The Complete History of Music, Part 1: Music of the Antiquity & Medieval Periods | Jason Allen | Skillshare

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The Complete History of Music, Part 1: Music of the Antiquity & Medieval Periods

teacher avatar Jason Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Introduction & Overview


    • 2.

      Copyright Notice


    • 3.

      What is Western Music?


    • 4.

      What is Antiquity?


    • 5.

      Early Music


    • 6.



    • 7.

      Early Instruments


    • 8.

      Beginnings Of Notation


    • 9.

      Music In Greek Culture


    • 10.

      Greek Philosophy


    • 11.



    • 12.

      What Did It Sound Like?


    • 13.

      Meanwhile In The World...


    • 14.

      Music In The Early Christian Church


    • 15.

      The History Of Notation


    • 16.

      Gregorian Chant


    • 17.

      Sacred Vs Secular


    • 18.

      Boethius And Pathagoras


    • 19.

      The Early Church Modes


    • 20.



    • 21.

      Guido's Hand


    • 22.

      Types Of Chant


    • 23.

      Treatment Of Text


    • 24.

      Example Chant


    • 25.

      More To Chant


    • 26.

      Hildgard Von Bingen


    • 27.

      A Very Brief History Of Europe


    • 28.



    • 29.

      Golliard Songs


    • 30.



    • 31.

      Minstrel Song


    • 32.



    • 33.

      Guilliume IX Song


    • 34.

      Advancedments In The Church


    • 35.



    • 36.

      The 4 Inventions


    • 37.



    • 38.



    • 39.

      What Next?


    • 40.

      Thanks and Bye!


    • 41.

      SkillshareFinalLectureV2 (2)


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About This Class

This class is for anyone who has wondered about the origins of music, how it came to be, and where it came from. 

If you've ever looked at a medieval instrument, and wondered how it was played, this course is for you. If you've ever watched an episode of Game of Thrones and wondered about the music, this class is for you. If you've ever wanted to learn how they come up with music for video games like Skyrim, Zelda (any of them), or anything else set in a medieval-esque world, this class is for you.

Topics Covered: 

  • Music of Antiquity
  • "Early" Music
  • Music of Mesopotamia 
  • Early music instruments: Harps and Lyres
  • The origins of music notation
  • Music in Ancient Greek culture
  • Music in Greek philosophy
  • Music in the early Christian church
  • Gregorian Chant
  • Sacred and Secular music
  • Boethius
  • Pathagoras
  • Hexachords
  • The Guidoian Hand
  • Poetry in Music of the Medieval period
  • Hildegard Von Bingen
  • Versus
  • Goliard Songs
  • Minstrels
  • Bards
  • Troubadours
  • Motets
  • And much, much more!

Dr. Allen is a university music professor and is a top-rated online instructor. In 2017 Star Tribune Business featured him as a "Mover and a Shaker," and he is recognized by the Grammy Foundation for his music education classes. 

While a lot of history courses focus on memorization, this is a course for those interested in immersing themselves in the music and culture. You won't find lists of dates to memorize here - this class is designed to be fun and enjoyable.

This is the first part of a multiple-course series. 

In this course, we will focus the entire course on the Antiquity and Medieval Periods. 

By the end of this course, if you follow along, you will be ready to move on to the Renaissance period - coming in part 2!


Praise for Courses by Jason Allen:

⇢  "It seems like every little detail is being covered in an extremely simple fashion. The learning process becomes relaxed and allows complex concepts to get absorbed easily. My only regret is not taking this course earlier." - M. Shah

⇢  "Great for everyone without any knowledge so far. I bought all three parts... It's the best investment in leveling up my skills so far.." - Z. Palce

⇢  "Excellent explanations! No more or less than what is needed." - A. Tóth

⇢  "VERY COOL. I've waited for years to see a good video course, now I don't have to wait anymore. Thank You!" - Jeffrey Koury

  "I am learning LOTS! And I really like having the worksheets!" - A. Deichsel

⇢  "The basics explained very clearly - loads of really useful tips!" - J. Pook

⇢  "Jason is really quick and great with questions, always a great resource for an online class!" M. Smith


Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jason Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen teaches... See full profile

Level: Beginner

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1. Introduction & Overview: Ah, everyone, welcome to the complete history of music, part one, antiquity and medieval music. So what we're gonna do in this class is we're gonna start all the way at the beginning, the oldest records that we have of music happening. We're going to start by talking about those We're gonna follow some historians What people have learned throughout the last couple of centuries about music in this time and we're gonna work our way up into the medieval period will end this class just before the Renaissance. And then in the part two of the class will pick up with the Renaissance and go from there. So along the way in this class will be talking about ancient Greece will move into the Christian church and then talk about how through Gregorian chant and things like that. Systems for putting notes together start to evolve, which is our earliest form of music theory. So we'll look at how that comes into play. Well, look a little deeper at Gregorian, chant the different forms there for types, whole bunch of examples. We'll talk about secular music that was happening at the time. That would be any music. That's not part of the church. That would be things like your bards, your troubadours, your minstrels, things like that. And then, lastly, we'll work our way into talking about how that music started to evolve into the next big period in history, which we're going to cover in the next class. But it starts in the medieval period with a couple big developments. That happened, and we'll get to that right at the end of this class. So this class is all about music history. But there's a little bit of geography. There's a little bit of just of philosophy. There's a little bit of just kind of, ah, lot of different categories of stuff that we're gonna cover in this class. So I hope you decide to join us. It's gonna be a really fun class. We're gonna listen to a lot of music. We're gonna learn a lot of stuff. So let's dive in, - uh , what archaeologists have been able to find. There is both some instruments and drawings and evidence of music happening back then, And what those drawings tell us is how music was used back then, which is really fascinating to me, really similar to us Actually, they had music specific me very difficult to find traces of what this music actually sounded like. However, there are a few. There are a few pieces of music that scholars pretty much agree on how to interpret them, which means we can hear them. So this is one this is this is believed to be the oldest complete composition. This is how it's it's written on this, um, Stone column. The secular. They're an ancestor Teoh Troubadour Songs that might be a term that you've heard before is the troubadour kind of the traveling singer. We'll talk more about troubadours and just a minute in probably the next video or two. But these versus songs they originated about 12 century, 12th century. Ah, they were sung in Latin rhyming text, and they were not based on chant, but were new melodies. Case remember, in a lot of chance, you had a set number of melodies that were used in different ways. These were more free form 2. Copyright Notice: Hey, everyone, welcome to the class. Now, before we get started, I want to talk really quickly about a couple things to make you aware of as we get going into the class. And this 1st 1 is about copyright. Now it's always difficult to teach music history, class, even in a physical classroom, because it requires everyone to get a copy of all of this music. And as you may have heard, trading music online is quite a difficult thing. So in future classes I may have to resort to not playing you music examples, but just telling you what they are and having you go to YouTube and find them in this particular class. I didn't have to do that, so you don't have to worry about it. All the music examples for the class are right in context in the curriculum, However, as a matter of habit, I thought I would give you a list of all the musical examples that I am going to talk about in the class on. I'll do that in the next section, so in the next section you'll see some text. That is just all the examples that we're gonna listen to. So if you want to listen to them again, listen to them mawr. Look them up on your own. Here's a list of them in the next section, so enjoy. 3. What is Western Music?: Okay, One last thing before we get started. What we're gonna be talking about in this class is primarily the history of Western music. That basically means the history of Western classical music. So we defined that in a whole bunch of different ways. But essentially, it's the music that evolved out of ancient Greece and Rome and how that became classical music. And eventually we'll get to how that became kind of modern, popular music. But I'm teaching it this way because this is the curriculum that is primarily taught in music history classes in the United States and in Europe. It's not to discredit any of the other music that was happening all over the world, and we will touch on that music as it comes up. But primarily in this first section of the class, we're going to be talking about ancient Greece, Rome and as it evolved into Western classical music, 4. What is Antiquity? : Okay, so we're going to start all the way back in the antiquity. So what is the antiquity? The antiquity is a word that we use to talk about, uh, in general, just kind of ancient times. Okay, so we're talking about Well, the most common definition is, uh, what came before the Middle Ages. So the Middle Ages ah started around 500 went all the way up till, uh, the fall of Rome, which was about 1500. So 500 to 1500 was the Middle Ages. So we're talking about the stuff that happened before that, um so I guess 500 back to year zero back to maybe around 400 bc rbc e However, you like to call that So that's the end to act. Equipe It's in general are really long time ago. That's what we think about. We think about a really long time ago. We're talking about antiquity now. We don't have a lot of evidence of what was happening back then. Right? There weren't people writing down, um, you know, stories and music. You know, like there wasn't a notation system. There were some sort of notation systems, people were writing some stuff down. We don't really know if we currently know how to read it correctly. You know, there's some debate about that. So there's not a lot of evidence for what this music actually sounded like. But we do have me evidence for Is that music was being made back then. If you think about it, music's been being made, probably since the earliest humans there were people beating sticks on rocks and probably figuring out how to sing and that singing was enjoyable. So I think it's very safe to say that music existed. You know, as long as human beings have existed, however, we don't know what it was, and we don't know anything about it. Um, so this going back to this antiquity thing is kind of the earliest traces we have of music , so there's very little if any notation. It primarily survived at that time through an aural tradition. So ah, you know, you would explain how to do something to your kids. They would explain how to do it to their kids. It was basically a game of telephone, so we get into so in order to to study this and We're not going to spend a lot of time on it, but we get into Ah, kind of archaeology, right? And there is. This is actually really fascinating I found the other day. I don't know what I was doing, but I stumbled across someone, a person and his job title. I think he had a university position in his job. Title was musical archaeologist, meaning he was an archaeologist who is someone who looks for evidence of the past by, you know, digging things up and finding relics and things like that. But he was specifically looking for traces of music in antiquity. Fascinating. Fast. I would I don't know this person. I just saw that title somewhere and thought, Wow, so glad that title exists. But we have things like this. Like what? What? What I have here in the screen. Thes air. Ancient flutes that have been found clearly their flutes right. They were designed to be played as flutes. They have finger holes. Um, they have their hollow so you can blow in them and make different pitches right now. What? Those pitches are going to be very different than what we would expect pitches to be. Our pitch system is probably very different than what they were using back then. So what the's musical archaeologists do is they look for, um, remains of musical instruments. They also look for visual images of musicians and instruments. That's another clue we can get about what was happening at this time, um, drawings of musicians and music making. There are some writings about music and musicians that exist from this time, and there is a very, very small amount of notation, so notation can exist back from this time. Ah, but it's very complicated and hard to understand. The theory goes that whatever. Whenever we try to interpret it, we're going to be, ah, really heavily influenced by music that we know. So there's not a good way for us to be sure we're getting it right. I've read a few different things about this, but moral story is music existed way, way, way back in history. But we know very little about what it actually sounded like. Right, Um, we have evidence that it was happening because we have instruments like this. We have some writings, we have drawings, but it's nearly impossible for us to really understand what it sounded like. 5. Early Music: So it's worth pointing out really quick before we go any further, that there is a type of musician and a type of person or ensemble that exists today called early music, Right? So you can if you go to a college you can often find in early music ensemble. You confined performers who specialize in early music. But what they're doing is a little bit different than what we're talking about. We're talking about early music. Um, emphasis. Intentional. What? What Someone who specializes in early music does is work in the style of, you know, like the 13 hundreds 14 hundreds in that kind of chant stuff, you know? Or maybe they're playing the lute, which doesn't come along till a bit later. So early music as a term eyes Not really what we're talking about. Now we're talking about like, super duper early music. Um, like stone age stuff. Um, these are animal bones, by the way. So these air flutes made out of bones or not? Uh, they didn't have a lot of technology here to craft these, so I just want to make that clear about if you've come across an early music performer, they're not trying to interpret this stuff, that I'm talking about their talk. They're interpreting stuff that we have actual notation for its notation that looks very, very different than our current notation. But it's still a type of notation that one can learn to read, and we'll talk about that soon. So stick around for that. That being said, let's move on. 6. Mesopotamia: Okay, So the bulk of the evidence for the earliest music comes from Mesopotamia. Um, so that's this air, this region here between the Tigris and Euphrates currently parts of Iraq and Syria. Primarily, it's kind of this, um, darker green outline on this map. So this general area here, now what archaeologists have been able to find there is both some instruments and, uh, drawings and evidence of music happening back then. And what those drawings tell us is how music was used back then, which is really fascinating to me, really similar to us. Actually, they had music specific music. Ah, that was to be formed for weddings, funerals, dance, cavern music. So, you know, like drinking songs, music for just entertaining. And, of course, music to appease the gods, eso, some songs, different songs for different gods. And then they had this other thing that we don't really have any more, which is, uh, these kind of epic poems. So you've heard of, like, epic poems like The Iliad? They had, like, musical accompaniment for the rest of the reciting of these epic poems. Also, what we know about this time is that music was reserved primarily for the elite in the society, the rich folk. And you'll find this to be true, actually, for kind of the majority of history, it wasn't until maybe the 19th century or so to where the common person had easy access to live music. You might even say that the every day person didn't have access to music until the invention of the photograph, you know, in the 19 hundreds. But that might be a little bit of a stretch back in this period. In order to be entertained by music, you needed to be a reasonably wealthy person in order to afford to have the instruments made to have the musician come and perform. Um, and if you were a musician, you worked for the rich folks. You know the rulers of your tribe or your area for the elite class of people, and you'll find that even like when we get into the the Middle Ages, the musicians and especially the composer's. They worked for the church. They were kind of the ruling class at the time. In other periods of history, they worked for the kings and the queens. It's kind of always been that way up until about the 19 hundreds, when it became more affordable for people to just listen to music on their own. So it was really something reserved for the upper class, the elite class. Okay, so that being said, let's talk about some of these instruments that existed back then, in particular the liar and some early harps. 7. Early Instruments: Okay, So two of the instruments that we know that existed at this time And in Mesopotamia, where the liar and the harp. Hey, they look pretty similar. So I want to point out the differences between them. So this is a liar. Both of them are stringed instruments that you pluck. They have a handful of strings. I I don't think there's a specific number of strings that they all had. I think, you know, some of them have two or three strings, and some of them had a lot of strings. So it's not a matter of how many strings it had, But you could not change the pitch of the strings. You would not. You know, there were no frets. Ah, you would not, you know, stop the string in. Anyway, it was just a plucked string. Here. We have a heart. Okay. And that looks This is a modern harp because you can see all the metal stuff here. But you see, if I havent owned this is a type of liar. This is a more ancient looking harp. So the main difference between a liar and a heart is that in a harp, the string goes down into the hollow body. That's this piece. Ah, and that's what resonates. You can see the sound holes here, right? And in a liar. Ah, the string is stopped with some kind of fretted thing. This looks like it goes through, but I think, really it's going around that Let's go to this one. You can see the string is wrapped around, um, the pole at the top here. This is called a bull's liar. And I'm just kind of learning about these today. This is kind of new to me, but apparently a bull liar was this kind of stand up liar. But also it has a bull's head on it. Ah, and it had some very specific religious purpose that it was used for. So both of these instruments, harps and liars, liars. We don't really have liars anymore. You could make a case for a liar being Ah, in kind of ancient ancestor to the guitar harps we have, though, and not all that much different than this, right? Um, the modern harp is quite a bit different. The modern classical heart, but like the Celtic harp, is very similar to this still today. So a couple of the instruments we had back then for making music 8. Beginnings Of Notation: So the earliest record we have of a composer of someone whose job it was to write music Ah , was someone named I'm gonna totally screw this up and head. Do wanna That's e n h e d u a and n a Ah, and it's from around 2300 b c e. Okay. And she was Ah, high Priestess and let that sink in for a minute. The first composer Ah, which is primarily in our world, um, or in our lifetime, a very male dominated field. The 1st 1 So, uh, that's fantastic. She was a Priestess and she wrote hymns. So songs to God, right primarily to the moon God, she was writing and we don't have any records of her music, But we do have some. Not that far off. Ah, this that I have here on the screen is the earliest known piece of music notation. Um, this is a clay tablet from you, Guerette, which is Syria. This is from about 1400 B c e Ah, and this shows, uh, a nearly complete peace. So this is the earliest thing we have. It shows an early complete peace and no one can with confidence, reproduce it. There has been some attempts that scholars have made, but as far as I can tell, uh, no. One there's no definitive way to play This. That everyone agrees on is how it should be interpreted. But this is what it looks like. It's neat right now. It's worth noting here that it's commonly believed that musicians at the time wouldn't have read this and performed from it. It was more because music was still primarily in aural tradition. You would tell people how to do stuff, and music when it was performed, was primarily improvised or played from memory. This was more of like a document, Ah, documentation of of a song or something like that. And so someone wouldn't really read this too, you know, put it in front of them and then let go, Okay? And then with their liar and play it, you know, um, it was more for memory, so it's it's notation, but it's really just kind of a document that explains what intervals to play when, um or were played when right, it's it's it's almost closer to a recording than it is to notation. In a very weird way 9. Music In Greek Culture: all right on to ancient Greece. So ancient Greece is where we get our earliest records of music happening in a culture. We should point out that ancient Greece is a little bit different than current Greece. So looking at this map Ah, Greece is primarily this area. An ancient Greece was quite a bit bigger. Um, it went up into you know what is now a little bit of Albania, I think Macedonia. Bulgaria. So it had some bigger stretches up here. I mean, I think it may be even touched into what is modern day turkey, but what we're looking at here is ancient Greece, so it's quite a bit bigger. And what we find, there is a lot of archaeological remains that tell us about the music that was happening in particular images on clay pots. So we see images kind of carved into these clay pots, and these have been found, and we can kind of start to understand quite a bit about the music that was happening there , especially the instruments. There were a number of instruments that were popular there at the time, the liar which we've already talked about, but also the Palos in the CA Thara. We'll talk more about those in just second. They also had a few different kinds of harps, pipes, even horns and, uh, an early form of an organ. Although I can't find any pictures of that, percussion instruments as well were found there. So let's look at Ah, a couple of these new instruments really quick. Uh, this is an AL owes. Okay, so it's like a double read it or not. Double redid. Ah, a double piped flute. I guess so you would blow in here and then you would finger with both hands, like one hand here in one hand there and you could play two notes at a time. You kind of see something similar to this in like, uh, you know, someone trying to be like a virtuoso saxophone player. They can put two saxophones in their mouth and play one with each hand. You see that kind of trick all the time, but it's funny that it goes back to, like, one of our earliest instruments. So the Palos was used in worship primarily primarily for so almost all music at the time had religious purposes. And remember, this is ancient Greece. So we're talking about the Greek gods and things like that. So Diane Isis was the god of fertility and wine. And often the Alice was used in songs and music to worship Diane Isis. No. Another instrument. The liar that we already know. The liar was used primarily in the worship of Apollo. So Apollo was the God of light prophecy, learning and the arts, especially music and poetry. So, unlike the Al owes, the liar was common to be learned by both men and women. And it was pretty standard practice, like pretty much every. I suppose every upper class person ah, was expected to be able to play the lyre. It was, you know, part of society, the Palos. However, it was a little bit more rare. And also ah was primarily expected to be learned by women. It was more of a female associate ID instrument and the liar we used for some non religious purposes as well, including weddings, and to accompany some of the poetry at the time. Now the poetry of time. We know you probably have heard of these epic poems that were happening in particular, the Iliad and the Odyssey so often. When those were recited, they were accompanied at least in parts by someone playing a liar. Uh, let's also talk about that cathartic, which is really just a really big liar. I couldn't find another picture of it other than this kind of crude drawing, but this one we know it was used for some kind of sacred ceremonies. I don't know exactly who it was used to worship, but it was also used in theater performances. Remember the Greeks were Bigun theater. That's where we get the tragedy and comedy. Um, those two masks you've seen before? Probably that simple. So there was a lot of music happening there, right? And it was really It was really kind of baked into the culture. So the philosophy, the poetry, the theater that was coming out of this place and time that you've probably heard of. You probably studied the poetry in the theater in school, but maybe not the music, and rightly so, Actually, to be fair because we don't really know what the music sounded like all that much. You know, we know what these instruments are, but it's near impossible for us to really figure out what they sounded like. But they were so linked into the philosophies at the time that that can give us a little bit of a clue. So let's dive a little bit deeper into that in the next video. 10. Greek Philosophy: Okay, so an ancient Greek philosophy and just any kind of writings we have to kind of main types of writings about music. One is like, uh, music theory stuff, things about what music should be, how it should sound more on that in a minute. And the other is writings about the nature of music and the purpose of music. Now it's important to note here that music for the ancient Greeks was a big deal. It was kind of like the thing that made ah society advanced to them. Like in our society, I think we kind of point to technology to say like this is the sign of our advanced society Is all these big buildings weaken, build in planes we can fly and you know, gadgets that we can hold that will communicate with anyone all over the world. This is the great thing that our society can do right. In ancient Greece, it was music. Music was the thing that that they had that said, Ah, we are in advanced society. We get writings about music flim from Plato, Aristotle, a bunch of others and the way that music kind of fit in with what was going on with the mythology and religion was that it was believed that music was invented by the gods, specifically Apollo, Hermes and Feehan and Orpheus. And we also have these things called muses, which are kind of sort of, I think, like the way we think about, like, a spirit now. And the muses are what gave us essentially creativity, right? So they they're the ones that brought the great ideas and all these things. And the muses are actually really fascinating there. There's a bunch of arguments about how many muses there are, and the Greeks, in their very math like culture, decided that there were nine. There are nine muses, um, and they have very specific jobs. I'll talk more about those in just a minute. Now, on the theory side of things, we have Pythagoras happening in this time, and Pythagoras is known as the kind of inventor of music theory. He is the one who decided how the notes are spaced and gave us our first scales. They were a little bit different than our scales now, but more or less, that's where we get the diatonic scales. Music was also performed nearly always we think model Phonic Lee. So mono phonic means that there was only one note happening at a time. So if you imagine just a melody, that's mono phonic music. If you saying something, you can only sing mono phonic Lee because you can only sing one note at a time. So most of the time it was mono phonic. I don't know how that relates to the A lows that we just saw, because that could play two notes at once. But I think usually maybe they were in unison. I'm not really sure how that works. So two important words that I want to put in your head one is the muse we've already talked about to me is just for a second. But the muse, the one that brings us the ideas this is actually. Do you know where we get the word music, right? Muse and music. Another important word is Harmonia. So harmonium talks about the way things combined together not just in music, but in kind of everything. Right? The way the planets are configured the way the seasons are associated with crops growing and everything being connected was called the Harmonia. We hadn't now use a shortened version of that same word harmony to mean the relationship of notes to one another. So it's kind of I find this, like, kind of beautiful right, like it used to mean the connection of everything to everything else, and now it means the connection of notes together. But, you know, there's something to be said about that. There's something to be said for the way music is related to the kind of general everything that's existing around. So a little bit about Greek philosophy at the time and the origins of music history. Let's go into the next video and I want to play. You are a fun little animation here. 11. Ethos: Okay, I found this great video. This is a Ted talk video. If you're not familiar with the Ted talks, check them out. There's a lot of just really amazing stuff that happens on there. And I just want to play this little video for you to go through all of this and just kind of a fun way in particular. I want to talk about ethos. There's a good section of this video. This is short little four minute video. There's a good section of this video on ethos and ethos is kind of like your mood right, like, but it's more than that, right? Like you can if they the ancient Greeks, believed in a relationship of music to ethos much stronger than we do now. For example, we complain music that should make you happy or sad, right, depending on if you're open to it. To the Greeks to the ancient Greeks, music could make you happy or sad, but could also make you start a war, make you honor the king. You know, it was very specific what it could get you to do, and there were formulas that would kind of say this scale does this this scale does that, um, is very specific. So they're going to talk about that in this video as well as a lot of the things that we've just talked about. So watch this short video. It's fun, and then I'll be back way live In a society obsessed with music, we use music, toe worship till stories to celebrate, to work, exercise, declare our love and sometimes out hatred and arguably, most importantly, to dance. And, of course, we play music ourselves because, well, it's a pleasant things to thousands of years ago in ancient Greece. When it came to music, things weren't much different. They might have had liars and tunics instead of MP three players and jeans, but the ancient Greeks were just as obsessed with music as we are today. In fact, music was such an important part of ancient Greek society that it makes us seem tame by comparison. To really understand just how integral music wants to the ancient Greeks, let's begin by acquainting ourselves with a bit of their mythology. In ancient Greek mythology, it was believed that human creativity was the result of divine inspiration from a group of goddess is known as the Muses. While scholars have argued over the years that there are anything between three and 13 users, Standard Number accepted today is nine. Each muse overseas her own specific area of artistic expertise, ranging from song and dance to history and astronomy. It might seem strange to categorize history in astronomy is creative pursuits, but the ancient Greek saw these disciplines as more than just school subjects. These were the hallmarks off civilization in what to their eyes was a pretty barbaric world . An educated, civilized person was expected to be proficient in all aspects of creative thought. Inspired by the muses on the common medium through which these disciplines were taught, studied and disseminated was music. You see, it's no coincidence that the word muse is very similar to the word music. It's where the word originates. Poetry, be it a love poem or an epic poem about a dragon slaying hero with Sung with a musical accompaniment, dancing and singing, obviously where accompanied by music theater was always a combination of spoken word and music. History was recounted through song. Even the study of astronomy was linked to the same physical principles as musical harmony, such as the belief filled by many Greek thinkers that each of the planets and stars created their own unique sound as they traveled through the cosmos, thrumming like an enormous guitar string light. Years long, however, music pervaded more aspects of their lives and just education. Ancient Greeks considered music to be the basis for understanding the fundamental interconnectedness off all things in the universe. This concept of connectivity is known as Harmonia, and it's where we get the word harmony. Music was used as a form of medicine to treat illnesses and physical complaints as a vital accompaniment to sporting contests. Ondas a means to keep workers in time as they toiled away on the naughtiness or menial tasks. One of the most important applications of music in ancient Greek society is found in the belief that music can affect a person's eat us a word we still use Today. He forces a person's guiding beliefs or personal ethics the way that one behaves towards oneself and others. The Greek philosopher Plato, one of the most famous and influential Greek thinkers at the time, asserted that music had a direct effect on a person's Nikitas. Certain kinds of music would inside a person to violence, while others could placate a person into a benign, unthinking stupor. According to Plato, only very specific types of music with beneficial to a person's ethos, one should only listen to music that promotes intelligence, self discipline and courage, and all other kinds of music must be avoided. Furthermore, Plato fervently denounced any music that deviated from established musical conventions, fearing that doing so would lead to the degradation of the standards of civilisation, the corruption of youth and eventually complete and utter anarchy. While Plato's fears consume extreme, this argument has appeared in modern times to contend musical trends such as jazz or punk or rap. What do you think Plato would say about the music you listen to? Is it beneficial to your Athos, or will it degenerate you into a gibbering, a moral barbarian? 12. What Did It Sound Like?: Okay, so at this point, we start to get a lot of music theory happening. I don't want to go too far in the music theory because I have a whole other big chunk of classes on music theory. But if you've taken those classes, then you will realize that this is where our modes come from, Right? There's a Dorian region in ancient Greece, and that's where the Dorian mode comes from. So there's all these kind of scales coming out of all these different places, but we still don't have anything that resembles notation to us, and it's very difficult to find traces of what this music actually sounded like. However, there are a few. There are a few pieces of music that scholars pretty much agree on how to interpret them, which means we can hear them. So this is one this is this is believed to be the oldest complete composition. This is how it's it's written on this, um, Stone column, and this is everything we get. But scholars that really understand this think they know how to interpret it and listen to it. So let's do it. This is called The Song of I don't know how to say this. Sigh close. I don't know. Maybe. Let's hear it. So what we're gonna hear is, I believe, a liar and a singer playing Monta Phonic Lee. Right? So that basically means we're gonna play the same thing sometimes at the same time. And sometimes separately, sometimes just the letter. You come in the social dificil me six kilos in San enemies after not seem a police seeking closer, see? 13. Meanwhile In The World...: okay, before we leave ancient Greece, I just want to point out a couple things. One is that we've kind of cruised through ancient Greece. There's a lot more and you could learn about what was happening there. It would be, Ah, whole book. So I recommend, you know, find one of many books about ancient Greek music, if that's what you're interested in. But what I really want to point out is what we've talked about Uphill now is in music happening in ancient Greece, there was music happening almost for sure. Many other places in the world, in particular China all over Asia, actually, and probably a lot of other places in the world as well. But we don't know hardly anything about it because we just don't have records of it. So the history we have of music in its oldest form all the way back to antiquity here comes to us from the ancient Greeks because there's evidence of it right, whereas we don't have evidence for a lot of other music that we believe was probably happening all over the world. So with that, let's move forward in time into the first millennium, or we start to get a lot more evidence of music happening, particularly surrounding the Christian Church. Ah, lot of music is related to that and comes out of that and there's a ton of documentation of it, so onward to that. 14. Music In The Early Christian Church: Okay, so we're up to the Christian church. So you might be thinking to yourself what happened to the Jews. Wasn't there any music happening? Um, before the Christians, yes, there was, actually. But here's the thing. The Christian Church is where we get notation. And once we get notation, we get documentation and we know what was happening prior to notation. We don't know a lot about what was happening. What we do know from the Jewish tradition, however, was that scripture was very often sung. The psalms were sung. We know a lot about some of those melodies, but we don't have documentation of what was happening at the time. But in the early Christian church, we get notation. It was notation that looked a bit like this. This is chant notation that we're gonna look at in just a minute. So it looked quite a bit different than what we're used to. This is actually what we're looking at here. Fairly advanced chant notation. It was even simpler than that at the earliest parts of it. So what was the general feeling towards music at the time of the early early Christian Church? So the church was kind of the main dominating force in society at the time. And they had a similar philosophy to music that the Greeks did in that they believed heavily and the power of music to affect the ethos. Right, So that's still happening. And for that reason, most people in the church I really didn't like the idea of music being played purely for enjoyment. I believe it would have been seen as a bit dangerous, right, because if anyone could just play music, you could incite people to do all kinds of crazy things with this very powerful tool of music. That's the way it was seen at the time. And you know, they one of the many things that Plato would right earlier about music was that it was. Its primary function was to remind us of this divine beauty of the world, you know. And so just to do it for fun seemed very. I guess dangerous is the right word for that. So music was held in very careful regard. It was reserved for worship and it was primarily done by monks or priests or some very highly trained people within the church and the monks is where we start to get notation so I'm not gonna go through the entire history of the Christian Church. But let's zip ahead a little bit to around the year 1000 and that's when we get Guido Day. Are ISO are Rezo Guido D Arezzo. I think that's how you say he is, the one we attribute modern notation to. So there's a little bit that comes before that. So let's talk specifically just about notation and Guido, and then we'll get into the first kind of big development in music that might be familiar to you, which is Gregorian chant. 15. The History Of Notation: Okay, so let's talk just about notation for just a minute. Now, This is that song of Seko's that we saw a minute ago. Now I want to point out something here. Now, maybe you can read ancient Greek, but don't worry about these letters for now. What I want to pay attention to here is this shows in ah, very difficult to see way. The earliest forms of notation we had, which is something called new moms. Okay, so new moms are I believe in this case, in most cases, they're these little symbols that go above syllables. Okay, so you have text, and then you'd have syllables are little symbols above them, and that basically would tell you same pitch up a pitch down a pitch. Right? There was a couple of different things that it would tell you a little bit more than that, but basically, that's it. So it was a type of singable notation and it would say sing, you know this note on the air, this syllable on the same syllable as the next one, or go up a note or ago down a note and the distance that you go up or down is, I think, somewhat subjective. So But we could do it with news, right? So that was the first kind of thing we get. So that eventually evolved a little bit farther. Another example from something Ah, little bit later. That's not written in ancient Greek. Ah, and you can see all these symbols above. The letters are telling us how to interpret this musically, even here, where there's no letters. Right. So this is the first thing we had. Nunes eventually moved on to what we now call heightened new mums, which is the same system, right? We still have words and syllables, but now we have this line, right? And so one line. Um and we can see that that line helps us see how far to move in each direction, right? It's so with that line and with these little dots moving around were starting to look a little bit like modern notation. Right? You can almost see the connection where Nunes are starting to become notation, but this is called heightened new moms. Now, up until now, all music was really sung in kind of a relative key, right? So that line didn't really matter what note that waas necessarily it was usually either f or C. But, um, it was really just kind of used as a reference point and all pitch was relative, you know, you might say, OK, that line, which is maybe the beginning of this scale in some example, is whatever so and so hums today. That's that's what the root of our scale is or whatever. But things were relative until we get up to you about the year 1000 and we get this guy named Guido who comes along and he adds three more lines too. The staff. Okay, so now we have a four line staff. Okay, so we still have different looking symbols on the line. These symbols derived from the new moms. But we also have a clef For the first time. This one right here is a clef conceded the beginning of every line, and this clef introduces what we call the C clef. This is something we still use now. It doesn't look exactly like this. It looks quite a bit different, actually, but the concept is the same. This is, you know, it looks like a sea, and it hooks around the pitch that is. See? Okay, so in this case, the top line is see. So now we have a definite pitch because of the clef, and this is movable. So this where this is might change depending on the piece. Um, they might move the clef up or down, and wherever they put it, that says that line is C. Okay, so now we have a clef. So even though we have good ah, pitch now and we know what our pitches are, we're still not doing a lot for rhythm. It's still very hard to read the rhythms of these. We don't really get rhythmic notation for about another 100 years, and something comes up called the rhythm the rhythmic modes which, if you know what modes are in the music theory sense, don't let that confuse you. It was kind of like a set pattern of rhythms. And so how long or short? Each note was depended on where it fell within this pattern. But around the same time, we also started to get square no heads, which made things a little more clear as to what notes were what rather than these weird symbols, right? So then about two or 300 years later, the square no heads and the rhythms get put together. Ah, by a guy named Franco of Cologne, and we start to get actual rhythmic notation. So, uh, it's a little bit crude, but this is what they looked like, and this is kind of how we would interpret them. Eso It's not a 1 to 1 correlation to what we have now, but it's the first thing that gave us really definitive rhythmic notation. And from there, getting from this point up to our modern notation isn't that big of a stretch. Really. I mean, are these are squares turned to circles. Ah, we added the flag and line systems so that we have a thumbs and quarter notes. We had a dots. We added accidental Onley because when we started to have more modern instruments, that could be tuned. And that goes actually pretty late. That goes near the time of Buck that we get those popping up. And of course, we added 1/5 line to this staff to show more notes at one time. But that pretty much brings us up to speed with, ah, modern notation. So there we have it, a whirlwind tour through the history of notation 16. Gregorian Chant: Okay, let's talk about Gregorian chant. So first of all, let's address this name Gregorian chant. So it's a kind of chant where it's sung, I believe, exclusively by men in groups singing model follicly. So only like a single melody. Ah, for now. Eventually it changes to be polyphonic, where we have multiple lines happening at once. But in its origin I was mono phonic, and it's called Gregorian Chant in the Gregorian Part of that is, I believe, somewhat debatable where that word comes from. It's believed by a lot of people think that it's related to Pope Gregory, the first who it appears that had actually very little or nothing toe actually do with the development of Gregorian chant. However, when he took power, he Rome was in a very bad shape. It was in the middle of the plague. It was just a rough city. Things were not very good at that point, so he took it upon himself to realign a lot of the liturgy, and he worked a lot on making the literature we much more cohesive. It was until Pope Gregory the second we think that Gregorian chant emerged from that result of that liturgy. So that's where the Gregorian probably comes from. In the term Gregorian chant is the Gregory of Pope Gregory, the first and or second. So the point of Gregorian chant was to sing Scripture. And there's there's a lot of people that say it was intended to have this angelic quality to it, so it doesn't have a strict meter. It doesn't have harmony. It is nothing but melody. Okay, so all you hear is Melody sung in unison by a bunch of men. That's how Gregorian Chant was done. So let's listen to some and then, uh, move Ellen and talk about, uh, actually a little more on this topic and oh, - way and 17. Sacred Vs Secular: Okay, One quick thing I want to point out before we get any farther, we're going to start hearing two words, um that are going to start coming up as music keeps evolving through the centuries. And those two words are sacred and secular. When we're talking about music that is sacred, that means associated with the church. Any church, right? Sacred music is church music. So we can say that all Gregorian chant is sacred music. Okay, secular music means music not associated with the church. So music for any other purpose at all. For example, we know that probably at the time there were bards roaming around, conveying the news of the day by strumming on a lute and singing the newest from the next village over right, that that was maybe happening at the time. That would be secular music and the chant stuff that was happening was sacred. So at this point in history, we don't have any real documentation of the secular music that may or may not have been happening. But we do have a lot of documentation about the sacred music, so and that's gonna be true for another couple 100 years. Ah, And then we'll start to learn more and more about the secular music that was happening as the common folk learned Teoh. Right? And then we get evidence of what was happening there. So when you hear those words sacred and secular, secular, that's what we're talking about. No, let's go on and let's talk about what notes are they actually singing here, and how did they choose the notes? So, in other words, what was a music theory like in this period? Let's take a look at that in the next section. 18. Boethius And Pathagoras: Okay, let's move on and talk about what music theory was happening at the time or what music theory was doing at the time. More accurately. Now, I'm not gonna go into huge amounts of detail on music theory in this class, however. Ah, good. A handful of it just can't be avoided. We have to talk about it. Everything in music theory at this point in history was built around one or perhaps two people. The one that's for sure is Pythagoras. This guy we're looking at here. So Pythagoras was essentially a mathematician. But remember that Mathis music is still a math at this point. So music is regarded as a relationship of ratios, mathematical equations. That's how music was thought about. And, you know, if you think about it, that's still true. Um, music is all about ratios. We make intervals out of ratios. We make rhythms out of ratios. It's all actually very mathematical. But we don't work with music typically in this mathematical way anymore. But back then did it. So Pythagoras gets us pretty much everything we know about music theory at this point, most notably the chromatic scale, right? So he kind of figures out the chromatic scale. But there's another guy around this time who builds on the work of Pythagoras named Bowie, Theus, Bowie. Theis wrote a number of treaties, including one called I'm Just Gonna Be the Translated version. I believe it's Latin or Italian. I think it's Italian, but it translates to the fundamentals of music. And in that we get our first glimpse at something that became known and is still known as the music of the spheres. So the music of the spheres is a really fascinating topic. I've read a whole book on Music of the Spheres a couple of years ago, and I don't want to go into too much detail on it because it's not very factual. It was a theory about music back at the time, and I just find it really fascinating because it has to deal with music and astronomy. And a little bit of spirituality is in there and a little bit of like, ah, time like time travel, kind of It's really weird, but essentially I'll give you the Cliff notes version. Cliff Notes version is there are three different kinds of music. There's something called Music Madonna, which is the music of the universe. Okay, so that's the music that if you imagine all of the planets as they rotate, make some kind of celestial sounds, right, we can't hear it. It's not something that we can hear. This kind of music is not something that humans can hear. This is more on the level of music of the gods get. The second type of music was called Music Humana or Human Soul Music for humans. And this waas the music made by the body and the soul. So this wasn't like music you're playing. This is music, uh, that occurs all around us all the time, the soul music, but not like soul not like James Brown soul music but like music of Salt. And I believe the cases that we can't hear this either, but not because it's not for our ears. We actually can hear it, but it's always around us and always going, so we've learned to tune it out. I think that's that's how the theory behind Musica Humana worked. And then there's the third kind of music, which was music instrumentalists, instrumental music. That's the kind of music we make in play is the lowest kind of music, and it's the only kind that we can really here. We make it with instruments or with voices. But all three different forms of music all obey the same mathematical rules about the ratios and what's happening, right? So I encourage you to look that up, do a little homework on music of the spheres. If you want to learn more about that, it's a fascinating study. Oh, the time travel bit that it's not really time travel that has to do with, like the the months of the year. There's a correlation between months and pitches that can suggest weird. You can build harmonies of months. Let's just put it that way, which causes weird things that happen. Okay, so so far in this period, not all the same time, but roughly within the 1000 years or so that we're talking here. We have both IUs. We have Pythagoras and we have Guido. Okay, we talked about Guido when we talk about notation. So between those three people, we start to get firmer realization happening in the primary musical form at the time, which was still Gregorian chant or just chant, Let's just call it chance, because the word Gregorian is not exactly correct. So that leads us to the church modes. So the church modes were a number. Were a group of scales writes. We still don't quite have, like, the major and minor scale yet, right? We have the chromatic scale and we have a couple and well, what we're going to get with what are called the church modes is a couple of, um, collections of notes within the chromatic scale. That sound good, right? So these are notes that sound good together, and there there are eight of them and you might be thinking way Wait, I've I took your music theory class. There are only seven modes. Oh, just hold your horses. So they have the chromatic scale and they say, Okay, here are eight groups of notes that sound good together. Eventually, this is going to evolve into the major and minor scales that we know now. But when it first was realized, it was a group of eight. Let's go new new video. And let's talk about that right now. 19. The Early Church Modes: Okay, so let's talk about the church modes here. Now, if you took theory, my theory classes or any theory classes, you know, about the seven modes. Okay. So Well, we're going to talk about here is how they were first presented and how the monks used them during chant. And it's a little bit different. So every mode at this period of time, every mode is a pair. It's two different scales. Okay, so we actually have fewer modes than we had when we originally then then the seven that we know about in music theory today. I'm gonna put these notes on here. If you're not someone who reads music, that's okay. I'm just gonna put him on here, for example. Okay, So here's our 1st 1 Okay. If, uh, you know, modes you will be able to spot pretty quick that this is a d Dorian scale. Okay, so this was called the Dorian Scale. Now we have another one that parallels to it. And this one you will have not heard of yet. It's the same notes, but a different range. Okay? And it's the same route. So remember that we the reason we don't have The second version of the modes now is because we don't really care when we talk about just a scale. We don't really care about what the range is because we have instruments capable of lots of ranges. But at the time, these were on Lee Sung and so the range was really important. So this would be called a Dorian scale. If we take the Dorian scale and go from the fifth of it and treat, that is the bottom note all the way up to the next fifth. So we're basically still doing adoree and scare scale. We're just starting it in the middle and going up to the middle again an octave higher. This is called a hypo Dorian scale. Okay, so Dorian Hypo Dorian Same notes, different range and same route. Uh, route was called something a little bit different here, but at the time. But basically the route is d And here the rutas de but hypo Dorian. Okay, let's do another one. We have the fridge in scale. Oops. Okay. E t e. No accident. ALS, This is an e fridge in scale and the same thing applies. We have the hypo for Jian scale. That would be B two B. Yeah. Okay, so Fridge Ian Hypo for GM. Two more. We have the Lydian scale. It will be after f So after f is an f lydian scale and we can go see to see treating f as the root. Ah, treating f as the root. And that gets us a hypo Lydian scale. Last one is mixer Lydian G two G. That's G Mex led in. And if we want to make the hypo MCs Illit Ian, it would be the Teoh de treating G as the root. So there's all our scales if, ah, if this is over your head and you're like, I don't understand any of this don't worry about it. Doesn't matter for a history class. Um, I just wanted to include this for those of you that that this doesn't mean something to, um, enjoy it. So the modes were actually less modes. We only have the four, but we also have an alternate version of them. Right? So we have Lydian and high Palladian. Which ones are we missing from your, uh, original Ionian alien and low Korean are the three were missing. So what will become the major scale, the minor scale and then the crazy, low Korean scale. That one's not here yet because the low Crean scale would have been totally not OK to be singing, uh, for monks. They needed to get a little more progressive before they could start doing that. 20. Hexachords: Okay, Back to Guido. All right. So Guido kept developing the system of notation that we have and two important things came out of it. First is the hex Accord system that he used and his I think like his followers developed this, but it comes out of his teaching and his writing. So we have something called Salman Ization. So And this is basically what we call now soul fetch, really similar different syllables. Kind of a different technique, but basically its sole fish. And what we what sole fish is tow us is the way we have words for each note. And the modern way we do it is door Amy Fossil a Tedo. If you've ever heard that song from the Sound of Music Doe a deer, a female deer ray that it added. So that walks you through what the syllables are so we can do it with doh Ray me far soul blah t doe. Now this the way we do sole fish now is different depending on where you are in the country . Our Sorry where you are in the world. If what I just said, if you were like No, that's not right I know selfish, and that's not how you do it. Ah, you're probably right. The way we do it here in the U. S is door Amy Fossil. Lottie Dough. There are other things you can call t. I've heard other versions of law, so that's okay. This is different depending on where you are. So Guido figures this out, then he figures out three hex accords. Kay, Now a hex accord is not what we think of as, ah, hacks Accord Accord, right. It doesn't have anything to do with notes being played at the same time, we're still totally mono phonic now, um, at this period in history, So that means only one note at a time. So it's not a chord in the way that we think about a court. Now it's a chord in the sense that it's a group of notes. So there are three Xa courts k. There's the five notes that begin on C So C D E f g. Okay, that was called the natural Hex accord. Then there was another one that started on G. So g a, B, c d. And that was called the hard hex Accord and important to note. There, it uses a B natural. Okay, hold on to that for a second. The 3rd 1 starts on F, and it uses a B flat, so it's F g a B flat c. So that gets us kind of our first accidental. Really? So that b flat? This is interesting because Okay, so the hex accord, based on F the member hex accord, just means that a group of five notes the one that's based on F used to be flat. Right? And if you think about it now, we have the key of f has a B flat in it. So we're still using the same stuff and the symbol for a flat. Let me let me get one up here. There's one. Why? Symbol for a flat looks kind of like a B, right? Remember that this hacks accord starting on F was called the soft hex accord, and the one starting on G, which has a B natural, was called ah, hard X court. I'm gonna put this here just so that because I'm gonna be talking about bees. Um, so this at the time was called a soft be, whereas being natural was called. Ah, hard. Be okay. Flat natural. Look at the symbols. Soft. Be. Imagine this bottom little thing is gone hard. Be square rounded. Right. That's kind of where we get these soft B and hard B flat and natural. Interesting. Right. So with those hex accords and with that hex accord system of being able to call out different X court and say like, Okay, now we're gonna do this one. So would be we're gonna do, see Natural Hex accord. People would know what five notes were using, right? If we said okay now, the hard hex accord, people would know it starts on G and what notes to use, including the being natural. Because that's in the hard hex accord. And if he said soft ex Corde, we would know that we're using notes f to see with the B flat, right? Okay, cool. So that means he could This was a method of teaching music, right? So he could teach people how to sing stuff. Ah, using this hex accord technique. But he had another technique, and it's the one he's probably most famous for. So let's go to a new video and talk about that 21. Guido's Hand: Okay. This image we're seeing here is called the Guidoni in hand. Okay, if you've heard this name before, before this class of you heard the name Guido D Arezzo, you may have heard it in context of the Guidoni in hand. This is Guido's hand. Okay? This is often misunderstood. There's a lot of time I've heard people explain that the hand chart is how Guido came up with notation because there are five fingers and there are five lines on the staff. That's not quite right. Um, it doesn't have anything to do with that. In fact, you can see here he's still using for four lines on the staff. What it is is it's like hex accords. It's a way to teach music. And what he did is he had each syllable that was associated with a pitch, uh, represented on different parts of his hand so that with his other hand, he could point to this part of his hand, and people would know what they're supposed to sing. Right? So it was essentially kind of an early, early way of conducting like you can make your way through a major scale by kind of starting at the tip of the thumb or what? What was at the time of major scale? Or the hex Accord starting at the tip of the thumb, moving through the bottom of the hand, these syllables and then up and around to here and then over and then to here. So let me do that one more time. So here, across around to here, across, over and up. So it was basically just a way that he could tell singers saying thing. The note of the part of the hand I am pointing to and what's interesting is we still have this. There's a lot of people who are taught music with a hand system. They used sole fish like I was just talking about door Amy fossil at Edo, except there's, ah, hand symbol for each syllable insula fish so that a teacher can do the symbol and the student will noticing. Ah, that note. Right? So, uh, it's all very interesting where we get this Guidoni in hand and how it's still being used in many ways, very different, very, very different. But the main principle we still have 22. Types Of Chant: Okay, Next, let's focus in a little bit deeper on one of the main musical things. Probably the main musical thing happening at the time that at least that we know about. And that is chant. So let's go. We've talked a little bit about chant up till now. Let's dive a little bit deeper and really kind of get into the guts of what was happening with chant. Okay, so there were a few different kinds of chant, and how we define chant is a little tricky, because we could we could say it. There's some that was using, like many notes per syllable, talk more about that in a second. It was some that was done in like a call in response style, and that gets its own category, so there's basically a lot of different categories. But then there was a lot of it that was just that was mixing different categories together . It had a lot to do with the liturgy and what was required for different services in the church, so let's kind of break it up into two groups. First, the way that it was performed. There's kind of three categories and sort of 1/4. Okay, so, um, there was a kind of chant that was responsive. Meaning the singers, the people doing the chant, usually monks or someone similar they would sing, Ah, something. And then the congregation would respond with by singing the same thing, right? It's not all that different than how a lot of, uh, churches work today. In some Colin response type settings, there was another type of performance that was called Aunt. If inal, which kind of mentors two halves of a choir, the the monks that were chanting were split in half and one would sing, and then the other would sing, and then one would saying the other would sing and then go back and forth. Now, this word and diphenyl is kind of interesting because we've used that word, um, all the way up into the 20th century to mean splitting the splitting musically something into two parts and then having them performed separately, right? So this word, aunt, if inal goes, gives all the way back to Gregorian chant, but it's still somewhat used. It's not used so much anymore. Um, but for example, back in the days of Mahler, he experienced a lot or experimented a lot with Aunt if inal strength, where he would take the orchestra and put half the strings on the left side and half the strings on the right side to create this. This effect of the sound going back and forth between the two. But that's very, very, very much later than what we're talking about now. But that word and diphenyl sticks around for quite a while. Third way of performance was just called direct, in which the singers would just think, and there's no ah response or alteration or anything like that. And then the kind of fourth way is that sometimes they would mix it up and combine several things together. Right? There wasn't a really strict format for that, so those were kind of the three different performance methods that we saw. Now, another way we can classify. This is in how the text was treated. Because remember, these singers have to be singing words, right? That's one of the things singers need. Not always, actually. But most of the time singers need words at this period in history. They definitely needed words to sink, but they had a lot of them right because they had the Psalms and they had pretty much everything in the Bible. So let's talk about how they treated tax in the next video. 23. Treatment Of Text: okay, Similar to the different performance styles, we have three different ways. That text was treated in chant, and these three things are still used somewhat in vocal music of different types. We see variations on these, so the first week is called syllabic syllabic would mean basically every syllable in the word gets. Don't note, right? This is largely how most music works Now. I think you could say where If you have a syllable, let's say you have the syllable. Um, are the the words? Let's come up with some words. I am recording my voice. Okay, that's that's gonna be our our thing. We're going to set a very non creative thing. So in the syllabic style, every syllable will get its own pitch. So something like I am recording my own voice. That was totally a total and strange. But you get the point. An alternative to that would be pneumatic. Okay, so nomadic brings us back to that word newme. Right? We've seen this word newme, and that noone was was an early word that we used for the pitch. Okay, so in pneumatic, it means that a long passage of syllables will stay on the same pitch. And then, uh, some syllables, usually at the end, might go up or down. Hey, this is what you hear a lot, um, of in a modern kind of contemporary Catholic service. You might hear this being done by the priest or something like that. Um, so it be like, I am recording my own voice, right? So most of it was on the same pitch, and then it goes, and then I went down at the end. Another way would be melisma attic. And this is this is one thing that we still have. So we have in modern vocal music, something called a melisma and a melisma means that you might be singing in a style in which all syllables get their own pitch. But at some point, you put a bunch of notes on a single syllable. Okay, so how could we do that? I really shouldn't have set up the expectation that I was going to try toe sing all of these cause, as you already know, horrible, horrible singer. But what was our sentence again? I am recording my own voice, so I'll do a melisma on the word re of recording around the syllable re the first syllable of the word recording, so it would be I am re he according right. So I did several notes on the word re that is called a melisma. OK, so it's when you put a bunch of syllables our sorry, a bunch of notes on a single syllable. No, that is something we still do. And back at the time, we had a style of text setting that used a lot of melisma is and it was called Al is Matic . So that's how the three different ways that text was treated at the time and how they were used. Now the actual text they use almost always biblical verge versus the Psalms were quite popular. Other elements of the text use probably dependent on what the service was and all of that so something I'm not very well versed on but on. That's basically how it was put together 24. Example Chant: Okay, so let's listen to an example, shall we? And look at one. So what we're seeing here is a kind of modern transcription, right? So what we're using is more traditional notation, sort of what looks like traditional notation. But it's a way to represent the new moms, uh, from how things were notated back then. So we have, uh, pitches on the staff that would be familiar to us. So it's kind of been altered. The notes don't have stems that you would be used to seeing right. It's just dots, because that's how Nunes worked. And the tempo and rhythm is a little bit more flexible, although it's pretty straight, Um, meaning that, uh uh Right. So it's I mean, you would hold this one longer than these, right? So you'll hear that in just second when you play it. What we're gonna hear what we're gonna here in this one is a response chant. So you'll hear a choir singing this line. And then as we go forward, you'll hear a soloist sing a line and then the choir respond with this line again, right? And that goes on for 20 minutes. We're not gonna listen to all 20 minutes, but we'll listen to the response. It starts with the response and then the solo and then response again. You'll also hear that there's a lot of Mel Is Matic singing happening here. So you can see that here on the syllable home. We're going to sing all of this. Okay, so all of these notes are gonna happen under the word Boehm. So there's a lot of different syllables happening there. Okay, so, um enjoy. And then we'll talk about meals way . 25. More To Chant: Okay, so there is a lot more to chant than the little bit that we've gone over here. So just to put a couple ideas in your head, they had a lot of formulas for the way that different melodies were used in the different church ceremonies. So they had something called psalm tones. And the different tones are not necessarily tones in the way that we think about him. They are, or they were. Well, I think they still are. You could say they're still used in some context, almost like their own little snippets of melody that got applied to different texts. So they were kind of like interchangeable melody. So I just want to point out here that there was more to chant than just this, and it was actually fairly complicated at its zenith. It was. There was a lot of formulas. There was a lot of different things going on on beer was there was a lot to figure out about performing it correctly. I don't want to get bogged down in the details of all of the nitty gritty of how it all worked, But if you want to learn more about it, look up the psalm tones and more about early chant literature, e Gregorian chant, liturgy, things. You can look up now, that being said, I want to move on and talk about the kind of first what I think of as sort of our first rock star of music, even though that's not really accurate to say. But it's the way I like to think of it. That is Hildegard von Bingen, a nun who was writing music back in about 1100 absolutely beautiful music in this chant style. But you'll find that her influence has continued to this day. So let's go to a new video. Let's talk about Hildegard von Bingen. 26. Hildgard Von Bingen: Okay, So Hildegard von Bingen was born in 10 98 1098 died in 11. 79. So 1179. So live to be about 80 years old. She was born in Germany when she was eight. Her parents center to the church to become a nun. She was reported to have kind of be led by visions. She had these visions all the time. And that led her to found her own convent in 11 50 near being in, which is where we get her name that as she's no now, just held a guard of being it. So she had these prophecies. She communicated with emperors, kings and Popes bishops throughout Germany, which is the area that she was in. And she began to write books on science and healing and more importantly to us at the moment poems, religious poems. And once she got a little bit older, she started setting them to music. So, using the techniques of chance that we know now, she waas setting these poems to music primarily as responses and pieces for the mass. So religious pieces, obviously, as was most things at the time, especially because she was not. She wrote two big books of music that survives today, so we know quite a bit about her music, and it is still performed. Now the thing that sets this music apart for me and I'm not talking about I'm not speaking from, ah music history level here. I'm talking from just as a someone who appreciates music here. The thing that separates this music from the rest of what was happening in chant at the time is the sense of melody. You really feel these melodies like you could you could sing them, whereas in a lot of chant, You don't feel like you would walk down the street just whistling that tune where some of this you do you really feel this music as melodic, you know, as something that even today you might sing. And that's why there are a lot of composers who have been really influenced by this. So it's common to find a very modern piece of music in which someone has taken a Hildegard von Bingen melody and, you know, put it for the orchestra and harmonized it with more current harmonies, but treated that melody with some kind of contemporary flourishes. It's very common. So let's listen, shall we? This is a piece Spiritus Sanctus. I found this video on YouTube accompanied by flowers, so I don't know why, but somebody put this Put flowers to this. Ignore the flowers. Don't worry about it. Just listen. Close your eyes. Ah, and deeply Listen to this music. Let it affect you because it will if you really let it. Here we go. Way, Way, - way , way, way, way, - way , - way , way, way, way, way 27. A Very Brief History Of Europe: Okay, so we've talked about what's happening in and around the church or the so called sacred music of the period. And I mentioned earlier that we don't really know a lot about what was happening in the non religious elements of Earth and non religious kinds of music at the time. But we do know a little bit s so we're gonna talk about that in this section. So this would be called secular Music's Remember Sacred and secular are the kind of two different kinds of music sacred anything involving the church secular, everything else. So with that, let's go to Europe. So everything we know about music in this period, more or less centers around Europe. Now, remember that what we're talking about here is what we know like, and one thing we know is that music was certainly happening in other places, right? Even probably in the United States with the Native Americans, music was a big part of their culture is a big part of their culture, I should say, but we don't have a lot of documentation at all about what was happening back in this period, uh, over there, or in many, many other places in the world because what we have is primarily documentation from the more educated upper class people who could, uh, figure out this notation that was connected to the church. So there's some, at least at first, a lot of connection between the sacred music and the secular music because of the notation . So what we have for records of this is we do have a number of pieces of music that show melodies that were used, and we'll talk about some of those in just a minute. But we also have descriptions of music making. We have pictures of people playing music. I mean, like drawings. And we have some actual instruments that we know were used for secular music rather than sacred music. And most of the songs that we have are either kind of descriptions of society in one way or another in this kind of medieval way or dance, dance, music or both. So dance music could be like drinking songs, things like that. Okay, so let's do a quick little history lesson on what's happening in the world, and we're around the ninth century now. Three big entities emerge ah from the decline of the Roman Empire Roman Empire still in existence. But there's three other kind of big things that are surpassing it in terms of activity. Side note, I'm totally not a historian, so if I screw any of this up, please leave a comment. Um, and I will correct it. So the 1st 1 that we have is the Byzantine Empire, and this is the one that's kind of most related to the Roman Empire, and it kind of in complicit encompasses everything around the Mediterranean Sea. So if you kind of draw a circle around the Mediterranean Sea here, so it goes all the way over into the Middle East into Turkey, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy Ah, and a little bit even down here in Spain and in kind of northern Africa up here, the 2nd 1 which is considered the most vibrant with the most happening at the time, is the Arab world. So the air world was, of course, over here, encompassing Saudi Arabia, Iran Ah, good bit of turkey and a cross over into Egypt as well. This is period. That's at the beginning of what's called the Islamic Golden Age, which is going to carry on for another couple 100 years in this from 9900 about where we are now. So it's early in the Islamic golden age. But there's a lot of activity happening there, and the Arab rulers were really known as being patrons of literature, architecture and the arts. So they did a lot to push forward music in all areas, both sacred and secular. So the the third area and the one that was kind of the poorest was actually Western Europe . So all of what we now know as Europe Europe was the poorest of those three things. Ah, it was about to hit its stride in terms of some big technological advancements, primarily in agriculture, which really exploded the food supply and led to a much higher standard of living. So by about 1300 or so Western Europe surpasses the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic world in economic strength. Now, why do we care about that? We care about that because as people have more food, ah, higher standard of living, they start to typically invest more time and money frankly, into, uh, preserving cultural things like art, architecture, music. So we get to know a lot about what's happening in that area era because of that higher standard of living. Okay, so we've just skipped over like huge amounts of history, including, like the the beginning of the Crusades cult of the Virgin Mary, a couple Popes, ST Thomas Coin. It's all this stuff, but that's OK, because I want to get back to the music and get back to things I'm more comfortable talking about than history of the world, although I would like to be more educated on the history of the world as a personal goal. But I am not right now, and I don't want toe say things I'm not comfortable with, so let's get back to talking about music. 28. Versus: Okay, so one thing we know is that ah, lot of songs are being sung in Latin, Right? So Latin was already nobody's first language, but it's still taught in school. And it was the language of the church for sure. And the more educated people so and remember those were the ones that could write things down. And those were, and that's what we know about the most is the things that were written down. So we have some Latin songs from the area. The earliest thing that we know about is these songs called Versus Okay, so it's kind of like versus of a song like we would call now, right like us a verse, verse one, verse two. But these recalled versus ah, they were bait based around poetry that rhymed they sometimes, in fact, I think, usually were associated with sacred music. However, they also on occasion were secular. So this is kind of the bridge, the the thing that can excess from sacred to secular. They're an ancestor. Teoh troubadour. Songs that might be a term that you've heard before is the troubadour kind of the traveling singer. We'll talk more about troubadours and just a minute in probably the next video or two. But these versus songs they originated about 12 century, 12th century. Ah, they were sung in Latin rhyming text and they were not based on chant, but were new melodies. Case remember, in a lot of chance you had a set number of melodies that were used in different ways. These were more free form in the way that they were put together. So their use was, um, sometimes to recite ancient poetry. So poetry at the time was you could sing it as well as just recited. So ah, lot of the songs were used in the recitation of ah, injured poetry not unlike what we do with poetry. Now, in some respects, other songs were used for talking about your love for the ruling family. Ah, the nobility. In other words, some Some of the time it was for satire, and sometimes they were just good old fashioned love songs. So, you know, you find some of these that are just love songs straight up. Ah, they were written down with Nunes in the same way that chant was because remember, these kind of still come from an upper class of society so they knew how to read. So the the songs from this area that we have that have been preserved are written in Nunes . So we have a little collection of them. How the Goal Yard songs. These come from the 10th century and let's actually go to a new video, So I want to play some of interpretations of them. 29. Golliard Songs: Okay, So the goal yard songs were written by the Gold Yards, which waas a group of traveling students. These were students that went around from town to town singing songs. They were four again for the kind of, ah educated audience. So that's why they were written down. But again they were written down with Nunes. And so Ah, and a lot of them didn't use a staff for the new moms. So we don't know what exactly the pitches are. We kind of have basic direction and, ah, general idea. So any riel interpretation of them is, in fact, an interpretation. It's a bit of a guess as to what it sounded like, but we have a lot of scholars and things who have informed us on what a very good guess would be. So let's hear. One here is one of the goal yard songs He me, we bungee e people be e way will be, um 30. Minstrels: Okay, so this is where things start to get fun. So minstrels so minstrels were singers and music performers, and there are a few kind of different kinds from from the Middle Ages. So they sung. They played music primarily for enjoyment, which is kind of a new thing, right? There's not always a strict purpose here, although there are occasions where there is a purpose, but not always. What's interesting here is that this is where we get the first real professional musicians , so people whose entire job it is to play music aside from some of the monks, right? You could argue that that's true of, Ah, some of the monks who did chant outside of the church. We get these professional musicians that we call minstrels, and there are a few different kinds, like I said before. So we have bards, so you may have heard of bards. My first introduction to the word barred was when I was a little kid. There was a video game called The Bard's Tale that I loved and played for years and years. I think you can still get it in some weird reboots, but the bards tale was kind of a game about a medieval story so kind of around the era of, you know, dragons and wizards and things like that. But it was sort of set up to be told from the perspective of the Bard, which was the musician singer storyteller of the era. Really a storyteller, I think, is the best word for it. So this is also where we get the connection to Celtic music singing songs at banquets and things like that. They played harp, fiddle, similar instruments. You'll see some of those in just a second now. Another thing that we had at this time was something called a jungle ear. A jungle year comes from the same word as juggler, right? So a jungle ear or a juggler sort of was a bit more lower class than the Bard's, and their job was kind of all around entertainer, right? So it wasn't specifically to juggle, but it was to be providing, ah, tricks, telling stories, singing and playing instruments, but basically to be the entertainment. So it wasn't as highly respected as the Bard because the Bard's were sometimes very valuable members of society for telling stories. Now the minstrels, which is kind of 1/3 thing. I jungle years and bards were types of minstrels. But later we start to get the term by, like the 13th century. We start to see the word minstrels being used as its own thing. And these were professional musicians that were usually employed by the court. So the nobility of the time they worked in the castle to provide music for different situations, backgrounds, Children, sometimes things like that. Now, what's really interesting here is that the minstrels eventually started creating their own union like this is like the the earliest musician unions was the minstrels and they they got together. And they said, We're gonna have certain code of ethics, certain rules, that we're all gonna live by certain pay rates. Um, and they're going to make sure that no one can play in this particular city unless they are a member of our minstrel guild, which is essentially the same as a union. So they think the most famous from this time was the Paris Minstrels Guild. So no one could play in Paris as a minstrel. Unless you're a member of the guilt is really fascinating. So let's hear some music from this time. Let's go to a new video and let's hear something 31. Minstrel Song: Okay, So what we're gonna hear here is a minstrel piece, and I want to just kind of get to This is a live performance. So the instruments that we're seeing here are a little bit different. So we have This woman is playing. She's got a variety of flute like things. Probably more recorders. Eso It's kind of It's a recorder, a type of recorder. This, I believe, is a viola de Gamba, which is kind of an ancestor to the viola. It's a big violin basically, and you play it sitting like a cello. You could think of it as a little cello, if you want. This is new wish to me. I'm not really familiar with this, but based on the sound of it ah, it's an adaptation of a lute. Um, um, I think probably a more modern adaptation of a lute. And also in this period, we start to get percussion added to these songs, and this guy is playing Ah, a number of more modern percussion instruments to simulate the sound of the percussion they had at the time. Some tambourines and drums primarily, um so Cem Shaker based things and some membrane based things. Some things you could hit. So let's listen 32. Troubadours: So lastly from this period, we get to the truth adore that The troubadour was a type of menstrual, and in fact, some places consider minstrel and troubadour as synonyms, so the same meaning the same thing. However, troubadours could come from a variety of backgrounds. The one thing I think that sets them apart from minstrel is the thing that separates them is troubadours tended to not necessarily be employed by the court and were a bit more of a rebel rouser. In other words, they engaged in political songs much more overtly. Troubadours were sometimes nobility themselves, in fact, quit often The most famous early troop adore we have is G um, the ninth, who was a Duke. Cuba. Doors also were keen to write things down, which is why we know a lot about them. They had they all kind of not all but the majority of them wrote these kind of biographies of themselves. Autobiographies, I suppose. But they also wrote a anthologies of their music called chanson ears, which translates to songbooks. The word Shan sun means song still in French. Ah, lot of troubadour work centers around France. It's a lot of the troubadours come from France. They also had a very specific style of music, which is a little bit different than what we've seen so far. They use trophic melodies, which means arse traffic songs. I should say so. A stroke thick song means a melody that repeats in many different ways are sorry repeats the same, but with many different texts associated with it. So, for example, think of a melody where you have verse one and then you have a second verse to the same melody and 1/3 verse to the same melody. Ah, fourth verse to the same melody that is called a stroke fix song. That's still the Norman creature that we use for those kinds of songs. So we get that from the troubadours. Um, and it was primarily syllabic singing. So if you go back to when we were talking about early kinds of chant, we're talking here about ah, songs in which pretty much every syllable gets its own note, right? There wasn't a lot of that. Mel is Matic style of singing happening in these types of songs. They also tended to have in a B form, so that means that there will be a verse, Another verse using the same melody and then something different A to the end. Okay, so in a section in a section and then a B section. So, uh, we'll talk more about form. As we progress through history becomes much more. Area becomes very important in later styles of music. Okay, so let's listen to an example of this, um, next video. 33. Guilliume IX Song: okay, I found one of G on the ninth songs, and it's kind of a goofy one. This kind of shows the style that was happening. And you're not gonna hear him singing in this. Ah, well, you're not gonna hear him at all, But this is an interpretation of that music. And it's This is a case in which the Troubadour is essentially reciting a poem to musical accompaniment, which was one of the styles of the time. Um and it's called a song of Nothing. And it's just kind of a witty little did he? So you'll hear the music in the background and, uh, the poet in front of it in English. Translation. Of course, for us here's a song about absolutely nothing. It's not about me, Not about anyone else, Not about love, not about being young, not about anything else. It came to me while I was asleep riding along with my horse. I don't know exactly when I was born. I'm not happy. I'm not angry. I'm not a stranger here. I don't belong. I can't help being like this. I was made like it by a fairy upon amount. I don't know if I'm asleep or awake unless someone tells me my heart's almost broken. It's so sad and all this doesn't matter amounts to me. I swear it. I sent mushroom. I love someone. I don't know who she is because I've never seen. She hasn't done anything to please me or to upset me, and I don't care. I've never seen her, but I love her truly. She's not get done, what she should to me or what she shouldn't. When I don't see her, then I'm happy. She's not worth a cock to me because I know someone who's gentler on Prettier, on Richer as well. I don't know where she lives, whether up in the hype. So down in the fields. I don't tell you the wrongs she does me. It hurts me too much, and it hurts me to stay here. So I'm leaving. I've made the poem. I don't know what it's about. I'm going to send it to someone. We'll send it with someone else to someone over a non Jew. Perhaps he'll be able to send me the key from his little box and unravel this 34. Advancedments In The Church: Okay, let's go back to talking about sacred music for ah, this last bit because there are some things developing in sacred music that are not developing in secular music, at least as far as we know. So first, in order to really get this in our head, let's talk just quickly about some of the things happening around the church at this time around the Christian Church at this time, two things in particular. So the first is architecture. So why do we care about architecture? Well, there's a very important reason, actually, around the mid 12th century and into the 13th century, we started to build, uh, churches and cathedrals that looked like this. This is a style that we later started to call Gothic cases Gothic architecture. What that meant was big open spaces, high ceilings, big stained glass windows, very ornamented designs and things like that. The ornamented designs don't affect music too much, but the high ceilings, the big spaces they do because, as you'll see throughout history, architecture and music are actually pretty closely linked. If you're into watching Ted talks, there's a great Ted talk by, uh, David Byrne. Google it, you'll find it about the intersections of music and architecture. Basically, architecture defines the space, and then music tends to adapt to fit that space. So when we have these big, huge cathedrals, we started writing music that had, ah, lot of room to reverberate through those cathedrals. And in David Burns Ted talk, he goes on to talk about you know, how that developed throughout history all the way down to, you know, in the eighties when we had these tight little dive bar clubs and the music that fit that scene is kind of how we get or one of the ways that we get punk, right? So let this be the first lecture in which Gothic architecture, Gregorian chant and punk music was mentioned in the same, uh, paragraph. But there it is. There is a connection to everything. So we start getting these big cathedrals. Another thing that was happening was the intellectual movement. So this was people like ST Thomas, a quietness and others who really sought to bring in the classical philosophy of Aristotle and author new text. So there was this through is this new interest in development of new material? So that meant that the Gregorian chant that we were always used to. It was open to some new interpretations, in particular polygamy, which we'll talk about in just a second. Another thing that came up because of that was several new styles of music, all of them primarily. Well, I shouldn't say primarily but mostly different styles of singing, but also just different styles of music that were used in different applications and also kind of four big, fundamental things about music that are still fundamental things about music that we know today. So let's break into a couple of videos and talk about those things, so first polyphony. 35. Polyphony: Okay, So polyphony, polyphony makes its way into chant at this period in history. Now, this piece that we're looking at here is from a little bit later, about 100 years later than when we're talking about. But it shows what polyphony is. So let me first just define what this thing is. So if you can't read music at all, don't worry. We're not going to focus on reading this. Okay, let me just show you. You'll be able to see just by looking at it what polyphony is and what it isn't. So here, see this first line just to spit here? This is no polyphony. Okay? Everybody is singing the same thing. At least all of the lower voices. They're all singing the same thing. OK, now let's go down here. Look at this. There's all these different lines, right? This is prolific. Me politically means there's more than one line happening at a time. That's all it means. So before when we heard chant and all the examples we heard, we heard primarily one main thing happening at a time. But when we get to polygamy, we have several things happening at a time like Polly, right? Like poly P o l y means multiple. So different voices have a different part, right? And this is something that you probably know from music just by listening to music, right? Like when you listen to an orchestra or a rock band or anything, you know, the bass player has a different part than the guitar player, which has a different part than the singer, right? That is politically okay. Prior to this point in history, we didn't have that we had. Everybody played the same thing. So and this kind of intricate weaving of lines is something that sounded rather good in these big, big cathedrals, right? And still does. Frankly, if you listen to, like, the music of Bach, it's all over polyphony, right? It's happening all over the place. And it just filled these big spaces just beautifully and again still does. If you get a chance to listen to some of that in one of these big old cathedrals, it is a beautiful thing to experience. So that's what polyphony is. Multiple lines happening at once. Okay, let's move on and talk about this kind of four other inventions that popped up. Inventions is a weird word, but I guess it's an invention 36. The 4 Inventions: So because of political me, we get four other things that we now know as standard things in music that kind of have to be invented to accommodate polyphony. Okay, so those four things are counterpoint, So counterpoint is the 1st 1 So counterpoint means the way these different lines interact with each other. Okay, so if you imagine point, counterpoint, point counterpoint, there's there are systems and rules. We're not gonna go over all of this. However, I do have a lot of counterpoint in my music theory classes. If you want to check those out, we go over all the rules and everything you need to know about counterpoint. But for our purposes here, just know that counterpoint is the way multiple lines interact with each other. The second thing is harmony. Harmony is what happens when two notes happen at the same time. So here we have a cord, right? That's harmony. And we have harmony all over a counterpoint, right? It isn't part of it, but you can look at it like, for example, here this is a C. And this is an f. Okay, so we know that when those two notes happen at the same time it makes the interval of 1/4. This is harmony, cap. Once you get any music theory, you are studying harmony. That is the biggest element, but not the Onley. But the biggest element of what music theory is is the study of harmony and counterpoint, I suppose. Um, but harmony is the result of multiple notes happening at the same time, and you can think of it like chords if you want. The third thing that came about because of polygamy is standardized notation. So we've talked a lot about notation because it's important in history and documentation. However, we had all of the notation systems that we've talked about so far. The new mums and the variations on the new moms were good and they were developing, but they were a little bit regional. Everybody kind of had their own spin on it, and it was not a unified rules about how to read music. Right? So once we got polyphony, music got a lot more complex, right? And so the rules of how to read music on a staff became universalized, and there was a way that we did it and everybody learned the way if you learned how to read notation the last of these four things and perhaps the most interesting. The most interesting to me is the idea of composition. Okay, and you're thinking like Wait a minute. We've been talking about composition ever since the beginning because if there's music, someone has to have written it, and that is composition. True, however, music Waas used for a purpose and primarily for these church services and the idea of someone sitting down and writing music never needed to occur before polyphony. And things got more complicated, right, because there were a set of melodies that were used for different occasions. That's how ah lot of chant worked. And there were people writing melodies and writing chant like Hildegard von Bingen, for example. But the idea of her as a composer of someone who wrote music primarily didn't really exist . She was, and many people like her were considered poets who had their poetry sung often right as closer to poetry. But now we have people whose job it was to sit down and write music, and it was in many ways, a profession, and this is gonna keep changing the idea of the composer is kind of fascinating to follow. And as we go through history, you'll hear all these different things about how composers were seen in society. You know, it wasn't until, like the 18 hundreds, 19 hundreds even that the composer became this kind of rock star icon. Prior to that, it was kind of just a job that somebody had, and it wasn't particularly romanticized, with some notable exceptions. So those are those four things that I'm talking about. So polyphony gets us these four things. Counterpoint, harmony, notation and the idea of composition that we never had before this period. So another thing that it got us was a bunch of different styles of music and ways of performing music. So let's talk in a little bit more detail about two of those in the next couple videos we're going to talk about or Ghanem and the Motet 37. Organum: So one of the earliest ways that we see polyphony creeping in is through a style of singing called or Ghanam. So in this style of singing, we have something similar to a drone. So in the earliest forms of organ, um, you had one voice singing a pitch and holding it for a long time. Ah, well, there was a melody song above it, right? So there was So the lower pitch was there's a drone and it just kept going. Later, we get to other kinds of organism in which the drone pitch starts to move around a little bit. So in this example that we're gonna hear here, this is called oblique or Ghanem. So this is a little bit later than that earlier kind. So you see two voices. The top one is called the principal voice, and the 2nd 1 is Court is called the organ All Voice. So this one is kind of like a drone in that it's staying on the same pitch, but it moves down a little bit and then up, right. So, you know, over here it moves around quite a bit. But then it goes back to the same pitch and stays there a bit, so it has quite a bit of motion. But it also has sometimes when it's just staying on the same pitch for, ah bit of time. Now one thing to note here is that the rhythm that they're singing is the same. Okay, so for every note this person sings, this person is also gonna sing it or this group of people and this group of people is also gonna sing. So people, if any, is we would call this one toe one, right? So for every note here, there's a note there, right? So now this is an early form of polygamy and it gets much more complicated, but it's a great place to start. So let's hear some of this. I won't play this whole thing, but let's try to get it in our head, and then we'll move on and talk about Motet, which gets a little bit more advanced 38. Motet: So as we go further and further down this road of prolific me, we get to the motet and the Motet has multiple voices singing multiple lines, sometimes two, sometimes three, sometimes four. The motel primarily existed in the church, but found its way out into society a little bit in a way that there's this one theorist on the 13th century who who wrote this about the motet. It is not decelerated in the presence of common people because they do not notice it's subtlety. Nor are they delighted in hearing it, but the presence of the educated end of those who are seeking out subtleties in the arts. In other words, according to this person, the Motet is something for a sophisticated society because it's complicated. There's a lot of notes happening, and it needs to be appreciated by people who understand what's happening. That's what they're saying. Here you'll find people who say that about music all the way up till now, even and to our ears. It won't sound overly complicated, but remember that this is coming from, you know, chant and organ room, which was relatively simple. And this is a major step forward in terms of the amount of stuff happening at a time. So if you go all the way back to its very beginning, it's firmly rooted in Latin, which was something that only highly educated people were speaking at the time. So that has something to do with this kind of pretentious nous around it also. So that being said, it's a different kind of polygamy. It is more complicated, so let's hear an example of an early motet. 39. What Next?: Okay, so that was a lightning quick tour through music as we know it from the dawn of time. Up till about the 13 hundreds in the next class, we're going to dive into the Renaissance. So the renaissance is a creative time that you probably know quite a bit about the visual art of the Renaissance. You might know quite a bit about the architecture of the Renaissance. You may have studied those things in school, and you might know a handful of composers that were working in the Renaissance. We're gonna start to encounter some familiar names. Once we get there. There's Ah lot of beautiful music that was made in the Renaissance. There's still a lot of beautiful music being performed of the music of the Renaissance, their entire ensembles devoted to playing music of the Renaissance on instruments built in the Renaissance, even in some cases. So I'm really looking forward to the next section of this class on the Renaissance, so please stick around, jump into that. If it's out yet, if it's not out yet, then just keep your eye appealed for it because it will be out soon. 40. Thanks and Bye!: All right. Thanks for hanging out. I hope you enjoyed this class. This is one of many, many classes I have here on this website. Please consider signing up for some of the other ones. We've talked a bit about music theory. And if you want to get more in the music theory, I have a 1,000,000 music theory classes that are very structured. So start at the beginning and go forward. And I will make you a master of music theory by the end of that, thanks for signing up for this class and being a part of it. I hope to see you in the next class or other classes I've made on this platform. If you enjoy the class, please consider leaving a good review and I will see you in the next one. 41. SkillshareFinalLectureV2 (2): Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. 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