is pointing towards the virtual instruments you inserted. So as you can see here, it is on Expand and channel one. It happened to me sometimes to do everything right, so create an instrument track load of the instrument. In the first instance, a lot of the channel and not hearing any sound. And this is the reason 99 percent of the time that you don't hear the sound, apart from forgetting to record enable your track. Now that that's clear, Let's get rid of the instruments in our edit window. And your are ready to record your drums. So again, I suggest you position yourself a bit earlier than what you actually need to record. And when you're ready, you just start recording. As I told you before, you don't necessarily want to record all of the drama set once like this. And that's basically because, especially with drums, the less realistic part of sampled drum kits is often the symbols. So the high hat, the crash, the splash, and so on. So what I suggest you do, and especially I used to do it if I want to have as realistic dishonest possible, expand, doesn't have that great of a sample, but it will do for this is I usually record snaring kick first and then go on, record the snare. Just remember, as we saw earlier, to have your midi merge on. Let's record. Okay, now I'm going to do a second pass with just the high hat. Once you've recorded, you can take advantage of the possibilities of midi and change everything that you want. You can manipulate midi both from the midi editor window. So by double-clicking on your midi clip or directly in the Edit window, by going to eclipse and select notes. This will give you, just use these arrows CFTR to Apple too low. And let's zoom in on our midi. And now you can do all of the midi editing right from the Edit window, being able to see all of the other tracks and not lose sight of where you're at if you want to make your track bigger, but without going into the mediated till window itself. A very useful keyboard shortcut is to press E on your keyboard, and this will expand the track that you're coarser was in. So if I press it again, it will put it back at the size it had before. And I can do the same for the shaker, for example, all for the base, you can now select one or multiple nodes and change the node they're using. So I can move it up or down. We can change their length. We can tweak the velocity by opening up the automation panel and change the velocity of one hit. And from this very same automation lane, you can also manipulate any other media CSI lets you may have used L, for example, if you're using a piano and you're using a sustained pedal, you can find it under controllers or if you're using orchestral libraries where you got your mod wheel. So Medici's one controlling dynamics. You can load and control all of your media cc's from the automation lanes down here. And in case you don't see the Medici see that you've used, you can go on controllers, add, remove controllers. And here you've got all of the midi messages that you can find and you can add them or remove them going from one to 31 and so on until 119, which you can also do, of course, is delete any notes you don't like. So you can select one and just click Delete on your keyboard. Or if you don't have a midi controller or a midi keyboard, or you just want to add some other notes. After you've done recording, you hold down Control on your keyboard. And then these pencil will pop up and you can just create all the nodes that you want. And they will be played back as any of the other notes you played in manually. We've all GO in Pro Tools of your edit modes will also affect midi. So if I am in read mode and I want to move a midi notes around, it will snap to the grid. And if I want to move it without the constraints of the greed or in relative grid mode, I changed to relative grid. All use the sleep mode to freely position the meeting notes wherever I want on the timeline. A very important feature when working with midi is quantized. To open the quantize dialog, just press on your keyboard old and 0. And the event operations window will pop up with quantize already selected. In the event operations window, you can do sorts of things with midi from quantizing to change in velocity, duration and so on. But let's focus on the quantize side of things. You can quantize both the note on and note off. Most of the times you will just use the note on quantizing and preserve or not denote duration, then you can select the grade. So you can select the value that you are quantizing it. In our case, we will use eighth notes and then you can use tuplets. So it can be triplets, quadruplets, and so on. You can set the greed. And more often than not, you will use the randomized feature just to make it sound a bit less robotic, especially if you're trying to program in immediately. Real drums and not drum machine, kind of midi. You also have options for Swing and the strength of the swing, but we are not going to look at them now. So if I just select all of the midi notes for the drums, 1 eighth notes, I'm going to add 15% randomization and click apply. As you could see on screen. All of my notes where put closer to the green by leaving a 15 percent margin of error. So they're not perfectly on the grid. Let's hear the result. Now. Something very interesting that it's not so obvious in the quantize window that you can do is actually use preset it grooves to give a little bit more spice to your quantize drums. Let's say for example, you have to quantize drums to a base that is playing with a bit of swing. There are a set of options right here in the Groove Clipboard. So let's try cubist style grooves and use the eighth EGN 12 and apply. And you saw the notes moving around. Let's hear how it sounds like now. So you can hear that it added some groove to the beat. That's may not be what you're after, but know that these options are not to be ignored. So this Groove Clipboard is kind of useful if you want to quantize immediate performance, but then add back some of real groovy feel to your farts. I will undo and put it back to the grid with just the eighth notes, 15% randomization settings. If you want to commit your performance to audio, you can do this by right-clicking on your clip and then choosing commit. Now can meet will give you some options. So edit selection, so just the selected clip will be committed to audio, or you can select the whole track that this clip is part of. So if you have a drum track with multiple clips and you want to commit all of them to all GO. You can select the selected track option. You can tell them to consolidate the clip, which means that if you again are using more clips selected at one time, the end result will be just one audio file like we saw by consolidating the shaker clip. And then you can render or not the automations for volume and mute, pan and G, You can copy sends and group's assignments. So for example, in our settings, if we were using a Reverb on the drums and they wanted to keep the same reverb on the committed audio track. I would check this. And then you can tell protons what to do after committing. So. You can tell him to insert the new audio in an audio track just after your last selected track. And you can tell him to hide and make an active the middle part which we do not want right now we're just going to do nothing and click. Okay. Now you will see that we've got our midi part here, and protons has created an audio file with the drum part we played earlier. So if I mute the midi, you can hear that we have exactly the same as before. And this is the fastest way to bring your midi to audio without lithium protocols or without having to bounce and then import back into Pro Tools. I will address one last thing. You may wonder why I'm using an instrument track instead of a midi track. And the reason is both in the difference between these two tracks and with modern computers. So the main difference is that when you're using immediate track in Pro Tools and in most other DAWs, you are not going to have any sound on its own, or you can do with a midi track is routed. So then the midi messages received, all recorded in that midi tracks are then forwarded to an instrument track with a plugin inserted in his inserts. So by himself, the midi track does not produce sounds. All that it allows you to do is record and send midi messages to have your 20 instruments, such as expand through another channel. While the instrument track is the best of both worlds. So you have all the structure of an audio track basically. So you've got controls over your inserts, sends, volume, and so on. And you also have the ability to record midi information into it. Back in the day, especially we beak templates, what we used to do was to have maybe one instance of contact loaded in Sweden, one instrument track contact can hold up to 16 instruments inside of the sampler. So you would load all of the 16 instruments inside of the simpler in one instrument track and then create 16 midi tracks and assign each of the midi track to each one of the 16 instruments inside of content. But then that made necessary to create audio tracks as a return of afford the audio of each of the 16 instruments that otherwise would play back altogether through that one instrument track. And that was definitely not a comfortable way of working, but you had to do it that way because loading 16 instances of contact in 16 different instrument tracks was a quite heavy duty process for computers. Nowadays. I do not choose midi tracks almost anymore. For this purpose, I'll just load an instrument track and load one instance of my virtual instruments or sampler for each track. There are any way other reasons you may want to use midi tracks on their own. And that's, for example, I have a mooc here. This is a mother 32 MOOC that can receive a medium But message. And what I usually do with these is I use a midi track in Pro Tools that I used to send as an output of the media, tried to send midi signals out of my audio interface into the MOOC. And then I got an audio output from my MOOC going into my interface to be recording in an audio track. But for using virtual instruments and samplers of contact has spanned play and so on. I wouldn't use midi tracks. Nowadays. You can have more control and work with midi better. If you don't want to export midi to audio, you can mix straight having the instrument tracking your project. And that instrument track is just outputting the sound of your one instruments of the drums in this case. And you can have another one for the base and you have no need to bounce all towards you if you want to mix it because you got inserts again, sends solo mute automation possibility on your instrument track that you wouldn't have any omitted track. I hope this was useful and I'll see you in the next lesson. 11. Bouncing and exporting: When you're done composing and all recording and mixing your work, it's time to export. If you wish to export a stereo file of your song, or you need to do is select the range you want to export on any track. It will be just fine. Then go to File, Bounce mix. And then you will have to choose the name of the track that you're going to balance. So let's say my first Pro Tools mix the file type, so we'll just leave that to wild. But you can also do MP3 if you want from here. And, and this is very, very important. The output, the main output. So in our case, we are sending all to the mix bus, and then the mix bus is going into the physical output 12. But in other setups where you want to maybe bounce just group or a subsection of your tracks. This is section very important to keep in mind, especially if on a previous mix or session, you change D to make sure the next time you try to balance that, the output for the audio you're creating is the right one. Then you can choose the format. May be interleaved, mono summed or multiple mono. Monosaccharide means that your track will be exported in a mono. And mono multiple mono means that you will have two files. Both will have the name My First, the mix, but one will be left. And while we'll be right and portals with saved them by adding the letter L for left and R for right. And interleaved is the one that you will use the most will give you a stereo file up on top here you have the possibility to export in WAF, but add an mp3 version. When you're working with clients, for example, you may want to have the wild version. So the high-quality audio version, but also at the same time bounds. An mp3 version that you can maybe quickly share with no, with a message or are we the e-mail if your wife file is too big to be sent via e-mail so you can send them a preview of your mix in MP3. And then when they need the master file, the high-quality audio file, you can send them a web. And then you will have to choose your bit depth and sample rate. If you need to have to figure these things out, just go on and check our first lesson. We talked about it in depth. So in this case, we both recorded and imported tracks that I have this format. Let's say we now want to export our mix for a CDI. So for a physical support, the standard for CD is a 16-bit and 44.1. Doing this will mean that protocols while exporting with first, export all of your stereo track. And it will do it with the settings that all of the audio inside of the session has. So, in this case, 24-bit, 48 kilohertz, and then we'll convert it. So we use an algorithm to change these properties of your audio file. Then you can choose a destination folder. By default, Pro Tools, apart from creating an audio file folder, as we saw earlier in the class, also creates a bounce file folders in your project folder. And by default, that's where all of your bounces will be saved and we will keep that as a choice, but we can also choose any other directory. And last we can choose to bounce online or offline. If we bounced offline protocols will do it mathematically. So it will take the length of the entire song to bounce. It will do it by calculating all of the things it needs to. If you uncheck offline, it will do it online. That means in real time, so it will bounce while going through the entire song in real-time. Let's just click bounce. And now that it's done in the folder you selected, you will find your stereo interleaved file for your song. If on the other side you don't want to export a stereo bounds of your entire song, but you just want to export one or multiple tracks of your project. And this can be useful if intersession, you recorded your song and then you want it mixed, or you have to send it to mix, to mix engineer, that will do the job and once the multi-track, so each one of the tricks you record it and then we'll mix it. What you need to do again is select the range as we did for the bounce mix. Select the tracks that you wish to individually bonds to disk, then go to Track and bounce. And these are the exact same settings that we had before. So let's change to the name, which in our case was my first PTT mix. But this time when we click on Unbounce, Pro Tools will create one file, one audio file with the settings with you here for each one of the selected audio tracks for the selected range. And add to the name prefix as it calls it here. So to the name that we decide over there, the name of the track. So if I now click on bounce, proposals will do its thing. And then if we open the finder in the bounced files folder of your project, you will see that here we have my first proposals mix, which is the one we did before. So it's the full mix bounce. And then we have one file per each track that we selected. So we've got our drums, we've got a base, we've got a shaker, and Archie's all on different tracks ready to send to the mix engineer of your choice to be mics. I hope this lesson was useful. Are seeing the next one, which will be the last one where I will share with you some final thoughts. 12. Final thoughts: Well, you've made it. You've completed this course, and hopefully you are left with a bit more knowledge and confidence in using protocols. At the end of the day, the best DAW is the one that you know well and feel comfortable using. And the best favor that you can do yourself is to learn it well as any other piece of software protocols is just a means to an end and the end is making good music. So thank you again for following me throughout this class. I really hope you enjoyed it, found it interesting and useful. Feel free to contact me for any questions you have about this course or any other question you may have on music production and joy.