Fashion Design PATTERN MAKING - Part 1: Dart Manipulation, Yokes, Stylelines, Darts, Princess Lines | Nino Via | Skillshare

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Fashion Design PATTERN MAKING - Part 1: Dart Manipulation, Yokes, Stylelines, Darts, Princess Lines

teacher avatar Nino Via, Fashion Design, Instructor & Consultant

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

9 Lessons (43m)
    • 1. Short PROMO - Pattern Making

    • 2. #1 - An overall view of the Course content.

    • 3. #2 - Muslin draped on dress form, transferred to dotted paper.

    • 4. #3 - Sloper: definition and Principles of Pattern Making

    • 5. #4 - Using the Principle of Pivoting to manipulate patterns.

    • 6. #5 - Using the Principal of Slash-and-Spread to manipulate patterns.

    • 7. #6 - Creating a Yoke and adding fullness.

    • 8. #7 - How to Design Princess style lines.

    • 9. #8 - Darts, Pleats, Tucks, etc.

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About This Class

If you're serious about fashion designing, this Course is for you. Pattern Drafting (or Pattern Making) is an essential skill in creating a Fashion Collection.

This is an "8-videos" Class, a "step-by-step-how-to" Class that will empower you, give you confidence, and take your designing knowledge to a whole new level; it is a beginner/intermediate Class, packed with valuable useful practical techniques.  

Learning Pattern Making is essential to support your fashion designs; you must know garment construction in order to create the ideas swirling in your mind.  

In this Class you will learn principals and techniques such as:

  • Dart Manipulation -- transferring Darts
  • Using the Draping process to create a Pattern
  • Learning the "Pivoting" and "Slash & Spread" methods
  • Transferring a Muslin Drape to Dotted Paper
  • Dotted Paper to Manila Paper
  • Adding a Yoke
  • Princess Seams, Princess Stylelines 
  • Darts, Pleats, Tucks.
  • Labeling a Pattern
  • Grainlines 

Manipulating darts from one position to another, from one "angle" to another, will increase the number/amount of options available to you and expand your creative reach. Included in this Class is the Draping process, which when used creatively will enhance the ability to develop new and exciting fashion designs.

Once the muslin has been draped, transferring the information to paper is essential. Also, the different types of paper used in the industry t develop patterns. 

Learning how to take a simple skirt and by the use of adding a Yoke , you can develop new ideas and spark your imagination to endless possibilities.

Labeling a Pattern correctly can mean the difference between a beautiful design versus a disaster! Thus learning how to label a pattern correctly is very important -- the industry demands perfection when it comes to being accurate and precise.

And the use of proper Grainlines can be the difference between cutting the garment correctly or cutting it "the wrong way" and thus having to cut it all over again.

Getting to know, and familiar with, all the necessary tools used in the industry, makes the difference between a professional and a novice when going for a job interview.

Meet Your Teacher

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Nino Via

Fashion Design, Instructor & Consultant


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1. Short PROMO - Pattern Making: Hello, everyone. My name is Nina Via and I'm your instructor. Those of you who enrolled and watched my first course called How to Create a fashion collection and launch your own brand. You know that I was an instructor at federal F. I. D M - Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising in Los Angeles. This course is about pattern making and some draping, and I say some draping because many times a pattern is first developed by draping on a dress form and then taking the drape and transferring it to dotted paper and manila and making your pattern from it. In this course, you will learn basic principles of pattern making such as dart manipulation, adding fullness and contour. You will learn techniques such as pivot and slash and spread new terminologies such as slopers and blocks and darts and pleats and tucks and yokes and princess seams and princess style lines. apex notches. Grainlines. How to label a pattern how to "true" a dart. You will draft a 1-Dart Sloper and a 2-Dart Sloper and an A-line skirt and a skirt with a yoke, and use princess seams and a grain line to label patterns. And so if you want to design your own fashion ideas, you have to know pattern making, pattern making his essential. And this is a great beginner course, that gives you a lot of great information, gets you off the ground. This is definitely the course for you. Okay, I'll see you in class. 2. #1 - An overall view of the Course content.: Hello, everyone, Welcome. My name is Nino Via and I'm your instructor for those of you who enrolled in my first course, who watched the first course called How to Create a Fashion Collection and launch your own brand, you know that I was an instructor at FIDM-The Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising in Los Angeles. Where I taught many classes like sketching and draping and pattern making, collection development and many more. If you haven't watched my first course, I encourage you to do so because it will give you a really good idea of the overall picture in the process of creating a collection and launching your own brand. This second course is about pattern making and some drapey and I say some draping because many times a pattern is developed by first draping on a dress form, which I'll show you in a minute and then taking that drape and drafting a pattern from it. Pattern making and draping go hand in hand and in fact you will see me going back and forth between pattern making and draping, because the first concept and question that we need to address is how do you take a two dimensional piece of paper a patent and create a three dimensional shape and design from it ? In this course, you will learn basic principles of pattern making, such as dark manipulation, adding fullness. You will learn techniques such as pivoting and slashing and spreading, and you will learn a whole bunch of new words and terminology. Such a slow pers and blocks and darts and pleats and tucks and sharing Princess seems stylelines, yoke, seam allowance, etc. So we'll go over all the tools necessary to make patterns. And in fact, speaking of tools, let's start with the tools needed to draft a pattern or patterns. So we'll start with scissors. And there's two kinds of scissors that you should get. I'm gonna be very professional about this, and if you were in the industry or looking forward to going into the industry, you will need to kinds of scissors. This one is used to cut paper. When I say paper, there's two kinds of paper. This Manila paper, which is it's not really cardboard, but it's so a stock paper. And then there's also dotted paper a more lightweight paper. So if you were cutting paper you were. You used these scissors otherwise, just a regular normal pair of scissors for fabric and in this course will use a fabric all muslin to drape patterns. You will need a pencil, very sharp pencil and a ruler an 18 inch clear. This bends. You can see it's flexible. Two inch by 18 inch clear ruler. You'll need pins. Regular pins, not safety pins. this is a straight pin Okay, uh, you will need a French curve. I don't know iIf you can see it, I'm gonna hold it against a dark background. This is a French curve. Okay? has a certain shape to it. See that, you will need a hip curve, has a certain shape. This is a hip curve You will need a tracing wheel, tracing wheel. There's different variations, but they're all pretty much the same. turn, little teeth at the end. Um, you will need it Awl a w l spelled a w l, a notcher. this is a notcher, and it makes you can hear the clicking and makes notches. Scotch tape, good old scotch tape and stapler. And along the stapler is a staple remover to remove staples. Okay, he said the most important tools necessary is a few more things. But these are the essential tools needed to draft patterns. Okay, the next class will start with principles and techniques on pattern drafting. And we'll get going. So I'll see you next class. Thanks. 3. #2 - Muslin draped on dress form, transferred to dotted paper.: in the last class I mentioned that I'd be going back and forth between pattern making and draping. Now, this is not a draping class. But you remember I mentioned, like, I asked the question, How do you take a two dimensional piece of paper or fabric and turned it into a three dimensional shape? Well, I'm gonna show you. So this is a dress for not to be confused with a mannequin because a mannequin is what you see in the window of the store for display purposes. This is a dress form, a dress form in the industry is used to drape for draping purposes, obviously, and for fitting purposes. All these seams here, have a name. So let's let's get familiar with some of these new terminology. For example, this center seen here in the front, is called Center Front. This here is a princess line or princess. seam it goes from the shoulder across the bus to the waistline. We have a side seam, a shoulder seem. We have a neckline and a waistline. The bottom of the tape, the bottom of the tape, not the middle or the top, but bottom. The tape is the waistline and then the center of the bust is called the apex. It's very important to know where the center is because everything comes from the apex. You'll see the next session how I'm going to show you a certain pivoting principles and techniques. And the apex is really important that I have taken a piece of muslin and I've pinned it on form. I have a pencil mark across it kind of dividing it in half, and it's across the apex and it's straight across its parallel to the floor. This is a straight across line parallel to the floor. I've pinned it. And now again, this is not a draping class, so I'm not gonna spend time showing you how to drape this. But in 30 seconds, I'm gonna show you a concept on how do you take a two dimensional piece of fabric and you see this extra fabric right here? This extra fullness Well, I'm going to pinch it and folded to create a dart, and I'll do the same thing with the top portion see this extra fullness right here. Well, I'm going to fold it peaches and fold it down like this so that I can create a dart. For those of you who don't know what a dart is, I will explain that soon enough. you can see that it's beginning to take shape. Now we have some kind of a shape to it now. This is these are darts, but they could be tucks or pleats or shirring and so on. Well, we'll get to that now. At this point, I would market I would take a pencil and mark all the information necessary that I would take and transferred to dotted paper. Okay, so I have marked my muslin with a pencil. I put certain cross marks on my muslin my sight seeing my waistline neckline, etcetera and I've pained my darts temporarily. So you can see is this sort of shape to it. Now I'm going to remove this muslin remove the pins. You can see this a certain three dimensional shape to it. And now I'm going to remove all the pins. And when it's all said and done, my muslin now with all the proper markings looks like this. See this? Markings indicating the shoulder dart apex waistline dart and so on. And the next step is to take this on to the paper. in the next class I'm gonna show you how to take this muslin drape unto dotted paper onto Manila and then using that as a Sloper to manipulate our patterns. OK, your next class. 4. #3 - Sloper: definition and Principles of Pattern Making: Okay. Moving right along... in the last class, we removed the drape from the dress form and now we're gonna transfer to dotted paper. Now, if this was a draping class, I could spend the whole class and show you exactly how to transfer. Um, but because this is pattern making, I wanna cut to the chase and give you the overall picture of the steps involved. So what you would do you take your muslin onto a piece of dotted paper and you pin your muslin to the dotted paper and using your tracing wheel And you see again, this tracing well has little teeth here. And when you trace all those little cross marks all those little pencil marks unto dotted paper, right? And then you remove the muslin draped, you end up with a piece of dotted paper pattern that looks like this at this point, what you should do next is to pin it back onto the form. Why? Well, we want to make sure that it fits correctly number one, and secondly, we want to make sure that what you're what you have in mind as far as the design is concerned, that what you have in mind and envisioned is exactly what you had here. And if there are any changes to be made and maybe it's too tight, it's too big. Any kind of minor adjustments. Now is the time to do it. Okay, Next we tape the dotted paper, you're gonna staple dotted paper too. You're manila and again you transfer with your tracing wheel. All this information, all the darts and the apex and so on, on to Manila. Then we remove the dotted paper and we end up with a pattern. It looks like this. This is a manila pattern. It's a Sloper, actually. Okay, let's look at this pattern for a minute. So this pattern has two darts. What is a dart? By definition, The textbook says a dart is a shape in a pattern to control the fit of a garment. When it stitched these lines right here are called legs. These are dart legs, the end of the dart. The very end point of the dart is called the Vanishing point. And in the center, off the pattern is the apex, the center of the bust. These little guys right here are notches and we use notcher to make notches, and it indicates to seamstress how to sew this dart, meaning that this leg and this leg must come together and be sewn and stitched together to create a dart. So I mentioned something. Hold a Sloper, also known as a block. What is a Sloper? Sloper is a very basic pattern, Almost like a template, if you will. It's a basic pattern that we use. And by applying certain principles and techniques, you will be able to draft a specific design that you have in mind. Most of you do not have a Sloper to use. So you're thinking, well, how I'm gonna get with The easiest way to get one is to buy an existing pattern from your local fabric store. You can look for a pattern that has two darts, a shoulder dart and a waistline dart. in the next class I'm going to take the dart manipulation principle. I'm gonna show you certain techniques so that we can get to work and start manipulating patterns, and you're gonna learn a lot 5. #4 - Using the Principle of Pivoting to manipulate patterns.: hello everyone Welcome back. Today we're going to learn the first principle off pattern making, which is dart manipulation. How to manipulate a dart from one position to another. And there are two techniques that we use to do that. One is called pivot or pivoting, and the other is called slash and spread. So let's get to it. This first exercise is the pivoting or pivot method of dart manipulation. And we're going to put a little tiny hole in the apex right here because this will be our pivoting point. It is the center of the pattern, if you can see this. Pattern has two darts. Well, what if you don't want 2 darts? What if you say I want to transfer this dart Oh, this amount. This is called the Dart Intake, by the way, so we could transfer this amount into this other dart the waistline and thus eliminating the dart altogether. We're gonna do that by using our pivot or pivoting method. We got to align center front with one of these. dots or numbers like this. And I'm going to start from this notch right here that notch closest to the center. I'm going to put a cross mark just like that. So it's very visible and I'm going to trace my pattern all the way around Neckline down, centre front until I arrived to this first notch right here. Okay, so put it a cross mark So it's visible. Using the apex as the pivoting point. I'm going to take the second notch and move it on top off the first notch, just like that. And then I'm going to trace the other half of the pattern. Right shoulder the armhole, the side seam down to the waistline until we come to the other notch just like that, make sure that your apex is visibly marked. Double check. Okay, it's right there. They days if you noticed these darts do not touch the apex. They are about 1/2 inch sometimes 5/8 of an inch or 3/4 of an inch away from the apex. And that is because a dart is never sewn right to the apex. This started the waistline is much larger because we have taken the amount from here and incorporated into here. So now we have a much larger dart This new dart now measures 4.5 inches, so two and 1/4 is half of that. I'm going to just draw a very light pencil guideline like this and back away from the apex half inch. And now draw the new legs of the new dart from this new half inch mark down to my notch. And there is a new dart Next I take one leg the first leg of the dark one close to center from I'm going to crease it and folded over to meet the other leg. Like so. And you seeing my tracing wheel, I'm going to go over the waistline right through all the layers of the paper of the dotted paper, like so. And when I opened it up, it will look like that. You can see these little tiny holes right there that the tracing wheel made, Okay, so using my French curve, I'm going to connect all those little tiny holes left by the tracing wheel and is a certain like shape to it. So now we have a new pattern. With one dart I have stapled my pattern, my dotted paper to Manila, and I'm going to cut it out. I'm going to use my all or push pin to mark the apex and the vanishing point. Make sure you don't hurt yourself. This is sharp. And then using my notcher I'm going to notch the legs of the dart We can do it this way, and I've seen it also used this way where you can see the leg of the dart matching. And now we have a new one. Dart Sloper. Well, okay, so you've learned the pivot or pivoting technique, and now I'm going to show you the slash and spread, so 6. #5 - Using the Principal of Slash-and-Spread to manipulate patterns.: Okay, so we've learned pivoting technique. This one final note. Right now, this waistline dark goes from the apex in this direction towards the waistline. But what if you say you know, I rather see it going in the sight seen or towards the arm hole or towards the shoulder? You say you can pivot this one dart in all different kinds of direction. I'm gonna take a minute and show you how to do that. Check this out. Okay, so here we go. First, we decide the new direction of the dart We want to pivot this dart. And let's say we want to pivot into the side seam So we pick a point mark, people across mark onto the side seamwhere we want the new dart to end up. We line up center front with one of these dots or letters, and we start by putting across mark right on the dotted paper, and we start tracing the pattern all the way around shoulder neckline down centre front until we come to the first leg of the dart All right, put it a cross mark right there, using the apex as the pivoting point. Okay, Always the apex is the pivoting point we'll take the second notch the second leg and pivot. So it ends up on top of the first notch like that and then trace the remainder of the pattern until we end up where we started from which is right there. Put a cross mark right there. Make sure Apex is clearly marked. Like this put a cross mark right there. And there is our new dart I'm not going to show you how to "true" the dart If you need to refresh your memory, go back to the previous lesson and then you can establish a new dark. So there you have it. Okay. For this next exercise, I'm going to show you a technique called slash and spread. I'm gonna use a skirt pattern for this one. I have draped and very basic. Very simple to dart skirt. I've transferred the muslin of the drape to dotted paper stapled dotted paper to Manila, as we've done previously. I know I have a very basic pattern for a skirt with two darts gonna show you again through slash and spread. How to take a very basic two dot skirt and turn it into an A-line skirt. All right, let's get to it. Okay, so we start with our 2-dart skirt, Sloper. I've put a little tiny hole at the end of the dart the end of the dart is known as the vanishing point. So sure, your legs of the dart are notched like that. And now we're going to trace this pattern onto dotted paper. I have traced my pattern. Make sure that you mark the vanishing point on the dart and make sure that your notches are clearly visible. Next, I'm going to draw the dart the legs of the dark. Next, I'm going to draw a straight line from the vanishing point off the dart straight down to Hamline like so next I'm going to cut out this pattern. I'm going to cut on this pencil, lying from the hem line all the way up to the vanishing point off the dar right here and stop. So we've slashed these two guidelines. Next, we're going to close the darts by taking one leg, folding it over on to the other leg, as we've done previously Close dart put scotch tape over it. So as you can see, here's the slash and spread technique in action. Next, I've put a piece of paper underneath and the last thing to do now is to blend the hemline The darts are gone. We now have a very simple A-line skirt. I'm gonna take this to Manila, staple into Manila, and we have a new pattern. There. You have it. Okay. In the next class, we're going to take this pattern we just made, and we're going to create a yoke style line to the skirt, and then we're going to slash and spread pattern to add fullness. So we'll have sharing or gathers. So we're gonna incorporate several different techniques, so it's gonna be good. All right, your next class. 7. #6 - Creating a Yoke and adding fullness.: Okay, so today's class, we're going to take this pattern. We just make this A-line skirt and we're going to add a style line and design a yoke. What is a yoke? By definition, Textbook says a yoke is the upper part of a garment. In this case is the upper part of a skirt. And here's some examples. As you can see, there's different sizes, different shapes. So that's the upper part of the garment. The lower part. We're going to use our slash and spread technique to add fullness, which will become shirring or gathers, which will then be sewn to the yoke. Okay, let's do it. Okay, So here's the pattern that we drafted in last class and by the way, stapled it to Manila. So I now have a sloper of a an A-line skirt. Very simple. Very basic. Okay, I'm going to place my center front on one of these numbers or dots on the dotted paper, and I'm going to trace my pattern all the way around. Next, I'm going to create my yoke style line, and it's really up to you to decide what size what shape you can use your French curve to help you drawing one or a hip curve. So I'm going to do something like this. So there's my yoke lying. I'm going to cut this pattern out and cut on the yoke line so I can separate my yoke from the rest of this skirt. Okay, I'm going to separate my yoke. Put this aside for now. And for this section of the skirt, I'm going to slash and spread the section to add fullness to it. Next, I'm going to draw some guidelines from the yoke line down to the hem line several off them . In this case, I'm going to do four. Next, I'm going to cut on these guidelines and separate them. So I have slashed and spread my pattern to add fullness to this portion of the skirt. I have placed a piece of dotted paper underneath my original pattern pieces and I have slashed and spread and add fullness. How much fullness is really up to you? I've ended about an inch and 1/2 in between peace, but it's really up to you How much fullness you want now using our hip curve or French curve , we're going to blend our yoke line and the same thing with the hem line. So we have a nice, smooth yoke line and hemline. Next, I'm going to cut out the pattern. I noticed that the lower part of the skirt is much bigger because we've added fullness and all this will be gathered to be sewn into the yolk like that. Now, remember, this pattern has no seam allowance because it was drafted from a Sloper that did not have similar loans. So if you were to so this in fabric, you must add seam allowance or it'll never work. So don't forget that. Okay? Now, the next class, we're going to work with princess seams and princess style lines. So we'll take our basic bodies right here and turn it into a princess styling. Okay, I will see you next class. 8. #7 - How to Design Princess style lines.: I hope you've been practicing your pattern making skills. Pattern making is a complex skill It takes time to master. So practice and do your homework Today we'll talk about our Princess Style Lines and princess seams. There's a couple different variations. Here are two variations one you can clearly see. The seam is going from the waistline into the shoulder, and the 2nd one is going into the armhole. Right here is a clear indication where the seam goes right into the shoulder. This is an old vintage illustration, but it clearly shows you a princess style line right. This clearly shows that goes into the arm hole, and here's a more modern version of a princess styling into the arm again. So let's get to work like now you know the routine, right? You start with a piece of dotted paper we're gonna take out 2 Dart Sloper and trace your pattern all the way around. You're not just are clearly marked. Make sure your apex is marked as well. Next, we're going to redraw the legs of the darts. But this time we're going to draw the to the apex right to the apex, Remember? Originally, the vanishing point is not touching the apex, But this time we're going to draw the legs to the apex. I'm going to put a notch right at the apex, right across the apex right here, because in a minute we're going to separate these two pieces and the notch will help us connect the two pieces back. Together, we have removed the Darts. We're going to do one minor adjustment around the apex on the site panel. You see, we have a very sharp corner at the apex on the site panel. So using your French Kerr or the hip Kurt, we go into round this out and smooth this corner. So at this point, we're pretty much done with the drafting part of it, so that when you so the seam together like this, this becomes our princess style. Princess seam, from the waistline into the shoulder seam. Okay, For this second variation, we're going to put the style line into the armhole instead of the shoulder, and we're going to use the 1-Dart Sloper. And as always, we're gonna line up center front with one of these numbers on the paper and trace your pattern all the way around. Once again, we're going to redraw the legs off the dark to the apex like this. Next, we're going to draw the style line from the apex into the arm hole. There's no specific point. Somewhere in the middle of the arm hole is a good place to create the style line. So we'll put a cross mark right here and with your French curve. We're going to draw a line. It's a curved line from the apex into the arm hole like so next we're going to cut the pattern out, cut the dart out, going to remove the dart just like we did in the previous exercise, removed the dart And also we're going to cut on the style line, the Princess styleline that goes from the apex into the armhole. And just like we did in the previous exercise, we're going to smooth and round out this corner, which at times could be able to sharp so it's a little more smooth. One final note on this side panel, the grainline. We haven't talked about grainlines, but we will in the next class, the grainline in a site panel. The grainline is perpendicular to the waistline. So the grain lie would look something like this. If you don't know what a grainline is, stay tuned. Because next class I will explain grainlines. Once you add seam allowance. This gets sewn together like this. And this becomes your princess styleline into the arm. Oh, Okay. So there you have it. I want you to look at pattern making from a creative standpoint. So be creative. Have fun with it. Okay, I'll see you next class. 9. #8 - Darts, Pleats, Tucks, etc.: All right, so we come to the end. Of course, this is our final class. I'm gonna go over darts, pleats, tucks. I'm going to talk about grainlines and how to label a pattern correctly. So let's get to work. Okay, by now we're familiar with dart These are the legs of the dart, vanishing Point, Apex. When we stitch the legs closed, we end up with and dart But if we only fold the fabric over like this and stitch only in the seam like this, for example, this is a pleat, so I have not sewn the legs together. I've left it open. This is a pleat, I have only sewn right here. And if I only sew to a certain point, let's say I only sew the legs to a certain point. Like here, this is known as a tuck, so a dart, a pleat, and the tuck is drafted the same way. But it's how it is sewn that determines if it's a dart or a pleat or a tuck. Okay, let's talk about grain lines. Let's pretend this is a roll of fabric. I pull out the fabric. This is known as the length grain off the fabric This is known as the cross grain of the fabric. It's also a third grain line, which is known as the bias at a 45 degree angle, and the edge off the fabric is known as selvage. Okay, I've made this cute little pattern here, and I've drawn a grain line of labelled grain line. This line right here, which is parallel to center front, and the purpose of a grain line, is to tell us how to place the pattern onto fabric. See, without a grain line. We have no idea how to place this pattern onto this paper this way, this way, this way. But with a grain line, the grain line is always parallel to the selvage. So it goes like this. Not like this. Not like this, but it's always parallel to the selvage. Which brings us to our next topic, which is labelling patterns. What information do we put on these patterns? The first thing we do is we put a grain line. The grain line is always well not always. Most of the time is parallel to center front. You don't have to write grain line on it. It's sort of it's a given. It's understood that if you see a grain line like that with a little arrow at the top in the bottom, that's a green light. Next we write what is known as the pattern ID. Identification in the words is it a front. Is it a back? Is it a sleeve? Is it a cuff? Is in a waistband. What is in this case? It's a front, so I'm labelling it front. Next we write the size. What size is this pattern? I have draped this pattern from a muslin of a size 4. Next is the cut amount, and we circle the cut amount. Meaning, How many pieces do we cut? If you have a sleep, you have to sleeps. You cut, too. If you have a collar, it's only one piece collar. You cut one so all this information must be written on the pattern. Each pattern piece must be labeled. Okay, so we are done with this course. I hope you've learned a few things about pattern making. It takes a lot of time in practice to really master pattern, making so many things to learn. This was a very basic class. It's the tip of the iceberg. A lot more alert. Please email me with questions. I answered all my emails. So until we meet again, have fun being creative and I will see you on the runway.