Composition and Design Drawing Course - Draw a Fun Garden Scene Like a Master | Tavis Leaf Glover | Skillshare

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Composition and Design Drawing Course - Draw a Fun Garden Scene Like a Master

teacher avatar Tavis Leaf Glover, Author, Blogger, Photographer, Painter

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

48 Lessons (7h 14m)
    • 1. 1 Intro

    • 2. 2 Materials list

    • 3. 3 Intro to Techniques

    • 4. 4 Mark Making Basics Part One

    • 5. 5 Mark Making Basics Part Two

    • 6. 6 Mark Making Basics Part Three

    • 7. 7 Dynamic Symmetry Basics

    • 8. 8 Thumbnails and Planning

    • 9. 9 Taping the Grid to Your Paper

    • 10. 10 Starting the Design Process

    • 11. 11 Blocking in the Log

    • 12. 12 Making the Log Cutouts

    • 13. 13 Blocking in the Snail and Flower

    • 14. 14 Blocking in Smaller Flowers

    • 15. 15 Designing Arabesques

    • 16. 16 Blocking in the Vines

    • 17. 17 Blocking in the Roots

    • 18. 18 Blocking in the Twig and Rocks

    • 19. 19 Blocking in the Leaves

    • 20. 20 Adding Variety

    • 21. 21 Radiating Lines and Erasing

    • 22. 22 Adding Snail Details

    • 23. 23 Adding Leaf Details

    • 24. 24 Adding Flower Details

    • 25. 25 Adding Vine Details

    • 26. 26 Adding Stems and Baby Vines

    • 27. 27 Adding Log Texture

    • 28. 28 Ladybug Rock and Twig Details

    • 29. 29 Adding the Tall Grass

    • 30. 30 Contrast Techniques

    • 31. 31 Stylistic Marks

    • 32. 32 Rendering Gradations

    • 33. 33 Rendering the Top Lit Sphere

    • 34. 34 Terminator and Core Shadow

    • 35. 35 Reflected Light

    • 36. 36 Midtones and Highlight

    • 37. 37 Occlusion Shadow and Edges

    • 38. 38 Final Render of the Sphere

    • 39. 39 Rendering Simple Value

    • 40. 40 Rendering the Snail and Ladybug

    • 41. 41 Rendering the Log

    • 42. 42 Rendering the Flowers

    • 43. 43 Rendering the Twig and Rocks

    • 44. 44 Rendering the Leaves

    • 45. 45 Rendering the Roots and Vines

    • 46. 46 Rendering the Grass

    • 47. 47 Rendering Final Details

    • 48. 48 Conclusion

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About This Class

This is a course about creating a fun garden scene while learning powerful composition techniques. We will design the composition just as the master painters did in their time. And we’ll do it all without using the rule of thirds. In fact, we’ll learn why the rule of thirds can be a compositional dead end for artists. You’ll also learn how scenes like this can simply be drawn from imagination.


If you been stuck using the typical methods of composition like leading lines and rule of thirds, but still feel your art is missing that spark, you’re in luck. In this course you’ll learn a ton of techniques, all which will give you the skills to create your own masterpiece full of unity, movement, strength, rhythm and more. 

This class is for beginner and experienced artists. Surprisingly, not many artists know of this process because it was kept secret by master painters. The design techniques are as easy as drawing simple shapes. The only difficult part might be the rendering process as this is where students will vary in skill. You don’t need any prior knowledge other than being able to draw simple shapes and have the desire to improve your composition skills.


This class will give you an extremely strong foundation for the rest of your artistic career. These techniques, if learned and applied, will forever set your work apart from the rest. You’ll be able to communicate with visual clarity, know exactly where to place the subjects, and be in full control as to avoid mistakes and distractions.

Even though this is a drawing project, the techniques can be applied to painting, photography, cinematography, sculpting, graphic design, and many other visual arts.

If you’re wanting to learn more about composition and design, and see how master artists applied them to their own art, check out my site. It has over 700 articles written specifically for composition, plus there are several books, and videos to learn from. There’s even a YouTube channel full of helpful videos to help artists of all kinds master composition.



Instagram: @tavisleafglover_art or @canonofdesign


Meet Your Teacher

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Tavis Leaf Glover

Author, Blogger, Photographer, Painter


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1. 1 Intro: Hey everyone, My name is sad to see if Glover and I'm an artist and educator here on the island of Oahu. I'm a little obsessed with composition and design, and I've been teaching it since 2013. I've written a few books on the topic, but I've never really done a full-blown course like this. So it was pretty exciting because I think that's what we need to get the information out there and help change the future of art. If you've ever wondered how the master painters created their compositions, how they created remarkable paintings and drawings. You're in the right place. If I had an understanding of composition, and artists can never truly reach the master level, they may fumble their way to something visually interesting through years and years of experience, but they'll never be consistent without quality knowledge. Consistency is key if we want to avoid an onslaught of trial and error, most of us would rather spend our time creating something remarkable rather than hoping our art looks good in the end, no need to worry though. If you're willing to be open-minded to some new tools and principles other than the rule of thirds or your gut instinct, then this course will definitely send you down a new path in your artistic journey. I haven't a composition, the structure of an image. Why did he get put on the back-burner? Well, it has a lot to do with art movements. Artists got fed up with structure and wanted to create art that was pure emotion. The truth is you'll need both to create great art. To throw-away structure is a mistake that will leave anyone's art in a realm of mediocrity. Around the turn of the 20th century is when composition techniques and master painters started getting buried. This is when great masters started passing away like Vincent van Gogh, Bolero, Toulouse-Lautrec. Google row says on F7, Rodin, Renoir and Degas. This left only a few to carry the torch, like Picasso, Salvador Dali, and a few others, slowly but surely decade after decade, hardly any trace of strong composition techniques can be found within the paintings of modern and contemporary artists. Unfortunately, the series artists have today who want to walk in the same path of a master artists are graded with nothing more than the rule of thirds, leading lines and other beginner techniques that do nothing for the composition. They never have a chance to gain full control over their art. And that's where I can help. What I'm teaching in this course may seem difficult at first, but it's only because we're bridging the gap between logic and creativity. Usually when it comes to our logic is the path less traveled. Most artists rely on their instinct, but this so-called Instinct is developed from past experiences and knowledge. If this past knowledge is mediocre, then it can't reliably guide and artists to create something remarkable. Even if some artists care nothing for the masters of the past, there are can still benefit from learning how to properly communicate visually. In this course, I'll slowly walk you through the composition and design techniques used by master painters. Don't let this sweet little innocent snail fool you because this course is packed with a punch and full of value that you can apply to your art the rest of your life, everything will be explained simply, applied simply. Then we can refine it. If you can draw a circle, square or triangle, you can easily design this fun little garden scene. Aside from learning how to apply the composition techniques, you'll learn how to draw and render from imagination how to use the dynamic symmetry grids, which pencils are used for what, and how to control each pencil to create stylistic marks. By the end of this project, you'll know exactly where to place your subject without rules. It's a full course from start to finish and we're gonna take baby steps just so all the new information is fully understood. So let's not waste any more time and start digging into it. 2. 2 Materials list: To help you complete the course has demonstrated and we've got a great list of materials for you. You can use alternatives if you like, if you see something that's similar to what you already own, go ahead and use that first up on the list are the files which are all provided in the resources. So you can download those and print them as you need. I've got them all printed here. Exercises and demonstrations of certain marks and things, but you're definitely going to need the printed grid so you can do the project. I mean, unless you're working on a computer or an iPad, you should be all right. These are at most of the tools we'll be using. We've got four mechanical pencils. Three of them are 0.5 millimeter. This one right here is a 0.3 millimeter. For smaller details, we've got three LED holders with two millimeter lead inside, all different LEDS in all of these ranging from two h, We've got HB, B and for b. And then the LED holders have to AHP for me. So we've got mainly the same lead but in different pencils because of the way we use them to sharpen the lead in these LED holders, you're gonna use this LED pointer. It's a pencil sharpener. Basically, identify these pencils so I can quickly grab them while I'm drawing and I don't have to stop and slow down to try and figure out which lead is in there. But I use this blue tape. It's a low adhesive tape. Mr. Wrap it around there and identify it with a marker. This right here. This is basically a broom. You can sweep off eraser dust if you'd like, instead of using your hands and get some oils on your paper or whatever, this is, a mono 0 and a kneaded eraser always comes in handy. These are five calipers. They're not really needed to complete the course, but a lot of master painters would use these to incorporate five proportions. So I do have a file available you can download in the resources if you want to practice using these five calipers on a painting or drawing, need a ruler. A ruler will work. One of the most important tools we'll be using is this light pad. Extra lead for your pencils if you like. This is a sketch paper. It doesn't really matter the brand or the type or anything. Only thing you might want to look for is the thickness. So this sketch paper is actually kind of thin. It's a little bit fragile because you might want to go for something that's thicker than £50. This is our main paper. This is a 100% cotton paper. It's meant for watercolor, but it's a nice surface for graphite drawings and it's archival and you use it for your best drawings. Other than that, you can just use your sketchbook for working out ideas and things. But when you're spending a lot of time on a design drawing, you want to use the best quality paper you can get. In this one's pretty good to help with posture ergonomics. So you're not hunched over a desk all day. You can use one of these drawing easels. It's not required, it's just optional, but I love using one of these width, the light pad and then drawing vertical like this. So much better for your posture. Once you've looked through all the files and gathered all the materials that you need, we can move on to the next step. We'll cover all the individual tools as we work through the exercises and the project. 3. 3 Intro to Techniques: We know what materials we need. Now let's start covering the design and composition techniques, the checklist and the simple diagrams I'm going to show you in a sec are all in the resources. Whenever I start to develop a new composition, I have this checklist just taped to my wall and I go through each technique and make sure I tried to include as many as possible. The more you include, the stronger the composition you'll have. Let's slowly walk through these techniques just to familiarize you with them. And even though it may seem like a lot on the surface, it's super easy to apply. Plus I'm gonna be there the whole way so you don't have to worry about anything. Feel free to grab the PDF and scroll through these techniques with me if you'd like, you can also follow on the design technique checklist. First up, we have identified the main subject which you need to know what the story is about, why you're drawing while you're painting, who or what is this piece of art about? You need to identify them that way you can design around them and make sure that they stand out amongst the other objects within the composition. The greatest area of contrast is basically where the eyes are going to be drawn first, this black circle with the white background stands out more than the other circles because it's higher contrast and it's a larger area of contrast. Simultaneous contrast is just saying that the tone or value will change depending on the neighboring value. This works with colors as well. So these two gray circles, they're the same value, but since this is on a light background, it looks darker than the one that's inside this dark circle figure ground relationship is basically how the foreground interacts with the background. You want to clean separation between the subject and the background. This is typically where the rule of thirds falls apart because a lot of beginners will place a subject or someone on a third, rather than seeing the image as a whole and making sure that the foreground interacts with the background properly. When we talk about breathing room, it means the top to bottom balance of the image. So if you create vertical and horizontal center lines, you can measure the balanced kind of like a teeter-totter from left to right and from top to bottom. All this contrast here that's considered the bulk of the image and there's more on the bottom than the top, then the balance is going from bottom to top. Same with gazing direction. The individual subjects can actually have a gaze and that can shift the weight. Say if someone is on the left side of this vertical center line and they're facing to the right. That adds a little bit more visual weight to the right side, but this bulk of the composition is further on the left, which means the composition is balanced is going from left to right. So it's basically just working with these center lines here. Magnetic momentum, that's just a term I came up with to describe how contrasts interacts with this sinister diagonal. And also the way we read from left to right most of us anyway, if the greatest area of contrast is in close proximity to this sinister diagonal, we read left to right, so we get a little bit of extra movement going up and down this diagonal here. The way you can test that is by flipping the image. You can see if the movement changes as you flip the image. Dynamic symmetry, of course, that's our grid, but it's also the foundation, a masterful art. You need a grid to organize your composition. And it also promotes techniques like dominant diagonals, repetition, strength, and unity. And we'll cover those techniques in a second. So there's some terms to understand with the dynamic symmetry grids, the basic armature consists of a baroque diagonal is going from lower left to the upper right. Sinister diagonal going from the upper left to the lower right, the reciprocal diagonals actually intersect these major diagonals at 90 degrees. And we'll learn more about these reciprocals. These are the horizontals and they're running through the intersection point of this 90 degree angle where the reciprocals meet with the major diagonals. And then you can run a vertical through the same point. So that's the basic armature. And if you want, the major area divisions will just basically put four of that same grid inside of the mother rectangle. It's just repeating the grid inside of it. So we have more diagonals to work with. Locking into the grid is basically, as it sounds, we're just taking the element and aligning it to the grid the best you can. And if you can't align it to the grid, we can always parallel it, which just means you're running in the same direction of a diagonal. All the intersection points, they're called eyes. And with these eyes, we can generate new lines if we need, if we are using a specific grid and we're posing a model a certain way and the grid isn't giving us a diagonal that we need. We can generate the diagonal we need and still adhere to the same geometry of the rectangle. If we use these eyes, as we said, this intersection point where the reciprocal diagonal meets the major diagonals, That's considered a polar point. And that's because we can spiral these grids around this point and they get smaller and smaller. The dominant diagonal is just basically a very prominent diagonal within your composition image Flickr, that's when you have high contrast near the edge and it's actually distracting from the main subject. Definitely want to avoid that if you can't get rid of it, it's best to keep it equal on both sides to help with the balance, gamma is just repeating diagonals, and these are promoted from the dynamic symmetry grid. But the more you repeat the same diagonal, the more you get a rhythm throughout the composition. And it's a hidden rhythm, works quite nicely. Negative space. You always need to be aware of the story you're creating because too much negative space can create a different story. A story of isolation, loneliness, or show the grand scale of things. Separating shapes is basically separating the shapes no overlapping, but they also have nice figure ground relationship. You'll see this a lot in cinematography. Coincidences are edge to edge relationships which create unity and movement. So if you align multiple elements on the same linear path, you're gonna get a movement in that direction just like a dot-dot-dot image. And that movement is also a unifying these elements as well. Arabesque works the same way. This is adhering to the law of continuity. Just like coincidences, the mind can follow these areas of contrast and create a movement in that direction. Aerial perspective can be used to create the illusion of depth in your drawing or your painting. You can see how this black circle pops out. It appears closer than the ones that are faded, kind of like this is showing us a foggy day and the further elements are getting lighter and lighter. So when you're combining multiple elements within the composition, you want to avoid these kissing shapes because they can create an unwanted illusion. A lot of surrealist artists will use this concept to create illusions like forced perspective and things like that. But if you're not wanting to create an illusion and you're overlapping shapes, you need to pay attention to how you're doing it. And you can do it by half by third or phi, which is basically just a guideline, but it doesn't have to be precise. So adding life to your story, as we said in the beginning, you need to understand what the main subject is and add a little bit of life. Make them do something in the painting or the drawing. This one's listening, this one is smelling, and this one's peeking inside the box. So it adds a little bit more story to the composition aspect of view can be seen several different ways, but it's basically meaning that the shape is more identifiable. If we take this box example beside view compared to the one that's showing three sides. The three sides is actually more identifiable as a box than the other one. Same with this group of people. These are overlapping and their limbs aren't spread, but they, when they spread their limbs and they're separated, we can easily identify them, even if they're silhouetted like that. You can tell it's two people jumping, same with this side profile of the head and then a twist in the pose. We're getting multiple sides. You can have a hierarchy in size and you can also have it in value. Pretty easy, large, medium and small, or light medium and dark, 90 degree angles. Those are promoted by the grid as well, and they add a sense of strength to the composition. Enclosures, those adhere to the law of closure, which is another Gestalt psychology principle. So if you take these random shapes here and we organize them differently, we get three different geometric shapes, but it's actually just random shapes organized differently. This means you can organize the elements in your composition to have a hidden geometric shape which creates unity ellipse, basically following the law of annuity, which is showing that these elements of contrast on this half can create an elliptical shape and also create unity and movement. Echoing shapes is using similar shapes within the composition. It can be different objects, but they're echoing the same shape is creates a rhythm in the composition pointing devices, a lot of artists might have heard of leading lines. This is much different than that. Leading lines can promote generic composition. It's kind of like a road leading to someone, but these are actually different elements within your composition that can point to the main subject. You can have multiple elements, say, like a spear or the side of a mountain that's pointing towards the subject. Radiating lines, kind of the same concept, but it's more like a wheel with spokes. So the main subject has all these different elements creating contrasts in the same direction pointing towards the main subject. Can you use five proportions just like this painting by Boudreau. He's measuring the head and he gets the five proportion with the contrast by this fabric here you can see how the phi calipers measure up to the Phi grid with the square equaling one, and then the rest of the rectangle equaling 0.6185 proportion law of pregnancy is fun. This one is used by Dali a lot. It's one that creates illusions. So in this photo here, I edited out the original shadow to create a little story like she's a wolf, so she's got a wolf shadow That's just playing on the mind. So at first you might see just a pretty girl smiling, but then once you look closer, you'll see the wolf shadow patterns. These can create repetition but also fill up some areas of negative space. Can add that in there to make the composition a little more interesting, add more color to your composition texture as well. You can see how Van Gogh creates texture with the painting and also with lines. So we can use this concept in our drawing as we work on it later. Your story, you can create ambiguity. So it's when the viewer can think of multiple stories. So everybody can see this a little bit differently, so we don't really know what's going on in this scene. So it leaves it open for interpretation. And to add more depth in your composition, you can add a mirror. Some street photographers would actually capture mirrors in their photo and it adds depth. You can even paint a mirror in your composition habit part of the story, this right here above his head is an exit. This is Peter Paul Rubens creating an exit. So it actually adds depth and allows the eyes to exit out of this hole and then come back in. 4. 4 Mark Making Basics Part One: Now we're ready to learn the basics of mark-making. There's a variety of pencils and legs you can use for drawing, just like a painter might select different brushes, or a carpenter might select different hammers. Certain tasks require specific tools for the job. So that's what we're going to learn today. Mechanical pencils are great because they always remain sharp, but they can't do every task. We can't necessarily use the broad side of the thin lead. The lead holders allow us to use a point or the side of the lead, but they need to be sharpened more often and they can't get as fine as that 0.3 millimeter mechanical pencil. So we use a variety of pencils in unison to create a variety of marks and values, we use graphite rather than charcoal or konnte because in my opinion it's cleaner and it suits our needs for this drawing. All right. So get out the mark-making exercise sheet and you can follow along with me. First, we're going to fill in these specific squares. The left side is light, the right side is dark. And go ahead and start with the two H pencil and they're all labeled on the sheet here. We're going to start with the lightest pencil, the hardest pencil, and work our way up to the darkest pencils. So the purpose of this is just to test your tools and see how light you can make that specific tool and then how dark you can make it that way. You can kind of judge, when we're in the rendering process how to use your tool. You'll see as you fill in this light side, how easy it is to create a light mark. And the whole purpose is to just create a landmark as you can. You won't have to be really precise. Just fill it in the best you can however you like and create the lightest mark. That's all you need. That's pretty light with the lightest area. See how I'm holding it on the side here. I'm able to just apply the pressure of maybe the weight of the pencil rather than pushing down onto the paper for the darkest side, we can get a better grip on the pencil and apply more pressure. The legs will be rated with numbers and letters. An easy way to remember this is that the letter B can stand for bolds because it makes it darker mark the letter H can stand for hard because it's a harder lead and harder to make them are. The higher the number for B, the darker than mark, the higher the number for h, the lighter the mark. So essentially the graphite, it goes from super hard and light to super bold and dark. The HB pencil, aka the number two from school, is labeled perfectly because it's right in the middle, kind of hard. So speaking of HB, let's grab our next pencil. That's the 0.5 millimeter with HB lead and fill in both sides light and dark. Hb pencil is really good for a lot of value ranges. If you can control the pencil, you can get almost as light as that. We always need to be mindful of the delicate paper surface, which is another reason why we should understand the pencils we use. Most drawing paper has a soft surface and can be scratched deeply with graphite pencils so deep that an eraser won't even remove the mark. Or a nice drawing paper is thick but it's surface is not as compressed compared to something like card stock. Also, most drawing paper will be more texture to which grabs that graphite a little bit better. We can get pretty dark with this HB. You can go back and forth. Now grab your 0.3 millimeter with be laid in it. That's going to be our smallest mechanical pencil with the finest point. And it's a softer lead. So you're actually going to see how it might be tougher to create lighter marks. The more compressed the paper is, the harder it is to leave a mark. This paper I'm drawing on now is printer papers, so it's more compressed and it's going to work with the graphite just a little bit differently. If you really wanted, as you work through these exercises, you could probably print on nice resume paper, that's cotton. It might be similar to the drawing paper we have, or you could actually just cut the drawing paper to size and run it through your printer. This 0.3 millimeter lead is really thin too, so you might feel it snapping a lot, it might feel a breaking more often. Let's move to the last mechanical pencil with the 4-bit lead. You're going to find it's going to be even tougher to create that light side. Now, let's start in with our LED holders will start with a to H lead. That's the hardest lead. It's going to leave the lightest mark. When we choose to make any deep scratches and newspaper, we want to save them for the final rendering step. Throughout the design and blocking process, we'll use the lead holder with UDL HB lead. Use this handy-dandy lead holder with the HB lead to fill in this next square. This is our workhorse. We're gonna be using this a lot, so get familiar with it. All right, Last but not least, is our two millimeter Forbes lead holder. And this is going to create the same dark mark as the other for being mechanical pencil. But like the other LED holders, is going to be able to fill in larger area of value quicker. That's mechanical pencils with the LED holders and all the different lens. So hopefully you got a little out of that and learned a little bit more about applying pressure to your pencil and getting different value marks. 5. 5 Mark Making Basics Part Two: Now that you know more about your pencils and your lead's, let's continue to learn about mark-making. You already might have a certain scratchy style and it could have revealed itself when we were doing that first exercise. But let's try to control things and see if we can improve anything for the future. Lifting up the pencil and I'm making the stroke over and over again is called hatching or crosshatching. It's a common mark, but it can create a texture in areas that you don't really want. A texture like this smooth surface of skin or glass metal. You may or may not want the surface to have a rough, hairy texture. Hatching can also be difficult for some artists to apply the same pressure. Some artists are heavy-handed as they call it, which means they just have a difficulty of making lighter marks. Every mark is dark for them. Some beginner artists can't control the value while hatching and they make ugly marks. This could be because the artist is using their wrists rather than their arm, which produces different results. To see that for yourself, Let's fill in this first square with just your risk crosshatch, make marks with just your wrist. And we're going to try and see if we can identify any flaws in our mark-making so we can control them or creating whenever we want. I was doing only a risk, mainly for that first exercise and you can see how sloppy it is. But for the rest of these exercises, we're just going to use our workhorse, That's the HB two millimeter lead. So go ahead and grab that one and let's start filling in this first square with just cross hatches and using our wrist. Pretty sloppy looking at, I'm gonna show you a close-up what that looks like. You may notice these small jagged marks because when the wrist moves, the forearm is and that creates these inconsistent marks, even if you're experienced. This next square, just keep your wrist firm and move your arm. That's all you're gonna do is move your arm. What that does is it just makes less movement and creates a more controlled mark. And we'll see that. Okay, I'm just gonna move this back and forth and I'm crosshatching, creating an elliptical shape where I'm going down, striking the paper, coming back up and then circling back around and striking it like that. You can see how my wrist is firm and the lines are much smoother. If consistency isn't a priority, say you're laying in some value or doing a rough sketch, it won't really matter how you use the pencil. You might even want to turn your paper so you can continue that same movement when you're crosshatching. You can see the difference there. I'll zoom in on that. So you can see the difference. Much sloppier in the first one went just your wrist because there's more movement. You can look at your arm as you're moving your wrist and you can see how much your arms moving back and forth. But if you're just moving your forearm and your wrist is locked, the only thing that's moving is up here, but there's actually less movement, so you get a smoother mark. To practice with gestural marks. Fill in this next rectangle with figure eights. We're going to create three of them. It doesn't matter what they look like. Just try and practice your C shapes in your S shapes. As you're creating these gestural marks, you'll hold it from the side of the pencil, which is usually what I do when I'm creating the design. So it'll try and practice with the side of your pencil because that's the main way we should start learning how to hold these LED holders. Instead of like a normal writing pencil, hold it from the side and create your gestural marks. Going in a circle and lifting up, coming down, lifting up, coming down, lifting up. Keeping my wrist firm and just moving my arm and my shoulder. Some cases, gliding my thumb on the paper. So another common mark is the zigzag. And that can be fast and crazy, like a stylistic mark which we'll cover later. Or it can be nice and smooth and lay in some nice value. To see the difference we're going to fill in these next two squares. First squared is gonna be controlled. So just keep your arm, moving, your wrist firm and lay and some smooth value. Hold the pencil on the side and use that HB workhorse. Your ability to control the mark and value will come with experience. You may be coming down too fast and at more of an angle and think, Oh, if I hold back further on the pencil, I won't press as hard. I can create a zigzag mark and it looks better. I'm able to go fast. Once you get impatient and lazy, maybe the area is a big area value that you're filling in, kinda get lazy and go faster and faster. You'll start to see inconsistent marks. And you'll see these kind of like a friction mark where the graphite is going over the same spot and creating a darker value, which can be controlled, but probably just want to keep it nice and smooth. Have some patients and fill in the value. Heavy-handed artists can try making marks with the weight of the pencil instead of applying additional pressure. Now let's create a faster zigzag and this one using just our arm firm risk, but we're actually just showing, if you go quicker, you might see inconsistent marks. That's what we're gonna do. A little harder to lay down an even value when you're going quick like this because the pressure changes in different areas and you get all these dark marks. Here, here, here. It's less controlled. If you're trying to render someone's face, you don't want these dark marks in there. You want to control it and make in nice and smooth. That's the difference there. Okay, So that's pretty much the basics of our mark-making, will get into stylistic marks and other things later. But now we want to practice with our erasers just to see how those work with the lead. 6. 6 Mark Making Basics Part Three: We're going to use our same workforce and fill in these next two squares and play with there are erasers. This first square, just fill in with some medium value. Uses zigzag technique. Keep your arm moving with your wrist firm and fill in some medium value. Doesn't matter, it doesn't have to be consistent. We just need some value in here to play with our eraser. Grab your kneaded eraser. And you know how this can just be shaped in any shape you want. But what we're gonna do is create a smiling face inside this square. We're going to first create a point with the eraser. We're going to make the eyes and the nose. And the purpose of this is just to learn how to dab out value. If it gets a little bit more graphite on the top, you can just need it and find a clean spot and dab out a little bit more. When you're rendering, you'll have inconsistency in your value and you can dab out certain areas and even out that value. We're gonna do is carve out the graphite. We're going to create a little flat edge here and create a smiling face, mouth. And then just a simple circle. There's a smiling face. Hey, now this next section, we're going to use our mono 0 small eraser. But first we need to lay in the value. Alright. Now we're gonna use this eraser and create just a W inside the square. You can do quick hatch marks like this, because that comes in handy. It gives that nice thick to thin look to the mark. It's like a pencil mark when you go quick like that. Or you can just go back and forth, create a W. Doesn't have to be anything fancy. You can play around crosshatch inside here. Might come in handy later when you're rendering or you can just rub it all out. Remember that fan brush we had. You can use that to get rid of this eraser dust. If we rubbed it off when I get some graphite on our finger here. That was the simple exercises, pretty easy stuff, but now you know a little bit more about your tools and we'll move on to dynamic symmetry next. 7. 7 Dynamic Symmetry Basics: Dynamic symmetries new to a lot of artists, but it's been a part of the art world far along are than the rule of thirds. In fact, since dynamic symmetry is geometry, we can safely assume that the ancient Egyptians used it to create the pyramids. If you've ever heard of phi or the golden ratio, it all relates to geometry, but thankfully, we don't have to know math to use the grids. So that being said, dynamic symmetry is an excellent starting point for beginners. It's the foundation of masterful art. But if we had to boil it down to one word, it would be grid. All we're using is a grid to organize the elements within our composition. It's just lines. And when we start seeing it like that, it becomes way less intimidating. As a bonus, the grid will promote a lot of the techniques that we're going to cover like dominant diagonals, any degree angles, coincidences, and repeating diagonals. All we have to do is use the grid and it'll benefit our art. So why not use the rule of thirds? Mainly because it prioritizes specific thirds placement rather than seeing the image as a whole, how the foreground interacts with the background. We need to see the image as a whole. Using the rule of thirds would be similar to a chef paying attention to a potato on your plate, rather than how the potato interacts and mixes with the other ingredients to create a dish. The dishes, the whole meal. Not just one specific element of the meal. Composition is everything. Seeing everything that has a whole rather than specific placement in your composition usually creates generic compositions to like everyone else's artists aren't to blame. I know I use it in the beginning. It's all they seemed to teach in schools, magazines, and books. You can divide our overlap with thirds, but to generically place a point of interests on a third is not good practice. Yes, we use dynamic symmetry in combination with other design techniques. If we're concerned about nice compositions, not the rule of thirds. There's a ton of information to learn if you're wanting to maximize your understanding of constructing the grids to fit your needs. But in our case, we're just going to stick with the absolute basics. A greater understanding can come in time if you're really interested. The grid we're using for our drawing is a 4 third rectangle. The same size as many canvases, like 12 by 1618 by 2436, by 48. Even the photos you take on your smartphone, That's a 4 third rectangle. And there's also a micro 4 third cameras as well. Since dynamic symmetry is new to a lot of artists, the main thing we want to pay attention to it as just selecting a grid that is closest to the size of our canvas. And that provides the diagonals that we need for our subject. And we'll get into all that as we develop the composition. The 4 third grid will actually transfer perfectly to the canvas and it has the diagonals to help us construct the log and other elements within the composition. So a lot of artists might be concerned about where it's a place of subject. And once you learn these design techniques, you'll learn that it can be placed almost anywhere you like. And it really gives you full control over the composition and where you can place your subject and how to design around it to create movement and unity and all that stuff. To learn the basics of dynamic symmetry, go ahead and print out the exercise sheet. Or you can use Photoshop or whatever you want. But I'll go ahead and print that out and then grab a spare piece of scratch paper and put it over the top. We're also going to use our light pad for this exercise with the sketch paper over the exercise sheet. Go in and draw the rectangle first. You can turn on this lipase so you can see the grid a little bit better. So we'll draw the rectangle first. We're just going to trace. This is a root three actually, doesn't have to be perfect. Just draw it the best you can. Doesn't matter what pencil you use either. The rectangle is drawn. Now we're going to draw the Baroque diagonal and it runs from the bottom left to the upper right. All the dynamic symmetry grids have these major diagonals. They're called major diagonals. I'll move it over to the next one. We're going to draw the sinister diagonal. Goes from the upper left to the lower right. I'm kind of drawing off to the side, so mine is gonna be kind of sloppy and wobbly. That's the sinister diagonal, pretty easy. Now the reciprocal diagonals may confuse, you, may sound kind of tricky, but it's just a diagonal. And it runs across these major diagonals at 90 degrees. And that's the key to these dynamic symmetry grids. Run these diagonals up and they're going to cross the major diagonals at 90 degrees. And since they're running up from the bottom left to the upper right, and we're going to call this the Baroque reciprocal diagonals intersects the sinister diagonal at 90 degrees. Go to the other one, and these are gonna be the sinister reciprocal diagonals. It really needs to know the terminology. If you don't plan on building the grids, if you're just using the grid. And you don't have to worry about any of this terminology. But it's handy to know just so you can understand a little bit of what you're dealing with. And maybe if you want to communicate it to other artists, just go ahead and trace this. This is intersecting the Baroque diagonal at 90 degrees and running to the corner. That's the major diagonals, those bigger ones, and then the reciprocal diagonals that intersect. And then degrees. Then all I need to do is draw the horizontals and verticals. And those run right through this intersection point where the reciprocal intersects the major diagonal at 90 degrees. So go ahead and trace that. If you're just watching this, go ahead and trace it out because that's active learning. Instead of passive learning, watching is just passive and you learn a lot less by just watching rather than compared to actively doing the exercise. You need to see how easy this is to do. Super, super easy, and it needs to be less intimidating for artists. All we're doing is drawing these lines running right through that intersection point. So there's our basic armature that's considered the basic armature. Now we're going to draw the major area divisions, which is basically just the theme of two, which means four smaller rectangles. Inside this mother rectangle. The mother rectangles the outer rectangle, this main one we just drew. And then the smaller ones are inside, so we just divide by half and just trace over these lines were dividing vertically and horizontally by half. Then we basically draw this same basic armature inside those quarters. Pretty easy. The major diagonals, the reciprocals, run the verticals and horizontals. Sometimes it's easy to miss diagonal, but you can check the corners. See if there's two diagonals go into each corner. If you want straighter lines, so you can always use your ruler to. Okay, that looks good. All the lines are in place. That's the dynamic symmetry basics. Next up we'll do the thumbnailing. 8. 8 Thumbnails and Planning: A thumbnail sketch is a perfect way to start planning out your composition. You don't have to worry about any little details are getting anything perfect. You just scribble out some ideas and you can develop a later just looking at the scribbled bicarb Po and see how it became a masterful sculpture. One thing I do before I start the thumbnail is actually just write out a list of all the objects I want to include in the composition. This way I don't leave anything out, but you always want to make sure you have that main subject in mind because that's what the design is going to be developed around. If we have several points of interest, it becomes more about the environment rather than any main subject. A great example of this is a painting by auto. There's not specifically one subject that stands out amongst the rest. He's just got a complex composition full of little details. At first glance we see a nice still-life, but when we look closer, we see a kind of like a tiny world he's created. Knowing the main subject and story allows you to communicate the story with more clarity. The inanimate objects like the flowers and leaves gained less attention than the insects. If the insects weren't there, the story would be more about the flowers rather than a little creatures living around them. We can see the difference in this still-life by font on Latour without insects, it's more about the flowers and then anything else. While we're here, let's just run through his painting real quick and look at all the design techniques used. There'll be a little refresher forests plus it might inspire us for when we do our thumbnail sketching. Now that our memory is fresh with the design techniques, Let's start creating our thumbnails. All right, so let's just start by making a list of our objects that we want to include. This composition that has a snail, ladybug, log, vines, leaves, roots. We have a stick, rocks, flowers, and some grass. Nice little list we at. Now let's scribble out some ideas and see if we can start to organize the list that we just created. So the main subject is the snail. And a story we can create within the composition is the interaction between the snail and the ladybug, and then they're in their own environment. I'm using the HB mechanical pencil for this, but you can use any pencil you like. Alright, so the first thumbnail, we'll just start with the snail. We're going to put it just a little bit off center and just scribbling some ideas, keep it kind of light. Then I want to police that log because I want it on that Baroque diagonal. So we're just going to roughly find the Baroque diagonal there. We're just sketching it in. Keep it nice and loose. And the log is going to have a couple of openings here. So I'm going to create one there and there. There we have the snail and the log. Now let me place a flower. Because I know I want a flower around here because it's high contrast. And the way we read the composition, we can pull the eyes up into this upper left corner and then redirect it towards the style. And then create a lot of movement in that way. Let's do another flower right here. And then maybe one down here, smaller ones. Then I'm gonna create some vines around it. Coming out of the log. I'm gonna just kinda keep this movement in mind. I'm going to create these arabesque surround with the vines. But just to give us some ideas of where we want to take this, maybe the sticks down here, a couple of rocks right here. Then the ground plane can be right around here. Maybe some grass. Sketch in some leaves, some more vines. Grass right here. You want to kind of fill in this negative space, maybe create more of the environment. Then some roots. A couple more leaves up here. You can see the composition starting to come together. More roots. Couple of grass areas. We've got snail ladybug will put the ladybug over here on the flower petal. Log binds leaves, roots, stick, rocks, flowers and grass. So we've got pretty much everything. I'm going to make this ground plane here. That's the thumbnail sketch. Nice and scribbly. Now, if you get comfortable enough with the design techniques, you can start to sketch out some design techniques here that you want to incorporate the composition. So a great way to inspire the design techniques you're going to create if you get to that point, is just to look at your thumbnail sketch and see what's starting to develop. You might have arabesque, so already starting to develop or ellipses or coincidences, things like that, you'll start to incorporate these. But for now, I'm seeing an ellipse here going around this way. That's a design technique we can emphasize when we start to develop the composition if we want, definitely have that dominant diagonal there. And then we can look for triangles. Maybe we want to triangle here. We can keep track of that. And then maybe out of the ellipse, we want an arabesque to go across here. And over here. That's just one way we can keep track of the design process and any design techniques we see within the thumbnail sketch. Here, Let's do one more thumbnail sketch. And this one we can maybe create, say you wanted to have a bottle instead of a log. So let's just do the same kind of composition, but have a bottle there. So we'll have the bottle on a baroque diagonal. Keeping this loose and light, create this bottle. The ground plane will put the snail in the same spot. Have the same story. Vines coming out of their same as last sketch. Maybe we want to curving a little differently. Flower here. Another flower here. Since we don't have an opening in the bottle, we can put some vines inside. Then we can show some of the vines mixing with the roots inside the bottle. Maybe you still have that stick there. Some rocks for that triangular enclosure. Put some leaves in here. Just working out ideas. Keep it nice and rough and it comes out nice. You can refine it later. Put some grass here. Maybe you could put like another flower down here. Since it's empty now. More grass, couple more rocks and other flower. All right. So that's the thumbnail process. Now we're ready to tape the grid onto our paper and start the design. 9. 9 Taping the Grid to Your Paper: Alright, so we're ready to start the design process. But first we need to get the grid onto our paper. You can find this in the resources. You can print it onto 8.5 by 11 paper or A4 size. You only need one, but you can print extras if you like. This is the 4 third MAD grid. So go ahead and print that out. You can see that I've got the light pad already on the easel. Next, you need your paper. Go ahead and tear sheet out of that. The way I do it is just used the blue tape and use two pieces. And I leave a little bit of extra room on the bottom so I can sign it and data and all that stuff. So and then I leave a little extra room on the top so I can apply the tape and then center it from left to right. Doesn't really matter how you do it as long as the grids on there and you can use it while we develop the drawing. There's one. Alright, so that's taped on there. Go ahead and turn that over. Now we're going to use our light pad to draw the rectangle around that four-thirds grid. If your iPad is decibel or chargeable or it's running out of batteries. Can plug it in, turn it on. You can adjust the illuminance. And you'll want to find a nice balance between the grid underneath and then the overhead lighting. So you can see you want to be able to see your sketch, but also the grid underneath. So you're gonna suggest that until it looks right. But we're going to use our pencil and ruler and draw that rectangle around the 4 third grid. Alright, so congratulations, you just use the grid for the first time. We have our rectangle. And you can turn your light pad off and see just the rectangle. Now I'm just going to go ahead and sign it. I usually sign it. And then I add the grid and the ratio on there. That way I can look back and get the ratio correct when I enlarge for the Canvas. But I don't date it until I'm done with the drawing. This is 4 third grid with a ratio 1.333. You don't have to know the ratio unless you're enlarging it. That's it. You've got the grid on your paper and now you're ready to start the design process. 10. 10 Starting the Design Process: Okay, So now we're gonna do the design, the resources, you'll find some trace sheets and you can use those for the entire process. Maybe just use them in the beginning and then make your own design later. So just remember, we're not really drawing like most people would consider drawing. We're actually designing the drawing right now. We're designing it going to be a little bit different. It's going to feel a little bit different. We're going to use the design checklist to make sure we incorporate a lot of the design techniques. And then we're going to refine the shapes later. And then that'll be the drawing process. But for now we're just designing. It's kinda like building a house. We're setting up the structure and the framing. And then we can put in our nice couch and the espresso machine, the fridge. We can do all that later, but right now we're just setting up the structure. First. I'm just going to lightly pencil in the basic armature of our grid, not the complete grid because we have that the major area divisions taped on there, but just the basic armature. And that'll help me parallel and lock in a little bit later in the process. You should already have your grid taped on there and the rectangle drawn out. Grab your light pad and turn it on. We'll just lightly draw in this basic armature and we're using the HB pencil for most of this design process. Again, I'm just going to lightly draw in the sinister and broke diagonals. Just keep it real light. You'll be able to see it. We didn't turn the light pad off. For this grid, you'll see the reciprocals crossing the major diagonals and 90 degrees. There's two of them for each side. You also see them cross the center line. Since this is a four-thirds grid. We don't need the horizontals and verticals for this, but we do want to make sure we put in the center lines. That'll help with our balance. Just lightly put them in their vertical and horizontal. Now we're going to lightly draw in a big ellipse around and try and lock it into the grid. But you can practice on a scratch piece of paper if you want to get that movement going down, keep your wrist firm and then just move your arm and your shoulder around. And then I'll help you create that ellipse. And this is going to be an enclosure. And if you look on the checklist here, we've got ellipses down here. Once we get that in, we can check that off and make sure we use that technique. Sorry, ellipse will lock into the grid, but it also be about an inch away from this outer border here. And that'll be a guideline. So we keep high-contrast things away from the edge. High-contrast near the edges considered edge Flickr. And it creates distractions from the main subject. So we want to make sure we don't have any edge flicker. This will be a guideline to keep things away from that. We're going to lock it into this diagonal up here and just move it around about an inch away. Lock it in down here. There's matching the distance on each side, left to right, and then locking it into this similar diagonals within the grid. You can see under ghosting in nice elliptical shape here. And that's all you need, just something real to guide us. Alright, I'm gonna try and make this a little bit darker, just so you guys can see in camera what it looks like. But you usually keep these lines light so you can erase them later. All right, So that looks good. See how that looks. That's the elliptical shape, pretty easy, about an inch away from the edge. Alright, so now we can draw a circle in the lower part of the ellipse, and this will be like an enclosure. Just like an ellipse, we can align elements up onto that linear path and create more unity and movement. So we're going to just draw a circle here. I'm going to go about an inch and a half above this horizontal center line. And that'll be the top of the ellipse. Doesn't have to be precise, and it can be a guest animation. Ghosting in the same way we did the ellipse. This is all based off of what we saw in our thumbnail sketch. We know we want to create movement in Unity. So we're just basically setting up some design techniques to help with that. Let's see if that looks good. That looks alright. So we've got the circle and the ellipse, and that's the first part of our design process. But you did it and it's pretty easy. All we did was draw an ellipse and a couple of lines. Let's move to the next step, and that's blocking in the log. 11. 11 Blocking in the Log: Alright, so now it's time to block in the log. And since we're drawing from imagination and you can pretty much create any size you want. But if you want better guidance, just go ahead and do it as demonstrated, will continue to use this design checklists throughout the process and check-off the ones that we use prior. We already have enclosures and ellipses. In order to place our snail, the hero of our drawing, we need the first place, the log, and then everything can be refined later. There's no right or wrong way to block in your objects. Block in an object is to just start simply then develop things further. You can block an objects however you like. But a more academic way is to just create an envelope of straight lines. Then refine these straight lines by comparing them to the subject. It's kind of like chiseling out the shape, much like a sculptor would a piece of marble. Okay, so how are we going to do is just roughly sketch in some lines, some gestural lines. So we're going to run the log up. So go ahead and turn on your light pad. You should have your grid taped on there, but go ahead and run a soft light line up the Baroque diagonal. This is going to be the top of the log. Then we want to have maybe about two inches down from that Baroque diagonal, the one going from bottom left corner, its upper-right corner. That's the major broke diagonal. And we're going to have it about two inches from that. So if you find the center of your grid and run down towards that bottom right corner, the first intersection there, that'll be about a two-inch Mark. There'll be about thick enough for our logs, so we'll draw another line. We're going to run it all the way down to the bottom of this big ellipse, the circle. Run it most sides up and down, more paralleling that Baroque diagonal. Since we want to create depth in the log, we want to hollow out this log. We want to draw an ellipse on the top here. I'll have the cheat sheets ready so you can just trace this if you want. Otherwise you can just find diagonal in the grid and try and just create your own diagonal. But we're going to make this ellipse running the same direction as a sinister diagonal, which runs from this way. If you find that first semester reciprocal diagonal, one line up from that is the diagonal I'm using. I'm not sure if you can see them, but I'm just paralleling that diagonal. Again. It doesn't really matter which one you use. Just try and lock it in to the grid. And I'm keeping this ellipse real light. And it's not going to look pinched. It's not going to look like an eyeball. It's not going to look pinched. It's going to be more circular around those edges. Make sure it's not pinched. All right, so I'm drawing this ellipse and then we'll draw it on the bottom. The ellipses probably about three-fourths inches wide. We're just keeping unlike because we're going to refine this in the next step. So let me turn this off. You should see that cylinder shape taken place. That's the log we're gonna draw. We're just keeping it real light. You can see this bottom of the log is actually going through that PolarPoint. Here's the sinister diagonal with the Baroque reciprocal diagonal. It's running right through that intersection point, the bottom of the log. Alright, so now that we have the login place, we can check off two more things on our design checklists. So grab that. You check-off dynamic symmetry. And dominant diagonal, since we have that major baroque diagonal here, that's a dominant diagonal being shown there. All right, so another thing that it was established when we put that login is the balance. If you look at where the log is sitting, it's a little bit to the right of that vertical center line. And if we look at that horizontal center line, It's more in the lower half than the upper half, which means there's more negative space on the top there. And we have also gotten more negative space on the left of it. Since our log is lower in the frame and more right in the frame, we want to add more interest to that left side of the frame and more in the upper part, we're just pretending it's like a teeter-totter and the center line, the vertical center line is the fulcrum and we just want to balance from left to right. That's how we get a nice balance in the composition. We can see in this Peter Paul Rubens painting that it's weighted towards the bottom. Go ahead and grab your checklist and mark off balance and will continue to adjust things as we go. Now we can start with the log cutouts. 12. 12 Making the Log Cutouts: In order to help sell the illusion of depth with this log, we want to create some cutouts. Normally we would save these kind of details for later. But since we're designing things on top of it, it's more efficient to do it first rather than later. What we're gonna do is we have those elliptical shapes there and we're just going to kind of like a knife, just cut out certain areas so we can see inside of it. And it adds a little bit more depth to the composition. We want this log kind of tipping forward towards the viewer a little bit so we can see that top. And then the bottom side, we're going to have to cut out a little bit differently so we can see the inside curvature of the log. I'll grab a scrap piece of paper just to show you what I'm talking about here. So this is our log. When you've got those elliptical shapes, what we're gonna do is just cut out certain areas and then create a little bit of thickness there. So it looks like it's hollow. Then over here. Since it's going further back, we want to create a little opening here. But to show that curvature of the log, we need to have some grass kind of showing in the background and showing that curvature while also having a little bit of thickness on the side here, kind of like it's cut out. And then we need that cutout designed well enough to show that curvature within the grass inside of it. And then also overlapping and not kissing certain shapes, things like that. So that's how we're going to design it. And then the inside is dark. Here. You can see a little bit more depth. I'm using the HB pencil. I'm going to use a real lightly the lead holder one. Just slightly cut out some areas. Any line we create, we're going to try and parallel the grid, lock it into the grid, going right down the broke reciprocal diagonal. If I go up this way, I'm going to parallel the sinister diagonal. And just keep going around this one. I want a parallel it with the Baroque reciprocal diagonal. Here. I can lock it in. Over here. I can lock it in and go straight down here. Over here. I'll have the cheat sheets ready for you so you can just trace if you want to get an idea of what I'm doing. And I can lock in vertical there and just work your way down to this ellipse that you created. And then the top, I want to have a little cutout on the top there. And at an angle where I can see the inside of this log, the thickness. We induce go, Let's go parallel to this. Some cases you can't lock it in and you can't really parallel it. So you can create lines, you can add lines by finding an intersection point and another one and then just drawing a straight line. This line is cutting in nicely. We're gonna parallel, then Baroque diagonal. And then we're gonna cut it out so we can see the thickness there. Alright. So that's a little bit darker, just so you can see it turn that off. You should be able to start to see that cutout area. This is going to have an inside lip when we render it. Going to show that thickness. Then inside here we can add grass just to give us an idea of what's going on there. One thing you want to make sure you don't do is when you're making this cut-out, you want to create enough negative space above the ground plane. You can see inside the log without that rough cut hitting the ground plane. But if you want more guidance, just follow the trace sheets and you should be fine, but would definitely want to pay attention to the negative space inside the log. So it's clearly defined. So everybody knows can see at a glance what's going on inside there. All right, so we're using the grid, we're locking in and paralleling the best we can. We're using the ellipses. And so far we're doing pretty good. And all of those techniques using the grid and everything helps promote unity movement, rhythm, strength. And we're on our way to create a cool little snail home. Let's move on to the next step and go from there. 13. 13 Blocking in the Snail and Flower: All right, so now let us draw on the ground plane real quick. And then we can get to the snail and a big white flower, the ground plane. Let's just find the sinister reciprocal diagonal. The one going from this bottom right corner towards the middle of the left side. And then go about a half inch lower than that, or you can find your own diagonal. But what were you going to do is parallel the diagonal. And we want to meet that opening. But we don't want to create any bad overlaps or alignments or anything like that. So what we want to do is just parallel that sinister reciprocal diagonal and then curve it up it towards the edge of this left side here. We're going to replace this with grass, but for now we're just drawing a line. And then the right side of the log, we want the ground plane to kind of just follow through and then curve around. We went a little bit of negative space underneath this log here. I could do all that because I drew the grid on my paper. But for this one, I'm going to turn on the light pad the way I can see the grid underneath. And then we're going to follow through with that ground plane line and then find maybe a point, this intersection point here. We're going to curve around and go up parallel to another diagonal, and then curve up that right side there. That'll be our ground plane. So now we have the ground in there. Now we can block in the hero of our drawing and that's the snail. We're just going to keep it real simple, but you can refer to the reference photos for a certain characteristics like the tentacles, the eyes coming out, the tentacles for the nose, the spots on the body going down, the shape of the shell, all that stuff, all those details will be rendered later. But for now, let's just keep it simple. We're going to block in the snail and we're going to have his neck totally extended. And that's going to accentuate the fact that he's curious to see what the ladybugs doing. The neck is going to go. When we find that vertical center line, we will put the neck to the right of that vertical center line. So he's gazing from the right of the vertical center line to the left side. That'll help add visual weight to that left side, like we were talking about. Just roughly sketch in the neck. A couple of tentacles on the top. Doesn't have to be perfect. Just making like a V-shape at the top for the tentacles and straight lines for the neck. The next kind of maybe a half inch thick. And it's curving down to the top of this log. It can coincide with this log because we'll adjust that later because you don't have to worry about overlap there because we're going to adjust all that stuff later. Then tentacles for the nose, it's going to kind of heads is going to be kind of pointed to the left. So we'll see a little bit of his nose there and that'll cross that vertical center line just a little bit. And then the shell, we're just going to create a circle, simple circle. So find that vertical center line. That'll be, we'll draw the circle to the left of that vertical center line. So the right side of the circle touches that vertical center line, and then the bottom of the circle touches that horizontal center line. So our snail shell will fit right about here. And then it's touching the top of our ellipse, also. Just drawing a circle. And it's actually touching those three sides. We don't even have our light pad on for this because everything's already in there. Then the body can come down here and coincide with that log. Because we'll fix that in a later stage. Right there is our snail. Basically. That's all we have to do. Something so simple. This is the design process. We're just blocking in shapes, creating movement and rhythm and all that stuff. All right, so one thing to keep in mind with the snail is his gazing direction. So the composition will have gazing direction, and that'll tell us what the balance is. Also, subjects in your composition will have a gazing direction. Say, I'm looking this way, That's my Gazing direction. The snail is looking from right to left, so that's its gazing direction. So as we mentioned before, it's creating visual weight. The gazing direction of the subjects can create weight. And we can see that in a lot of master paintings, a lot of photos, things like that. The gaze adds visual weight to wherever it's looking. Since we needed more visual weight in the upper-left corner because of this big bulky log, this gaze of the snail actually helps our balance. Okay, so now we're going to start blocking in the large flower and the upper-left corner. It's a white flower. So it's going to hold a lot of contrast. And anything with a lot of contrasts, you should probably plan out. You create the correct movement that you want. Since it's high in contrast, we know it's going to draw the eyes. If we put it near this sinister diagonal. It's in that upper left corner. We're gonna get more movement because of the way we read left to right. If our eyes are drawn to the upper-left, we read left to right, that our eyes can create a kind of a movement and its magnetic momentum, what we learned earlier, it creates that movement so we can design around that contrast. What we're gonna do is create this white flower in the upper-left area. And it's going to draw our eyes up here. And then we're also going to put the ladybug up there. But for now, let's turn on the grid. We're going to find the center of the flower. And if you look at the grid in this upper-left area, okay? And there's four polar points. If you choose the polar point in the upper right area of that grid. That can be the center of our flower. Because we wanted to kind of aligning with this upper ellipse. We want the petals aligning with this upper ellipse. So I just chose an I, an intersection point to make the center of the flower not scientific, you just need to choose a spot and align it to other design techniques to create the rhythm and the movement that you want. There's nothing pre-determined or anything like that. It's just logically thinking, whereas this contrast, whereas the movement going all that stuff. So I'm using the eye of the grid and I'm going to block in this white flower here. Now to create equal-size petals, you can just draw a simple circle that's equal distance from that center of the flower. And make sure it's kind of aligning to that ellipse. That can be the size of our flower, and it's aligning to this ellipse here. Now we can draw the petals and lock the petals into the grid. So we can have one pedal going down here. This is the sinister reciprocal diagonal. And the cool thing about that is it's 90 degrees to that Baroque diagonal. And one of the techniques we'd like to use is the 90 degree angle on a tilt because it adds strength, a sense of visual strength. So when we make this petal, one edge of this petal, 90 degrees to the Baroque diagonal. We're adding a sense of strength and we're also incorporating those diagonals of the grid. We're promoting these techniques just by using the grid. You don't have to know anything about the grid. So long as you lock in or parallel to the grid, you're automatically promoting these techniques that I'm describing. It's pretty cool. We're gonna make a flower with five petals. So we've got one, make another one, kind of locking into this vertical. We're just blocking it in real quick, really easy. And aligning it to that ellipse up, they're locking it into the grid best we can paralleling the best weekend. I need a couple more petals here. One here, one up here. Want to even this one out. Maybe create equal distance from the petals. Get in there. Make this one a little bit bigger. You can see I'm holding on the back of the pencil, keeping things loose. I don't like the way this is looking, so I'm just going to dab this one out. And I want it to be kind of evenly spaced. So I'm gonna make this one come down just a bit more. It's locking in a little bit. On the right side. This one come down at 90 degrees still because that's our technique. Here. That looks better. We got more balanced within that flower. Alright, nice and simple. And nothing's being deeply grounded into the papers so everything can be erased really easy. All right, so we've got the flower in place, we've got the snail and the log. And we've incorporated a few more techniques. So grab your list. We're incorporating a 90 degree angle. This isn't our main 90 degree angle. That's gonna be the stick later. But we're incorporating them, were thinking about it. We're thinking about magnetic momentum, the white flower. We're definitely thinking about how it draws the eyes and creates movement when it's in a certain position. Checkoff magnetic momentum. We've got that going. Now we're ready to move on to the next step, which is drawing a couple of more flowers in there. 14. 14 Blocking in Smaller Flowers: All right, so these next two flowers are gonna be constructed in the same way, but they're going to have seven petals. And it doesn't really matter how many petals your flowers have. We just want to make them a little bit different from that large flower with five petals. We also want to create a size hierarchy. We have the large flower. Now we want to create a medium flower and a small flower. That gives us a hierarchy. And that's one more thing on our checklist that we can check off. All right, so you may be wondering where should we place these two flowers? And the answer is the grid. Just let the grid Inspire where you put them. And we can use our design techniques to guide us. I'm going to turn this light pad on so I can see the grid underneath. And let's put the first flower. We're going to find that first large flower. Then follow that horizontal line across. And then maybe we can locate an eye for the center of the flower like we did last time. And then just draw it in there. We're kind of playing with this ellipse to, we want to kind of tie in that ellipse to the next flower as well. We've got the center of the flower. Now we just need to draw a circle around that center. And that'll be the length of our petals. And make sure the outer circle touches this ellipse up here. You can even lock it into the grid right there. And then now we can place the petals inside. And if you can lock in the petals to the grid, and you can even create 90 degree angles like we did the last flower. All right, so let me turn this off so you can see the flower. This is the outer part of the medium-sized flower. We've got the center there and it's coinciding. This is a coincidence. It's coinciding on the horizontal there. And it's also locking into our grid. All right, so we've got a coincidence going from the large flower to the medium flower. And now let's create a coincidence with the medium flower to the smallest flower, which is gonna go right around here somewhere. We want to fill in this little negative space. And if we're thinking about a painting, we can think about color too. We want to spread out the color a little bit. And this large white flowers, white, but then the smaller flowers can maybe be like a blue or something like that. We're spreading out the color and balancing from left to right, all that stuff, creating unity and all that. So I'm just going to locate an eye. We've got an eye here on the grid. And it's coinciding with this edge of this medium flower. Doesn't have to. Just happening that way. I'm going to draw a vertical line down and connect to this other eye. That's gonna be our coincidence. We want the right side of this medium flower to coincide with the left side of the smaller flower. Way. They're on the same linear path, but they're shifted and we're going to locate this smaller flower here. We also have that ground plane in place and we don't want to create a bad overlap. So it just line up the smaller flower. So it's touching the edge of that coincidence. And so it's touching the edge of the ellipse and it's not creating a kissing shape with that ground plane. So we're just gonna go a little bit above the ground plane. We can lock it into that grid here. This diagonal. Keeping it real light. I'm going to draw the outer edge first and then I'll find the center. In this case, we can't start with an eye for the center because we want to align these two points here with a coincidence and the ellipse. So I'm locking it in the grid. I'm aligning it to this coincidence, and I'm aligning it to this outer ellipse. I'm going to make it even smaller. Erase some of this so you can see it. If it's not a noticeable size difference than that, hierarchy won't really work too well. There we go. Let me turn this off so you can see it. Alright, so we've got our circle for the medium flower. We've got our circle for the smaller flower. It's locking in, it's aligning to this coincidence. It's locking into the grid and it's locking into this ellipse. Draw that center. Then we could turn the light pad back on and draw our petals. Remember we're going to try and lock in, or we can parallel or we can create 90 degree angles to that log. Just going to work, creating seven petals. Just keep the shapes real rough, real light, and try and lock things in. This is going horizontal. Locking in. This one is locking in. We've got four petals. You can see when we're blocking in, we're not laying down nice value. We're not worried about our strokes or anything like that. You're going to hold the pencil pretty much any which way you like for these smaller shapes here. But for the bigger ones, it's easier if you hold it closer to the lead. That way you can move your arm and your shoulder, you can get that smoother motion. Here's the smaller one. When we refine these shapes, we can have some overlapping a little bit with, as we render, we can create a little bit more shadow, so it looks like they're overlapping a bit. Give a little bit more depth. I'm gonna make this a little bit more clear so you can see it. The seventh petal. We want to keep track of this coincidence. Make sure your pedal is touching that vertical line that you drew. So that's the two flowers. Then we will look at all three. We've got a nice hierarchy in size. Got that coincidence there, got another coincidence there. So grab your checklist. We're going to check off coincidences which are also promoted by the grids. So even if you weren't consciously creating these coincidences, it as long as you're aligning to the grid, you should be promoting these techniques. That's what the grids for. It's promoting those techniques. We got the coincidences checked off. Echoing shapes because the shapes are similar. This flower shape is similar to this one, and it's similar to this one. So we're creating echoing shapes even though they're not identical. But it's creating that rhythm inside the composition. So we can check off echoing shapes. We could also check off hierarchy because we created that large, medium, small hierarchy and the size. Also checkoff, identify the main subject because we did that in the beginning. We're taking care of our list pretty well. Let's block in the ladybug real quick. There's such a simple shape, we might as well do it right now, and then we can move on to the next step. We're going to place the ladybug on this far left petal on the white flower. That way it's close to that sinister diagonal. The snail is looking at it. Plus if we're painting in color, the center of the white flower can be read and it will grab our attention and direct our attention to the smaller ladybug. Since the ladybug so small, it's going to need a little bit of help to direct the viewer's attention to it. So we're going to use the center of this flower. Use the gaze of the snail and then the contrast of the white flower to direct attention to the small tiny detail of the ladybug. And we're going to put that on the left petal. Let me just turn this on real quick just in case and I can lock it in. There's a spot for me to lock it in here to the grid. And I'm just going to draw a circle to signify the ladybug. We don't need any details yet. Just circle. All right. Ladybugs blocked in, flowers are blocked in. Now we can move on to Arabesque. 15. 15 Designing Arabesques: Alright, so every piece of art you create will have a different design. But what we really want to establish in the beginning is the primary elements of the composition. We've been doing that this whole time with the log. We've got this snail in place. We've got all the flowers and the ladybug. Only thing we're missing is the secondary kind of elements switches the grass, the leaves, and the vines. Once you have the primary elements in place, you want to use other design techniques to kind of glue everything together. And that brings us to Arabesque. What we're gonna do is create an arabesque within the composition. And this is gonna be a hidden one that we can just align elements to later. All the leaves and the vines and things. So a lot of the master painters would combine techniques and layer them on top of each other. For instance, the arabesque would run right into that ellipse that we have there. And it just keeps that movement going around the ellipse and the arabesque. All the techniques, they all layer upon each other and work together. So let's just start with this large white flower. We're going to circle around. The left side of it, meet up with the ellipse, just follow the same elliptical shape. This time we're going to circle around this medium flower, the right side of the medium flower. I'm holding the pencil from the side, lightly pressing and using my arm to create that gestural mark. We're sweeping down onto the log going towards this snail. And the snail kind of already has a little curve in it. So now that I see that, let's just include that into the arabesque. Might have to extend the snail body just a tiny bit. And then we want it to meet up with this ground plane that we created. So let's just draw right through the logs, create that Airbus going through their meeting up with the snail body, will make sure it completes and meets this other ellipse here. The smaller circle that we drew inside that big ellipse. That's what I'm meeting up right now. You can lock these into the grid if you'd like. If not, just makes sure that motion is fluid. If we come down around this medium flower also, we can just follow the log down and then maybe curve out to the other ground plane. That way we can maybe have some blades of grass meet that just to direct the viewer's eyes and create that motion there. Let me turn this off and you can see what it looks like. You've got the arabesque going starting from here, going around that second medium-sized flower following the ellipse, going down the log, meeting up with a snail body, going around through the log. That means we can create leaves there to help create that dot to dot effect, meeting the ground plane. And then circling around that smaller circle inside. And then the other arabesque is circling out of the log and up the ground plane. These are just hidden lines that we can use to line up objects and create that movement like the dot to dot image. All right, so let's move on to more obvious arabesque, which are gonna be in the vines. So let's move to the vines next. 16. 16 Blocking in the Vines: All right, so now that we have our main arabesque hidden inside of the composition, Let's create some more obvious arabesque with the vines and the roots. We want the vines in the roots to look kind of like winding rivers or snakes. We want them to curve uniquely like we would see in nature. So grab a piece of scratch paper and let's sketch out a couple of different curves so you can understand what I'm going for. Hold your pencil like this, that way we get a nice gestural curve and movement with our arm while we're going for isn't like this. Like an S shape. We're actually curving it in like this. Making these crazy loops like this. That's what we're going for. Something fun and something varied. Instead of obvious, like an S-shape. Go ahead and practice a couple of those. Alright, so just have fun with it. Now. Grab your nice piece of paper. We're going to create several of them, but we first want to connect our main flowers. Always work from the most important objects to the secondary objects. All of the vines are going to come out of the top of the log here. And we're going to create them to emphasize the design techniques we already have laid out. We have that coincidence here. We have coincidences here. We have ellipses and arabesque plus the grid. So we have a lot going for us to guide us to guide each vine we're going to lay in. So let's start with enlarge white flower. And we're not going to put a vine anywhere in-between the snail and the ladybug because we don't want to create a visual wall in-between them. We want to clear path, so that's clearly communicated that they're looking at each other. Let me turn this on real quick. We're going to create this first vine out of the white flower and just follow the grid and the other design techniques we have sketched in. I'm just going to follow this diagonal here. Come down. See I don't want to, I don't want to meet the ellipse perfectly because we're going to place leaves there. We don't want leaves touching the edge of the frame. So if we align the vine to this ellipse, it might be a little bit too high, so the leaf wouldn't actually be able to sit in the frame well, so we're keeping the vine lower than that you lips, so we can add leaves later. I'm curving around and I'm lining up to this center vertical. I'm going to curve around. Just kind of go inside this log. Keeping it real rough, real gestural, real light, playful. Kayla, let's do the second one. That's the medium-size flower. I'm actually going to be able to use the Ellipse here. We're gonna go up this diagonal, curve around and then curve into the top of the log. I'm meeting the ellipse here and curving around. I'm going to curve this vertical, then curve down into the log C. I'm meeting this coincidence here, though, coincidence we created for the medium flower to the small flower. I'm meeting that coincidence with this curvature right here. Way it emphasizes that movement down to the small flower. Going inside the log into vines. You can see in there, if you want, you can use the trace sheets that I have. Print those out and put them underneath your drawing and just use those as a guide. Next, we'll do the small flower. And we're gonna go out of the log here and keep track of our let me turn this down a little bit. When you have the light pad too bright, you can't really see your markings on top unless you go dark. So you have to have an a right balance from the above light to the light underneath. You just have to adjust that. And I have this light here for that purpose just in case I have another secondary light up here. Just in case I need to have more light on the top. We're going to have this other vine lead down to the smaller flower coming out of the right side of the log whole. Align it to the grid. Create those fun little arabesque. Meet this other vertical of the grid, and we're automatically creating a coincidence there. Another one. I'm circling around to enter. Though flower right here on the right side. All these shapes will be refined later. But where does kind of playing them in and see how things look and we can make adjustments from there. Okay, so we've got our main three vines in place. Now let's create another one that's coming out and going over the log. And we want it to curve around into the left side of the snail. That way it directs our eyes to the snail and we can tie it into this arabesque and ellipse and all that. If your line is hugging a line on the grid, then it's locking into the grid. Have it come down, touch that vertical, curve around and touch this vertical. This diagonal. Come around and I'm going to touch this diagonal. I'll have to adjust this ground plane later as we develop the grass and stuff because it's kind of kissing that light sketch mark we have we just got to keep an eye on that area. And curve up the vine, curve up and lock into this diagonal. Instead of following up to the arabesque through the snail body, we're going to do a u-turn and go the other way. That way it's not so obvious, it's kind of hidden. So I'm going to curve up and I'm gonna go this way. Maybe go through this horizontal here, then curve up right there. Turn that off and see what it looks like. It's coming out, running down, snaking around the other vines, we can be more playful. These have a purpose and I'm guiding it through the grid. Later if we want to make them more playful, we can. But right now I'm just laying it in and see what we get and then adjustments can be made later. We want to make about eight total. Let's make about eight vines. And a couple of them can go in front of the log to create that 3D illusion that we want. One of them can be pushed to the back in a later stage behind the log. But let's wrap one around. This main one that was going to the white flower. Let's just make it twist it and wrapped around that main vine. Touching this grid here, this diagonal twisting around and going into the log will make one coming out this way. Let me turn this down just a bit. Make one come out here and circle around in front of the log. Follow this diagonal down here. Down, snake up this way. Sitting this horizontal here. Finishing up here. Another one can come out here. Go down, kind of direct our eyes this smallest flower, and emphasize that coincidence a little bit better. It can just touch that coincidence right here. And then curve around without coinciding with the log curve around. Maybe end pointing towards that smallest flower. Remember all these are gonna be adjusted later. We're just laying it in real quick, keeping it soft and light. You need one more. Then we'll put it right about here. And just kind of point towards this medium-sized flower. Turn that down a bit. That's the vines in place. Now let's work on the roots. 17. 17 Blocking in the Roots: All right, So now the vines are in place, we can start working on the roots. And the roots are gonna come out of the bottom of the log. And they're going to snake around in the same fashion as the vines. Before we start plotting in all the roots, we wanted to just take a minute and look at our design and see if anything is starting to develop any other design shapes, techniques or anything like that that we can take advantage of. So let's just look at it real quick, see if there's any other movements. You can kind of see this circular shape here. That's looking pretty cool. That's our arabesque. It's creating a swirling motion. Any other elliptical shapes? Look for a movement going around and see if we can take advantage of anything. Might be able to complete like right here, where this arabesque is coming up. You might be able to follow it through with a root and they can connect somehow, maybe have the leaf follow through here, and then it can connect to one of our roots. That'll create a nice little movement in that direction. So let's just keep an eye on that area. And I'll pencil it in just a little bit. See if we can emphasize that and create more movement in our composition. So they're going to come out of the log, of the bottom of the log. We're going to keep these wavy that way. It's super easy for the viewer to identify them separately from the log. When they come out of this log would keep them nice and wavy. We want one going up the logs, coming coming out of the bottom and maybe going up the side of the log. Come down here. I'm just locking it in there to the diagonals. This one is actually locking into one of the verticals. Curving around. Going into the bottom of the log. We want to make sure it's waving as it enters the bottom of the log. When we render will actually make these vines get lost into shadow. But we wanted to just draw them out. The finish point. And let's create another one. Let's work with this one that we were talking about, where the leaf might be able to connect. I'm going to assume that there's gonna be a leaf here. So I'll make the vine little bit lower than that area. Will curve it around. And just try and hug as many lines as we can while making our curves. Way we promote those design techniques. We're talking about the repeating diagonals, coincidences, all that stuff was just want to make sure we're paying attention to the overlap of objects as well. Always, always, always. That movement can be completed with the leaf right here. Also want to make sure we're trying to always connect to our other design techniques like this ellipse. Right here, I connected to the lips and the vertical of the grid. Here's another area we can probably put a vine and connect to the ellipse to just emphasize that ellipse even more will curve around the grid there. You're making these gestural lines with your wrist firm. Holding the side of the pencil, adult point on the top there. So we're not digging into the paper and just making everything in light so we can erase it if we need to. Here we're going into the log, trying to bunch up. All these vines will start bunching up as they enter the log. But trying to keep twisting them together. They're not straight. We'll make one on the bottom here, a little bit flatter, so it looks like it's setting on the ground plane. So these curves are more elegant and beautiful. This one, I'll be a little bit flatter and squished because of perspective. We'll just kind of guesstimate what that will look like. Try and lock it into the grid and keep the coil a little bit flatter so it looks like it's sitting on the ground plane. Let's make a total of about six roots coming out. The quantity doesn't matter. We just want to make sure we're filling up any negative space to make the composition look full. And let's overlap a couple onto the log. So this next one All curve around. I don't want it to parallel the log, I want it to intersect the log. So it's obvious that it's curving and snaking up around. We don't want it to be straight with the log because it'll start looking like the log. Unless that's your goal, you want it to look all similar. But for this purpose, for this demonstration, we wanted to kind of look different. So I'm curving this route up the side of the log and I'm going to stop before I hit this vine that we created. Just want to snake this around a little bit more. For the last root, I'm going to have it twist around this one we created for that looping effect here. I'm going to have it twist around that. Just logging in as much as possible. You can parallel the grid if you need to. I'm emphasizing this ellipse as I go up. Turn this off. All right, so here's the edge of our log. We've got, this is a vine that's going to connect to the root. Soon as we add that leaf will have that movement completed. And we've got all these coming out, curving around, snaking around, coming down at the bottom, twisting around each other. And creating some nice elegant movements in a couple of them. And then we have one to show that it's sitting on the ground plane that's flatter looking right here. Then another one curving up here. And we're emphasizing our ellipse locking into the grid, emphasizing that circle enclosure we created and the arabesque store designs coming together nicely. We're doing all the right things, doing what we're supposed to do. And in the next step we're going to place the twig and the rocks. 18. 18 Blocking in the Twig and Rocks: All right, So now we're ready to add a sense of strength to the composition with a more prominent in 90 degree angle. Let's create the twig real quick. And we're going to use this sinister reciprocal diagonal to draw it on because it intersects the log at 90 degrees, draw it so the backside of the twig is smaller and the front side of the twig is a little bit bigger. So that way we get that illusion of perspective. We're gonna make the end of the twig meet this ellipse that we drew. We're just drawn a simple line, symbol cylinder with the end of the twig circular, the back of the twig circular. And that's it. That's our twig. And when you follow it up, it's hitting this edge of the log at 90 degrees and we've got our hidden 90 degree angle. Now, grab your checklist and let's mark off the arabesque we've been creating with the vines, the hidden one and the roots. And then we'll mark off the 90 degree angles again, since we already kind of incorporated that with the built that large white flower and adding all the petals and stuff. But now we definitely know we incorporated that into our composition. Next step, we'll add the rocks in there. Let's create the rocks. But the trick is we're just trying to create an enclosure. How we made the 90 degree angle out of the twig. Well, when it runs up to the log and 90 degrees, we almost got a piece of a triangle. Let's complete this triangle. Well, draw a line down the log, which should already be there. It's just going to be erased later as we develop the grass and stuff. But follow that line down from the log, will see that triangular shape starting to take place. And then we'll draw a straight line. Let me turn this on just in case just in case there's eyes we can use or anything like that. We can use this one over here. Strong straight line. From that. I I'm just sketching it in real quick. This is just a guideline. I'm meeting the edge of that log. We've got a triangle here, right? But we don't want an obvious triangle. We want to hide our design techniques always when we can. So what we're gonna do is create some rocks in-between this ellipse and the line we just created. That way we emphasize the ellipse shape and we also emphasize the triangular shape, the enclosure. So I'm going to align one on that center vertical and it's just a circle. Just create a simple circle. If you're overlapping, just make sure you're overlapping properly with a third phi or half and it can be developed a little bit later. I'll make one smaller. You can play with size variation. Then I'll make one over here and maybe see if there's any coincidences. We can emphasize this vine is actually running on this vertical. I can emphasize that movement. If I align a rock to that vertical as well, I can lock into the grid there. Then I'll make one more large rock. I'll go a little bit above that straight line we created. Just to hide the design a little bit more. All right, so there's our rocks and in a later stage we can make them look a little rougher like rocks instead of circles. That's it. Let me grab the checklist and make sure we have enclosures checked off. Yes, we do, because we created that circle in there before and we've been emphasizing it this whole time. But now we have another one, a triangular enclosure. Now the next step we'll start placing all the leaves. 19. 19 Blocking in the Leaves: All right, So far we've been blocking in the shapes with ease and the leaves will be known different. This is going to be a good exercise to build your muscle memory because there's so many similar shapes, it's just going to embed itself into your mind, Blocking into the grid, aligning to design techniques, all that stuff. We're going to be filling in a lot of the negative space now and just emphasizing the design techniques we already have laid out for us. These first leaves we're going to lay out are for the flowers. So let's take care of those first and then we'll start laying in the smaller ones around the binds and stuff. The large white flower, let me turn the grid on. The large white flower has got its vine coming in from this direction. And we're going to put, since it's different from these smaller flowers, we're going to put the leaves together on the same side of the vine because we don't want anything on this side. And we don't want anything in-between the gaze of the snail and the ladybug. And we're going to just line it up to any design techniques we have laid out for us and then try and lock it into the grid, line it up to the grid and then lock it into the ellipse. We'll do one on the other side of the vine. And a good practice, but this is just to try and parallel to the grid or lock it in. And one way you can do that is just locate one of the diagonals. Draw that first. Right here on parallelly. I'm just going to close up the shape. All these will be refined later, so we're just plotting them in. And I'm paying attention to the overlap here on the petal in the leaf. It's going halfway overlap. This one is locking in. Now let's do the smaller flowers and we'll do those leaves little bit differently. We'll make one over here that's locking into the grid, not overlapping onto the vine. We want to keep all the shapes separate because we're going to add stems and things like that later we're going to connect the leaves, the vines. These leaves for the flowers were connecting directly to the flower. So they're kind of fitting under the petals. We just have to pay attention to overlap. I'm locking it into the grid and paralleling the grid when I can. These leaf shapes just keep them real simple, like a teardrop. We're going to make all the leaf shapes, teardrop shaped, kind of like this. Kind of like the flower petals. Almost. Then we're going to refine them later. We can add twists and turns to them, but just keeping real simple and generic in the beginning, because that will make the design process a little bit easier and you won't have to switch back and forth from creativity to logic to creativity kind of thing. So keep everything simple and light. Let us small leaf here. I'll put one here that's locking into that ellipse we have there. All right, so those leaves are in place. I'm gonna make this one the same size as I have it a little bit bigger than the one below here. That was because I was trying to align it to the ellipse, but it's still lighting to the ellipse. I just want to make these equal size. All right, so that's the leaves for the flowers. Now let's start populating all the smaller leaves for the vines. And that's the same basic principle. Use the grid, try and parallel it. Then align to our design techniques that are already there. In doing so many leaves as we're going to do. We're going to be promoting that gamut because we're gonna be trying to parallel at least one side of the leaf to the grid, or we're going to try and lock it into the green. And that's going to create a lot of repeating diagonals. And that's your limited number of diagonals, which is gamut. And we're going to be taken care of that in this step right here for sure. But again, we're just going to follow the leaves are going to follow the vines. We're going to locate a diagonal. Draw one edge of the leaf and then complete the tear shape. So right here where it is filling in the negative space, I'm gonna locate a diagonal, which is this broke diagonal. I'll draw that first. Then I'm going to complete the shape. All of these are gonna be refined later. But the purpose is just to get the design first and then we'll refund stuff later. Can add one here. Locking into the grid. Locate the diagonal. It's going pretty much straight up. This vertical here. That one. Make a couple over here we want to emphasize this ellipse. Definitely emphasize the ellipse. Here's some negative space here. So I'm gonna try and fill that area in. And I'm gonna go for this diagonal salt parallel that one. If you can use any leaves to try and direct attention towards the snail, that will be beneficial. Like a pointing device. Just points direction towards an object. Make sure you don't block the view of the snail and the ladybug. You don't want to put anything in-between there. We're trying to fill in the negative space, but at about 2050 leaves just depending on the size you create them and the negative space, how is starting to fill in and how you're emphasizing the design techniques. The roots usually don't get leaves. But this isn't really a, an actual photo that we're copying. Just imaginary so our roots can get leaves and that'll help with the balance from left to right, will add maybe six leaves over on the roots and then the majority of them on the right side and around the log. And make sure you don't overlap any for right now. We'll take care of all that in another step. And then make sure no edges are kissing. When you lay these in. Locate the diagonal. Going pretty much in the direction of the vine, and then complete the teardrop shape. We're also paying attention to the edge. We don't want any high-contrast near the edge. And that's Edge Flickr. So we're making sure none of the leaves kind of hang off the edge. If they do, we'll have to make sure they're low contrast in the rendering stage. So right here I'm locating this diagonal. I'm gonna parallel it here and then complete the shape. You can do this with light pad off if you need to, because we have that grid already lightly drawn in. But you can get a little more guidance with the light pad on. Right here would actually go, I'm going to point to the snail on this one. So let's see. I'll use this baroque reciprocal diagonal. Parallel that it'll direct attention towards the snail. Then I'll complete the shape. You can see what that's starting to look like. I might time-lapse some of this because it's time-consuming and repetitive, but any comments that I make, I'll slow it down so you guys can hear that one up here. So I'll parallel the diagonal, locking into the grid and the ellipse. All these are gonna be the same size. And in a later stage we're gonna make a variety, makes some of them larger and smaller. Right now we're just make them all the same size, all the same shape. So it's easier for us to just think about that and repeat it and repeat it and finish the design. That's all we're doing. What I'm looking for is just areas that I have a lot of negative space. And then I'm kind of organizing the smaller leaf shapes to be equal distance from vines, from flowers, from each other, all that stuff. Locate the diagonal, draw a paralleling edge of the leaf. Complete the teardrop shape. Just building that wax on, wax off muscle memory. This leaf, I was making it parallel to this baroque diagonal. But since it's so close to the edge, I don't want it to look too similar, so I'm going to choose a different diagonal, maybe just the sinister diagonal, parallel there. And then complete the shape. It's not like a straight edge right next to the log edge. I'm gonna complete this shape here that we were talking about where the vine meets the root and all we were needing was elif. That'll complete that arabesque movement. Let me turn this on. I'll choose this diagonal, two parallel. Complete the shape. Make one up here. Parallel that diagonal. I wanted this leaf. I wanted this leaf to point in a different direction as this one because they're kind of up and separated from the others. I just want to be a little bit varied, but that's why I did that. A couple more on this side to fill in some negative space. Maybe this one can point to the snail face. That's the baroque diagonal. It looks like compare love that one. There's arabesque going around that snail tail. I'm gonna emphasize that with a leaf just to make sure I don't overlap anything. That's enough leaves on this side, I think maybe I'll add one more, but it's looking like enough there. This will emphasize the ellipse a little bit. I'll do one down here. We've got to pay attention to where that, where any vines get close to the ground plane because we want to make sure those overlap properly. The edge of the leaf is not kissing the edge of any grass we draw in later. Let me turn this off, see what we got here. We can fill in this vine doesn't have very many leaves. Gotten these vines up here, could use a few more leaves. Then maybe down here. So we're starting to fill it in. If you're having a hard time determining your vines from your hidden arabesque and design techniques. Feel free to make them a little bit darker if you need, but just don't use the point of your pencil. Uses side of your pencil still. Make it a little bit darker that way you can still erase if you need to. Lot of the mine will be rendered dark. Unless it's over. The log, will make them a little bit lighter, but If you need to send some areas like I'm having a hard time, some areas determining the vine from my hidden arabesque. So I'm just making this just a little bit darker. You can do the same if you need. I've got the light pad off because I'm using the light basic armature that we drew on there just to parallel it and lock in. That way I can see these other areas that are a bit jumbled with vines and design techniques. Right here, I want to add a leaf, so I'm just finding this baroque diagonal. I can parallel that or I can just, maybe I can create vertical here. Then maybe I can parallel as well. Then complete the shape. Anything overlapping on the edge of the long lists, save those until a further next step. Let's just keep everything separated. If you feel like you want to overlap something, go ahead, but we're gonna do that in another stage. This is a vine so I can actually add more leaves to this. These are the roots. This one is actually a vine, so we've got this arabesque coming down from the log. So I'm going to emphasize that with leaf parallel, complete the shape and align to the design technique. Then I'll put one over here, parallel. Complete the shape. Right now I'm just looking at this area. It's got the opening of the log, got a vine going across an area. We want to just render a little bit and pay attention to just make sure we get things looking properly because it's kind of a busy area and we want to properly align everything. Pay attention to overlaps in this area and stuff like that. So to make this area look a little bit more filled up, but controlled will probably overlaps some leaves in a later stage. And we add one here, just a little area. Any other areas of negative space. We can add some other details, but that'll be in a later stage also will add curls of the vines and we'll add stems. It'll start filling in more areas like this where it maybe you think it needs another leaf, like there's negative space here, here compared to this side where there's more leaves. We can fill those spaces in with curling vines and things. That way we don't overcrowd the area and it still looks nice and balanced in that section. So this is looking good. We've got enough leaves in there. Things are starting to shape up. We've got leaves over on the left side. As you do this, you can use the trace sheets, but placing the leaves, It's probably more beneficial that you just do them by yourself. Locate that diagonal, parallel it, and then complete the teardrop shape. Because when we get to these finer, smaller details and you're using those tracing sheets, it's just going to start getting harder to align everything. Not all gonna be a 100% accurate, just a rough estimate of where you should play something and to give you an idea of how everything's being aligned to the grid and stuff. It's best to just keep that in mind. Let me add one more just for fun because this area can use it. Parallel the grid here, and then complete the shape. Alright, so that's enough, leaves for this stage. Let's move on to the next one, and we're going to add a lot more variety. 20. 20 Adding Variety: Alright, so we're making progress on our design, but now it's time to add some variety to it. But before we keep going, Let's get our checklist out. In the last step when we created the leaves, we made some of them pointing devices, so we can check that off. Down here. We also repeated a lot of diagonals. We can mark off gamut, That's our live into the number of diagonals. If we also filled in negative space, We were paying attention to negative space. So we can check that off. We paid attention to edge Flickr. We didn't want any leaves near the edge, so we did that. And then overlapping shapes, we definitely pay attention to that. Make sure none of the leaves are overlapping. So we can mark that off. And we'll make more adjustments with overlapping shapes when we add more variety to the leaves. In this next step, next step we can cross off separating shapes because we paid attention to that when we were adding those leaves in there. Alright, let's get to our design and we'll add a little bit more variety to it. Okay, so let's add a little bit of variety to the vines first. It will make one of them go behind the log. And we'll choose this one up here. So I'll erase any leaves that are attached to that Vine. Then we can draw them in later. Drawn some new ones later to fill up this negative space here. Erase this. I always look at your design techniques. You can always select the one that best fits to go behind the log that best fits the design. So right now I'm erasing part of that ellipse, that first circle that we drew. I'm erasing part of that, so I got to keep that in mind so I can add maybe some leaves in that negative space to continue that movement across the log since I'm erasing the divine. Alright, so that's good enough. We're keeping everything light still. Were not ready to make dark marks on our paper just yet. One other thing is that the background is going to be light when we render it. So these background vines will also be lighter. We'll make sure, we'll keep that in mind when we render, just to make sure that these background vines are lighter than the foreground binds right here. So now we can add some loops to our vines, the roots. So we want to look for an, a vine or a root that has enough negative space in an area that we can just add a simple loop to it. Let me show you what that simple shape would look like. Just if this is the vine. We're just going to erase part of it and then add a loop. Just going to loop around like that. Pretty simple. Use your kneaded eraser for this and just look for areas. You might be able to add a little loop to it. Right here. There's some negative space. I'm going to add a loop to that. I'm not sure if I can lock it into the grid, but I'll see if I can. Again, just create a circle first. I don't want it to touch this leaf here or crowd that space with the leaf in it. You don't want the loop to look like it's the same shape as the leaf. In this case, because we don't want to create an illusion like it's a leaf, we want it to look like a loop. The vine. I add one there. That shape is looking, the shape I'm drawing now it's looking like this. If you draw like this, you'll just have to erase just a little bit of it. Maybe to get that little indentation there. Little indentation right there. And that can be refined later, but just showing you what it looks like here. Erase part of this. That's too. I'll add one more. Let's see. Just looking for the best area. Maybe right here there's a little bit of negative space. And then that's where our circular ellipse was going. So you see if I can line up to that and then create the loop. There's our loops. Now we want to add variety to the leaves. So choose seven leaves and we're gonna make them larger. What we want to look for is just an area that has a little bit more negative space that we can fill up. And when you enlarge it, keep it the same teardrop shape. So don't erase any lines, the old line from the smaller leaf, just keep that in place until all sudden leaves are enlarged. That way, you know which ones were enlarged. And then you can erase them all at once. But just look for an area that has a little bit more negative space or an area that has leaves that are two identical to each other. You want to add a little bit more variety in that area. So that's what we're looking for. And we want to also keep in mind the design techniques. I'm going to make sure we emphasize those or keep the same. Design techniques emphasize that we already created. So just some options there to add more variety. This one over here is a good candidate for enlarging because it's got enough negative space around it, plus it's by itself. So we're going to just fill in a little bit more space there. Maybe some on the log here, there's a bunch of negative space here on the log, so there's plenty of room to enlarge another leaf. And we want to try and keep that line that's paralleling the grid. If you only make them subtly bigger, you're not really going to see that the impact of adding variety, it's just going to look pretty similar. You want it to be maybe twice as big as the old leaf. We've got to me, I'd want appear. I'm still paralleling that diagonal, just enlarging the leaf. Keeping that teardrop shape. There's three. Can do it down here. This one's paralleling the diagonal there. So I'm going to keep that, just extend it and then make the teardrop larger. Make sure you're not overlapping your shapes or kissing edges. Like this one. It was it was almost touching. But I fixed that. Then we got three more to do. I'll make this one down here a little bit bigger because it's right by the ground plane. And it could use more room to overlap the ground plane when that's fully drawn in with grass. Two more. You got enough space here, paralleling the Baroque diagonal. So I'll enlarge that going into the grid. And then maybe one. Let's see Adam, more variety up here. Locking into the center. Alright, so that's seven, will erase the lines. This one and this one are larger but they're almost identical. So I want to, maybe I'm gonna parallel this way and it mixes up the shapes a little bit. And then make it a little bit more around on the top there. Way the shapes aren't identical and next to each other. All right, so now that we enlarge some and let's shrink seven of them. So just go ahead and do it the same way. Look for our old design techniques, shrink it and then erase the lines once all seven are in place and malate shrink this one. And it's paralleling the Baroque diagonal. Sawdust, shrink it and keep that diagonal there. Make sure you don't shrink the ones that you just enlarged. Good. One can shrink. One can shrink. I'm gonna erase that one because it's so small. The change way I can keep track of it. Maybe shrink this one a bit to fit that negative space better. This one can shrink. I'll erase that one too. So we've got about five done. Shrink this 11 more. I'll erase the other ones. Let's do one over here. Maybe this one. Go. Once those are in place, just erase your old lines. We just made seven larger and seven smaller leaves. We made some variations in the vines. Now we can add some overlaps with the leaves onto the vines. So just look for areas that have the extra negative space around the log on, around the vines. And we'll add another leaf on top of the vine. Right around here has got a lot of negative space where there's no leaves or anything. It's just kind of a jumbled mess. But we knew this area was really busy and we'd have to pay attention closely to how we overlap there to communicate it clearly. So the area I'm gonna choose is maybe make this leaf bigger way, it's overlapping the vine. Going to make a smaller one here. Gum, medium-sized one kind of covered the vine. Meet that ground plane area. I'm erasing as I go. Just part of the vine that was underneath the leaf over here. And we can add one horizontal right here. At a leaf over the vine there. Maybe right here there's some negative space and a good place where I can put another leaf and I'll lock it into the grid there. Maybe right here. The root can add another leaf on that side, maybe parallel. Then draw the teardrop shape. Erase that. That's five with this one. Now let's add two leaves overlapping the log opening. Let's do one here. Fits a negative space pretty well there. One back here. And you can parallel the grid, lock it in, whatever you like. Just try not to kiss the finds. You want to overlap properly not kiss. There's two. Those are done. Now we want to overlap some leaves on top of other leaves. So let's look for seven possibilities to create larger or smaller leaves on top of existing leaves, like this big one up here, I could probably just add a smaller one on there. Just draw the parallel line, complete the leaf teardrop shape, and try and emphasize any design techniques you see. And I'm going to erase as I go and attempt to keep track of all seven. But that's one. I'll add one more down here by the large leaf near this smallest flower. And I'll point it towards the small flower. I'm going to just lock in there. I'm locking into this circular enclosure as well. Probably add one here where this big leaf is and maybe I'll point towards the snail and that's incorporating are pointing devices. So just make one edge point towards the snail and then complete the teardrop shape. As you overlap the leaves on top of the other leaves. Just pay attention to what's underneath. And once what the actual two leaves are doing, you want to overlap the leaves properly and you want to overlap the background properly as well. Sounds involved, but you're just overlapping shapes. Just wanted to make sure you pay attention to the different layers that you're applying. This one down here, we could probably just add a larger leaf there and maybe have it point to the right so I can draw underneath it and have it come out maybe halfway here. I'm paralleling this diagonal. Then I'm going to complete the shape. Maybe one up here. Won't one right here. Maybe have it a little larger. Overlap properly, they're parallel this diagonal. I'll do one more. Should be enough into as many as you want. I'm just giving you an amount so we have a goal in mind. And this one I'm maybe add another shape underneath here. So let me just go straight down. Complete that. There we go. We got another smaller leaf under the big one. Big one over the small ones and small ones over the big ones that adds more variety to. All right, now we want to add some leaves that are behind the log that are being overlapped by the log. Just look for a negative space again, right here with that circular enclosure, we've got negative space. I'm going to add one right there. And emphasize this circular enclosure while also locking into the grid. Creating a nice overlap, all that stuff. So just like that, if you can't fit three, then it's no big deal. So right here, Let's see. There's a vine and the log here, b, I can add one behind the vine and the log. Overlap it properly. Still want it to be too cluttered in too confusing in that area. This area is looking pretty good. There's a lot of stuff going on there. Right Here's a little pocket of negative space, so maybe I can squeeze in a smaller one and emphasize this air best that's coming down the log and lock into this diagonal here. That's all you gotta do is little shape there. Now to integrate the snail with the log, we're going to make the logo a little bit behind the snail body, will go off that Baroque diagonal just a little bit and go up. We're kind of heightened the design and make them more variation in this shape and making the snail look like it's sitting on the log instead of like right on the top. We're going to add a little bump in the log to add more variation there. There's a little, there's a diagonal here. I can probably just create a little bump in the log shapes to add variation in the log. To make these edges little refer to. Just add little squiggles to the edge. If there's room on the ground plane, near the ground plane, we can add a leaf that overlaps that background. Ground plane we drew. It is add a horizontal leaf. If there's room, there's little room here, so I'm going to add one and make it horizontal that way we know it's kind of just sitting on the ground plane and you can make it a little bit bigger so it's easier to overlap. Just a simple teardrop shape there That's properly overlapping, that arabesque that we created in the ground plane. That'll be like a fallen leaf. Now we can address the ground plane and just that arabesque we created, the lines we drew for the ground plane. Just draw jagged grass to represent that. And we don't need to erase any design lines just yet. We'll do that in a future step, but just go ahead and roughly make this ground plane jagged like grass. Just scribbling in some value here to represent the grass. Maybe make some jagged and longer blades of grass. And then the end of this twig we can make it, it was snapped, make it sharper and jagged. Here we go. Let's add a little bit of moss to the log. We can add Moss just like we did the grasp. It's just a texture that we're going to add later, in a later step. But if you want to address any areas that we'll have more contrast in there to carry the design technique through. Then you can go ahead and make note of those like this circular enclosure here. If we needed to add more value in that area, we would just make simple marks and make note of it. So when we're rendering, we can push things further there. I'm just adding some squiggly marks everywhere on the log just to make it look like it's got like a Harry moss on it. Add some variety to that shape. And what do we refined all this stuff very soon. Just keep it all loose and light right now. That was a huge step towards the end of our design process. We're about 98% down with a design. In the next step we're going to refine some shapes, add some details, and see where we are. 21. 21 Radiating Lines and Erasing: All right, so before we add details to all the little elements in our composition, Let's do one more technique and it's called radiating lines. And this one is where the lines direct attention towards the main subjects, similar to pointing devices. But grab a straight edge, could be your pencil, it could be your ruler, anything you can find. And we're going to try and direct more attention to the snail. We're gonna do this by using a straight edge. Going around, like the head of the snail is the center of a tire. And then the lines are the spokes. Use your straight edge and go around and see if you can find any opportunities to maybe shift a leaf and have it direct attention towards the snail head. Don't worry about repeating diagonals or paralleling the grid at this moment, because we already have a lot of that. And let's just focus on the radiating lines and see if we can incorporate that technique into our composition. I'm just going to go around and look for leaves maybe that I can shift slightly to direct more attention towards this nail head. Got one up here. Right here. I'm just going to draw a line towards the snail head. British shifting that teardrop shape a little bit more. And I can erase that small line there. Then let's see. We'll just keep running around. Looks good. See this leaf over here that's pointing to the left. Well, let's change that and have it point to the snail head and that would benefit the composition a little bit more. So that's what we're gonna do. We're just going to take our straight edge. Let me grab another pencil just in case here. We're gonna point it right towards the snail head. Still pay attention to our overlap there. But what we're doing is using the radiating lines now. Let me erase this one. Keep everything light for now. You can make a slight adjustment to this one here. Just hovering the pencil over the drawing. The way I'm not touching the graphite. Can probably adjust this one over here. All right, Grab your list and let's mark off radiating lines. All right, I got that one done. Now for the moment of truth, we're going to erase all of our design lines except for the ones that are going this ellipse shape that we didn't use yet. And we can use that probably for the background or foreground grass that we're gonna put it in the next step. So leave this area, this ellipse here. Then this ellipse here that we didn't use, this side of the ellipse. This side of the ellipse, everything else we're going to erase. This will be pretty exciting. We can erase the grid line. Pretty much everything. Just use your kneaded eraser and slowly go through and start erasing stuff will all see the composition kind of emerge. When it gets into these detailed areas, you can use your mono Zero Eraser. Make sure you don't press down too hard so you're not disturbing the surface of the paper too much. Just kind of lightly erase everything. Me even erasing this ellipse that we had down here for the log. And then the chunk we cut out, just go ahead and erase all that stuff. Don't need it. This area is the inside of the log. Just kind of looking at all the shapes inside there and making sure it's clearly defined when I'm erasing. Just don't want to erase something that is part of the composition. All right, So that looks pretty good. You should start to see the composition coming alive. All your hard work starting to show up. It'll become even more evident when we get all the rendering done and the details, and the details are coming up next. 22. 22 Adding Snail Details: All right, so first we're gonna add details to the snail, the snail shell, the snail body. We're going to add the spirals of the snail shell, which is kind of like a slinky wrapped around itself. And the snail body has some spots. So we'll add all that. You can use the reference photos for all the details. But the thing about drawing from imagination is that the drawing will ever have as many details as an actual photo that you're copying. Because we're using our imagination and you won't remember all those details are, most people won't remember every single detail about a snail which adds its own artistic style to it. So we're just taking pieces of the reference photos, interpreting it in our head and remembering it and putting it down onto the paper we're drawing from imagination. So we wanted to look a little bit more simple and not as realistic as a photo. So let's start developing this snail and sharpen your HB. Lead holder is put a nice little point on there. We're not digging into the paper just yet. We're not making our final marks into the rendering stage. We're just making a finer point just in case so we can make smaller lines, inner lines when we need to, but we're going to still keep everything light, the shape of our snail as it currently is. It's got an aspect of you which means we can clearly identify. It's a snail. We're seeing the side of the body with the snail shell, will develop that further. So we can see all the coils of the snail shell. We see the tentacles on the head and we're going to see the tentacles on the nose. So we're seeing a lot of the snail to help the viewer easily identify what's going on there, rather than creating a snail shape That's all overlapping. If we create a circle here for the body and the coil, There's the coil and then we've got the head coming up. We got the tail less identifiable. If you view it at a glance, then this shape right here, this is more identifiable than this. All right, so that's why we're doing go ahead and mark aspect of you off your checklist. Will just add details. We'll start with the shell first. We want to make sure we're lining up to that top of that circular enclosure. Plus we were locking it into the grid. Let's start there. We still want to have it look like the snail is peeking out over its shell. Kind of like an inquisitive look and looking at the ladybug, I'm touching the top of that. We've got a horizontal there, but that's where the top of the circular enclosure was. I'm touching the top of that, but I'm going to create this coil of the shell down and habits spiral down this way. Might be able to lock into this sinister diagonal here. Notice I'm holding the pencil real light from the side. I don't want to make any permanent marks just yet. We're going to have this, the bottom opening of the snail shell kind of parallel this baroque diagonal. I'm locking into this other sinister reciprocal diagonal. We'll see what that looks like. Getting more drawing from imagination, so it doesn't have to look like the photo reference. I'm going to make this side a little bit less high. Who is touching that top of that ellipse? This coil of the snail shell off the body and just have that first largest coil touching the snail body, like it's coming out of that opening there. Let me erase that stuff. You can see the snail body coming together, this shell and stuff, but we'll keep adding more details. Find the edge of the snail here. And the tentacles are going to have a little nub on the top. Tentacles for the nose, we're gonna have a little nub also. The body is a little bit flatter. It kind of goes from a curved form up at the top of the body to flat form towards the edge. Keep the shapes simple. And we'll add some dashed lines on the side here. That'll be the flat part. We can curve it up to the neck. Some simple shapes will refine this woman render, but this is just a simple indication of what the body looks like. Then let's add some spots. The actual spots in the reference photo and on the snail or white, they're lighter in value, not white, but they're lighter in value. But on our paper we're making them dark because it's easier. We don't have to create a value and erase value out of it. We're just making the indication of the spots. But if we painted this, we could easily make the body dark and then the spots lighter. This create the spots lightly up the neck and spread them out. It doesn't really matter how you put them on there. The tentacles or a thin at the top. If you look at the reference photo, they're thin and they taper down towards the head. So you don't want them too thick. Then the body, the shell body is going to have these coils, like I was saying, it's like kind of like a slinky and it coils around itself. So what does create some contour lines just to get our mind going to see the shape. And then we can render it better as we go. Can add these lines. The first contour lines I was going almost all the way over this side. I was curving up and then curving down on the other side, almost the whole shape. But these shapes by the crevice, you can just hatch some lines that are maybe like 1 fourth the distance. Where do we get a little bit of value going in there and show some details. And then the highlight of the shell will be, will have less details. Right now I have this area and it looks like a dimple navy, but I want to erase part of it so it's not looking like a dimple, creating a nice hard edge there. So I know that's the opening of the shell or the snail crawls back into. We can really find that later during the rendering stage. Making sure these curves are the snail shell or fitting together nicely and curving. We don't want them wobbly and jagged unless that's what you're going for, but kind of want these curving nicely. We're just establishing the final shape right now, adding a few details and then the rendering stage, we'll add a lot more details. Can make that neck a little bit smaller, like skinnier. All right, so that's our snail for right now. We'll add more rendering later, but let's go on to the leaves and we can improve those shapes as well. 23. 23 Adding Leaf Details: Okay, so now we're going to add details to our leaves. And that'll be simple enough to, what we're gonna do is create a heart shape out of the leaf. Right here is our teardrop that we've been creating right? Now. We're going to create a heart-shaped right at the end here. Similar to this. Then we'll follow it through to maybe draw a line like this, but only about three-fourths of the way, not all the way to the point. We'll turn this teardrop shape into a more elaborate a leaf. And then we can take this end, we can curve it. Make all the ends a little bit more pointed. Can add this vein. We can create wavy leaves. Say this is our teardrop shape. And we want to create one edge that's wavy. We'll just go like this, create a wave. Then echo that shape onto the other side. We can curve it up. Maybe. Remember to put our heart shape in their curve that around. This will be the bottom side of the leaf, so it'll be a little bit darker when we render. Then this part will be erased. Will have a nice curvy leaf there. That's what we're gonna do with all these leaves. We're just going to make them pointed at the end, maybe a curving point, make the other end, the blunt end like a heart shape. And then later in another step we'll add the stems to those leaves. So this would be a kind of a longer process since there's so many leaves, but it's simple enough and we don't have to worry about the grid or anything like that. We're just making the leaves more elaborate, looking and defining them. Make sure not to commit to fully to the line. Make sure you don't make it too dark. Or hold your pencil. Don't hold your pencil up at the tip right here and press down hard. We're still holding it back here. Which might be hard for some people when they're adding these small details. So just take your time. You can erase the part of the leaf that's not fitting the heart. The wavy leaves can be saved for more obvious areas, may be right up here or right here. Or if you want one leaf folding over, you can do that in a more obvious place where there's less leaves. All depends on what you want. But those unique characteristics are best saved where they're easily noticed rather than kind of jumbled with the other shapes. A lot of this stuff I'm erasing here. Probably you don't even need to do that because the log is going to get value that's darker than any of these marks I'm making. But outside here, if you create that shape, you want to probably erase what you didn't incorporate into the leaf is going to make it a nice curve on this one. One was pointing towards our snail heads. So I just did a double curve and made it curve back. So it's still pointing towards the snail head. This is the one that was behind the log and the vine. So I'll just make sure I still keep it that way. Take care of this one while we're at it. So they're pretty subtle changes, but they make a difference in the characteristic of the leaf. As you get more comfortable with design techniques, you could maybe do the leaf all in one shot instead of making a teardrop first and then adding these smaller details, just all the pins. And sometimes it's just easier to get the simple shapes. Most of the times is easier to do this simple shapes and then worry about details later. So just depends on how you work, your workflow, how you develop your skills. Just a leaf that's sitting on the edge of the log opening. So I just want to make sure I don't erase anything too important to keep that overlap looking good. If you see any on the edge here, you can maybe you have them curve inward and instead of outward to redirect attention into the composition rather than outward, just small little changes like that can help the composition. All right, so that's the leaves. And next up we'll add details to the flowers. 24. 24 Adding Flower Details: All right, so we have this snail and the leaves starting to take shape. Now let's work on the flowers. To do that, just use your HB lead holder. And let's grab our two H mechanical pencil. And that'll give us a light touch so we can add a few details to the petals of the flower. Sometimes the side of my hand is resting on the drawing. You don't want to smudge your graphite around so you can use a scrap piece of paper. If you need a rest your palm on there. You can just hover, use your pinky on the outside and just hover over and erase it that way. Whatever is easier for you. You want to make sure you don't start smudging your drawing around. It is make all the petals have a nice shape and use your HB lead holder. Keep it nice and light still. You can turn your paper if you need. I might need it right here. Use gestural marks to draw that teardrop shape. You can probably just erase all at once if you need to. Definitely need to do this one where the ladybug is. You can erase all the marks that you don't need. You don't have to erase it all. You don't have to get it perfect. We're going to add texture to this white flower and it's just gonna be real light marks. But we don't want this outer edge to be so thick. Outer edge of the petal It's only thick because that's how we were drawing. We were blocking it in, but now we can have a finer line on there as we develop and render the drawing. You can go ahead and make a better shape for these leaves as well, these flower leaves, once you're done with the flower, I'm not pressing down too hard with this eraser either. If you do, it'll start digging into the paper. You want to make these leaves a little bit more elaborate. Maybe erase part of this so I can extend out to a different point. All right, Grab your mechanical pencil and just draw a vein going down the center and just lightly sketch it in and add a little bit of a curve to it if you can, depending on how your flowers facing. Use the same two H pencil and near this creates some squiggles in there. And that'll add a little bit of value and texture to each petal. And I'm lightly pressing down. Not very hard to either. It's not going to be just one solid value. Alright, so that's our white flower. Now we can work on the two smaller flowers and just do it the same way. If you find that teardrop shape with your HB pencil and erase the parts you don't need. And you can actually make this center a little bit darker. We'll render this, but just add a little bit of value to the center there. Same with this one and the other one. You can make the leaves more elaborate as well. Not much room in this area to make the leaves to elaborate, but I'm going to add a little curve to them both. I'm going to erase some of the value that was created on the petals, those old lines that we don't need anymore, just thin out that shape a little bit. All right, Now use your same. Actually since these flowers are darker, we'll use the HB pencil to add some texture so it can be a little bit darker. Add your vein down the middle. And then we can add the texture that I'm not making the vein go the full length of the petal. Again. Then I'll add a little squiggly marks to add some texture. Then we'll work on this one now, just defining the shape, a teardrop shape. And then I'm going to erase the lines. Go ahead and add those veins in there, and then the subtle texture and you'll be finished. All right, so those are the flowers. Now we can move on to the next step, which is just adding details to the vines. 25. 25 Adding Vine Details: Alright, so now we're going to add details to the vines. And that includes adding little twists and turns and things wrapping around like two noodles wrapping around each other. And we're going to add those to the vines. And I'll show you an example of that. Maybe just say this is your current vine that you have. We're just going to add some twists and turns in there. And you can be as crazy as you want or as simple as you want, but we're just adding more variety to each vine. That's what we're doing. I also noticed that I want to adjust the snail a little bit more, but we'll do that in another stage. But let's take care of the vines first. Make them just a little bit darker as well and refine each vine shape if we want, erase areas of the vine that we don't need. This right now, I'm just making them a little darker to find them more. And then we'll see where we can add some twists and turns to them. And I'm using the same HB pencil, we can actually start to see them going into the log. Now, remember the ones going behind the log are gonna get a little bit lighter. So I'll leave that one light. Still using this side of my pencil tool and holding it back further. I'm not gouging digging into the paper just yet. These ones on the log, I'm actually going to keep them a little lighter because the log is going to be darker than these. Want to make sure they're clearly defined, then you can change the shape by erasing in areas that you don't want. So you keep track of that. Easily. Erase these up here since I've got the eraser. There's one area right here that's kissing the line. So I just want to make that leaf bigger so it's sitting and overlapping over onto the Levine instead of kissing it. Feel free to make any adjustments, correct? Any errors that you see. And I'm gonna make it flow in the direction of the vine. So maybe I can use the grid. Let's see. There we go. You can do the roots as well. The roots are coming out of the log, so you can make those a little darker if you want it. And this area where it's kind of busy, we'll make a vine that's lighter and we'll define it more. So we're just creating the edges of the vine and then removing the value. So that way it sits on top of the vines underneath. In this case, whatever is lighter is going to come forward and the dark vines will be pushed back and all this will be dark anyway, we'll add a grass texture in there so it looks like it's sitting in the log is pushed into the ground. But let's just work on these routes and the vines add a little bit more value in detail to those. I'm still making sure I'm not touching my palm to the paper, at least not where I've drawn. I want to make sure I keep track of this ground plane that I drew in and erase some of the texture. So I'm just adding that back just a bit. I erased all the rough lines and then added some just a little value to smooth it all out. It looked a little rough in that area. And it was messing up the shape of the vine or the root symbol. This area has got a little bit of extra value in this area. I want to erase some just so it's got more visual clarity. All right, let's add some twist to the vines. So the areas I want to add twist two are the areas that have extra negative space, but also that could use a little pizzazz, add a little more interests to that area like this. This one's going straight up and it's got a little curves. So maybe I can just add a nice little twist to bring out some more interest on that left side. Then right here is negative space. So maybe I can add little bit of extra interests there and then carry it up here. Some can be thin, some can be thicker. Just depends on the area you're trying to fill in plus what you prefer for your drawing. These ones already twisting but you can add smaller twist like that. This could use a little more possess. So just add a little curve there and other small curve there. This one can add a little bit, like maybe a twist here. This one's going behind, so it'll be lighter. So we won't worry about adding a twist to the one that's going behind this kind of a lighter value. So remember I'm saving the cool stuff. So people can see it. I had some twists and turns in this one that's going down to the flower. Couple more. This randomly adding stuff, whatever I find could use a little more interests and has extra negative space. I'm just adding a few extra twist in the vine there. If you have a thick one at a thin one, because it does add some nice variety. Maybe this one here. All right, so that's our vines. Now we can continue to add details. We're going to add this stems from the vine to the leaf. And then we're going to add little baby finds curling around everything so we can fill in more negative space. So we'll see you in the next step. 26. 26 Adding Stems and Baby Vines: All right, so the leaves are in place, the vines are in place. Now let's start adding some stems and some baby vines. So let me show you what that's gonna look like real quick. So say this is your leaf, leaf shape. Maybe we've created that heart shape. And then our vines right here. While we want to do is go from the heart shape area. Maybe create a stem coming from below. Then curving around and meeting up with the vine in creating a smooth transition to it. Not like this, like a tree, but more like an elegant stem coming in there. There's your vine, the heart shape coming underneath. Or you can go like this. If your vines running this way, you can go like this. And then this create a nice curving stem towards that heart shape. Then a smooth transition to the vine. Baby vines are going to be kind of like we were drawing the other ones. Elaborate snake shapes are winding rivers. We're going to fill those in, in areas that have extra negative space. Make loops and stuff like that. Let's do this real quick. These two, this stem and the vines are really close to each other. So I just want to erase part of it, makes sure it's clearly define. They're the ones that the small leaf, say this small leaf is on top of the bigger leaf. We don't have to worry about a stem coming out of that one. You don't want to just create a line that's kind of confusing. We're adding the baby vines next because we want to get these stems in place. And the baby vines are there just to fill in some extra negative space and add interests to areas that could use it. This one is curving. This one would look better if it's curving from underneath and transitioning back towards the way that the violence is coming from. Then that stem was kissing the other stem. So I just want to make that a little bit better. There's drawing has a lot of details, but we've broken it up into small chunks. So it's pretty easy. I mean, if we look over all we're doing, we're just creating a line or a curved line. Just a bunch of curved lines. Nothing difficult about it. This one I want to curve underneath more with the flow of the vine so it has better visual clarity there. Right here. I just created that stem, but it's just adding visual confusion. I don't even need it. I'm just going to leave it off. All right, so that's all of our stems. Now let's add some baby binds in there and just look for areas that could use a little more interests or areas that have little extra and negative space. So I see one right here. We've got nothing in-between these two vines. So we can just add a curving, snaking baby vine there and have it transitioned into the vine the same way we did with the stems. Still want to, crowd areas, want to keep nice shapes, nice and clear and not create any visual confusion. So that baby Vine was getting a little too close to the tip of that leaf, so I erased it and redrew it. These ones, you can get more elaborate than the vines. You can barely snake them around. Do you have more freedom with them? They're smaller and easier to fit places. Here's a stem. I missed this area where the edge of the log is and the vine. I just want to keep that area kind of clear. It's easily separated. This is going to get a dark value. That's a dark value. I just want to keep it kind of clear of stuff for right now, just to have a nice separation when we render this. These are the roots, but I'm adding those baby binds, what we're calling an M as baby vines. Just adding those. You don't want to add too many of these same looping ones in the same spot. Let me add one more here and we'll be good. All right, so that looks good. All the baby vines are in place, the stems are in place. Now we'll add some texture to the log in the next step. 27. 27 Adding Log Texture: Alright, so now we're going to add a little bit of texture to our log. And then we'll add texture to the ground, some squiggle marks, and then we'll be done with all of the details. Also got details of the ladybug we can do. But we'll do that in the next step. For the log will just add some squiggle marks. That'll add a little texture. We'll be adding a little bit of value. You can crosshatch. Just keep track of any areas that were part of the original design. I'm adding some value down here in the shadows. That's going to pop out this vine a little better. Add grass texture over this area here, this squiggle marks and then you can take your eraser and erase part of it. And that kind of sets the log into the ground. Just adding some squiggle marks. But we're not fully rendering the log just yet. We just want to add some textures, set it in its place, will render later. Notice how these dark vines aren't well-defined anymore because the contrast isn't there. The white of the paper is gone. I want the vines to sit on top of a dark log as well. So those will be lighter also, but all of those adjustments will be made when we render. We want to create it like the log has furry moss growing on it. That's the look we're going for. So this is just the beginning stage of that. The inside of the log top here, making it just a little darker. Let's add some squiggle marks for the grass. The log is pretty much defined for right now where these rocks are. And we'll define these later in the next step as well with, we'll do the rocks, add details to this twig here and then the ladybug in the next one. But where these rocks are laying on the ground, we can create grass texture that's horizontal with it, running with it just makes it look like it's sitting on the ground a little bit better. And then create grass texture in front of it as well. Adding a little more value there. We can keep track of it better. This area here is where the stimulus coming. Alright, so that's just a little bit more texture for the log and the grass. And in the next step we're going to finish off with the ladybug, the rocks and then the stick, the twig. 28. 28 Ladybug Rock and Twig Details: All right, So we just have a few more details to finish up before we block in that tall grass of the background and the foreground. Let's start with the little lady bug up there and go ahead and sharpen your pencil if you need it because it's such a small shape, you might benefit from a finer point there. And we're just going to block it in real simple, but I'm trying to get the shape down. That way we can get ready to render it in later steps. The ladybugs shape is real simple. We already have our circle, kind of like an oval shape. We just want to make a shape for the head like this. Then the bottom is going to cut across here. Little bit flatter on the bottom. That's basically all we gotta do. We'll render it. But what identifies it as a ladybug is these spots on it. You can just put these spots anywhere. But if they're on the edge, try and make them not kiss the edge, but go over the edge. Make them different sizes. And then the head is actually going to be dark and it'll have these white circles. Actually it looks like eyes, but it's just more spots in their white. Then it has little white spots down here so we can fill it all in making it more noticeable. Those white spots. That's what we're gonna do. Simple ladybug shape. And I'm using the HB lead holder. Such a small shape, you might not be able to put in all the details that you want. You can even put in. If you wanted, you could even put in this part is going to be erased. This bottom part of the ellipse there. But you can put in maybe a little leg. Just depends on how large your drawing is. I guess. If these little details will even matter, but feel free to do whatever you want, your creation. I'm just showing you how you can design it, will add the spots in here. If you wanted, you could add a little value for the red and just leave that on top of the red shell light. But I wouldn't worry about rendering it until we learn more about what kind of lighting we're going to introduce into our composition. That ladybugs done, let me just clean up the edges, make sure these old lines are erased. Let's do the rocks and the twig next. These are really simple, so we'll just knock them out real quick. We've already got it locked in, just going to make that more refined, the outline of it, this squiggling in some zigzag shapes for that in that's supposed to look broken. And then refining the bottom of the twig. So that's where a little shadow is going to go. And you can add little squiggles inside for texture of the twig. That's good for that one. Now the rocks will just make those a little more square and maybe we can add some diagonals, they're in parallel. Want to make sure we keep that line that we have for the enclosure. Kind of just squiggling in different shapes. It doesn't have to be anything exact. But you want to try and maybe if you have room to add more details, say this is our circle. Now I'm chiseling and down, but I'm just squiggling back and forth and that's adding texture. And then I'm trying to create something on the top here, like it's got a flat surface on the top. If you can create these three-dimensional shapes like this. Just add texture. I'm creating one side to side, three side. That adds three-dimensions. If you can do that, go for it. That's what I'm going for here. Because if you transfer this to a painting, you can create different values to show more three-dimensional shape. There doesn't have to be anything elaborate. Just try and present three sides. Alright. Now the thing I noticed was this grass squiggle that I have here. Directing the eyes more left than rather helping the ellipse we have. I can just erase that and make the contrast go up the ellipse better. That'll help that movement continue around rather than just going straight. Just a small subtle change in contrast can affect certain areas of that movement going around. We'll add more value and stuff later, but All right. So that's the rocks and the twig and the ladybug. And now let's work on these openings of the log. I'm still using the HB pencil, will do the top first. While we want to do is just establish that edge. The log is going to have that ellipse, the opening. But we'll pretend there's a smaller ellipse inside that'll give it a thickness. That's why we want to establish, just establish these two edges here. And then we'll do the cutout and the cut-out. You just slice off little area. Make it go down and then make the same thickness, and then make this area go down. We're just making a little cut-out there. Something like that, but it can be rougher. More squiggly, more characteristics. And then go around like this. Doesn't have to be a perfect edge or anything like that or just roughing in the shape so it looks more organic. So do the outer edge first, and right here my vine is kissing the edge, the outer edge of my logs. So I just wanted to adjust that vine to either overlap the log opening more or just go above the log opening. So I'll just both. So it's going above the log opening. One leaf is going over the edge here. I want to make sure that stays. And now we'll do the inner edge of this log opening. I'm just kind of gapping across these vines coming out in the inside of this log is going to be darker. All right, So now we'll do the cut-out real quick. Just going down, like I did demonstrate it on the piece of paper, cutting into that ellipse and then carrying the same thickness down into the log and make it a little rough, little darker. And then coming back up the other side, I'll make a little bit darker inside of that lip is so we can easily see that. I'm defining this leaf a little better also, the one that's going over the log opening. All right, let's work on the bottom one. Now, when I define this thickness down here of the cutout, remember the log is gonna be mossy so the edge can be a little bit rough. The inside can be a little straighter on that edge and darker because it's in shadow. This a little bit for now just so we can see what's going on. This chunk right here. Remember we had the ellipse of the log hitting this large ellipse, but we cut it off and he erased it. We want this edge of the log kind of digging into the ground right here and not add it like a straight angle. You can make it curved a little bit right here and then grasping go over that edge to give us the illusion of depth. So we'll just erase a little bit of that edge. So it'll look like grass is going over the week where you find that in a later stage. For now that looks good right there. Make sure this edge is nice and defined. We'll work on the edges, whether they're gonna be soft or hard and all, explain all that stuff in one of the next steps. For now, we're just making it kind of just rough looking, adding just a little bit of value so we can see what's going on and going from there. Then the edge of this one is going to be buried and have some grass over it as well. All right, that's the log cutout. I'm just defining this edge a little better, adding some scumbling marks. Textures, squiggles. This edge right here of the log opening, looks really circular and generic, but it'll get changed when we render. And I'll make that blend better and it'll look a little more natural. But for now we're just describing it as the shape. I'm just defining this edge on the top here to also wanted to make an adjustment to the snail head just a little bit. Because the tentacles in the front for the nose going just a little bit too far out to the left. And then I wanted to make the head just a little smaller so the tentacles go up and extend just a little bit more. That's a quick fix. We just got to bring in some shapes here. The head is kind of like gonna be like the end of your pinky. And the tentacles extend from that. So it's gonna be like a rounded head with tentacles. The longer those tentacles are, the more inquisitive it looks. I just see raised a couple of parts, added a little bit of rough texture back to it. And we're good. Okay, So that finishes up all the details that I wanted to add. Now we're going to work on the foreground and background, tall grass. 29. 29 Adding the Tall Grass: All right, the composition is coming together nicely now we just need to add that final touch to the design with the tall grass. And that's gonna go in the background here and in the foreground here. And we're just going to make it a light silhouetted Paul Grass. Not gonna be anything elaborate. It's gonna be kind of like a foggy day where you don't see any details and you're just seeing the shape. So that's why we're going to create for this. We're going to keep it so light that you can probably just use your two H lead holder and go ahead and sharpen that if you need to. Mine is pretty good. We're not going to be digging into the paper or making anything dark. It just kind of laying in some value to show the shape of the tall grass. And we're going to take advantage of this elliptical shape here and this one here. And finally be done with those. So let's use the grid as well. It doesn't really have to be anything too fancy or elaborate. I'm just going to complete this 1 first. You can overlap. Pay attention to overlapping shapes. Like here is if I show you without the light pad, this is a baby vine. So instead of having this tall grass go right through the middle of it, I'm going to the tall grass, encompass the whole shape. Then have it come down this way. Then I don't want it kissing the edge of this leaf, so I'll just make the whole chunk of grass come down this way. And it's gonna be thick. Tall grass. From imagination doesn't have to be anything highly detailed at all or realistic. Just going to give the impression of grass so that one's done in place and then we'll add more. Just want to make sure you don't cover this area like we were talking about. We don't want to block the gaze of the snail to the ladybug or the flower. Want to keep that open. We don't want to crowd that area. This is where we're going to add the most contrast right in this area. Let me finish this one down here, and then we can complete all the other shapes. This, I don't want it to go. This, I don't want this tall grass to go over the twig we built. So I want to take advantage of this curve. So I'm just going to curve it down this way so it misses the twig. Then hopefully maybe locks into the grid are parallels it. I'll just dodge that twig there and make the tall grass curve down this vertical here. Make the top and just making the top of the grass is gonna be pointed and then the bottom is going to be thicker. That's how simple it's going to look. That's all we need. Some simple like that. You can make it as curvy as you like, but we don't want to draw attention away from this elaborate design. We just want to fill that negative space and add a little more interest in those spots. Alright, now I'll just go ahead and use the grid to block in some other shapes and then I'll add value if I need without the light pad on this side is good. Now I'll just add the value. You can see how the grass is not going to say this is the bottom of your paper. It's not going up and coming back down and then going back up and coming back down like this. It's actually going like this. Then like this, maybe in the middle of that one. Then adding some variation there. Like that. We don't have this big zigzag shape of something that's more organic like that. It's going to fill in the light value real quick. I'm using that zigzag technique we learned earlier, which is holding the pencil from the side, applying a little bit of pressure and laying in some smooth value. Also probably don't want the length of the grass equal, like this blade is the same length as this blade. You want to have it varied. So I'll make that one just a little shorter. Also used a blade of grass to curve one into the composition from the side here, let me place the other ones. I'll make one really long. You can come up to this sinister reciprocal diagonal right here. Maybe to this point, there's an I right here. So I'll come on to that. Then there's an I here so I can have them connect and come down. Let's see. I'll make one maybe come up. I don't want to crowd the snail too much, so I'll make one come up to this, I write here, I'll come down that Baroque reciprocal diagonal here. Just a little, and then curve back in. And maybe go in between these two vines. Overlapping this little vine here a little bit, maybe a third or half. Snails not gonna be too crowded. So that's looking good. Let me, let me add a couple more. I want one in-between these two leaves here. So maybe I'll have 1 towards the ladybug and then curve down. I'm looking at the length of these, this one's tallest, shorter, and this one is the shortest. So I'll have one kind of in the middle, maybe locking into the grid here. And it's gonna point towards that ladybug and then curve around and overlap these leaves nicely. Then I'll add one more, even smaller. Now have it point towards the snail face and it looks like it's paralleling this baroque reciprocal diagonal. So that's good. And then I'll come down this horizontal here. There's an I here. I can just drop a horizontal and have that tall grass align with that and then come down and overlap. Any shapes below this, fill in that value real quick. You can see how it fills in that negative space As a little more variety with the thickness of the tall grass compared to this smaller grass down here. It adds a little more depth because we've got that silhouetted shape, low details, low contrast. So it's adding depth like a foggy day. The next step we'll learn about contrast techniques. 30. 30 Contrast Techniques: All right, So when it comes to design techniques, There's a few that are mainly used during the rendering process. If you look at our list here, There's a couple that you may have been wondering about and they're right at the top. And that's because they're really important. It's the greatest area of contrast or GAAC and figure ground relationship if GR for short. So they're really, really important, but they're only realized usually when we start to add value. Let me show you what the techniques look like real quick on a scrap piece of scratch paper. Since we're drawing on a white background, the darkest mark and the largest mark will be the GAAC. Always doesn't matter how big or small or whatever, but in relative comparison to other marks on the piece of paper, that's how you measure it. So this little mark here, the only mark on our paper, so it's the GAAC since the darkest and the largest mark. If we have one that's slightly bigger, that becomes the GAAC. Larger and it's the same value but it's larger. Then we can keep going and going and going. So usually measure the GAAC by what's darkest, what has the most contrast? And I'm saying darkest because we're on a blank white background. Now if we had value here, you always got to keep simultaneous contrast in mind. Because if we have value here, then we lay down the same darkness there. It's still doesn't have as much contrast as the dark mark on the white paper because we're surrounded by another value here. That's the definition of the GAAC and that'll come in handy when we start rendering drawing, we're going to try and make the snail, the GAAC. One other thing to keep in mind when you're rendering is it doesn't matter how big that GAAC is. You can have your entire drawing light rendered lightly like this. You can have just a few touches, a few accents to draw attention to the main subject. That's all you need. The contrast that draws our eyes first. So that's how you can control it, whether you want to add a lot or a little. Now when you have a drawing that's rendered completely and it's full of value like chiaroscuro, like a Rembrandt or Caravaggio painting. And say the backgrounds just really dark. The GAAC becomes whatever is the lightest and the largest amount. Because everything is dark. That contrast, the white dot is going to draw our eyes first. The background is dark. You're going to look for the lightest value to create that contrast, to draw the eyes. And if the background is light like our drawing here. And you're going to want to create the dark marks to draw the eye and create that contrast. All right, so that's the GAAC. So another technique that is mainly realized when we start to render is figure ground relationship. And that's a really important one because it helps with visual clarity, helps define the subject. Because you're paying attention to the foreground and the background and how they interact with each other. It's really, really important. We've been using it this whole time because the snail doesn't have anything in the background. It's kept separate. All the leaves have been kept separate. We haven't added any background elements to confuse those shapes. But if you, in your own design decided to add tall grass behind this snail, you're going to want to be cautious of how your render that because if you render the tall grass too dark and then the snail is on top of it. You're going to get some visual confusion there. Say this is our snail. He's coming down here. And if you start to add dark marks behind it, It's confusing that shape. Now, if you wanted to add tall grass behind it, you want to keep it low contrast and really light. So say this is our snail again. Then you can add really light value behind it. That won't mess with the figure ground relationship. You always got to keep the contrast in mind and keep that figure ground relationship in mind so you don't confuse the image. You want visual clarity. That's really, really important goal for the overall drawing. If you're creating just line work. If you're not planning on rendering any value, you just creating line work, you still want to pay attention to figure ground relationship. And your greatest area of contrast. Figure ground relationship and line work is pretty simple. Also. Say this is our snail. You still want to keep it separate. Any line work like we've been doing. We didn't render that. That's just line work. Basically. Most of it. If this is your snail and you want to draw grass around it, you definitely want to try and keep those shapes separated. Way this snails still visually clear. Because if you're doing linework, say you're using ink or whatever, you can vary the line of the ink thick to thin. But if you're not crosshatching or adding value, you need to depend on the line to define the shape. So if you're adding lines coming the same value, lines coming out of the snail behind the snail, you can see how it's starting to confuse that shape, starting to blend in with the background. So figure-ground relationships really, really important. You should always keep that in mind when you're starting the composition and when you, before you render it and make sure it looks good too. All right, so the other technique that is mainly realized when we start to render is aerial perspective. And we saw that come into play with the light tall grass in the background and the foreground. We get that really low in contrast to create that fogginess, like it's on a foggy day. So a lot of movies you'll see smoke in the background and they're creating that depth with the fog, the smoke. When people smoke cigarettes, you'll see the smoke going front of their face or it's in the background and creating atmosphere. Whenever you get that contrast reduced, doesn't matter what particles are creating that reduction in contrast, like it could be rain, could be snow, it could be just long distances in the mountain side. Whatever is creating that we call that aerial perspective. And it could be lighting effects. Say, your environment is really dark, like a Rembrandt or Caravaggio. You're creating those lighting effects, so you're getting lost edges and the face starts blending into the background. That's creating that depth in that atmosphere. And we're shadow meets shadow, that's reducing the contrast there. And it's creating that effect, that aerial perspective effect. So It's a really important one to keep in mind also will show you right here just how it works. So our papers light, so any dark marks are gonna come forward. The darker it is. In larger it is, the more it's going to come forward. So that's our dark mark. You can see this one looks like it's further back and then this one is even lighter. You might not even be able to see on camera, but you can increase that illusion by raising them up in the frame and making them get smaller. It's all an illusion. Getting smaller and lighter and raising up in the composition. You can continue to add that depth in that fashion as well. Alright, so that's aerial perspective. And we can look at this drawing by Troodon. He's got all three techniques combined in one drawing. He's adding aerial perspective. He's got figure-ground relationship and then he's drawing us to the main subject with the GAAC. You can see how he's controlling the contrast directly in the eyes where they need to be. And then defining the subject with clear foreground and background interaction. That's the techniques that we realize when we render mostly, but say figure ground relationship needs to be planned out in the beginning. So does the greatest area of contrasts. You kind of need to know where you want to place your main subject and where that main focal point in contrast is gonna go. Alright, so that's GAAC, FDR and aerial perspective. Next step we'll learn about some stylistic marks and then we can get into rendering. 31. 31 Stylistic Marks: So far we haven't used any blending stumps or any other tools to lay in any value because we're in full control of our pencils. If we want a lighter mark, we just use a different pencil or use less pressure. And some of the marks that we're going to cover in this section were mentioned earlier, but we needed to start seeing them differently and we need to start seeing them as possible. Stylistic marks rather than just laying in value, smudging with fingers, blending stumps, Q-tips, cloth that's all used moderately by artists that know how to control the value of their pencils. But some of those tools are used to create expressive marks. There are a few examples in the PDF files and you can refer to those whenever you want to get inspiration for your drawings. But an interesting one is called pentameter. Believe that's how you pronounce it. But if you look at enough master drawings, you'll start to see something that looks like the line was rubbed out and it creates a sense of movement within the drawing. The master artists would create a line. He wouldn't like that line. So say he's using charcoal, he'd rub it out. Then that would lighten this line. They needed to correct his proportions or whatever with a darker line. And it creates this kind of movement, ghosting effect in the background. That's called pentameter. That in itself, this technique in itself is a stylistic choice that you can use. And it can be done on purpose. Or just as a correction to your drawing. But you can, if you're laying in something a shape, you want to correct it. You'll see that the master artists, they rub it out and it gives it that soft look. And then they come in and create harder marks over it. You get that kind of fresh, fast, spontaneous mark. Rather than using blending stumps or anything like that. My personal favorite to blend is the zigzag method and we've all seen that. But I'll go over it again. That's just laying down even amount of value and keeping your wrist firm and just moving your arm and going back and forth. You get this smooth value. Masters would use that in combination with other techniques. Like a hatching. Say you want to create the zigzag mark. You can also hatch on top of that to create stylistic marks. Add more value. Create more marks. You can combine the techniques together. Maybe you wanted to combine Pentium INT02. That's your shape. And you're correcting it. Also a crosshatch just going the opposite direction of the hatch lines. Keep your wrist firm if you can. Right now I'm moving my wrist because I don't want to flip the paper, but keep your wrist firm. Move your arm and you'll create that nice stroke. Instead of something that's jagged at the end. There's the jagged mark. You can also add stippling. Stippling is when you add a lot of dots and it creates a value whether they're close together or separated. Stippling is just adding dots. And if you're inking, you could probably just touched the pin onto the paper and leave a mark graphite. You have to scribble the dot in that stippling. And you can do it a lot or a little, doesn't matter. But say, this is someone's nose or whatever. You wanted to add some value. In a certain area. You can add hatch marks on top of zigzag, on top of stippling. It doesn't matter, but it's good to know these techniques just so you can render value however you like. The more consistent you are with the marks you make on your drawing, the more it'll embed itself into your artistic style, people will start to recognize your style if it's consistent like that. Consistency is the key to a nice artistic style. Another technique you can use is scumbling, and that's just when you create a little loop de loop, scribbles. That's texture as well. So you need to be careful what you're scumbling. If it's a nice smooth face or whatever, you don't want these textural marks on a surface that's supposed to be smooth. So you need to pay attention to what you're rendering and what kind of effect you're trying to create. That's scumbling. Another one is just, I call it squiggling, where you're just kind of going erratic and creating an abstract line that can add texture as well. We'll use that on our log. Could use a lot of these techniques on our log because that's full of texture. Just squiggle. That's what I call it. Another way you can create a stylistic line is if you're using these LED holders, you've got the fine point and then you've got a wider point so you can actually hold, you're going to hold the pencil is certain way. I'm going to draw it from left to right so I can get that movement down because the desk is keeping my elbow from going down. I'm gonna draw it from left to right. And if you hold it, you'll get a wide mark. And then you can twist the pencil and get a thin mark. And then you can create a thick to thin effect. That's a stylistic mark as well. A lot of artists use that one too thick to thin. It's really nice-looking, especially if you're really good at creating gestural figures. Quick sketches, nice line to use. That's thick to thin. You need a wider lead though. You can take advantage of that. You can probably use a filbert brush or whatever. Use the wide side of the brush and then just go thin. All right, so that's basically the stylistic marks we can incorporate in our drawing if you want. But for this example, we're just going to keep it with the zigzag. A couple more textural marks on the log and things in the grass and stuff. Okay. And then you can choose to rub out, use blending stumps or whatever you like as you draw. All right, so go ahead and use the reference material in the PDFs, check out those examples of the master artists. And in the next step we're going to start the rendering process. We're going to learn a little bit more about rendering. 32. 32 Rendering Gradations: All right, let's start the running process with some simple exercises. Go ahead and print out your rendering exercises worksheet. It looks like this. You can print it out on just normal paper, or you can transfer the rectangles to your sketch paper. For the gradations, I'm just going to use the regular printing paper and we'll start from the left square and go to the right. So start with your 0.5 millimeter to HB mechanical pencil. And you just want to create a smooth gradation from one corner to the next, from lightest to darkest. And it all depends on the pressure you have on your pencil. Sometimes in some cases, the weight of your pencil, maybe even too much. And you'll have to lift up just a bit to get the lightest mark of your pencil. Just use the zigzag mark back and forth like this. Wrist is firm and you're just moving your arm that way you get nice marks because that'll come in handy when we start to render this sphere. To start from one corner and go to the next and slowly build up the value and apply pressure. You don't have to get it all in one shot. Just work your way up from one corner to the next, lightest to darkest. Second, barely see that mark, which is good. This is the two H pencil, so it's the hardest lead, hardest to make a mark. Very good for these really light values. In the middle here I'm going to want to go in a little bit heavier on the pressure. Then further on the right side, I'll just make it as dark as I can. And you can apply more pressure, even hold the pencil differently. So you can apply even more pressure like this. Again, copier paper, this printing paper isn't going to give you as nice marks as say sketch paper or drawing paper. Just a little more compact and doesn't grab the graphite and the same. Usually, if something like this is difficult for you, if it stresses you out, if it makes you a little frustrated, frustration, I believe, is a sign of growth. You're developing new muscle memory and all that stuff and developing your skill. If you didn't feel frustration, you couldn't grow this good enough. And we can see how it great aids from light to dark. Now grab your 0.5 millimeter HB mechanical pencil and do the same thing. This one is not even the weight of the pencil. I'm actually lifting up on it and just barely scraping the paper surface. And it's leaving almost like the middle range of this to H pencil, the lightest mark. That's why we need different lens so we can create these different gradations and have better control over the value. Right now I'm adding just maybe the weight of the pencil. Go pretty dark probably if we apply enough pressure here. Notice how I lay in value and then I go back over it. It's usually just laying in value in layers. And that's a great way to just slowly apply it without overdoing it. If you want, you can squint. You can start to see the gradation in a little bit better simplifies the values, blurs it a little bit, and you can see how it goes from dark to light. It doesn't have to be a perfect gradation. This is just a good exercise to warm you up. You can't do it in a simple square, then you'll want to practice a little more before you start on your good drawing, before you ruin all that hard work you put into it. So let's move to the 0.3 millimeter. Be lead, that's our smallest point. Going to be a little darker. So it might be a little bit tougher to lay in that lightest value because it's a softer lead. I'm barely touching it. Also with these software LEDS, if you try to use them for the lighter areas, such a light touch, it's gonna be hard to get it really consistent. That's why we need those harder LEDS. So the amount of pressure isn't as delicate and we get more consistent marks in those lighter areas. I'm barely touching and it's getting really inconsistent right here because I can't control that pressure. Like a machine. Really delicate touch the software LEDS. Right here, I can get a little darker. The amount of pressure I'm putting on this piece of paper right here. I would never do that with. Drawing paper, because I'm really just gouging into the paper. So if I wanted to erase something, it would be kind of hard and then the paper will be damaged. With your nice paper. You just want to be delicate up to a point, but you don't want to ruin the paper just in case you don't want to smash the texture of the paper. So it's just flat. Unless that's what you're going for. With this copy paper, you'll definitely notice that you'll have inconsistencies in the value like right here. It doesn't matter, you don't have to correct that or anything. Just focus on the gradation. You don't have to get it perfect. That one looks good enough. Moves to your Forbes mechanical pencil. Really tough to get that light mark. Just going from left to right, filling in the value as light as I can and then getting a little more pressure, putting on that first layer of value. And I'll go back and make everything darker. And we'll do that with this sphere to get enough. If you wanted to get darker, you could probably just go against that stroke, make that crosshatching. But this exercise, it doesn't really matter, is practicing that gradation. All right, Now use your two millimeter lead holders and start with a to H lead. You'll notice these LED holders lay in the value a lot quicker because you can use this side of the lead. If you have any bumps on your light pad or anything else like that, you're going to see these dark marks show up. So just be aware of that. I'm still using the zigzag also with my wrist firm. This was your final drawing. You'd probably want to just go in. You're, you can take your kneaded eraser, make a point and you can dab out these inconsistent areas. Then you can go back in with some lighter value. Let me just correct that a little bit. All right, that's good enough. Now go to your horror course. The HB pencil should be a pro at this pencil by now. See my papers got some inconsistencies already. Something's under my paper creating that doesn't matter though. Alright, now I'm going to grab the pencil a little bit it closer to the tip and apply more pressure. Notice how I'm holding it further back for a lighter touch. You want to, you can always dab out these little areas, should be able to see it really good on this one. How far I'm holding it back on the pencil. You can see that I'm holding it way back here for that lightest area is barely touching the surface. Let's good for that one. Lots of inconsistencies with this paper. Probably just the printing paper to the last one is the Forbes lead holder. That first layer went in really quick. You can grab it really close to the tip and laying a lot of value here, apply a lot of pressure. Remember, don't do this with your nice paper unless you're really wanting to commit to those marks. This is just to create the gradation. I'm really digging into that paper. Alright, that looks good. That's our gradation exercise, pretty simple, but it's good to get this under control before you move to anything serious because you don't want to mess up all your progress. So now let's move on to rendering the top lit sphere and we'll learn more about the terminology for light and shadow. 33. 33 Rendering the Top Lit Sphere: All right, before we render our final snail drawing, it's going to be beneficial to cover some basics of light and shadow. So if you didn't already print out your rendering exercises sheet, you should have already done the gradations. And then next we'll do a top lit sphere. You can draw on this printer paper, but as we saw earlier, it causes some inconsistencies with the values, some marks and things like that. So if you want to use sketch paper, go ahead. That's what I'm gonna do. But you can transfer this 4 third rectangle onto the sketch paper and you'll be all set. I'll render drawings from imagination required that the artists choose where the lighting is coming from. And it can come from any angle you like. But for our snail scene, we want the lighting to come from above. We want it soft and non-directional. And that's what this topless sphere exercise is going to help us create in this scene. In this photo of a banyan tree here in Hawaii, we can see the difference that an opening in the trees will make the directional light creates a harsh transition from light to shadow when compared to this other tree over here. We want to create light that's very subdued. That's why we'll render things simply in without harsh contrast. So doing this exercise will really put your skills to the test, but it's really easy once you get the hang of it. And when you can start creating them from imagination, you can apply the same techniques to other forms like animals or the human figure. The same laws of light apply to all the objects. Most spheres you'll see in drawing courses or online are gonna be silent and that's perfectly fine. You're gonna see that nice cast shadow and everything. But when you start to apply those same laws of light to more complex objects like the human figure or even our little snail. It's really hard to render from imagination. When the light source is soft and coming from above is much easier for the artists to be successful. So that's the approach we're gonna take with our sphere and our final snail drawing. Y is top lighting easier for us sometimes. It could be because that the lighting that we see in everyday life is coming from above. The lamps above me. The sunlight comes from above. Any directional light we see during sunset is really nice, really pretty, but it's definitely gonna be harder for us to render that directional lighting. It much, much easier for us to just have the soft lighting coming from above. And we can just conceptualize it in our drawings. A lot easier. Alright, now we're ready to start our sphere exercise. You can follow along with these sphere entering steps that I got a worksheet for you. It shows all the steps. Can use that if you like. Then go ahead and transfer your rectangle onto sketch paper if you'd like. Otherwise, just draw right on the copy paper and get all your pencils ready. You can sharpen them if you like. All right, So I'll be starting with the HB lead holder. And we first just want to block in our circle for the sphere. And a good way to do that, to find the balance of the composition is to draw a square first. So we'll place a square lower in this four-thirds rectangle, not touching the bottom edge and just use really light marks. Sketch it in there. Remember our breathing room of the composition, we want the bulk of the composition lower, in this case, went off to use the grid for this. And now you can draw this circle inside the square and just use gestural marks. What sometimes I'll do is I'll arrest my finger and my thumb on the paper surface and then I'll get a nice smooth gestural mark. I do this in the beginning sometimes when I'm designing, just got to make sure your fingers are clean. You're not leaving a lot of oils and marks on the paper. And you've got to be aware of anything you've already drawn. If you're doing this on another drawing, you don't want to be smudging stuff around. So if you create these gestural marks, you'll start to see the circle come together nicely and it won't be a perfect circle, but it'll start to appear to be a perfect circle and you'll see it in there. And then you can erase the lines you don't need later. That's basically our circle for the sphere. And you could be loose or tight with this. You don't have to be perfect with the sphere. But I'm going to just render it like I would snail shell or something that's supposed to be finished. I keep it looking nice for you guys. All right, So there's a circle for our sphere inside that box. And now we can create the cast shadow in our sphere as being lit from above. So the cast shadow is going to come directly below that edge of the circle. And you can draw these straight lines down from the left and the right side of the circle that you just drew and should already be there because you drew the box. If you didn't draw the box, just draw straight lines parallel down from this sphere edge, the left and the right. And that's going to be the edge of the cast shadow, the outer edge. Now for the bottom of the cast shadow, it depends on how big your creating this, but for this example, it's about the width of your pencil down from the bottom of the circle. That's gonna be the bottom edge of the cast shadow. Because we're pretending that the light is coming down this side of the circle and casting down onto the ground. And then about almost equal distance behind this circle is going to be a little smaller. Draw another straight line. You're going to end up with a rectangle. And that's the bounding box we're going to use for our cast shadow to draw an ellipse. If you were lighting this, say from street lamp, you're gonna have your sphere here. The cast shadows gonna be different than what we're drawing. This. It's not going to come straight down. Say this is your street lamp shining light. Your light is going to come down. This going to hit the edge of the sphere and create a cast shadow that's a lot wider. That's what local light does. When it hits an object. You're going to experience the same local lighting effect if you take an object from your desk or say, an egg from the fridge or an apple orange, anything. And you use the flashlight on your phone and you move it closer and further away, you'll see the cast shadow gets wider and wider and wider the closer you get. You'll also notice how the tablet area gets smaller and smaller and smaller because the light has less room to spread out around that top area. So the closer you move your flashlight towards that sphere or object, the smaller the highlights getting, but the larger that cast shadow is getting because more light is being blocked by the object. And then when we have light that's basically from the sun or soft light that's non-directional, coming straight down. And that's why we're rendering in our sphere. Go ahead and draw an ellipse inside this rectangle. Simple ellipse, just basically rounding out these ends here. You don't want it to be pinched like we were drawing the ends of our log, creating a rounded ellipse like this. Rather than a pinched. You don't want it to look pinched like this. It needs to be round like that. We've got this circle for our sphere and then the ellipse for our cast shadow. And that's all the blocking and we need. Now we'll move on to adding value. When we lay in value, we're just going to use our simple zigzag technique again and go ahead and lay in some light value there for the cast shadow. We're going to adjust this when we render fully. But we're just getting an idea of what's going on here. So since there is no directional light, our cast shadow is gonna be really soft on the outer edges. And that's because of reflective light. Light bouncing around in the environment and stuff. Making this cast shadow a lot lighter. And we'll cover bounce light in a sec. But that's basically what the edge of this cast shadow is gonna be. It's gonna be a lot softer in our environment and that we're creating. So now that that's done in the circles drawn, you erase these construction lines and you can choose to make your sphere a little bit straighter if you like, if it's a little wobbly and areas go ahead and erase certain parts and make it more circular. All right, so now let's move on to the next step where we find the terminator and the core shadow of the sphere. 34. 34 Terminator and Core Shadow: All right, So now we're ready to create the terminator in the core shadow. The way the light works on our sphere, it's being top lit, right where that terminator is the center of this sphere. So go ahead and draw a line in the center of the sphere. Just like the center of the Earth, the equator, it's gonna be the center of our sphere. And the light terminates at 90 degrees. So the light is coming directly from above. Light is going to terminate the center of that sphere and it can't directly hit anything underneath. So that's where the core shadow starts. It's transitioning from the light side to the dark side is where the core shadow is. And then terminator is creating that because direct light can't hit it anymore. So we go from the light side and then the terminator, and then the dark side starts. Since we're a little bit above the sphere. Let's go ahead and measure the same distance from the bottom of our circle, the bottom of our cast shadow. And that'll be kind of an adjustment we can make for a terminator, which is where the core shadow is going to start. Just go and draw a horizontal line, which is a little bit below the center of the circle. And this is gonna be our terminator. And then we can curve it around on the ends and needs to be curved and not pinched. Just curve it around. Got to kind of wrap around the edge of that circle, create the illusion of depth. There's our beginning of our core shadow. The core shadow can go down. Make your core shadow go a little bit lower. Where does laying in the first layer of value it to go too dark. This lay in that first layer. I'm still using the HB pencil. You can see even in this sketch paper, I'm getting inconsistent marks. But you can dab those out if you like, is to keep things flowing correctly. But I think in this core shadow area, we're going to go much darker. So these won't even matter controlling them just in case this core shadow is going to wrap around the sphere as well, not just a straight line. So down here, I'm wrapping up around that curve, but I'm also kind of curling it down in this direction as well. It's wrapping in both directions. Once we're done with that, you just go ahead and take care of kneaded eraser and erase that first construction line for the terminator. Make this rounder. Can see I'm holding the pencil from the side and just roughly sketching in this value to smooth it out just for the core shadow. That's good enough. Now we can move on to the reflected light. 35. 35 Reflected Light: In the environment that we're creating for our sphere, we're going to have light bouncing off the surface that it's sitting on. Most services will reflect or bounce light. It just depends. And the darker the surface is, the less light will be bounced off of it. But usually light will be balanced or reflected off of services. And we'll recreate that in our sphere here. Since it's on the shadow side. Remember the terminator? It's the divider between light and shadow. And since this reflected light, the light is bouncing off this surface onto our sphere. So it's always going to be darker than any tones or values we create on the top side. In some cases, if you have two light sources, you could have equal value on them reflected surface, but most likely it's always going to be darker than the top surface because it's not getting direct light is getting reflected light, which is more subdued, just filling in value. It's not gonna be as dark as the core shadow because it is actual light bouncing onto her object. And when we do the second pass over with the rendering, will make sure that this bottom area is going to be darker than this top area. We'll just have to make adjustments as we go. And if your kneaded eraser isn't getting that edge as fine as you want it, use your smaller eraser. Another interesting thing about light is the way we view it. If this were a real sphere, we'd be viewing this sphere. And the light hitting the front of the sphere would be seen better than any light hitting this edge. So the edges are going to be darker than this area that's actually reflecting into our eyes. Usually the edges are going to be a little bit darker when you're rendering these top LET forms. You can always count on that. When I'm rendering from imagination, Say if it's the figure, I'll try and ensure that the edges are a little bit darker. So it shows that wrap around the figure, just like we're doing here, wrapping around that object, it's getting darker. So if we're looking at a figure, it's getting darker as it wraps around. So always make sure these edges are a little bit darker than the area that's getting reflected light as well. 36. 36 Midtones and Highlight: All right, so now we can transition from the core shadow to the top of the sphere. And it's going to get lighter and lighter as it gets to the top. This is called the mid tones or the passive highlight. We want to make sure we have an area at the top That's just the white of the paper and no graphite or anything. And this construction line at the top is definitely going to have to be lightened. We mentioned that the edges are going to be a little darker, but that's way too dark. But let's lay in some mid tones here. And we just want to create a nice transition from that core shadow to the light side. And I'm still using the HB pencil and the zigzag marks. And normally I would have more freedom of moving my arm, but I need to stay inside the camera angle. So I can't really dropped my elbow passes desk, which would come in handy. Otherwise I'd have to turn the paper. But I'm gonna try and make this smooth and transition from the shadow side to the light side. And we basically want to use the same concept as those gradation squares that we created. Just go from dark to light, makes sure your pressure's getting lighter as you work your way to the top, then apply more pressure when you get down to this core shadow and the terminator just to create that nice transition from dark to light. Let me get rid of some of this construction line up here. So it's not as dark. Probably just dab it out since it's not really press deeply into the paper, then be sure to squint. If you're having a hard time seeing the gradations, just squint a little bit, should be able to see a little better. Right here, I know it's getting darker. Like I mentioned, there is those dark marks and will control that in the final rendering process, probably this area, this core shadow is going to get a lot darker. And remember we mentioned that the reflected light will be darker than our mid tones. Once we render it fully, we'll make this core shadow darker and then measure the reflected light to the mid tones and make sure those are looking at two. Because I could probably use this. I'm going to get a little closer to that edge. I'm just making hatch marks with this eraser. Racing a little bit of the value that I created there, the construction lines. Now we could switch to our two lead holder because we're going to work on the highlight now. And this is gonna be the lightest part of the sphere. The light's coming from above. This area is going to be the lightest part. I was using the HB pencil and trying to control this light delicate area. I managed it. Okay, But this to H pencils are gonna help us manage it with more control. We're making sure that there's an area of pure white paper right around here, about the same distance you measure from the bottom of the sphere to the bottom of the cast shadow. You can measure from the top of the sphere and down. And that's going to be right around where our highlight of our sphere is gonna be. Just leave that nice and white. And this construction lines still just touched dark. For this stage. I'm just going to make it a little bit lighter. Even though it'll probably get darker than the next stage is keep all these layers consistent as we develop it. Remember there's gonna be a little bit of value up here on the edges to show that form wrapping around. We're a little bit above the sphere. If we actually rendered the highlight to be right on the edge, top edge of the sphere. We would get a flattened out sphere because it kind of be just rendered. This. The terminator would be directly in half. We'd have the core shadow and the reflected light just look really flat. That's where we're slightly above the sphere to give that curvature, to show the contour of that sphere, we don't want it to look flat like this. Of course we'd create gradations up and all that, but that's why the highlights not directly on the top. We have a little bit of value right there on the top. Once you get a grasp of this concept, you can light this fear from any angle. You just have to think conceptually where the cast shadow and things are going. But say we have these three spheres, lights coming down this side, this side. And then maybe coming down from below. You can just measure the 90 degree angles at the light's hitting, create that terminator. Terminator here. Terminator here. The shadow side, shadow side of this here. Then the shadow sides here. And then you just grade eight and make it look like it's supposed to with the core shadow, reflected light. So if this sphere is setting on the surface, you'll get reflected light. This shadow area. Same with this one, because the light is coming down, bouncing off the surface. But if it's being lit from below, you have to think conceptually, how is that going to affect the reflected light? How's it going to affect the other shadows? You've got to start thinking of what it's gonna look like. You can apply the same concept, but you need to figure out how you create it and how you render it to create the illusion that it's touching the surface, but still being lit from the below. You just need to put a little bit more thought into it, but you can do it. You can create lighting situations. Just takes a little bit more time. Conceptualize and think about it. Just like we're doing this sphere. Create the same shapes but just from a different angle of the sphere. Same with over here. That's just an idea of what you can do further once you get the hang of how the light is hitting the surface from above. If the surface is wet, we can see reflective or what they call a specular highlights. And it's usually rendered in the eyes. If you watch a movie and it's a dark environment, usually you can tell where they're lighting is set up. You can just look at the actor's eyes and you can see the specular highlights from the lighting that they have. But for our drawing, we won't worry about specular highlights or anything like that. 37. 37 Occlusion Shadow and Edges: The mid tones and the highlights are taken care of. And last term we're going to learn is occlusion shadow. And that's the area underneath the sphere that is not getting any light at all. The light is being blocked completely. And it's the darkest part of the sphere. It's not necessarily the GAAC because the shadow is surrounded by other shadows. So it's not creating a high contrast, but we can create the bottom area, just a small area, a little bit darker. And it gives us the illusion of the sphere making contact with the surface. Once this occlusion shadows in. Because of simultaneous contrast, we see that this bottom edge of the sphere just got a lot lighter. We need to make that dark again. To make it a little darker. I don't want a big blind high-contrast near the bottom of the sphere where it's not really important at all. We need to control the contrast we create. You lay down a dark mark. You need to make sure that it's interacting with the neighboring values. So you're not creating high contrast where you don't need it. So this edge is going to be pretty soft looking. That's good enough for occlusion. Shadow will finalize all these values in the next step. All right, so now for edges, which is something really cool to learn about, you may have heard of artists saying that they need to work on their edges more, but it just refers to the way they are rendering the edge to create that illusion of depth. All right, so let me get a scrap piece of paper so I can demonstrate this for you. A line is aligned and it serves its purpose, but it can flatten out the image, not really wrapping around the surface. So an edge is basically a line, but it's graded away from that line. That's an edge. We don't have a straight line, we have an edge. Now. The edges can be firm like this. They can be soft. More of a soft edge. Could be a hard edge or it could be a lost edge, which is really soft. Lost edges, very low in contrast, soft edges usually received in a drawing in some artists referred to it as turning the form. Hard edges can come forward and we can see it in this thing right here. It's similar to a camera that's focused on the subject. If we place a lot of hard edges in the background and it would be similar to a photographer accidentally focusing on the background rather than the subject. The focus is in the wrong spot and confusing the visual clarity. That is, unless it was intentional, like in this photo, you can even create lost edges which are usually found where one shaded form meets another. You can also happen in lit area is kind of like a shiny sword in the bright sun or maybe a lens flare from a camera. The edge disappears into a ball of light and these edges are lost. It's reducing the contrast, which is why they're included in the aerial perspective category. So anything that's reducing that contrast and creating that illusion of depth, like fog, cigarette smoke, rain, snow, steam, all those things. As we were saying, the edges can be hard, firm, soft, or lost. And it's not like scientific measurements of anything. But it's just giving us a basic idea of what the edge looks like, how much contrast is there, and the illusion of depth that it's creating. Now that we know more about edges, Let's take a look at Bard plates, which are academic standard drawings to copy. So many masters reluctantly completed these Bargh plates. Funny enough though, no one describes them as being highly conceptualized drawings that aren't really set in an environment. Charles Bargh admitted a lot of information from the light and the shadow size to simplify it for beginners, if we set these drawings in an environment, the edge would have to gray date and wrap around the form rather than flattening out to one value. Why? Because of reflected light, this face we're setting an environment would have a core shadow and reflected light. And the shadow side of the lessons to be learned from copying these plates is inside the solid bounding line. But if you're wanting to study more realistic lighting, you can check out a cast drawing. The bark plates are great for beginners to see the relationship between shapes and to control their value. But they should understand that they're highly conceptualized. 38. 38 Final Render of the Sphere: All right, so now let's go back to our sphere and look for any edges that we can fix. So you don't want any hard outlines. We want edges and not lines. So just if you have a line, try and soften it or erase it. Down here, where the cast shadow is, I have a line. I'm going to estab that out. Remember our cast shadow is coming straight down from the sphere edge. And it's going to be softer as it goes out towards the outer edge. Then up here, I could probably make this a little lighter. Gambling it is control this better as we do the final rendering process. Alright, so to finish up our sphere, we're going to add one more layer, and this layer is going to be darker. So grab your two millimeter for Pb lead holder. And we'll start by making the core shadow lot darker. We're not going to dig into it by holding it close to the tip and digging into the grain will have a nice texture on the paper. If you're using Sketch paper or drawing paper, will start to see a nice texture come out because the dark graphite is not getting into the pits of the paper. We're not pressing down into it. As the graphite glides across the paper will start to see a nice texture form. Just lay in your core shadow. You can see I've got a little dark spot there. Probably something either on my light pad or underneath this paper that I'm drawing on. But I'm just using the zigzag technique, slowly adding the value where the light is no longer directly hitting the sphere. For this lower area. With the reflected light, you can use your pencil is same pencil or you can grab your HB pencil. Just depends on how much pressure you want to apply. I'm gonna try it with the Forbes lead holder and see how well I do. I'm just trying to squint, see the value and create that gradation down from the core shadow to the reflected light. And then make these edges just slightly darker than that reflected light. We're going to adjust the edges of this sphere during the final stages. And the cast shadow is gonna be a little bit darker as it's closer to that bottom of the sphere. But remember to keep the outer edges soft and a little bit lighter. I'm trying not to turn the paper, but I'm gonna have to because I can't render this edge of the sphere very well because my elbows hitting the desk. Just keep squinting till you get a nice gradation. From the core shadow to the reflected light. Looking a little darker over here. But let me add all the value in and we'll see where it ends up. Okay, I'm gonna use the HB pencil for the top part, grade eight, the mid tones from the core shadow and the terminator towards the highlight area. So adding a little bit of pressure to match that value there. And then grade aiding upwards. Feel free to use the two H lead holder for this area up here. Need a more delicate touch. They're just want to make sure you have that pure white papers still showing. Again, this can be rough or it could be highly rendered. It doesn't matter because we're going to try and practice these techniques, learn the terminology and all that stuff, and check right-to-left. Make sure the values, even from right to left. I'm gonna lighten up this left side just a little bit because it's a little bit darker and it's right next to the edge. So it's creating more contrast than I want. And we definitely wanted to make sure that the reflected light area was darker than this midtone area, which it is. You can make a point with your kneaded eraser like this area that was dark, are going to just dab that really dark area out. Gonna make this occlusion shadow just a little bit darker. Lost it is coming in. Just gonna get rid of little tiny dark spot. Just dab it out there. Alright, so let us just ghost in a ground plane in the background. And for that you can just simply, if you have phi calipers, you can use those and create it 0.618. This is the 0.618. This is 1.618. The phi proportions, you can play around with five proportions if you want. And I've got a worksheet for you that you can print out or download whatever. And there's also a PNG file, so you can mess around in Photoshop and mess with the five proportions. We're just practicing. Just keeping our skills sharp and using the same techniques as master painters. So there's five proportions there. You don't have to touch the sphere with the line. Just goes to the general light and then carry it through the other side. And then we can create some light value. I'm going to use the HB pencil because it's giving me a really light, some light value for the background. And we're also going to bring in the corners of the composition by creating a slight vignette. Subtlety is really key here. You don't want a really dark, harsh vignette choking out the life of the composition. You just want to, real subtle photographers use this to, sometimes they go overboard with the vignette. Great eating from the corner. It really light value. Now that that vignettes finished lay in one more layer of light value in the background. That way, the lightest area on our whole drawing is the top of this sphere here. See I'm not very consistent in some areas, so you can just dab those out if you made the same type of mistakes there. Alright, so for this exercise that's good enough and hopefully you were able to create something similar. Now in the next step we get to apply all these techniques to our snail composition. So I'll see you there. 39. 39 Rendering Simple Value: All right, so now is the moment when we start to see our composition come alive with value. We're gonna slowly lay in the value, then make adjustments from there. The first adjustments I see right off the bat is this area next to the top of the log. I've got the vines curving in a way that creates a shape that is very similar to the leaf. I want to add some variety to these areas here and here. A simple way we can do that is just to add some mine twists in there. That's good enough on that one. Then let's see. I'll make this just come across there. Twist around. Want to break up that shape just a little bit. There we go. All right, that's done. All right. Now another thing I noticed is the leaves that are being overlapped by the log. There all pretty much looking the same. So we can add a little bit more variety to those. Just see where this grid is taking us. This one pointing to the snail head. I'll keep that one and it's got a nice shape to it. This one right here I will change, maybe just shorten it and make it curl a different way. When we render this, it'll look better anyway, but I just wanted to make sure these don't look too similar. And this one is pretty similar to this one. I wanted enough of the leaf so this vine could overlap. Let me just add, let me just make it a little shorter here. And then it will curl it inward and you're drawing might be a little bit different, but try and just make sure there's enough variety in between those leaves. They're actually make this S-shape and then that vine is still going in front of it. All right, That's those changes. Another area that I noticed might need adjustment is this area by the twig. It's got a little bit of high contrast. And I know this is just partially rendered, but I'm starting to see some visual tension in this area of negative space right here between the tall grass and the twig. Whenever you have areas of contrast next to each other, but they're not touching, it creates more contrast in the middle here because of simultaneous contrast. So this area in-between the two areas of contrast is gaining a lot of attention. And we don't really want attention in that area. So I'm just going to reduce the contrast of the end of this twig. We'll probably just adjust all that when we render everything together. But I'm going to also erase part of this long grass so it's not as close to that twig is curl it a little bit better, small adjustment, but it's something I noticed and I wanted to tell you guys about visual attention. Whenever you have those two areas of contrast next to each other, the area in the middle gains a lot of attention when we don't want it too. All right, so now that the composition is pretty much taken care of all the details are in a one way we can check the balance of the composition is use your phone. Take a picture. Then you edit it. Push Edit. Then you can use the crop tool and you flip the picture. You can maybe see some change in the movement. This is what you're looking for. And we know that the contrast isn't set in stone right now. But we can see if there's any change in our composition, the movement of our composition by flipping it. And that's the magnetic momentum we were talking about earlier. But this is a fun way just to check the balance and the movement of your composition. Flip it and see if anything changes the movement of something. And especially when the contrast is in. But you want to figure out this, a movement before you start designing or anything else like that, you want to kind of think about where you're adding contrast and incorporate that into the final design. To start off our rendering process, we're just going to lay in a smooth zigzag value on all the dark areas. Just try and get things established. Start with the big shapes, work down at small shapes as we continue the rendering process. But go ahead and just use that HB workhorse. And we're gonna work on areas like the log, areas that we know that are going to be darker and lay in a smooth value for these dark areas. In this would be super easy, requires 0 skill. For the log, we want the leaves to be lighter to sit on top of the log visually, so we'll make sure the log is darker than the leaves, but the vines will have to make the vines lighter than the log also, because right now they're darker and some areas we want nice figure ground relationship on everything. So she's got to work with the contrast and make sure everything looks good in the end. Work an area with value, then make adjustments as you go. That way, you don't lose track of your design or anything like that. Like these vines, they were darker. I'm gonna make them a little lighter so I can keep track of them as I render this log a little bit. Don't worry about turning the form. Where does laying in some real smooth value, establishing what's dark and once light. Using this small eraser again, just to work out that vine. And we can add a little twist in there when we render it fully. This area down here where the edge of the log is super straight, we can add a little bit of variations there just by erasing some of the edge. Make it look a little zigzag. Then add some value on the outside. Maybe for that moss that we're trying to create. That'll break up that straight edge a little bit. As the vine transitions from the log to the background, you'll see it transition from light to dark. And that'll just be kind of a smooth transition will also probably render it to have a little bit of an edge or a line just to help us create that transition. So it's clearly defined. Inside of this log is gonna be pretty dark. The wall erase out some of the vines so we can see those. Once you get in the swing of things, you'll probably just create a little dance between your tools in your fingers. Going back and forth, switching, the process will go a little quicker for you, but, and at first it may seem a little weird. You get used to it. Maybe the most difficult area will be the vines overlapping the log. Just trying to keep track of everything and converting it from dark to light. But use lines, use edges, use value just to keep control of what you've got going on here and what you spend time on designing. Don't want to mess up the design. Who's Take your time, should be nice and relaxing and easy. Add value around your leaves to define them more. Also, the baby vines that you have in there can be defined more guinea erase, and just add value around it where you can just increase the value of the baby vines just depending on what look you're going for. The marks on your Log really don't matter which way you go. Because we're going to create a texture there with darker value. So you can just scribble it in however you want. Just keep it controlled though. You don't want to dig into your paper just yet and make crazy marks. You can't erase. Make sure you're not smudging your paper by rubbing her hand on here. Use a separate piece of paper if you need to rest your palm on there. Right here in this area, I'm going to, I'm going to lay in some value and then slowly erase that just a little bit so we can see the root on top of the dark log. And I'm making just little hatch marks with the eraser to erase parts of that route there. And you can go in with some value and go around what you erased. And that root will start to sit on top of the log. Maintain that edge of the log to towards that opening underneath. Then you can work on the vines entering the top. Make sure those are seen as they go into the log. Can you use line or edges to define that shape? Then it'll kind of gray date down as it goes more into the log. We're just laying down some smooth values here and trying to establish these shapes better. Do you erase the value, add some lines, some edges. Grade eight. Whatever you need to do to try and create the illusion that these are going inside. The log will develop a more as we go, but trying to establish them first. Making sure all these look good. Coming out of the log and overlapping the log. And then we can add a little bit of value to the leaves. Land just a little bit of value to the leaves that aren't overlapping the log, because then we'll have to probably go in and adjust these ones overlapping the tall grass to make the contrast enough so we can see them. Right there. I'm just adding a little light outline just to maintain that shape. And then we'll render it later. It'll look better. Same with down here in the overlapping leaves. Want to make sure keep that shape separate and the overlap good. This area with the leaf, the root and the log will just keep the log and the leaf darker. And then it will make this route lighter going over them. So it comes forward. A little bit of value to these leaves over the log. Just a little. So they're gonna get some value. They're just not gonna be as dark as the log. Slowly go through all the leaves and add just a little bit of value to all of them. Like right here you can see that the construction lines are still in place. So if you need to make some changes, just go ahead and erase whatever you need. Remember these two flowers, the smaller flowers are gonna be a little darker than this white flower here. So we can make them a little darker with the HB pencil just laying some light value there, the leaves will be darker than that. So you can just make those adjustments as you go. Then this one. Then this flower has to stand off of the background grass. So we just got to make sure we control all this contrast that we're creating, but not right now. We'll just continue with this simple step and work each area with the more complex rendering. Alright, I add a little bit of value to the bottom side of the snail shell. This will be darker, just like our sphere. The bottom side is going to be a little darker. We won't go hardcore with the core shadow and all that stuff, but we want to keep all that stuff in mind when we render the shapes fully, you can go full-blown reflected light and all that stuff. But in the drawing I'm gonna create, I'm just going to keep it simple and make sure the top of shapes is lighter than the bottom of shapes. Then add a suggested core shadow maybe in certain areas. We'll see how it looks. But I don't want it to look like a cast drawing, for instance. I don't want it to look artificial, like a cast drawing with perfect reflected light and perfect core shadow and all that stuff. I want it to look organic, simple, and fit the scene rather than a perfectly lit studio with perfect lighting. Adding in some value on the bottom here. Anywhere there is not direct light hitting. Go ahead and add some value. That's a good way to think of it. You can add value to these rocks down here. Maybe make this side's a little darker. Maybe make the bottom part of the twig a little darker. Remember the edges of the form are usually darker so we can make these edges of the snail little darker. Maybe we'll keep this edge of the snail a little lighter. That way. It kind of creates that illusion that it's flattening out on the edges. Make those spots maybe a little darker. All right, so that's the simple layer of value starting to take shape. And next we'll do each section at a time, and we'll start with this now. 40. 40 Rendering the Snail and Ladybug: Alright, now we're ready to apply our rendering techniques to this snail and the ladybug. So far we haven't worried about any outlines. We still have the outlines of all the blocking process and stuff, but now we're going to start addressing that and create more depth by adding lines, adding edges. And then some of these blocking lines will be erased and just filled with value. So we create some more depth in there and help define some of the shapes. When you're rendering from imagination. Just always try to refer back to that sphere exercise we did. We'll apply that to all of our shapes here. And we'll start slowly like we did the sphere. One layer of graphite at a time slowly build up that value, will establish the main points of interests. First, like the snail, the flowers in the ladybug, and then the log, and then the secondary elements within the composition like the grass, the leaves and then the tall grass, and a twig and rocks and all that. That'll all be secondary. But we want to establish our main points of interests first, get the contrast going in those, and then we can adjust everything according to those main points of interests. Go ahead and use the reference photos if you want to get more details in there for the snail and maybe the texture of the log and things. But let's go ahead and start laying in the darkest values of marsh snail and use the Forbes mechanical pencil for that. If you haven't sharpened your lead holder pencils, go ahead and do that if you'd like. I've already got these three already sharpened. We're ready to go. But we'll start with this snail. And the darkest area on this snail shell. It's going to be right underneath pretty much the occlusion shadow where the snail shell meets the body of the snail. Not a lot of direct light hitting that. We're gonna make it a little darker. We're going to try and imagine that snail shell, the volume of that snail shell. Dropping light maybe from this outer edge here. And trying to imagine where it would come straight down, maybe right about there. And we'll have it nice and soft there. Then it gets darker as it goes into the shell. In some cases, we'll use line to define some of the shapes, but we don't want to use line where this shell opening is. We want to keep that kind of like a firm edge away, but I'll draw a lot of attention to it. We don't really need a focal point right where the shell opening is. We want the focus by the tentacles and then at the top of the shell. So I'll add a little bit of value with the same pencil. Try and imagine that core shadow going around. Remember, the snail shell is somewhat like a coiled up slinky, going like this. And then it wraps around itself kind of thing. You want to try and imagine that coil to get that curvature and create a core shadow on this curve here, this contour down. We don't want the snail shell to look to reflective either, so we don't need to render a lot of reflected light. It's not gonna be a lot of light reflecting off this dark log anyway. You start rendering too much reflected light. It's going to look like a metallic surface, are like Silver Surfer. It's going to look pretty fake. So just go with the subtlety. Try and imagine where the light is not hitting directly. You can use your kneaded eraser. Take some of it out, soften it. Use the same pencil, just adjust my pressure and fill in some of this reflected light. And then you can begin to use the tip of the pencil just lightly to define some of these creases in the shell. So when you start to use that zigzag mark making to render value, just make sure you're using. You should have a flat side of your pencil and then a really sharp point if you've been using the zigzag. So just make sure you're using the flat part as you render this value. And then for these finer details, you can twist the pencil and then utilize that sharp point for these creases here. The trick to these lines that I'm making is to not, we don't want a straight line like this. We want to have implied lines, so we're just kind of Coming down with our pencil and raising up. And you can use your arm. If it's a small detail in a certain area, you're going to have to use your wrist just to flick it up and try and come down on the paper like this, like that arc we saw when we were learning about our mark-making. You come down and create like an ellipse. So you strike the paper and then come back up, strike the paper, come back up. Instead of starting like this on the paper and trying to make a mark, you'll get a different mark when you do this and come down. Instead of when you start. If you want to try and create these thick to thin lines and have it an implied line rather than a solid line. Just making quick suggested marks for this texture of the snail shell. That crease here. I'm just quickly creating marks like this. Contour lines, not crosshatching or anything. And then I'll go back in and zigzag some value. And we'll start to see that texture of the snail shell come alive. And when we wrap around, say this is our snail shell, that one side. When we wrap around this, we want to still have it broken. We don't want to solid line like this. What I had to kind of broken and try and not meet the edge with a straight line like this. You want to try and curl it in and just have a quick dash to show some texture. Then we'll slowly build it up and render the value out. And then this side will be a little bit lighter, but we'll start with the value here and then it'll get lighter in grade eight to a lighter spot. So that's what we're going for here. What is slowly do it. Remember, this is your darkest lead. When you get above this core shadow and you're using that darkest pencil, you playing with fire. Because if you get your pressure wrong, you're going to create a dark mark like this and it might stand out. Just want to use your pencils appropriately the whole time you're rendering. Don't commit to any hard deep lines until the final rendering process. We'll lay in all the value and then we'll go through and we can make accents with lines and things like that, and adjust any dark marks, defined shapes. We'll save all that for the very final stage as we run through everything. And then make sure you're not smudging your hand on the paper. Slowly ln and value trying to develop these shapes. As you work this crease of the shell, you slowly developed that texture in there. Don't get too high up on that shell with this pencil, you'll start creating marks you don't want in there that are too dark. Make sure the reflected light, indeed that you've tried to render is going to be darker than the mid tones up here. Since we have this pencil handy, we'll make some marks here under the snail, and this will be adjusted when we render the log T2 will add texture over the snail body, but for now, just roughing in some darker value underneath the snail and it's broken up. I'm trying to avoid solid lines like this. Try and break it up like this. You're going to apply the shadow. We're going to add texture over it. It looks more realistic, but we're always trying to imply the line rather than having a solid line, like we see an illustration or whatever. All right, Now I'm gonna grab the HB mechanical pencil. Work in some of the textures of the snail shell. Just kind of trying to create that arc. Start with the crease first and just create some contour dashed marks going around the shell. Get that texture late in. On the bottom of this snail shell, the lines will curve this way. And on the top it'll curve this way. As they work towards each other, they'll start flattening out and you might get a area that looks almost flat with texture. Now I'm gonna try and define some of this nail body with the HB mechanical pencil. This may be a scratch in some of the edge of the body creates some value on the edge there, like a nice firm edge. Definitely don't want a straight line for the body. It's going to be a combination of hard edges line and lost edges probably right now on the edge of the neck. And just kind of using that same quick stroke, thick to thin, to create an implied line that allows us to define the shape. And you can work your way inward and create an edge. Just keep using that same stroke. Create the hard edged line, and then work your way in and you create a harder edge, if you will save some of these smaller details for the 0.3 millimeter of mechanical pencil, you can fill in some of these spots if you like. Remember, we're keeping this edge of the belly of this now we're going to keep that light because the shape of the snail body kind of flattens out towards the ends there. So that'll help us develop a little lip for its belly. Then the neck is not hitting direct light because it's got a surface that's straight down. It's gonna be a little bit darker than what we might see on top of its head. Just like the sphere would be looking at this side of the sphere, almost like the side of the neck. And it's a little bit darker on the side of the sphere compared to the top of the sphere. That's kind of what we're applying here where I can make this neck a little darker and the top of the head will be a little lighter. Let's use the two H mechanical pencil will fill in some of this value at the top of the snail shell because our hardest lead, so it'll be making the lightest Mark, kind of just smooths out any areas that we missed with our HB pencils run over these crevices. In grade eight, the crevice up to the top of each snail ridge on the shell. For this transition from the core shadow to the mid tones, that area, it's going to be a little bit tough to use the two H. So I'm switching back to the HB. So I can just create that transition a little better. If you follow the curve of the snail shell, that's better than doing it. Another way where we can use those marks to defined and described the shape. Got a little bit too much value, I think, right in this area to make sure you squint and you can see if you're making the value a little bit too strong in one area, you want it to be a nice gradation. Maybe write on this snail, the snail shell here on the right side, it looks just a little dark. I'll lighten that up just a bit. More of a hard edge rather than a solid layer of value there. Then work on the gradation there. I'm going to grab the in pencil just to establish any core shadow that I erased. All right, now, grab your 0.3 millimeter B pencil, mechanical pencil. And we'll start hatching in some of these edges and work on the tentacles, make those more defined. And we'll just keep everything kind of implied. We don't want a solid line all the way around the shape, maybe just one edge. Define another edge. Quick with it. Use your small eraser if you need to. Define that shape a little better. This one's going to scratch into your paper a lot easier because it's such a small LED can get into the textures of the paper easier. So be careful with that. I'm just lightly touching it in some areas and then apply more pressure and others. Don't want a solid line when I create edges and lines and just straight value, mixed it up a bit right where the overlap is of the snail shell and the snail body. We're going to create a little harder edge in that area on the shell because we want it to be defined. So we'll create this nice harder edge in that area where the snail shell and the snail body meet, right in this area. I'm just going to use the same pencil and define this area a little better. It helps show that overlap better. It's real simple like that. You can go in and maybe add some lines up here to try and define the shape better. Marriages. If you're going to draw a line, just add part of a line instead of a solid line. I want the top of this snail shell to be kind of firms. So creating a line, then an edge just to make sure it's clearly defined. Then come up these crevices, press down harder and increase the texture of these marks. Creating this edge here with some texture, be sure to try and follow the contour of the shell. Create that illusion. This area, the crevices. Sometimes I'll just go back and forth to create a little bit of value. Then you can go like this out for the texture real quick and not precise, rough. And you create that kind of texture that we're looking for. Once it's all rendered out. That crevice, we're gonna make this log go behind the snail body. If it's coinciding with the bottom of the snail belly, go ahead and make sure that log goes behind the snail belly just a little bit. Then we can use that same technique to create firmer edge to show that overlap properly. I'm making this area of the log go behind the snail body and probably just create some hairy texture for the mossy log. That's starting to look good. We'll definitely go back and see if we need another layer of graphite on there. But let's work on this ladybug real quick. What we're just using the 0.3 millimeter be lead because it's such a small shape, we'll just define some areas and won't be good. Using. And starting with the bottom of the ladybug, maybe create a little cast shadow there. As mentioned before, you can add little marks for the legs perhaps. Then we'll use the same technique as the top of the snail shell. Just kind of a dashed line. Some value, some lines, some edge, and make it look a little bit varied. And then we can go in and render the dark areas like the spots that we have in the head and actually has white spots. Then make the sides of the ladybug a little darker. And then the top will be the lightest. Switch to your two H mechanical pencil for the top and just try and grade eight up from the terminator. You can add two H value to the entire ladybug. Just apply a little more pressure where that core shadow is and where it great apes up to the top. You should be fine. All right, that's good for this one. We'll add texture and value to the log next. And that'll start to really make the composition pop out. 41. 41 Rendering the Log: All right, So now we're ready to render the log and we'll increase that illusion that it's hollow and it's got grassy moss all over it. So there are a few reference photos you can use, but this will be pretty easy. And we'll use a variety of different pencils. But we'll start with the Forbes mechanical pencil and just start laying in some darker value will also increase this core shadow, kind of like the sphere, but a little bit different because this surface is darker and it's not as reflective. Let's just start slowly laying in our value. And if you're a heavy handed, you could probably just hold for their back on your pencil, but we can use hatch marks to create some nice texture on there, scrambled marks, anything to make some different textures. And we're still not pressing down as hard as we can. And we'll save that pressure for any areas within that log or the moss that is not being hit by direct light. And that'll increase the depth. Just start hatching in some value here. We'll have the hairy moss grow downward. So keep that in mind. Instead of rendering hatch marks that are going across the log like this, we want it to go down the log and just be mindful of those vines you have in there can usually just start creating the zigzag value by the vine and just work your way out from it. And then create your hatch marks and things. The areas where you have the stem going, you can kind of create another side value. Just use the zigzag mark and then continue outward onto the log. I'll show you what that looks like. So say this is our stem, this is our leaf. In our stem. This is our stem that's connecting to the vine. All right, so I'm rendering up to this point, zigzag, creating some value up to that line. You can complete it by adding value to the other side. Then you have a nice stem. They're getting render the log hatch marks and things, but That's how we'll create that stem. Not lost. You can do that with the baby vines as well. Increase the value of that edge by the vines if you want. Just a little bit, as long as it's not darker than the actual log, you don't want it to stand out. If you're making a mark against the vine, just make sure it's the same value as the rest of the log. And then the edges of the log will keep it a little bit softer and less value to try and increase that depth as it wraps around, it loses contrast. Soon as laying in some zigzag value. Now we'll go back over and hatching some texture, just being real delicate in these areas where the leaves are in the vines are filling in the value. And then I can go back over with some texture with kind of just an area where you need to take your time and focus on what you're doing. Lambda value, nice and smooth. And then we can go over it with some nice hatch marks and different textures. But get that base value in their first outline. All the shapes you need. Always keep simultaneous contrast in mind. Starting to apply, adjust a little bit more pressure in these areas that are already covered with value. Keep this edge of the top may opening. I'll keep that lighter. And then we can add a little bit of value to it once we get the darkness of the log set and then the inside of the log, we need to add more value to that area. We can put this part's kind of intricate where all the vines are going in and supposed to get darker as it enters, will render the vine separately, but the inside of this log means to be darker. There's one dark mark here that's on the lip of the opening that I don't want it too dark, getting some light, so it shouldn't be as dark as the inside of this log. I'm going to work on this other opening here. Define that and then I'll figure out the rest of the value and the texture of the log. I'm just running a line down the edge of that. And then I'm making it an edge and grading it outward. We got to remember this is an area where grass is going to be growing inside of the log. So we need to render that curvature inside this little log here, create the illusion that it's rounded inside. All these routes entering the bottom of the log, they're going to be lost edges, all the shadows will meet shadows and it'll just be lost as it enters the bottom. Some moths will probably go over this opening so we can keep it a little rougher. Areas. Doesn't have to be like a straight, jagged, hard line. Right here. I'm using line and value to try and define the roots going in the bottom. Did those twists and turns make sure they're curved rather than straight. And make sure the value of fades off into darkness as it enters. That opening is lighter near the edge. What we're grading it away. So it's not as obvious. It's not like an obvious light area for some of these leaves. So you can add just a little bit more value underneath. Create the illusion that more light is being blocked. And it sets them more above the log rather than kind of right on top of it. Make sure you grade aided out. If you're creating more value next to the edge of the leaf, just graded it downward. So that shadow just kind of fades into the rest of the log will define these leaves as we render those two will use line and value to try and define the shape a little better. Let's just get this log value in there. This area with the roots. We're getting to make sure that we can define these roots that are going out of the log over this route that's crawling up the log and then show that overlap properly. Just make it a little bit darker. And then I'll render out the log and blend it in. And then this route that's crawling up the log will be a little bit darker to show that it's behind this root that's going in front of it. Keeping this edge of the log a little bit lighter than the inner parts of the log. The belly of the snail. You can just go ahead and add some values, some squiggly Harry Marks over it to show that it's being overlapped by the hairy moss. This area right here where the log opening at the bottom meets the side. The side is going to be darker. Then grade eight to lighter. Because it's being introduced to more light. I just want to make it darker up here. And then it kind of just great aids downward. Then it'll be a little bit darker than this vine here, because the vines in front of it create that illusion of depth. By controlling these values, going a little bit more pressure in this inside here. So it's going to be a really dark area. Since it's surrounded by other darks, it won't really stand out as much as any really dark areas up here on the snail. If it does start standing out more than we need to control it and maybe take out some value. But we'll see all that in the end when we evaluate all the values we put in there. Now I'm adding a little bit more pressure. I've got the base of the value in there. And just adding more pressure on the log. Creating zigzag marks, hatch marks, anything to create that texture. We need. Any areas up here where the log opening is and the vine is perhaps going over the log opening, you can create a cast shadow underneath the line if you want to do it now or when we render the vines, but it'll get some shadow because it's being covered in the light can't hit that area. Let us develop the core shadow real quick. Imagine that curving of the log reading around here is going to be the terminator. And then the core shadow will be right underneath that. So we'll just make that area a little bit darker, slowly, build up the value. Be mindful of these leaves and the stems. And it's gonna be like a hairy core shadow. It's not gonna be a solid core shadow because of the surface. Just adding a little bit more pressure in certain areas and trying to grade eight it underneath and then above. So there'll be a little bit lighter on the bottom, lighter than the core shadow at the bottom will be darker than the top. If you need to use squint, you can start to see the value better. Maybe. Grab your eraser and we'll add some more texture by erasing some value, especially on the top here. And we'll just use that quick hatch mark with the eraser. And we'll start to erase some thick to thin lines and it'll look really nice. So start at the top and go downwards to create that downward movement of the texture. And then sometimes it'll get a little bit too much graphite on there. See how to wipe it off this kind of hatchet in there. Try and remember that the curvature of the log and gradate it towards that core shadow. Then we can do it over the snail body and just erase parts of that bottom edge of the snail Just to further increase that depth. Especially when I do this in areas that look to solid like too much value. And it's just like one solid value rather than a texture and varied. These areas under the log, we're creating that texture, but they're a little bit too light. So we can go back over maybe with the HB and just add more graphite over those so they're a little darker than the ones on the top here. All right, now, wherever you raised, things, go back in with your Forbes mechanical pencil and create a shadow next to it. And we'll really see that texture start to pop. Don't add a lot of pressure at first, just kind of get a feel for it. And then you can go heavy with the pressure, creates some hash marks by it, and it's creating that depth within those little erased marks we just created. Let's adding highlights and shadows. It looks pretty cool. Remember, don't, don't go in with value like this again because we just erased it. This is your erased mark. Go in and just add value next to it. Some hash marks. This is your erase mark. Let's go ahead and add some value next to it. Mostly on the bottom because the light is coming down. The shadow is going to be near the bottom since we're on a slant here. The shadow just going to be underneath instead of on top. Then the ones over the snail body, we can just add a little bit more value to maybe show like a blade of moss. This fine is coming out, so I just want to make sure it's reading properly. Can do this eraser on the edge to just to add to that depth, soften it up a bit. Firming up this edge here, grading it down. You're going to add eraser marks over the opening. Like we said, it could possibly just be going over this opening a little bit, growing over it. And it's adding value back in there. All right, the log starting to take shape will develop the rest of the things and then we can come back to it, see how it's starting to look. But next up we'll do the flowers. 42. 42 Rendering the Flowers: Now we're ready to run our flowers. And those are gonna be pretty simple too, because there's not very many details. And we're going to use line and edge value to create the shape because since they are lighter in there on a light background, we want to have nice figure-ground relationships still. So we'll just develop the shape so we can get that clear definition. Let's start with the Forbes mechanical pencil and we'll just fill in the center with a little bit of value. And go ahead and use your scrap piece of paper for your poem just so you're not rubbing the graphite and everywhere and just slowly in some value. And we're not applying a lot of pressure here, we're just laying in the value and then we can gradate it from the center out like this, creating some value there. And then we're slowly just great aiding an outward. So it's not just like a big black hole there. Work your way around the petals if you like, just by creating a little bit more value where the pedal is. Use your kneaded eraser if you need to erase any of that value, like this area here, I just wanted to dab out just a little bit so the gradation is better. We can do this with all three flowers. Go ahead and create the center and some value and then graded it outward. This just helping us add more contrast. Direct more attention to these heavier hand and try and use your HB mechanical pencil. Maybe. The center has done there for the petals of the large flower and the smaller ones. We're going to imagine that the petal is shaped somewhat like this. If we're viewing it from the side. It's got two arches on the top. And then that center is the vein. It's coming down. So we'll create value, a little bit of value on the sides, like we were saying, keep the edges a little bit darker than the top area. That'll add that sense of depth. We'll make this a little darker here, and then this a little darker here. Then when it's viewed from the top, will have that value here and here in the center. And then around the edges. Then this area right here and here will be lighter. It'll come forward more and create a little bit of depth in the pedal. Even though they're somewhat flat, they should have a little bit of variation in the value. Let's use our two H mechanical pencil to start with, and we can switch back and forth. I'll start with the large 1 first. And we can define the edge of these petals by quickly hatching in some lines. And then we want to add a little bit of value around the edges. Then, by the vein, we can take care of these edges of the petals with our 0.3 millimeter mechanical pencil. And that'll allow us to get a finer line. If you need some in the center of the flower to try and just grade eight outward a little bit. You can do that. And we'll take care of these leaves in a different step. In this area, I can probably erase some of that value. It's getting a little dark. Just some more of that construction line probably leftover. Alright, let's use the 0.3 millimeter or mechanical pencil. That's our finest point. We'll just quickly remember we were just quickly hatching in some lines. We want to kind of broken edge around the shape. Not a solid line like this. I'm gonna kinda just break it up. A hatchet in, use gestural marks. We want to try and define this shape. Since it's on a white background and our flowers light, we need to at least get some definition so it's clearly separated. Especially try and have a little bit of hatching by maybe this area where the leaf is behind the petal. Way, we get that clear overlap. You can maybe add a little bit of shadow by the edges of each petal is to increase the depth if it looks like they're already starting to overlap, I've got a couple of petals that looked like they might overlap a little bit. So you can use your B pencil or if you can't control that value, since it's a little bit darker lead, you can use your two H and just add just a little bit of value in there. I'm just making these edges just a little bit darker. Add just a touch more depth, define that edge a little bit better. All right, That one's good for now. We'll see how everything looks when it's all fully rendered and see if we're controlling the contrast correctly. Now let's work on the smaller ones and you can use the HB mechanical pencil. Since these are a little bit darker there, like a light blue. Maybe if you're going to paint this, trying to find the edges with quick hatch marks that a little bit more value to the edges and have the value gradate towards that vein. You'd probably go back in with the 0.3 millimeter mechanical pencil to define some of these edges. Still going to use the 0.3 millimeter mechanical pencil and just define some of these edges a little better, especially where it's overlapping. That one looks good. I can move on to the next one down here. Same thing. Trying to find the edge, add some value, smooth out some of that value, gradate it wherever you need to. Then use the 0.3 millimeter to define some of the edges, especially where it's overlapping that leaf or just needs more definition, usually where shapes start to meet each other. You can use this line and help define it a little better. Just don't want a solid line still. Alright, these flowers are looking good so far. Now we'll work on the twig and the rocks. 43. 43 Rendering the Twig and Rocks: All right, so now we're on the twig and the rocks. And we're going to just render those real quick. I'm gonna be super simple. Use your HB mechanical pencil will lay in some value. Just going to create a little rough texture here, have the bottom of this twig a little bit darker. If we take maybe the halfway point of that twig, it's gonna be the terminator. And then it's going to grade eight underneath. And we might have an occlusion shadow. We just got to render the grass going over it a little bit, but for now we're just taken care of some value. You can add a little bit of jagged marks on the edge here to make it look like those broken off. Remember, we're trying not to get it too close to this tall grass just in case still need to render all that stuff. Then it'll get softer as it fades back. And we can add just a few quick dashes on top, add some texture squiggles, hatches, and then it'll get software as it fades back. Right now it looks like it's high contrast, but let's get the grass in there in a later step and we'll see how it looks. These rocks you can create the same kind of squiggle marks anywhere there's overlap. You can just try and add some shadow between the overlap and graded it out. Kinda like, let's see. If we have two rocks overlapping. You can go, you can add some shadow where the overlap is and kind of graded it outwards. If you want to try it that way. You can also. If you have a rock shape that's kind of like a box. Instead of having the sides all one value. You can actually find that corner and make it a little darker. Then he graded it out. Like this. You can have three values, 123. And it creates that 3D illusion. These are such small shapes, it won't really matter, but this is maybe four if you're creating a bigger drawing or for the future. I'm just roughing it in squiggly. Going to end with this 0.3 millimeter pencil. Maybe make the top of the rock a little bit firmer, gradate it, lose some edges. Rough texture on top just to show maybe that it's a rough surface. Also to emphasize that triangular enclosure that we had started. We can put maybe a fallen leaf on this left side. And it'll emphasize that triangular enclosure, since we do have some negative space here, we can fill up. Let me just use the HB mechanical pencil. Turn on the grid, maybe we can use that parallel something. But I'll create a fallen leaf that's going to coincide with our edge right here. And the line we drew from here to here, coincidence. I'm just going to draw that in real quick. And then I'll create just some simple leaf that's fallen on the ground. I don't want it too close to those rocks. It's going to have that same heart shape on one end. Erase this construction line. Some value on the sides. And the top will be the lightest value. Will render this better when we create the grass. That fills in a little bit of the and negative space and emphasizes our triangular enclosure. So now that we've finished up the twig and the rocks, and we emphasize that triangular enclosure. We're ready to start rendering all the leaves. 44. 44 Rendering the Leaves: All right, So the composition starting to come together. Now let's render the leaves and the leaves on the top of the log. We're going to approach those first because they're all the same value and they're sitting on the same plane. But what we want to do is just pay attention to simultaneous contrast. And we want to shift the plane that they're sitting on. For the darker we make these leaves on top of the log, the closer they'll get to the log. So we can change that plane just by adding value. So start with the HB mechanical pencil and we'll go from there. Just to find the shape first by using the pencil, create the outline. You'll increase the value around the leaf and that'll help define the leaf. And be sure to try and pay attention to the stems in any vines you see. Go ahead and outline some of the overlapping ones to make those clearly defined. Just want to make sure your lines are broken up and not solid. If you're creating a line here, just graded it out and we'll get that kind of like a cast shadow underneath the leaf. And as we do these, feel free to improve the curvature of any of the leaves because we're really taken a finer point and we're gonna start defining them a little better. This one with the leaf under the other leaf will make the one under the leaf a little darker. Create that overlap. Nice. Just don't want to, if you're rendering the leaf, say this is your leaf. You don't want to have the same thickness of line all the way around your shape. If you're looking at the log and you have a line like this around your leaf. Try and add some variation. A little bit more value here, a little bit more here. That's going to break up that outline. Look a little nicer for the texture of the log. That's what I'm paying attention to here as I tried to find these leaf shapes. Same with the vines, the baby vines, the stems, Everything. You've got that overlap onto the lip of the log opening, create your line and then graded it out to make an edge. That way you get that clear overlap. Now that these leaves are clearly define the ones that are sitting on top of the log. Let's add some more value. We can use the HB lead holder and just use the zigzag mark to push some further back and push them closer to that log. Like these ones under that appear a little bit lower. Maybe they can sit further under the log, push them back a little. Got this large one large enough so I can just kind of make it darker where it's overlapping and then graded it to lighter. So it's kind of maybe bending upward a little bit. All of the leaves will try and create that illusion of depth. If we have the leaf here, this is our leaf, just like the petals of the flower, will make the edges a little darker, value near that vein, a little bit darker. And that way we get this area that's coming closer to our eyes because it's lighter. And that'll help increase that, that we can use the two H pencil to help with any lighter values. But right now I'm using the HB lead holder. Just lay in some simple value. This one is curving upwards, so maybe I can keep this pointed area little lighter. It's creating a wave effect. Break up this line around the leaf a little more. Grab your mechanical pencil, will create a little bit of value on top of these leaves. They're still gonna be dark, darker than this white paper. So we need some value there. You can see I'm not really taking particular time with this. It's just a quick laying of the value. It's not really many details to worry about. And on some of these leaves where the vein is you can create, say this is your vein. You can create some contour lines, just like we did the snail shell. It's kind of create contour lines a little bit if you want. Just to suggest that there's more texture there, you can use the two H pencil for that. Just so it's nice and light. It doesn't have to be anything too dark. Just adding some texture. I use the RB mechanical pencil and try and define the shape a little more where it needs to be. We want it to sit on top of the log because we want it to be separate from the law. We don't want the edges so soft that they're just kind of blending in with the texture of the log. We need to kind of separate the two. And a quick line or edge with the 0.3 millimeter mechanical pencil will help us with that, especially where we've got overlap. Anywhere where you see an obvious outline around the leaf. Go ahead and address that and do what I showed you. Just mix up the value around it so it's more camouflaged. It's not so obvious. Go ahead and squint too. You can see if you can identify any areas that aren't standing out enough, aren't being defined enough or too obvious with an outline around it, you can break it up a little, create a better texture. All right, so the leaves on the logger looking good. And now we can just apply those same techniques to the other leaves around the log. This one I'm just making a little darker. I'm making an edge and then having a grade eight away. Then it'll be a little darker under this overlapping one. Using the HB mechanical pencil for this. Some of these leaves will also be different values if you push them closer or further away. In this case, since the background is lighter than that log, the lighter we make these leaves, the further back they'll go and the darker ones will come forward. Spend me, I'll keep this one by the snail shell. Little lighter. The way we don't get visual tension between the snail shell and maybe a dark leaf there. So I can just lighten this one up even more and have the leaf as a value rather than any lines or edges, like it's losing its detail. The further it goes back. The ones on top of the tall grass, you'll probably want to keep it dark. Same with anything that's on the grass. You'll probably want to keep it dark way. It's got enough contrast. We have nice figure ground relationship. These ones behind the log, I'll just keep those light. A little bit of value there and that's good enough. And then we can increase the value from the log just to show a clear separation there. This area right here is going to be on top of the grass. The grass will have a little darker value there. So we'll have to make sure these leaves are clearly defined. We'll go back over these with the 0.3 millimeter, be mechanical pencil, just to help identify. If you find those edges a little better, that's more value to this one on the ground using the two H pencil just to add value. Just like all the leaves will have value in some areas lighter than the others, but should all be darker than this white background. That's what we're going for. I'm going to have the widest white right around the snail here so we can create the GAAC. The greatest area of contrast. I'm still using the HB mechanical pencil. When I worked quick like this, I'm changing from line two edge to value to hatch marks. It's just a real quick process when you know the look, you're going for one on the ground again and create more cast shadow on the bottom of it. Maybe some of it will be erased when we render the grasp. Remember it's gonna be lighter than these ones that are more towards us. Got to control that. One by though a snail head. Again, just keep that a light 12 way. We're not creating that visual attention. Let's add some light value in there. There's some leaves that are all the same value here. So I can just lighten up one of these to create that depth. Let's add some simple value there. One on top of the vine. We will have to clearly define. Here's a leaf that didn't get a stem. Stem to that. Make this one a little bit. Let me make it a little lighter. Push it back. Push this one back. One is overlapping the vine, so will clearly define that one. All right, now that all the leaves pretty much have some value added to them, Let's go back and refine them. And we'll start by just laying in value with a to H pencil and making sure each leaf has just some value to it. There's no white left on the leaf there. We still have to render the leaves, buy the flowers, and then also look at other things like creating depth. In some cases I'm just lightly going over it just to make sure the white of the paper is covered. Some areas up here that have some construction lines left. I'm just going to touch that up. Now let's look for leaves that we can create more depth width by adding value to them. Then we'll get to these leaves of the flowers. Will this add more value by looking? Since all of these are the similar value, we can pick a couple. This one was faded, so this one just a little darker. This one on top of the vines will bring that forward more, just adding a little bit more value. And remembering to keep the edges a little darker, the vein a little darker. This one, we don't want too much contrast at the top. Just keep it like that. Might draw a little attention towards the top if we get it too dark. This area, we can make this one a little darker. We'll go back in and add some nice lines to help define these. This large one I have by the edge, we're going to have it a little darker than the background grass. So we'll have to just see how the grass comes in when we render it. I don't want it too dark because it's getting close to that edge. These leaves that appear to be underneath or lower on the log, we can make those a little darker that way they don't pop out as much. Kind of adds more depth, like it's curving under. This one can go a little darker. Coming out a little bit too far. Then make this darker here. Make some of these by the tall grass a little darker. This leaf over the vine here. Going to define that more. Make it come forward a little bit more. Help the visual clarity in this area That's kind of busy. All right, Let's go through these flower leaves real quick. Kind of the same concept. They're gonna be sitting underneath the flower so we can add a little more value. And as it gets closer to the center of the flower, we can make it a little darker. Have a great eight out to the leaf. Don't forget, you can add a little bit of texture in areas that could use that curvature or just some more interest. This leaf will increase the value that's closest to the center here and kind of sitting underneath the petals. And I'm using the HB mechanical pencil is still define the shape. Create that vein. Add some value. I use your 0.3 millimeter, be lead mechanical pencil, and go back to these darker leaves that you created and define the edges, make sure that overlap looks good. Make some of them more defined so they stand out a little bit further and we get more depth added. If some have line edges and soft edges will start to get a little bit more depth between the leaf shapes. Remember you don't want to solid line, just keep it kind of hatched in there and dashed over here on the edge of the composition. We can keep these leaves just a little bit softer. We don't need sharp focal points over there. And use your line if you need to clearly define an area that's kind of busy. All right, so that's the leaves so far they're looking pretty good, but we'll go back through them one more time once everything's rendered and see how they look. But next time we'll do the roots and the vines. 45. 45 Rendering the Roots and Vines: All right, We're really close to finishing the rendering process now we can start working on the vines. For the vines, we can just add some simple darker value on the bottom half of the vine and get away with it. But I can show you this simple trick, keeping the top lit sphere in mind. Say this is our vine. We can, if you want, you can create a little core shadow. But just remember that the lighting is coming from above. On these vines that are going straight down. You won't really notice that core shadow. It'll just be like this. We'll just create that darker edge and then gradate it towards the center. Same with both sides. We can do that. And if it's a more of a horizontal vine, we can create that like a darker core shadow if you want a little bit of reflected light, if you want, depending on what the surface is. And also if we have vines that are kind of going like this, we can keep this tablet sphere in mind and we can create the core shadow. Reflected light if you want. The top of this area is going to be lighter. It's going to grade eight up from that core shadow. Same with down here. It's going to act the same way. You can create a core shadow. Have a great aid up to the top where it's lighter. But these side ones keep us so the sides are a little bit darker. If it's coming from the top here, it'll grade a little bit darker, kind of like the top of the sphere. If you have the top of the sphere, the light's getting darker and darker as it goes around. So we'll just keep treating this vine like it's our tablet sphere. And then the shadow will go out from the sides and come back in. This is mainly if you have enough room to render this much, but a lot of these vines are really small and you won't have enough room to add this kind of lighting detail. But this is just to keep in mind that we can render these vines the same exact way we did the topless fear just to keep those techniques in mind. Then say, if we want it to be more 3D and be on a different plane, right now it's all on the same plane. But if we're on a light background like this, we wanted to push this area back further and maybe bring this area forward. We can make this area a little darker. And then to fade this one to create aerial perspective and more depth, we can make this one lighter. It's going back into space. And then you just have to grade eight. It gets it goes from light to dark again. If you want it to come forward again, come towards our eyes. You can play these different games with the same exact technique as the tablet sphere. We can do this. You want with the vines in our final composition, but this is just to show you what we can do if you're wanting to render that much and if you have large enough space to render that type of detail in the lighting board is starting with the HB mechanical pencil. Let's just lay in some basic value for the vines. Anything that's twisting together will make the one on top of it darker than the one behind it away. It'll help with that depth. Like right here is fine as definitely on top. If it's going under this leaf here, we'll keep the vinyl little bit lighter. So it creates that illusion that it's going under and then we can make it darker on top again. But we basically want to increase the value of these ones. Most of the ones that are not on top of this log. These will increase the value as well, but we'll still need them a little bit lighter than what we'll see here because of simultaneous contrast. So just go ahead and fill in some value defined some of the edges and anything that's twisting together. These areas, you can increase the value of any of the baby vines if you'd like. Go ahead and use that hatching technique where you define the edge with just a couple of hatching marks instead of solid line. Will go back in with the 0.3 millimeter, be led. And we can define some of these areas that are more important. This area there is a twisting vine here, but it's not clearly defined. So you can use your small eraser and separate those a little bit. The one on top a little darker, maybe have a nice edge there to help define that shape, especially when it's overlapping that log opening. Again, keep that line on the edge there to try and help with that overlap and erase any value you need to create the line. Then you can gradate it as it enters the log. This vine right here is pretty elaborate. So what does anything that's kind of turning away from the top here? I'll make it a little bit darker. This vine going into this kind of busy area, we'll make that a little lighter as it enters the top of the log. And then we can create an outline, just a little outline to help define that overlap. Maybe a cast shadow onto the top of the lip there. This one looks like it's twisting so I can just refine that just a little bit more with some outline. Then just try and create some more visual clarity with these vines going into the log opening. Use line if you need edges, value anything overlapping, trying to define it with one edge maybe, and you can create a cast shadow if you need this fine right here. You can see it, but it was leading to this fine coinciding to it. Now I'm readjusting that and just filling in this. So it's not so it doesn't look like one single vine. One of them to be separate. I'm redirecting this fine. This one. Remember we created some extra twist to it. So just try and make that more elaborate on this twist here. I'm trying to just define it, then go back in and make that edge lost. It kind of wraps underneath. Let's start working on the ones that are on top of the log and coming out of the log will have to render these values just a little bit differently. Make sure they show up on the dark log. And this one looks like there's a twist, but it's kind of ending weird. So I'll fix that. Have it, maybe wrap more time over here. Still using that HB mechanical pencil. We could probably go in and create some kind of cast shadows underneath the vines depending on. Where they are. We'll define these little more with our 0.3 millimeter pencil as well. Where this vine goes from the dark of the log to the light of the background. Probably just define that edge a little bit just to help with that overlap. Transition in grade eight, it from a lighter vine as it's on top of the log, to a darker vine as it's on top of that. A light background. This fine coming from the top of here, runs down and then it over across that opening. And then up this other side here. We'll just make sure we have it go underneath this leaf. But that it's clearly defined but it's not obvious like a solid line. We want it to be seen across this opening here, across the log, and then up around the other side. But we don't want it to look just like a big string leading our eyes. Want to lose some edges, make it broken. Right here, it's losing edges. The shadow of the vine is meaning the logs got to just fading into low contrast. This route is going over the other route, so I'll just make sure that's darker because it's on the top, it's going to come forward more. And we want these to be connected. So we'll just define it with edge or a line. And then this one underneath by the log and fade that underneath the lower contrast. And make sure this one going up the log is defined so it's not being lost. If it's some nice edges there, maybe a cast shadow, occlusion shadow and where it's overlapping that leaf, go ahead and make a nice overlap there. But if it looks too obvious, then we can break it up and just add value. Create these roots going into the log, the bottom, and make them try and twist around each other. In this area with the roots. We've got one going in another one. Then maybe one's going underneath. You want to show them wrapping around each other. Same thing. You can create that occlusion shadow, a cast shadow where they're touching. And then this one's on top so you can clearly define it with some hatch lines. And then where it's overlapping here. This one's going to be casting a shadow, having an inclusion shadow. Great aided out. Work it that way. And then you'll apply those techniques like the sphere to grade eight from one edge to the next. And you'll start showing that they're twisting together. Then they fade into the log and they're gonna go up inside the log. Now let's use our 0.3 millimeter. Be led. And define some of these real quick. Especially the ones overlapping each other, twisting together. This area where it's overlapping, just hatch in some line there. Squiggle some texture in here. If you'd like some vine texture, it'll get a lot softer as it enters this lost edges here. You don't want any sharp lines in that area. Define these ones on top of the log. Because there's surely, probably still a little soft and we need a sharper edge for them to pop off the log. Logs kind of soft and got that soft Harry moss. So I'll make sure it's, the vine appears just a little bit more firm. In some cases I'm creating if this is our vine that's existing and it's soft, and they're twisting together. If this one's on top, I'm just creating a line. A dashed line over. It kind of defines the vine going over. Making sure this is darker on top and then this is lighter on the bottom and little softer. I need to, I can create a line or an edge that's firm. Whatever looks best. But in some cases when they're twisting really close together, you could just need a needle line to help separate them. These ones overlapping the log. Then working their way towards that background is trying to find those more with this 0.3 millimeter, maybe just one edge. Make it nice and firm. Let's go through all the vines and make sure they have a little bit of value. So we'll use, we'll use this to H mechanical pencil. Anywhere. Where were you created those sharp lines? Let's make sure there's value on the vine there. Fine, has a little kink in it. So I'm just going to straighten that out and make it smoother. Work on the gradation right here. Just make sure this one's coming out of the logger a little darker. So it kinda great apes inward. There's that vine that's going around behind the log. And we'll just keep that light, but might add a little bit more value. In this case, mine wasn't showing up as much as it should be. So I'm just using the two H mechanical pencil to add a little bit more value. And I'm going to add a little more value on this with the HB mechanical pencil. It's kind of coming forward a little more and then it fades back behind the log. The vines are starting to shape up. Those are looking good for now. And let's move on to the grass, get that filled in and we'll be almost done. 46. 46 Rendering the Grass: All right, So now we're ready to render the grass and we'll use squiggle mark zigzags and fill in some value. Let's start with the HB lead holder will just fill in some value first and capture that ground plane again, been lost for awhile. Just laying in some zigzag value real quick. Then we can create taller grass and areas, show some variety. Then add value around our vines and roots. And all this area is going to get a little darker. And anywhere there's negative space, try and maybe create some suggested blades of grass. If you want to make sure your roots and vines are still clearly defined, this value is maybe getting just a little bit dark here. I'll lighten that up. Over here. You don't want, it's so busy already. We don't want a lot of varying contrasts, so I'm just scribbling in making zigzag marks where I can well, we don't want to make it too busy. Otherwise it'll start confusing our roots that are coming out. Areas like this where there's more negative space. We can just add some darker squiggle marks and then Render and wisdom zigzag value, just create a little texture there. Just don't want to make these busy areas any busier, just lay in a little bit of value. This area where we've got that ellipse coming around, we can create a little more value and zigzag marks there to help that elliptical shape. Maybe even some with that triangle coming down. I want this edge of the log lighter than the grass. I'm gonna take some of that value out. You need that edge to come forward just a bit. Just don't want to lose the design you have for this tall grass. So make sure that you make those darker. Then you can lay on the more subtle value there. In this area, our ground plane is going to be darker than the background. So it stands out, but just slightly. So up here we can make a few longer blades of grass vary the direction just a bit. Other areas we don't really have much room to play and make things more elaborate, which is fine. This darker. Going to vary the length of these three blades. Since they look similar. Feel free to squint. Make sure you're creating the correct values and areas. Don't want this tall grass to be too dark, but when you squint, you still want it to be shown. So just add a little more value. If you add this tall grass up here, make that a little darker. Some inconsistencies right here. So I'm just going to remove those real quick. If you like, you can add a little more value in this lower-left corner because just like we did with the tablet sphere, we added a little vignette. Just bring the eyes away from this corner a little more. The other corner has that tall grass, so it's working pretty well. Being very careful with this, just laying in value and it's a textured area so we can be a little more rough. Now we can go back in and add some more squiggles to show that texture of the grass. Then to create even more depth, Let's go in with our eraser. And we're going to make a couple quick hatch marks over this twig just to show that there's maybe some grass growing in front of it. Same with the rocks. Need to create that depth Same with this leaf on here. The edge of the log. Some of the vines, if you do it over the vines, just do it in an area where it's not really showing a nice overlap or something. I'm not showing nice twists. Create these quick hatch marks. Even this following leaf in the background, push them back further. Now we go back in and add some value where we made those hatch marks. Like I showed you here with the texture of the log. These are our hatch marks that we just made. We're just going to add some value maybe around it. Just to increase the illusion of that blade of grass going over. If it looks too generic, like these two are going in the same direction. Just to add another one going in the opposite direction. There's two together and then add your value. So it's kinda mixed up a bit. You can do that in these kind of areas. Just hatch some blades of grass, add some depth. I'm just running my pencil right on the side of that eraser mark. The inside of the log should be should show that layer of grass. Say this is our opening here in the log. To show that opening, we should have some grass kind of curving around to show the curve of the log inside. If it's not doing that, just go ahead and erase some. Wanted to be low contrast in that area, but we also wanted to help define that shape a little better. So just try and create a nice curve with some suggested texture there. Many erase some of the grass near this vine way it coincides with this ground plane inside the log. It helps that illusion a little better. And then we can erase some of this maybe since we've got so much stuff going on, we lost track of where that ground plane is, but it's so low contrast, it doesn't really matter as long as we're trying to keep everything intact, make it all flow together. Alright, so that's it for the ground plane and the grass and the tall grass and all that. Pretty much 99% done with our composition. It's looking pretty good. But we'll go back in the next step and we'll refine any details we missed and go from there. 47. 47 Rendering Final Details: Alright, so we're almost there, we're almost to the finish line. And let's just do a once-over and make sure we didn't miss any details. Let's start by adding value all around the composition except for the snail area. And use your two H lead holder for that. And this is going to help us establish the greatest area of contrast to slowly land some value. Not gonna be as dark as the tall grass. But if we make all the paper covered with just a little value except for where that snail is. And the snail has high contrast than we're telling the viewer where we want them to look first and trolling the contrast. So we want that area in-between the white flower and the snail to be pure white paper and we can gradate it if we need to. I'm not going around individual shapes, I'm just going over the whole composition. Not going over the flowers for the vines, the leaves. Remember if we go to quick, we're going to start getting inconsistent. Marx probably just go nice and steady, try and control the pressure even under the log. At some value there. Maybe even under the snail just a bit. And I'm keeping this area pure white paper. And if you have an obvious area of value, creating a circle around here and you've got a bit too far. So you might want to just try and erase some of that great aided out. Just supposed to be a real light layer of value, nothing too noticeable. You might go a little darker in this corner here just to help that vignette. Just a real light layer value. Alright, now let's use the 0.3 millimeter mechanical pencil and we can define some more areas. Some areas around the vines and the leaves have too harsh of an outline. So we can address those like this area I noticed there's too harsh of outlines. I noticed this area with the tall grass. It gets a little darker up here and then lighter down there. So I just want to make that value more consistent. Dab out some value. Now let's address these lines going around. Just make them less obvious. We can turn them into edges, increase the value, add variety to the background there. That's the edge of the log. So we want to make sure that's defined clearly. Increasing the value of this background route. This one will pop out. Still a little dark there. I'm going to break this up. Just use the eraser. Break up that edge. Make some of it lost, defined some of it. This looks a little obvious here. We need help creating that visual clarity, but we can maybe adjust it so it's not so obvious, just makes it a little darker on the bottom there. Hatch some eraser marks across it to lose that line a little bit. Right here it looks a little obvious. Hatch some lines across their break it up. This one where the twist is going over the other vine. Kind of maybe create some value for the one underneath it. Break up that solid line. The tentacle on the snail nose can be refined a little bit better just to quick. Mark should do it. This one on the top there. Some real subtle changes. This area of the snail shell. We can increase this edge just a little bit. So it's emphasizing that coiling around each other. So it should come in and overlap behind here a little bit. I'll just add that real quick. Can add a few more texture marks on the snail shell with your 0.3 millimeter is press down a little bit in certain areas and that increases the depth of that texture. Is real subtle changes. Maybe define some of the moss on the log. This leaf. When I designed it, I probably should have increased the coincidence we have here. We have this coincidence right in the center, coming down this vine, down the snail. And then we could have enhanced that and emphasize it a little better if we just extended that leaf all the way to that point. I'm gonna do that real quick. That gives us a nice, a nice coincidence there. And now I can just fill in the value. And we still emphasize that triangular enclosure to. If you want, you can use that to mechanical pencil. You can add a little more texture on the vines and the leaves. The leaves we're getting those contour lines starting from the vein and curling outward. I just want to add a few lines can increase that texture. Just add some squiggles on the vines. So any leaves that kind of look ordinary where the value is just too perfect, you can break it up with some texture. For any of these vines. If you want to adjust the plane of the vines, you can bring some forward with the eraser, just erase part of it. Like this, twist, this loop in here. We can just erase part of that, bring it forward. If it's sitting on top of the mouth of that log, we can erase it at the top. Check your edges. Check the log edge, see if there's anything you can ingest there. Maybe this area where the vines going behind the log, you can increase the value of the hairy moss in front of that line just so it's a nice clear separation. Same with where it's exiting over here. Increase that Harry moss value a little bit. These vines coming down, you can maybe check the value, make sure it's darker in certain areas that are coming straight down. And then maybe a little lighter here. All right, let's look at the design checklist. Will check off anything else. We definitely define the greatest area of contrast. Check that off. For squinting. The amount of contrast is drawing our eyes to hear. The greatest area of contrast is here. Want to make sure that the log isn't competing with it. So if you want, you can try and control this contrast between the log opening down here and the moss growing over it. Make sure there's not too much contrast. And then this area here underneath the long makes sure that's a little bit darker, so we're not getting that high contrast there. This is just the two H lead holder adding a little bit more value in that area. So when we squint, it's not pulling our eyes down to this bottom edge. Eyes are drawn to this. Taken care of any smudge lines over this area. Make sure that paper is nice and white. All right, We took care of the figure ground relationship. Definitely clearly defined that snail is. So let's mark that off. Aerial perspective. We created the depth with that tall grass. We've got lots of lost edges in there. So we can mark that off. Originality, this pretty original drawing. We've got a garden scene with a snail looking at a ladybug, some flowers. Mark that off. A pattern developing with leaves definitely got a pattern there. The repetition. Definitely have texture. Mark that off. Then everything else. We don't really need to apply. We've already applied a ton of techniques. Now let's wrap things up in the next step. 48. 48 Conclusion: You made it to the end. Congratulations, and we've got our first design drawing here, and you can convert it to a painting if you like later. But there's simple snail scene is full of composition techniques that you can apply to different genres of art, photography and cinematography. As we rendered the drawing, you learned more about your pencils, how to create edges, how to control value, and how to draw from imagination. All of this is pretty much from your imagination and you may have used some of the reference photos, but pretty much everything is from imagination, which is pretty incredible. So definitely try and apply these techniques to future projects you might have. And if you're looking for more knowledge, you can find me on my website. I've got a ton of information there. Tons of articles, videos, go to YouTube. If we've got a lot of videos on there. If you like books, you can go to Amazon. You've got other grids on my site and everything else like that. But until then, let's keep changing the future of art by sharing these techniques with other artists. And I'll see you next time. Take care.