Headshots photography

Headshots photography - student project

This is a type of headshot I take for my work as a corporate photographer for my company. I am trying to diversify my ability. The difficulty I find is that on a very bright day, the city background gets washed out and becomes too bright, how can fix that? I am also trying to take more in the office but we have very bright overhead lights which over brighten the subject. Can I fix this without professional lighting and in Photoshop or Lightroom?

example of the background becoming too washed out.