Essential Korean Grammar Level 3 | Part 1 | Keehwan Kim | Skillshare
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Essential Korean Grammar Level 3 | Part 1

teacher avatar Keehwan Kim, Language teaching professional

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Course introduction

      1:52

    • 2.

      Course overview

      1:16

    • 3.

      1.1 Verb to modifier | ~은

      6:43

    • 4.

      1.2 Verb to modifier | ~는 & 을

      8:39

    • 5.

      1.3 Review lesson

      6:15

    • 6.

      1.4 Verb to noun | ~는 것

      6:59

    • 7.

      1.5 Verb to noun | ~기

      8:10

    • 8.

      1.6 Review lesson

      6:55

    • 9.

      1.7 Verb to noun | ~음 Part 1

      8:53

    • 10.

      1.8 Verb to noun | ~음 Part 2

      8:53

    • 11.

      1.9 Review lesson

      8:02

    • 12.

      1.10 Desc verb to adverb | ~이, 히

      7:58

    • 13.

      1.11 Desc verb to adverb | ~게

      6:47

    • 14.

      1.12 Desc verb to verb | ~아,어하다

      10:08

    • 15.

      1.13 Review lesson

      10:12

    • 16.

      2.1 Background | 은데, 는데

      7:39

    • 17.

      2.2 Discovery | 니까

      7:35

    • 18.

      2.3 Review lesson

      7:03

    • 19.

      2.4 Strong assumption | ~겠어요

      6:00

    • 20.

      2.5 Strong deduction | ~을 거예요

      5:58

    • 21.

      2.6 Review lesson

      6:21

    • 22.

      2.7 I think that... | ~는 것 같다

      5:23

    • 23.

      2.8 Do you think...? | 을까요?

      7:16

    • 24.

      2.9 Review lesson

      7:05

    • 25.

      2.10 Background assumption | ~을 텐데

      7:00

    • 26.

      2.11 Reason for suggestion | ~을 테니까

      6:24

    • 27.

      2.12 Review lesson

      6:33

    • 28.

      2.13 Seem, look + adj | 아,어 보이다

      5:36

    • 29.

      2.14 I think... | 을걸요

      6:33

    • 30.

      2.15 Review lesson

      6:30

    • 31.

      2.16 는 줄 알았다, 몰랐다

      11:47

    • 32.

      2.17 을 줄 알았다, 몰랐다

      7:23

    • 33.

      2.18 은 줄 알았다, 몰랐다

      5:58

    • 34.

      2.19 Review lesson

      10:25

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About This Class

Welcome to Essential Korean Grammar Level 3 | Part 1

Our level 3 course is going to our biggest grammar course, so the courses will be divided into 3 parts.

In part 1 of this course, there are 2 main units.

  1. Word forms - We will learn how we change various kinds of words into other word forms by adding suffixes
  2. Background & supposition - We will learn how to talk about background and provide related information. We will learn how to talk about our beliefs and thoughts, ask people's opinion, and talk about our incorrect assumptions.

As with all our courses, the focus is on speaking, so make sure you are able to actively participate as you go through our lessons!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Keehwan Kim

Language teaching professional

Teacher

Hi everyone!

My name's Keehwan Kim and welcome to my teacher profile page.

I have been a language teaching professional since 2005, and I have been working as a language learning content producer, working for the likes of BBC Learning English as a content producer.

I love everything about teaching and learning languages. I think best analogy of language learning is of trying to go up an escalator that's coming down. You have to work hard to make forward progress, and if you stop trying, it's easy to lose all that progress you have made.

Many of us live in environments where interacting with the language you're learning is extremely difficult, but I hope my courses help you to engage with the language you're trying to learn and help yo... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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Transcripts

1. Course introduction: Hi everyone and welcome to level three essential chorionic grammar course. Now we're going to cover a lot of things in our level three grammar course. And to make everything a little more digestible, we're going to break the course down into three parts. And in part one, we will be covering the following. First, we're going to go over word forms, how we change verbs into modifiers that indicate different tenses. We will learn how we change verbs into nouns by adding Lynn got, key and m to the verb stem and how we use these nouns. We'll then take a look at how we can change descriptive verbs into adverbs by adding II he all care to the descriptive verb stem. Lastly, we will learn how we can change a descriptive verbs into verbs by adding to the stem. Once we have learned about word forms will learn various connective endings and verb endings to provide background information and reasons for doing something. We'll learn how to talk about things we think we know and things we believe to be true. We'll also learn how to ask for people's opinions. And lastly, we'll learn how to talk about our incorrect assumptions, things we incorrectly believed to be true. Now as with all our grammar courses, there are less than worksheets for you to preview and review what you learned. And you can also practice writing the sentences from the lesson. I hope that gives you a good overview of what you'll be learning in this course and as a way, so once you join the course, I will see you in the first lesson. Bye bye. 2. Course overview: Hi everyone. In this video we're going to explain how this course is designed. Now if you've taken our grammar courses before, the layout of the course shouldn't be too unfamiliar. But to reiterate the central part to our grammar course is the video lesson, where we teach the important grammar concepts. To prepare for the lesson, you should download the lesson worksheets and look through the vocabulary list so that you're familiar with the worst you will see in the example sentences. Generally only the difficult words in the example sentences will be in the vocabulary list. So do keep that in mind in each lesson. After learning the structure, the meaning, and the usage rules of the grammar form, you will do one listening repeats and one independent speaking practice. At regular intervals, there are review lessons. You can review what you learned and further strengthen your understanding and application of the grammar forms. After each lesson, please use the lesson worksheets. So practice writing the conjugation patterns and also practice writing the sentences from the lesson. That's a quick overview of how the course is laid out. And the next lesson is our first grammar lesson for this course. See you then, bye-bye. 3. 1.1 Verb to modifier | ~은: Hi there. In the first two lessons of this course, we're going to learn how to change verbs into modifiers. Now in level one, we learned to change Korean adjectives, descriptive verbs into modifiers by adding DNA or into the verb stem, depending on whether the verb stem ends in part-time or not. For example, yet Buddha, to be pretty becomes yet been. And check that to be small becomes jargon. We can use these modifiers like English adjectives and position them in front of nouns. We can say, yep, boom, carbon, yet bingo, bang, and this means a pretty bag. Similarly, Korean verbs can be changed into modifiers that can be used in front of nouns. But depending on how we change them, the modifier can also indicate the verbs past, present, or future tense. And the way we change verbs into modifiers is by adding in then or URL to the verb stem, indicates the verbs past tense then indicates the verbs present tense in indicates the verbs future tense. In this lesson, we will learn how to use. And in the next lesson we'll take a look at the use of none. And let's first take a look at two examples sentences that use these modifiers. Gay, check gas. This is the thing I bought. A check. I was hungry. Hey, check got Paulson or this is the close I took off EJ trigger pulses. In the first sentence, the modifier is ten, and this is made from the verb as Hulda, meaning to buy. If a verb stamp doesn't end in PyCharm, we simply add nimble chimp to the verb stem. So Sadat becomes Hamlin. In this sentence, hand modifies the noun caught, meaning a thing. Sun god or sangha, which is more common in speech, means the thing that one boat. So check us and God, or check us and God means the thing that I bought. In the second sentence, the modifier is Paulson. Paulson. And this is made from the verb, meaning to takeoff, as in take-off close. And if a verb stem ends in part-time, we add him to the verb stem, so that becomes Paulson. In this sentence pause, it modifies the noun, meaning close. So checkout. Paulson ODE means close that I took off. In each of these sentences, the modifiers indicate the verbs past meaning means something I pulled and pause. It means something I took off. Now there are some irregular patterns of adding into verb stems, and we will list these patterns in the lesson worksheet. Okay, so let's take a look at two more examples sentences. Ie sigdang in Leica, Capone Core CAL. This restaurant is a place that we've been to. We've been to this restaurant, dining, Woody Guthrie carbon, Egon check. I Shizhen could initiate. This is the bowl that I watched. Egon checker Shizhen caduceus. So in the first sentence, carbon is made from the verb phrase cardboard that which means to have been somewhere. And it modifies the noun code, meaning a place. So what do you got? A coupon code means a place that we've been tomb. In the second sentence, Shizhen is made from the verb, meaning to wash. It modifies the noun and could it above? So checker Shizhen included means above that. I watched. With that in mind, let's first do a list and repeat practice of sentences we have seen so far in this lesson. Think about how modifiers in each sentence is used. Check US hunger. Hunger. Posit or CAL. Woody got carbon. Egon checker. Shizhen could associate. Excellent job, well done. Let's now move on to the independent practice. This practice, you will see full sentences on the screen. And I'd like you to change the underlying verbs into modifiers by adding the inbound team or into the stem and say the full sentences. Let's begin the practice. Egon checkers hand carbanion. Morgan going up PAGA. Egon means UGA touched intake E L E online and Woody Guthrie upon your YL. Excellent job today. Well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to change verbs into modifiers in the past form by adding into the verb stem. In the next lesson, we will learn how to change verbs into modifiers that indicate the valves present and future tense. See you then, bye-bye. 4. 1.2 Verb to modifier | ~는 & 을: Hi there. In this lesson we're going to continue learning how to change verbs into modifiers. We're going to learn how to add Nin to verbs to form modifiers that indicate the verbs present tense. And also how to add earlier to verbs to indicate the verbs future tens. Let's first take a look at how we add an end to form modifiers. Here are two examples sentences. Chandon, hexane, then Qian Zu, sleeping student is Shinzo channel and hexagons and x2. Wudi God. Is this the food that we eat? Ego legal minimum, Shigeo? First, in terms of how we added when we add Lynn two verbs, regardless of whether the verb stem ends in part-time or not, the verb Chadha to sleep becomes tannin, and MLK data to eat becomes among them. Now there are various irregular patterns to how we add them to verbs, and these will be listed in the lesson worksheets. Now, when we change verbs into modifiers by adding then the modifier indicates the present tense of the verb. So channel kinda means that sleeps, and then kinda means that E. In the first sentence, challenge modifies the noun hexane, Student. Chaplain. Hexane means a student who sleeps or a sleeping student. In the second sentence, mom than modifies the noun in music, food, mountain in a mistake or with the subject, Wudi guy, munging machine means food that we eat. Let's take a look at two more examples sentences. Egon bashing them, moody. This isn't water that you drink. This isn't drinking water. Egon bashing them, moody and Magda tendon or certain Pang a SIL, the close mom's looking for is in the room. Or mega channeling or San Pang a cyan. In the first sentence, marshy that to drink changes to machine it. Bashing them more means water that you drink or drinking water. The second sentence, chapter to find, look for changes to tendon and channeling or omega. Channeling old means close mom is looking for. So with that in mind, let's first do a listening repeat practice of the sentences that use modifiers ending in Linda, Shannon, hexane, Qian Zu, channel, and hexagons, Shinzo, ALL Wudi garb on linear machine. Egon mashing them, moody and omega ten men or San Pang, a style that was great, Well done. Let's now take a look at how we add O2 verbs to form modifiers that indicate the verbs future tense. Here are two examples sentences. Woody got bulgur, the machine. This is the food that we will eat. Hey, Woody garb algorithm. Challenge when II carbonate is hierarchy where I don't have plans to buy this bag, Chandon Aqaba, and there's hierarchy where GIP, So now there are two patterns to adding two verbs. First, if a verb stem ends in PyCharm, we add earlier to the verb stem. In the first sentence, bulk data to eat changes too vulgar. Vulgar modifies the noun in music, meaning food. So vulgar, music, or with a subject, legal mortgage, means food that we eat. Second, if a verb stem doesn't end in part Tim, we add lyric by Tim to the verb stem. In the second sentence, Sadat to buy changes to hire. Modifies the noun k, plan or e. Kappa agonists highly caraway kinda means a plan to buy this bag. In certain contexts, modifiers using URL function similar to two plus verb structure in English, which implies an action that will happen in the future. Let's take a look at two more examples sentences. Chandon, e-book, OCI, upside. I have no clothes to wear. Challenged and EBITDA or shop style, Pat TA, or a single guard. Or there are more friends who will come to the party, patio or a single guy toys style. In the first sentence that to where changes to eBay. And it modifies the noun or close. So evil odd kinda means close to where in the second sentence, or two Km changes to. It modifies the noun Cheng Gou friends. So orbiting Gu kinda means friends who will come. With that in mind. Let's now do a list and repeat practice of the sentences with modifiers indicating the verbs future meeting. Wudi guy, bald eagle, woody, gaba, Charles II, carbon. There is hierarchy. Ebitda, CHEOPS, sorry. Pat TA or single guard or a CYA. Excellent job, well done. Let's now move on to the independent practice. This practice, you will see full sentences and depending on the prompts on the screen, I'd like you to change the verbs into appropriate modifiers and say the full sentence. If you're ready, let's begin the practice. My kinsmen and England Tegea by hugging and this had army upside-down scenario, could look outside. Egon daily pulmonary pathology, AR. Excellent job. Well done. Okay, so today we learn to change verbs into modifiers to indicate the verbs present and future tense. The next lesson, we will review everything we learned in the last two lessons on changing verbs into modifiers, which can be used in front of nouns. See you then, bye-bye. 5. 1.3 Review lesson: Hi there. In this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the previous two lessons, the use of Lynn and to make verbs into modifiers. Let's first revisit the use of lessons ago we learned that we attach into verbs to form modifiers which can be positioned in front of nouns. These modifiers indicate the verbs past tense. And there were two main ways of adding in. First, if the verb stem doesn't end in part sim, we add dN by Tim to the verb stem. However, if the verb stem ends in part Tim, we add into the verb stem. With that in mind, let's first do a listening repeat practice of sentences that use modifiers ending in gas, Hunger. Games, Hunger, pulsing Oceania. Ischemic tannin, would IGA carbon, Egon checker. She's an encoder. That was great, well done less than do an independent practice. This practice, you will see full sentences and I'd like you to change the verbs into their modifier forms appropriately and say the full sentence. If you're ready, let's begin the practice. Egon tag us and Kaaba means UGA Morgan, Aqaba and then Egon meaning so guards, heads and Tegea ALL EN1 and Riga, Ponyo, YL. Excellent job, well done. Let's now review how we add Nin to make modifiers. In the previous lesson, we learned to attach limb to verbs to form modifiers that indicate the verbs present tense. And we add into verbs regardless of whether the verb stem ends in patchy or not. We also learned to add a verb stems to form modifiers that indicate the verbs future tense. And we add little by Tim if the verb stem doesn't end in part Tim, but if the verb stem does end in part Tim, we add. Okay, So with that in mind, let's first do a list, a repeat practice of sentences that use these modifiers. Channel, hexane, Shinzo, woody garb on minim GDAL, Egon machine and moody and Woody garb, vulgar music. Charles II Cabana is hierarchy where CHEOPS, Cheonan, EBITDA or CHEOPS. That was great, well done. We'll now do an independent practice. Same as the first independent practice. You will see full sentences. And depending on the prompts you see on the screen, I'd like you to say the full sentence by changing the verbs into the modifier forms appropriately. Okay, So if you're ready, let's begin. Usually my opponent, tyramine, hugging and go and a hydrocarbon scenario could UGA, Egon datable net OpenGL. Fantastic efforts, well done. Okay, so today we reviewed how we change verbs into modifiers, which can be used in front of nouns. And depending on how they are changed, different modifiers can indicate different verb tense. In the next lesson, we will learn how to change verbs into nouns in Korean. See you then, bye-bye. 6. 1.4 Verb to noun | ~는 것: Hi there. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to change verbs and descriptive verbs into noun forms by adding in God and then God to the stem. Now as we have learned, we can add a name to the verb stem to change verbs into modifiers. So if we consider the Baja, which means to do, Hannon is a modifier, that roughly means that one does. And these modifiers can be used in front of nouns. And we can use these modifiers in front of the noun caught to form a noun phrase. Caught is a dependent noun, meaning that it cannot be used on its own. And in cot refers to objects, situations, and actions. So when we add Hannan to cut and form a Hannan God, it means something that I do or some action that I take. So we can basically add and then got to verbs to form these noun forms. So let's first take a look at some example sentences that use these noun forms to negotiate while listening to music is good. Remarked in Engage while chmod, Chenin gossip are there. How about taking a rest on the weekend tomorrow machine and gone out there. Cernan to Kohonen gossip. Why? I like playing football. Cheonan took one and go to YR. When noun forms using the gut are used in sentences, they function similar to English. Charon's and gerunds are basically verb I-N-G forms that function as nouns. So God is listening, Chenin, God is resting or taking a rest. And two go hand and God is playing football. So that's the key use of noun forms that end in God. Also in each sentence, we've used a noun forms with God as different sentence parts. And as a result, they are used with different particles. And in speech when didn't God is used where the subject, topic, and object particles, they're pronounced in their contracted forms. So CAUTI becomes two. K, Chenin, cosin becomes sheen and gun and go Hannon Gaza becomes two go hand in glove. And although it's still fine to read these phrases as they are written, these long forms, such as tin CAUTI, are quite formal. So in speech, the contracted forms are much more common. Okay, So let's first do a list and repeat practice of the sentences. To engage while. You might then engage while tomorrow's Chenin gun or Cheonan to Kohonen go to why am excellent job? Well done. Okay, so let's now take a look at two example sentences that used noun forms made with descriptive verbs. Charmin, yet bongo called lasagna. I chose the pretty one. Cheonan. Yep. Dong OK. Or lasagna. Chagnon got hana juseyo. Please give me a small one. Chagnon got hana juseyo. Now forming noun phrases with descriptive verbs is a little different. Instead of God, we add in God. However, if the descriptive verbs stem doesn't end in Patch him, we add the hindgut. So yep, CPU that to be pretty becomes yep, boom, got. On the other hand, if the descriptive verb stem ends in Patch him, we add in God. So check that to be small, becomes tagging God. And when we use noun forms that use descriptive verbs, they're not used like English, Charon's, but instead, yep, whom God means a pretty one, and tab and God means a small one. Lastly, in speech, caught is often pronounced as car. Okay, So with that in mind, let's now do a speaking practice of these two sentences. Repeat after me. Charmin, yet bongo called lasagna. John and yet bongo or lasagna tagging Gore Hannah to say, Yeah, that was great, swelled on. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see full sentences. And depending on the prompts on the screen, I'd like you to change the highlighted verbs and descriptive verbs into nouns by adding gut or in God. And say the full sentence. If you're ready, let's begin the practice. Django, congo to say our chador cotton gaze CYA. Fantastic job today. Well done. Okay, so today we learned to change verbs and descriptive verbs into nouns by adding either Ning god, Oh god, to the verb or the descriptive verbs then. And we learn how we use these noun forms in sentences. In the next lesson, we will learn how we change verbs into noun forms by adding key to the verb stem. See you then, bye-bye. 7. 1.5 Verb to noun | ~기: Hi there. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to change irregular verbs and descriptive verbs into noun forms by adding key to the verb stem. Now, when we convert verbs into nouns by adding key to the verb stem, they are considered to be similar to Charon's, which are verb I-N-G forms that function as nouns. In this way, nouns ending in key function similar to now forms made with God from the previous lesson. And as gerunds are verb I-N-G forms which function as nouns. This means that nouns ending in key can function as sentence subjects and objects. Let's take a look at two example sentences that use these noun forms. Humble hockey game, audio while studying is hard. Or Charmin been Sudan things and how good or how Messiah, I decided to go hiking with Min Soo Chan and been Sudan, Tanzania. Good. Oh SIR. So in the first sentence, the verb Khumbu Huldah combines with key to become Khumbu hockey, and it means studying. In the second sentence the verb, but things on Huldah combines with a verb ending ketone, which we use to talk about promises or decisions we make and inquiry. And there are many verb endings that begin with key. So when we use this verb endings, we're essentially creating noun forms that ending key. Now, as we learned in the previous lesson, we can also add the two verbs and form nouns that function like Charon's. So nouns that end in key and nouns that end in the gut essentially have the same function. And although in certain sentences they can be used interchangeably, there are some key points to note regarding how and when we use nouns that end in key and then gup. First of all, although in many sentences we can use nouns that end in key and then got interchangeably. In general, the use of nouns that end in God is more common in everyday speech. Second, nouns made with key at the end are more commonly used in standalone phrases. And these noun phrases are often used in lists of things to do and as title of certain functions. For example, in Microsoft Word, the function of find in Korean is tacky. Tacky, which is the noun form of the verb but tapped out, which means to find. Third. In Korean, there are many fixed phrases that use nouns ending in key. For example, running as exercise or Olympic sport is called pile Iggy, Pali Ag. And this is formed from the verb a pallete out, which means to run. So a 100 meter sprint in the Olympics is called ping me, pal leaky, paying me total leaky. Also listening exam in English tests would be called to the ischium. To ischium. And two key is formed from the verb, meaning to listen. And walking as a form of exercise is called caught GKE, called Guillen Dong, and cauchy is formed from the verb, meaning to walk. So there are many fixed nouns that end in key. Lastly, there are many verb endings that beginning with key, such as keyed or Hadar in the second example sentence. But there are also many others like key, the key should have CUDA and key Manhattan. So as you are exposed to various sentence structures and phrases in Korean, you will see that the use of qi is very common in many structures. Okay, So with that in mind, let's take a look at more examples, sentences and phrases that use nouns ending in key. Chip chunks or hacky, cleaning the house. Chip chunks or AGI secured in Coogee, screen size, sacred in cookie. E heresy Zang edge. While this gym is good for exercising, eHealth, Cijiang and Charlie Hockey it or yak. So Caesarea, I promised to call Chang argued or yaks. Okay. Sil, okay. So the first phrase is something you might put on your to-do list for the day, cleaning the house, chip chunks of our game. The second phrase is a noun phrase used to refer to the screen size of TVs and other kinds of monitors. And here we've used a descriptive but Cuba, which means to be big, to form the noun cookie. So we can also use descriptive verbs to form nouns ending in key. The third sentence uses Windows, Huggy, which is made from the verb, meaning to exercise, and London I gave functions as the sentence object. Finally, in the last sentence we combine that China had to call as in to make a phone call with a verb ending keyed or yak. So CUDA, which we use to say what we have promised to do. These phrases and sentences represents many different ways of using nouns ending in key. Let's now do a listener repeat practice of these phrases and sentences. Chip chunks or hacky. Suckered in Coogee. Khumbu, audio wire. Ie Harris's Jan and donaghey catch wide. Charlie, how good or yak. So Messiah, Cheonan bins around Santa, good or Hezekiah. That was great, Well done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, we will practice saying full phrases and sentences. And I'd like you to change the highlighted verb or descriptive verb into a noun by adding key to the stem and read the full phrase or sentence. If you're ready, let's begin the practice. Mi nano and pico nugget them and they'll be Narain tastes. Good, OSI are fantastic job today, well done. Okay, so today we learned to change verbs into nouns by adding key to the verb stem. And we also looked at how we use these noun forms in Korean. In the next lesson, we're going to review what we learned on changing verbs into nouns by adding the N key. See you then, Bye, bye. 8. 1.6 Review lesson: Hi there. In this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the previous two lessons on changing verbs into nouns. Let's first revisit adding got to form nouns. Two lessons ago we learned that we can add ninja two verbs and descriptive verbs to form nouns. And these nouns that end in the gut function like English, Charon's. So tune in God kinda means listening. However, nouns formed from descriptive verbs, such as tag and God means a small one or a small thing. Adding then God is simple as we just added, then got to 0 verbs. However, with ingot, if the descriptive verb stem doesn't end in patches, we add neon God. But if the stem ends in part Tim, we add in God. Okay, So with a mind, let's first do a listen, repeat practice of sentences that use these noun forms. I'm going to go ahead and go to why am I to say that was great, Well done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, I'd like you to say the full sentence by changing the highlighted verbs into their nouns, by adding the gut or in God. Okay, So if you're ready, let's start the practice. Chmod air, air cannon gone down. Then Django, air-bone gaps. I enjoy. I can go to say L. Excellent efforts, well done. In the previous lesson, we learned to add the key to verbs to form nouns. And these noun forms also function like English, Charon's. So they are similar to nouns that end in gut. In terms of adding key to verbs is pretty simple as we just add key to verb stems regardless of how the verb stem ends. In many sentences, nouns that end in key and in God can be used interchangeably. However, in general, nouns that end in God are more common in everyday speech. Also announced that ending key are often used as standalone nouns. And we use these nouns when we list of things to do or as a title of various functions. Additionally, there are many fixed nouns that end in key, such as Palaeography, running, and to good listening. Lastly, there are many verb endings that begin with key, such as keyed or had a key to pad our data and Qi Shi Takata. So when we add these verb endings to verbs, we automatically form nouns that end in key. Okay, so with that in mind, let's first do a listen and repeat practice of phrases and sentences that ending key. Chip chunks or hacky. Security in Coogee. Excellent job, well-done, will now do an independent practice. Same as the first independent practice. You will see sentences with verbs in the infinitive forms. And I'd like you to change the highlighted verbs into a noun by adding key and saying the full phrase and sentences. Let's begin the practice. Moody, automatic key. Changjiang GKE. Fantastic effort today, well done. Okay, So today we reviewed how we change verbs into nouns by adding the gut and gut N key. In the next lesson, we will learn another way of changing verbs into nouns by adding him to the verb stems. See you soon again. Bye-bye. 9. 1.7 Verb to noun | ~음 Part 1: Hi there. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to change verbs and descriptive verbs into noun forms by adding into the stem. Let's first consider how we add two verbs and descriptive verbs to form nouns. Here are few examples. Chadha, jam, yet Buddha, yet boom, to chew gum. Ball got bogus him. In the first three examples, we've added him to the verb or the descriptive verbs infinitive form. And this is the most common way of adding. If the verb or the descriptive verb stem doesn't end in Patch him, as in the first two examples, we add mean by Tim to the stem. However, if the stem ends in Patch him, as in the third example, then we add him to the stem. These are the two main ways of adding him to the verb stem, but there are also various irregular patterns and we will list these in the lesson worksheet. The other important way of adding them is that M can be added to the past form of verbs and descriptive verbs. So in the last example, we've added him to the past form of Bach, that Bob, and this way of adding into a verbs past form relates to an important way of using these nouns. Okay, So before we take a look at how we use these nouns in sentences, let's first do a speaking practice of changing verbs into nouns by adding, repeat after me. Chardonnay, Cham. Yep, Buddha, yet boom. To chew gum. Ball. Got that bog. Awesome. That was great. Well done. Let's now consider how we use these nouns that end in. Now, there are three important uses to note with nouns that end in him were considered the first use in this lesson. And we'll look at the next two in the next lesson. Let's first take a look at an example sentence. Charmin to gummy today up to the NIR. I'm not afraid of death. Cheonan to Gummy, to. The first use of nouns that end in him is that these nouns relate to the conceptual meaning of that verb. Whereas nouns that end in key and in gut relate more to the action of the verb. So chew gum is more similar in meaning to death, while to key or tuning gut. More similar to dying or to die. So if we say Cheonan, two gummy today up TIGR, it means I'm not afraid of death. Whereas if we say Cheonan two gigawatts or Cheonan two non-Gaussian. Then these sentences mean I'm not afraid of dying or I'm not afraid to die. As such, use of nouns ending in him is very common in everyday speech, as they can be used to talk about the conceptual meaning of certain verbs. Here are a few more examples. The verb means to dream and the noun form Kuhn means dream. The verb a Chadha means to sleep, and the noun form cham means sleep. The verb means draw, and the noun form could im means a drawing or a picture. The verb, that means to fill and the noun form and Kim means feeling. And lastly, caught that means to walk. And the noun form cauda means steps or walking. And this is one of the irregular ways of changing verbs into noun forms. Let's take a look at example sentences that use these noun forms. Charmin, our jab, Busan, coumarin, Messiah. I had a scary dream yesterday. Cheonan, RJ Busan Kumar, cosign, Shinzen and Tommy by NIR chins who sleeps a lot. Shinzen and Tammy man, I mean Xun then could emerge child 30 IR Min Zu draws well means and n could emerge high ego, D-I-R. Party, the gimme sang, my legs feeling is strange. My leg feels strange. Party that gimme sang AR manana and codomain do DIR mean as steps or slow, meaner, walk slowly, mean n and codomain the DIR. So each sentence uses the noun form that ends in im. However, with certain nouns ending in, they are used with verbs they're made from. And this is particularly common with announce, gum, Cham and could him. So to talk about having a dream, we often say Gamow, good. To talk about drawing. We say cutie mercury, that could he mercury data. And to talk about a sleeping, we say Chalmers had that Tammy data. So the nouns ending in them function as the object of the verbs. Lastly, the literal translation of Korean sentences that use nouns ending in I can sound quite awkward. So although the last sentence literally means many steps or slow, this can be loosely translated to mean Bina, walk slowly. And this awkwardness of direct translation is common in nearly all sentences that use nouns ending in. So the first sentence literally means, I dream, the scary dream yesterday. But again, this can be loosely translated to mean I had a scary dream yesterday. So do keep this in mind as you do the speaking practice in this lesson. Okay, so let's first do a list and repeat practice of sentences. We have seen so far. Two gametes. Then. Busan, party, the gimme sang a banana and codomain, do DIR. Excellent job, well-done, less now do the independent practice. In this practice, you will see full sentences and I'd like you to change the highlighting verb into a noun by adding appropriately and say the full sentence. Okay, if you're ready, let's begin. Your gym. P E symbolic surgeon couldn't even go to y In Sudan. Who semi money. Tomorrow boy Jimmy CYA. Excellent efforts at a well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to change verbs into nouns by adding him to the verb stem. In the next lesson, we will learn two other ways of using nouns that end in him. See you then, bye, bye. 10. 1.8 Verb to noun | ~음 Part 2: Hello and welcome to the second lesson on forming nouns by adding into verbs. In this lesson, we will learn two other ways of using nouns ending in. And first we use nouns ending in him to say something we believe to be true. Here are two example sentences. Nice. She, them on their audio. You'll have a hard time because of the weather. Niacin audio, coca-cola means Vernon, she armory pass our peak on them. Money. The gig, SIR, means you must feel very tired because it took an exam, been Sunni and Shia, my bizarre pico nano money, the key SIL. In the first sentence, we use audio. Audio, and this is formed from the descriptive verb audio up that which means to be difficult or hard. And audio up that is one of the irregular verbs as it stem ends in peer Batson, and audio means hard time or hardship. And in the sentence we use this noun to say something we believe to be true, which is that the other person will have a hard time because of the weather. When we talk about something we believe to be true, we often use the verb ending oogonia, which is similar in meaning to will or be going to. In the second sentence we use pico, pico NAM, and this is formed from the descriptive verb, peak on Huldah, which means to be tired. So peak on our means tiredness or exhaustion. And similar to the previous sentence, we use pico Nam to talk about something we believe to be true. And this is that Min Zu must feel tired because he took an exam. And when we talk about something we believe to be true, we often use the verb ending cast soil, which works like the modal verb must. So we use cast soil to talk about a strong possibilities. Okay, So let's first do a listening repeat practice of these sentences. Audio, audio, benzene and Xiaomi. Money the key guess, I mean pico and money, the key guests. That was great, well done. Another way of using nouns ending in him is to report on something that has already happened. Here are a couple of examples sentences, Shinzen and your CME, semi-dome, Songjiang, AGI, and joy. Even though chimps who studied hard, his grades are not good. Shinzen and yellow CMY cumbersome Oedipal, Gua goal, Songjiang, China and hang Goldwater pay on and they're kinda me Mosiah. I had a lot of trouble learning Korean, China and hunger, water repellent and their him dummy man ISIL. Okay, so in the first sentence, the first part is tin soon and Yossi me, him. And cumbersome is made from Congo had that, which means studied. And this phrase highlights one of the functions of nouns ending in him. Korean sentences always have to end in verbs. And when we change the final verb in the sentence into noun forms by adding him, it helps to change the entire sentence into a noun phrase. So this part, Shinzen and yellow CMY, who has some, is essentially a noun phrase. So we kind of means chin Zeus studying hard. Then we add ed or Ugo alcohol, which means even though or in spite of. And then we add another idea in relation to the noun phrase ending in Congo has some. When we use nouns ending in him to report on past events, we often use the verbs in the past tense, such as Kong who had that, which means studied. In the second sentence, we have him them, which is made from the descriptive verb, hinder that meaning to be difficult or hard. Saw him them is similar in meaning to audio from the earliest sentence. And him them is a unique noun form as to form this into a noun, we actually added mean by Tim and form Lear and Medium cutbacks him. And this time, although the sentence is reporting on my past experience or having trouble learning Korean kingdom is made from the descriptive verb, him do that, which is in present tense. Sometimes when we write in journals or when we make notes of things that happened. We can write about past events with noun phrases that end in him. So we might write phrases like or no. By Nassim met Gina today or Noachian abdomen Nassim on Chuang, yes. Awesome. Was very pretty on tongue, yeah, Awesome. So in certain writing is quite common to report on one's daily events using noun phrases ending in. Okay, So with that in mind, let's practice these short noun phrases and also full sentences that use nouns ending in them to report on what has already happened. Let's begin the practice. Chuang. Yes, awesome. Great efforts. Well done. Let's now move on to the independent practice. In this practice you will see full sentences and as before, I'd like you to change the highlighted verbs into nouns by adding him and say the full sentences and phrases. Okay, so let's begin the practice. Namely Damien Kippur moon, the Chirico AR. So Gina, tomato cosine, I guess I will pass them. Cheonan Tang, Yana, pico, and MS. Sharia CYA. Fantastic job today. Well done. Okay, so today we learned two other important uses of nouns ending in them, which are to talk about things we believe to be true, and two, reports on past events. The next lesson is a review lesson, and we will review everything we learned in the previous two lessons on changing verbs and descriptive verbs into nouns by adding them. See you then, bye, bye. 11. 1.9 Review lesson: Hi there. In this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the previous two lessons on changing verbs and descriptive verbs into nouns by adding m to the stem. Let's first revisit the basics of adding into verbs and descriptive verbs, and it's first important use. Two lessons ago we learned how we add them to verbs and descriptive verb stems to form nouns. If the stem ends in Patch him, we add them to the stem. But if the stem doesn't end impacts him, we add BM batch him to the stem. Additionally, we can also add two verbs in their past forms to form nouns that indicate the verbs past tense. The first use of nouns ending in him was that nouns ending in them relate more to the conceptual meaning of the verb. So if we change the verb, to die, to chew gum is meaning is similar to death, however, to moon god and Chucky is more similar to, to die or dying. So they relate more to the action of the verb. Additionally, there are numerous nouns ending in him, which are fixed phrases. And these include Chung, meaning dance, and column meaning someone steps. Okay, so let's first do a listening repeat practice of changing verbs into noun forms and also sentences that use these nouns. To chew gum. Charmin or J, Busan, calmer, Mosiah, Shinzen and Tammy man, I mean n and codomain do DIR. That was great, well-done, less now do an independent practice. Same as the practice in the lessons, you will see full Korean sentences. I'd like you to change the highlighted verbs into nouns by adding them appropriately and say the full sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Your gym. So GNN, excellent efforts, well done. In the previous lesson, we learned to other uses of nouns ending in him. First, we learned that we can use nouns ending in him to talk about what we believe to be true when we use nouns ending in him. In this way, the sentences of a news verb endings the Gaya to say what will happen in the future, and cast soil to talk about a strong possibility. Second, we can use nouns ending in IRM to report on what has already happened when we use him in this way, verbs in past tense can be formed into nouns by adding them to the stem. Additionally, we also learned that sentences can be changed into noun phrases when we change the verb at the end of the sentence into a noun by adding them to the stem. Okay, So with a mind, let's first to a list and repeat practice of noun phrases ending in these nouns and sentences that use these noun forms. Nice sheet them on their audio. Guy, a benzene and she armory pass our pico enamored of money. The Keq, SIR. Awesome. Great job, Well done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, I'd like you to change the highlighted verbs into noun forms and form a noun phrase or a sentence that uses these nouns. Okay, So if you're ready, let's begin. So Gina, cosine, I guess I will pass them. Keep chatter. Cheonan, Tang, Yana, pico, and MS. Sharia CYA. Fantastic job today. Well done. Okay, so today we reviewed how we change verbs into nouns by adding into the verbs or descriptive verbs. And we also reviewed various ways of using these nouns. In the next lesson, we will learn how to change verbs and descriptive verbs into adverbs in Korean. See you soon again. Buh-bye. 12. 1.10 Desc verb to adverb | ~이, 히: Hello and welcome back. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to change Korean descriptive verbs into adverbs by adding E or he to the descriptive verb stem. Now, adverbs can have many different functions. But generally, when we think of adverbs, we think of adverbs or describe how an action is done. In English, these adverbs generally and in LY, such as slowly, quickly and quietly. To form such adverbs in Korean, we can add e or he to the descriptive verb stem. And these adverb forms can describe how a certain action is done. Let's first take a look at two examples sentences that use adverbs ending in e, charge and then chatter. Get glitchy. Garcia, I clean the car cleaner. John and teta get cushy type Garcia, Cheonan, pen DC and just CYA. I set straight on the chair. John in the giant panda and just CYA. In the first sentence, the adverb is get Gucci, meaning clean. And this adverb describes how I clean the car. Technology is made from the descriptive, but get good ta-da, meaning to be clean. And where the certain descriptive verbs we can change how that to E. In the second sentence, the adverb is pandas she, meaning straight. And this adverb describes how I sat on the chair. Pandas is made from the descriptive pundit ta-da, meaning to be straight. Generally, we usually positioned the adverb next to the verb it is modifying, but you can also have other elements between the adverb and the verb. Now not all descriptive verbs ending in Hadar change into adverbs by changing how that to me. Some Korean adverbs just end in e. For example, illegally is an adverb that means separately or individually. And this is an adverb on his own and is not changed to an adverb from a descriptive verb. Also, there are other descriptive verbs that can be changed into adverbs by adding E. And these include cut up that to be near any changes to cut guy and Montana to be a lot changes to Marnie. So as well as adverbs ending in hada. Other adverbs can also change into adverbs by adding e. In our lesson worksheet, you will find a comprehensive list of adverbs that end in e. Let's first do a speaking practice of the sentences that use adverbs ending in e. Cheonan chatter, get QC, and just psi. That was great, well done. Let's now take a look at adverbs ending in HE. Here are two example sentences. Charlie, soldier key, bilayer. I honestly don't know. Cheonan soldier keyboard, Liao, Cheonan, familiy chatter, pass CYA, I clearly saw the car, Cheonan Permian each other messiah in the sentences, the adverbs are salty and umami, and they mean honestly and clearly. These adverbs are formed from descriptive verb, a soldier, CUDA, To be honest and Pume young Hadar to be clear. So we change how that to he. And as you can see in the second sentence, we have the object of the verb between the adverb and the verb. Now, of the two ways of forming adverbs, changing hada to he is more common than changing how that to E. Let's take a look at two more examples sentences that use adverbs ending in he. Cheonan one journey Malaya. I absolutely don't know. Cheonan one, John Ebola, Cheonan Chun Charney biogas CYA, IA slowly, Cheonan Tang Chinese Mosiah. So in the first sentence we have the adverb one johnny, meaning absolutely completely, which is formed from one John Hulda, meaning to be complete. And in the second sentence we have Chun Charney, meaning slowly. And this adverb is not made from any descriptive verb, and it's an adverb on its own. So not all adverbs ending in HE are made from descriptive verbs. Now, there is no specific rule on whether we add e or he, too descriptive verbs to form adverbs. So it's really important that you just learned each adverb on their own. We do have a comprehensive list of adverbs ending in e and he in our lesson worksheet. So please do use that for reference in the future. Okay, So let's practice the sentences that use adverbs ending in he. Repeat after me. Salty, cable-like. Umami chador pass psi 1. John Ebola, Cheonan ton Charney bagasse. Great efforts, well done. Let's now move on to independent practice. In this practice, we'll practice saying full sentences by changing the descriptive verbs into adverbs. So depending on whether the prompt on the screen tells you to add E or he. I'd like you to change the descriptive verbs into adverbs appropriately and say the full sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start. Lucy, key data, CYA, tongues, OSI, a challenge that they see both sides. Cheonan, Yossi me eat SIR. Cheonan Permian each on ISIL. Excellent job today. Well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned how to change descriptive verbs into adverbs by adding E or he to the descriptive verb stem. In the next lesson, we will learn another way of changing descriptive verbs into adverbs by adding care to the descriptive verb stem. See you then, bye, bye. 13. 1.11 Desc verb to adverb | ~게: Hi there. In this lesson we're going to learn how to change descriptive verbs into adverbs by adding care to the descriptive verb stem. Let's first take a look at a couple of example sentences that use adverbs ending in care. Chang'an began bagasse. I ate rice hurriedly. Cheonan Pablo could piggyback or psi l. K could, could get Challenger Sale. Please cut the cake. Big K could I could get her ledger sale. Now forming adverbs by adding care is very simple, as regardless of how the verb stem ends, we simply add a care to the verb stem. So Coupa, hurriedly is formed from copepods, meaning to be hurried. And cougar big is formed from Cuba, meaning to be big. When we use cooker in the sentence, we're making a request to cut the cake in a big size. Now one thing to note with forming adverbs is that for many descriptive verbs that end in hada, they can be changed into adverb forms by adding either he all care. General adverbs that end in e or HE are regarded as actual adverbs. So if you look up these words in dictionaries, there will actually be a word entry for these words. However, adverbs that end in care are not actual adverbs, but they do function like adverbs. When we add care to descriptive verbs, they actually mean to do something in the manner of the descriptive verb. This means that P means hurriedly, while subpar game means in a hurried way. In general, many of these adverbs ending in yhe or care can be used interchangeably. But there are subtle differences in the new ones. Adverbs ending in e, or he can relate more to the end result of how the action was done. However, adverbs ending in care focused more on the way the action is done. Consider the following two sentences. Char none. Capybara, Mosiah. I ate rice hurriedly. Charmin, PABA, couple, Gabriel Garcia. I ate rice in a hurried way. In the first sentence, the use of copy helps to focus more on the end result of me eating quickly. Perhaps I would normally take 20 minutes to eat, but I finished a meal in five minutes. On the other hand, could PAGA helps to focus more on how I ate? How I ate in a hurried way. Perhaps I was chewing quickly and perhaps I was using my spoon and chopsticks quickly. So the focus is more on the act of eating quickly. Now developing a good understanding of how and when we use adverbs ending in e, he and care can be quite tricky. This is because with a certain adverbs, it makes little to no difference whether you use one or the other. So although there are subtle differences in newtons in these two sentences, they can be used interchangeably in many situations. However, with some adverbs in certain situations, it's more natural to use one adverb over the other. For example, if you want to tell someone to do something quietly, It's more natural to say to your knee rather than Toyota began. So to develop good understanding of how we use these adverbs is really important for you to read and listen to a lot of Korean text and see how these adverbs are used in specific situations. Let's take a look at two more examples sentences, Charmin, hence I add the Galois. Sorry, I came late to work. John and who Messiah, the Messiah, been Cernan, we are when John AR Min Zu drives dangerously benzene and we are my game when John AR. So in the first sentence, we formed the adverb, the catalase, from the descriptive verb, meaning to be laid. In the second sentence, we form the adverb, we Haggai dangerously from the descriptive verb, but we had a meaning to be dangerous. So in both sentences, the adverbs are formed by adding care to the descriptive verb stem. Okay, so let's now do a list and repeat practice of sentences we have seen so far. John n. K could cook at our largest AR mean sooner than we are. Excellent job, well done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, I'd like you to change the highlighted descriptive verb into adverbs by adding care to the verb stem and say the full sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Set up. Jonathan Cook, Jang add the ghetto Messiah. Pseudonym Cabana Sagas has CYA, banana and yet Bulgarian Josiah. Fantastic job today, well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learn to change descriptive verbs into adverbs by adding care to the verb stem. In the next lesson, we will learn how to change descriptive verbs into verbs in Korean. See you then, bye, bye. 14. 1.12 Desc verb to verb | ~아,어하다: Hi everyone. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to add the suffix R or Huldah to descriptive verbs to turn them into actual verbs. Now, Korea and descriptive verbs describe a certain state. For example, Super that silver, that means to be sad. And using super dad to say, I am sad, I can say char and then sin pi r, I am sad. Cheonan syrupy are. So in this sentence, supine means to be sad, and it describes how I feel. One of the unique aspects of Korean language is that we can change descriptive verbs that express feelings and emotions into actual verbs. And we can do that by adding or Huldah to the descriptive verb stem. So if we add all hijab to Super that, it becomes super far harder. And supernode is the verb form of silica them. Now in terms of how we add or Huldah, as with any other verbs suffix that begins with r or r, we add our Huldah if the descriptive verb stem ends in vowels or R. But if it ends in vows other than or are we add all had them. The lesson worksheet will list all the different ways we can add or Huldah to descriptive verb standards. Now let's consider how we use these verbs made from descriptive verbs will use the verb Rousseau or hada, which is made from the descriptive. Boost up that meaning to be scared. Here are two example sentences. Char then moves our oil. I'm scared. Cheonan, Gene Cernan bourgeois, Hey, our Shinzo scared. Shinzen and Busan. In the first sentence, we've used a descriptive boost up that to say that I am scared. And in the second sentence we've used a verb, Buso or harder to say that Kinsey who is scared. And these two sentences relate to the first important use of verbs made from descriptive verbs. First, we don't describe other people's feelings using descriptive verbs. So if we say chin, Xun, and Busan, the sentence sounds more like Shinjuku is scary rather than chin x2 is scared. So we can use descriptive verbs to talk about our thoughts about the other person, but not what the other person is feeling. To describe other people's feelings, we have to use the verb form Rousseau had done. This is because the key use of verbs made from descriptive verbs is to describe how we think someone feels based on what we know of the other person. This could be based on the person's outer parents. Perhaps he or she is shaking in fear. Or it could be based on what we have heard from others. And based on this knowledge, we're making a strong, highly probable assumption of how the other person feels. Which in this case is that chin x2 is scared. So the key point to note is that to describe another person's feelings, we would use Buso or hada, and not the descriptive verb, blues up, down. Now there is another key use of verbs made from descriptive verbs. Here's an example sentence. Chins, UGA, Cato, Buso or hail. Chins, who is scared of the dog. Chins, UGA, cater. Now, when we change certain descriptive verbs into verbs, we can use them to describe how someone is outwardly showing the feelings of that descriptive verb. So this sentence means that chin x2 is showing his fear of the dog outwardly, whether it be by hiding behind someone or by trying to run away from the dog? And we can use these verbs, talk about ourselves showing our feelings outwardly to. One other point to note is that verbs made from descriptive verbs can take an object as it is now a verb. Let's take a look at two more examples sentences. Cheonan, syrupy on, I am sad, John and syrupy on beans. Uga on sung silica, hail been X2 is very sad. Bean soup down tongue syrupy L. So in these two example sentences, we use the descriptive verbs to describe my feelings, but we use the verb form a civil power hada to describe means is feelings. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of sentences we have seen so far. Cheonan, UGA, Busan. Charleston syllabi are beans, UGA on Chung, syrupy, a great job, well-done. Now, there are a couple of other points to note with using these verbs made from descriptive verbs. First, when we tell people, don't be something such as saying, don't be afraid. We have to attach the suffix ci ma, which means don't to the verb form and not the descriptive verb. So to say, don't be afraid. We cannot say Wassup G bio. We have to say who's our Haji myo. Second, certain verbs may from descriptive verbs are used in a way that differs slightly from the meaning of the descriptive verb. Here are some examples. Chin Cernan, two-color to YR. Chins who likes football? Shinzen, and took girl to why am I in Tanzania yet? The child adores her young sibling. In tanzania means and then QIO or Min Zu is affectionate to the puppy, means Kang Youwei. In the first sentence, the verb a Chihuahua Huldah, is made from the descriptive verb, a chore type, which means to be good. And we use to talk about things we'd like. In the second sentence, the verb yet Baha'u'llah is made from the descriptive verb, yet Buddha, which means to be pretty. And we use yet Baja dad to talk about things we adore, things we treat with affection. In the last sentence, the verb QIO or Huldah is made from the descriptive verb, a key up there, which means to be cute. And we use QIO had that talk about things we adore, things we treat with affection. So yep. Baja and Kio or HA that are used in a similar way. So just by looking at the meaning of descriptive verbs, sometimes it's not so obvious how the verb form would be used. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of these sentences. So Haji by Shinzen and two-quarter to Y. In tanzania, yes. Bins sooner in Kang, Youwei are excellent job well-done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, we will practice changing descriptive verbs into verbs and saying full sentences. However, as we have not gone over all the patterns of changing descriptive verbs into verbs, we will indicate whether you need to add aha, aha, that. Okay, So if you're ready, let's begin the practice. So GNN, Cernan the checker it while I did Equiano. Excellent efforts today, well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned how to add or Huldah to descriptive verbs and change them into actual verbs. The next lesson is a review lesson, and we will review what we learned on changing verbs into adverbs. And what we learned in this lesson on changing descriptive verbs into verbs. See you then, bye, bye. 15. 1.13 Review lesson: Hi there. In this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the previous three lessons when changing descriptive verbs, adverbs, and also descriptive verbs into actual verbs. Let's first revisit forming descriptive verbs into adverbs by adding E or HE. Three lessons ago we learned that we can add e or he, too many descriptive verb stems, particularly descriptive verbs that end in Huldah to form adverbs. Now, there is no strict pattern on how we add e or he. But to some descriptive verbs that we add e and to some descriptive verbs, we add heat of the two adverb types. Adverbs ending in he is a little more common. Okay, So let's first do a listen and repeat practice of sentences that use these adverbs. Char then chatter, get crazy. Taka CYA, Cernan, whose Lucy and Josiah. Chuck key. Challenge to pass psi a ton in one John Ebola. Johnny ball cost side. Excellent job, well done. Let's now do an independent practice. Same as in the lesson. We'll practice saying full sentences by changing the descriptive verbs into adverbs. Okay, so let's begin the practice. Tongues OSI a challenge when that DC bus, CYA, Yossi, me ESI, Cheonan Permian each on ISIL. Great efforts while it I'm two lessons ago, we learned to add the care to certain descriptive verbs to form adverbs. And we add care to descriptive verb stems regardless of how the descriptive verb stem ends, many descriptive verbs can be changed into adverbs by adding E or he, but also care, and adverbs ending in e or HE, our actual adverbs, while care is a suffix, we add two descriptive verbs to talk about doing something in a certain way. There are many instances where these adverbs can be used interchangeably. But there are also subtle differences in how these adverbs ending in e, he and care are used. Adverbs ending in e or he focused more on the results of the action. While adverbs ending in care focused more on the manner of the action. Therefore, while there are times when we can use these adverbs interchangeably, there are also instances where it's more appropriate to use one form of adverb over the other. So it's important that you regularly see how these adverbs are used in specific situations to learn the correct usage rules. Okay, So let's first do a listening repeat practice of sentences that use adverbs ending in care. John n, k could be. That was great, Well we're done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see full sentences and I'd like you to change the highlighted descriptive verbs into adverbs by adding care to the descriptive verb stem and say the full sentences. Okay, So if you're ready, let's begin the practice. The pseudogene, banana and yet UGA and Josiah. Excellent job, well-done. In the previous lesson, we learned to change descriptive verbs into actual verbs by adding our, our Hidatsa, the stem. We can use verbs made from descriptive verbs to talk about other people's feelings, but also how someone outwardly expresses the feeling related to that verb. To form a negative imperative form and say, Don't be something, we add the suffix cima to the verb form rather than the descriptive verb. Lastly, there are numerous verbs made from descriptive verbs, which are used slightly different to the meaning associated with a descriptive verb. For example. Yet to, that, to be pretty changes into yet Baha'u'llah. And we use yet Baha'u'llah to talk about adoring and showing a lot of affection to something. Okay, so let's now do a listening repeat practice of sentences that use verbs change from descriptive verbs. Cheonan, Shinzen, and Busan. That was great, well-done, less now do an independent practice. In this practice, we will practice changing descriptive verbs into verbs and saying full sentences. To help with the practice, we will indicate whether you need to add aha, aha that to the descriptive verbs in the sentences. Okay, So if you're ready, let's start the practice. Benzene and syrupy a surgeon and she made excellent job today. In this lesson, we reviewed how we change the descriptive verbs into adverbs by adding II, he, or care to the descriptive verbs stem, and also changing descriptive verbs into verbs by adding our high data. In the next lesson, we will learn how to join two clauses and provide background information. See you then, bye bye. 16. 2.1 Background | 은데, 는데: Hello. In this lesson, we're going to learn a useful structure we can use in Korean to provide background information to another piece of information. Now, if you took our level 2 grammar course, you would have learned that we use in there and in there to form a contrast relationship between ideas. However, many connective ending words are used in more than one way. And in this lesson, we're going to learn another use of in there than there. Now in there. Then there can be attached to verbs and descriptive verbs to connect two clauses. And we can use in their head and dare to mention something which is related to another action is the cause of another action. We attach in there too, descriptive verbs and their two verbs. Let's take a look at a couple of examples. Sentences. Peg open their sigdang a kite Gaia, I'm hungry. So should we go to a restaurant? Peg open-air sigdang, x-height Gaia, char cuz Hongzhang Neyman and they're on Chang chose Hey, I know that teacher and he or she is really nice. Chart because it's on the same island there. I'm Tom Shoes hail. In the first sentence we add D and dare to the descriptive of Pago put that to be hungry. And in the sentence, peg opened there, I'm hungry is the reason why I am suggesting we should go to a restaurant when we provide a reason for the second clause. The second clause is often a clause of suggestion. In the second sentence we add didn't dare to the verb, meaning to know. And in the sentence cuz Huns acronym. And in there, I know that teacher is background information to the second clause on Chung tools AL he or she is very nice. So then there, then there can be attached to verbs and descriptive verbs to provide a reason for the second clause or background information that is related to the second clause in terms of how we add in there and in there, we add in there too descriptive verbs and in debt to verbs. And adding didn't dare to verbs is very simple as we always add it in there two verbs, regardless of how the verb stem ends. Aida is one of the irregular verbs, so it becomes an and there. But for regular verbs, such as bulk that to eat or cauda to go, we would just add that in there and form bonds in there and canon there. In terms of we add neon there, if the descriptive verb stem ends in patched him. And that's why peg or put that to be hungry becomes peg open there. However, if the descriptive verb stem ends in patching, such as chat, that meaning to be small, we would form tag and then let's take a look at few more examples sentences. Nice Seger, tune the paddock Gaia, gaia. The weather is nice. So let's go to the seaside. Nice cigar June, there would be paddock Gaia. Gaia soon, soon learns how to handle their Torno. Barney bought IR, choose who runs a business and he earns a lot of bunny Shinzen and it's how, but I don't dare to marry money, but I'll check your d hidden the hashtag Isiah, I cooked. So would you like to eat Sega UDN in their success, I guess CYA. So in the first sentence, the descriptive but chore tab becomes Jordan there. In the second sentence, how that becomes Hannon there. And in the final sentence we have the POS form of URI Hadar. You already had that meaning cooked. And to pass form of verbs and descriptive verbs, we always add in there. So the past form or the descriptive. But yet Buddha to be pretty yet but that would become yet been there. And as mentioned already, we use in dead in there to provide a cause or background information to the second clause. In sentence one, the first clause is the cause for the second clause. So the second clause is used to suggest going to the sea because the weather is nice. In the second sentence, the first clause is a background information to the second clause. Chins are running a business is background information on him earning a lot of money. Finally, in the third sentence, the first clause is a background information to the second clause. The second clause is a question used to make an offer as an offering the other person to eat because of the background information that I have cooked. Okay, so let's now do a listener repeat practice of the sentences that use their end in their pair, GLP-1, they're sick Tang a carrot Gaia. Cuz Hongzhang name and in their shoes. I see great efforts. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, you will see full sentences and I'd like you to add either in there or that the highlighted verb and say the full sentence. Remember that we add in there too descriptive verbs in present tense. Then that evolves in present tense. And then that's above. Descriptive verbs and verbs in past tense. Okay, So with that in mind, let's begin. Char then taken and in their Chiang Kai-shek Gaia, they're all diegetic. Chang, Yeah. Excellent job today. Well done. Okay. So today we learned to use in there and in there to provide background information or the cause of another idea. In the next lesson, we will learn another way of providing background information in Korean. See you then, bye bye. 17. 2.2 Discovery | 니까: Hi everyone. In this lesson we're going to learn how to use the guard to talk about finding out something due to an earlier action. Now, in our Level 2 grammar course, we learned that we can use Nick got in a similar way too. So and because so we use the gut to form a cause and effect relationship between ideas. However, we can also use the gut to join two clauses and say that the action in the first clause helped to find the information in the second clause. Let's first take a look at an example sentence that uses the guy in this way. Hacky aware, Karnataka means UGA, Messiah. When I went to school, Min Zu wasn't there. Hacky way, Anika means UGA up Sociale. In this intense the subjects I is emitted in the first clause. But in the first clause, the guy is attached to a cada, so we have Anika. And when we use the gut to join two clauses in certain contexts, it can be used to say that the action in the first clause leads to the discovery of the action in the second clause. And in the sentence when I went to school, I discovered that Min Zu was not there. So using the GSC and work in a similar way to when in English. But it can also just give the nuance of, I learn that or I discovered that. Let's take a look at two more examples sentences. She bear or Nika, hoodie, Messiah. When I came home, the light was on. She barely put the chi societal. Blame me honor, Borg carbonic, 100 or a Messiah. When I try the Reimann, it wasn't spicy at all. Laminar boggle, bony, Canada, Messiah. In the first sentence, the verb or all that to come combines with the gutter form or Nika. The first clause, cheaper or need God when I came home, leads to the discovery of the second clause, which is that poorly carry societal, the light was on. In the second sentence, the verb phrase, more garb or that to try to eat combines with nicht gut to form bugaboo Monica. And the first clause Law me on more Gabo Nika. When I try the Reimann leads to the discovery of the second clause, which is that hana DDO, a male Assam, wasn't spicy at all. So in each sentence the guy is attached to the verb in the first clause, which leads to the discovery of the second action in the second clause. Now, as an extra point to note, adding the cutover phrases that end in art or poor that is very common as are all poor. That means to try something. And we often discover something when we try something for the first time. And in terms of how we added the G2 verbs, is the same as when it's used to form cause and effect relationships. We add a deep cut two verbs when the stem doesn't end in Patch him. So we added the gut to the verb order and bugaboo them as the stems of these verbs don't end in Patch him. However, if a verb stem ends in patches such as Bach that to eat and a part that to receive. We would add Nika, so that becomes more Guernica and Pat that becomes part Danica. Now, one thing to note is that when you look at a sentence that uses the weather, the guy is used to form a cause and effect relationship or a relationship where an earlier action, these to the discovery of the second action is dependent on the meaning of the sentence and the concepts the sentence is used in them. However, there are a couple of rules to follow when we use the gas to form relationships where an action leads to some discovery. The first rule is that it's only used with verbs. It cannot be used with descriptive verbs, adjectives. However, when we use the gut to form a cause and effect relationship, the gap can be used with descriptive verbs. The other important rule is that the verb Nick guy is attached to cannot be in past tense or future tense. However, when we use nicotine form a cause and effect relationship, the verb can be in past or future tense. Okay, So with that in mind, let's first practice these sentences that use the gut to talk about one action leading to the discovery of another action. We've seen three examples sentences so far, but we'll add two more sentences in this practice. Hi, cooked, Jang, iconic guys Haram there a monocyte. That was great, Well done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this independent practice, you will see full sentences. And I'd like you to add a neat guy appropriately to the highlighted verb and say the full sentence. Remember that we added the GAR if the verb stem doesn't end in patchy him, but if it does, we add linear. Okay, so let's begin the practice. Hi, chad, you do a tiny car, washes psi l, Hungary appealable Nika, taming them, Purnima NIL. Excellent job today, well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned how to use the gut to talk about how an action leads to the discovery of something else. In the next lesson, we will review what we learned over the past two lessons on using in there and Nika. See you then. Bye bye. 18. 2.3 Review lesson: Hi everyone. In this lesson we're going to review what we learned over the past two lessons on the use of their day and Nika, let's begin with in there than there. Two lessons ago we learned to use in their ending there to provide background information to another event. The background information, it could just be some related information, but it could also be the cause of the other action we use in there with descriptive verbs and in there with verbs. If the descriptive verb doesn't have pats him, we use D and there. But if the descriptive verb does have a patch him we use in their use of, then there is a lot simpler as we just use. Regardless of how the verb stem ends. For past forms of descriptive verbs and verbs, we use none there. Okay, so let's first start with a listening repeat practice of sentences that use in there. And then they're peg open their sigdang a correct Gaia, cuz Hongzhang name and then they're on Tang tools. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see full sentences and I'd like you to add either there or didn't dare to the highlighted verb and say the full sentence. Remember that we add in there too, descriptive verbs in present tense didn't dare to verbs in present tense. And then there to both descriptive verbs and verbs in past tense. Prompts will be on the screen to indicate whether you need to add in there than there. Okay, So with that in mind, let's begin the practice. Char then taken and in their Chiang Kai-shek Gaia, pico and then they're all diegetic. Hometown. Yeah. Excellent job, well done. In the previous lesson, we learned to use the gut to say that an action in the first clause leads to the discovery of the information in the second clause. In this way, the use of DKA is similar to when, and it also contains the nuance of I learn, that's all. I discovered that in terms of how we use the gap, we use the gut if the verb stem doesn't end in Patch him. But if it does, we use the kneecap. And two important rules with using the guy in this way is that it can only be used with verbs and descriptive verbs. And it cannot be used with verbs in past and future tense only in present tense. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of sentences that used in DKA. Chuck, Anika, nice, Cooke, Johnny iconic guys Haram there. A monocyte. That was great, Well done. Let's now do an independent practice. Same as in the lesson. I'd like you to add a delegate to the highlighted verb appropriately and say the full sentence. Okay, so let's go straight into the practice. I'm ready. Hi Nika. Isil, Hungary repairable Nika, bernie, a monomial. Excellent job today. Well done. Okay, so in this lesson we reviewed the use of they're there to provide background information. And Nika to say that one action leads to the discovery of something else. In the next lesson, we will learn how to talk about things we think are true in Korean. See you then, bye bye. 19. 2.4 Strong assumption | ~겠어요: Hi everyone. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to use Cesario to talk about things we believe to be true based on what we know about that thing. When we use Cesario to talk about what we believe to be true, it's similar in meaning to will or must in English. And we use Cesario to talk about what we believe to be true in the past, present, or in the near future. And when we use QSR, you're in this way with generally referring to something that's highly likely to be true. Let's take a look at a couple of examples sentences. Oh, no, new knee or guess Saya, It's probably going to snow today. Oh no. Do NEO guess ir means UGA on Chung pico nag SIR means you must be very tired. Bins UGA, Chang peak on ISIL. Okay, so first in terms of how we add Cesario, we simply add a cast soil to either the verb or descriptive verb stem. So in the first sentence, we add it to the verb form or guess soil. And in the second sentence, we add cast soil to the descriptive verb stem, gonadal and form peak on how SIL. And in terms of usage for the first sentence, the speaker may say the sentence, if the weather on the day is very cold and notices some raindrops falling. So based on this evidence, he or she thinks that is probably going to snow on the day. So the speaker says or no, do knee or guess IL. So we've used cast soil to talk about something that is likely to be true in the near future because of the evidence of the weather. For the second sentence, perhaps Min Zu has been working all day out in the farm field and he's not had much to eat. So we believe in the present, he must be very tired. Therefore, we can say bitten sogar on tongue peak on ISIL. So that's how we can use the suffix casts soil to talk about what we believe will be true in the near future or in the present. Okay, so let's take a look at few more examples sentences. Ie Anwar, chair me, guess CYA. This film looks fun. This film must be fun. E on watch hemi, SIR. Ischium audio podcasts, CYA. This exam must be hard. Ischium audio CASI are all getInt x2 bar not get CYA. You must have met Shinzo yesterday. Jetsons, Yamanaka, Isiah. So again, we've attached the case soil to the descriptive verbs TMI, that to be fun and audio up that to be hard. And also the verb Magna that meat. But as you can see in the last sentence, case scenario is attached to the POS form of banana magnet tab. And we can add cast soil to the POS form of verbs and descriptive verbs to talk about what we believed to have been true in the past. And as with previous sentences, sentences that use QSR your relate to something that is highly likely to be true in the past, present, and future. So each sentence relates to what the speaker believes to be true based on what the speaker knows about that thing or situation. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use case scenario or no, do knee or guess CYA. Been sukha on Chang peak on I guess CYA E or watch hemi guess SIAH, ischium Audi up guests Siam or judge in Zuma noch, SIR. Excellent job, well-done, less now do the independent practice. In this practice, you will practice full sentences and the final verb in the sentence will be in its infinitive form. And I'd like you to add a cast soil to the verb or descriptive verb stem and say the full sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. Audio. Aha guess, I guess, I guess IL IEP nonbasic ISIL or Maga cock Jiang Hua, SIR. Fantastic job today, well done. Okay, so today we learned how to use the verb ending casts soil to talk about things we believe to be true in the past, present, and future. In the next lesson, we're going to learn another way of talking about what we believe to be true in Korean. See you then, bye-bye. 20. 2.5 Strong deduction | ~을 거예요: Hi everyone. In this lesson, we're going to learn another way to talk about what we believe to be true in Korea. Now, in our Level 2 course, we learned that we can add a verb ending, the eukarya to talk about our future plans and is similar in meaning to be going to in English. However, as well as talking about our future plans, we can also use grayed-out talk about our deductions, things we think or believe to be true. Now both AR and Cassio can be used to talk about what we believe to be true. Of the two, expresses a stronger degree of certainty about what we believe to be true. When we use Galileo in this way is similar in meaning to wheel in English. Let's take a look at two examples sentences. Chin sooner in some motors to chin x2 would like the present Qian Xun and some would urge YOU surgeon then the Jericho Susie will be late. So Gina, digital code. First we can add eukarya to verbs and descriptive verbs. So in the first sentence we add the gray out to the verb, a Chihuahua Hidatsa light. And in the second sentence, we add it to the descriptive verb, that to be late. And in terms of how we add the Qajar, we add lyrical area if the verb stamp doesn't end in, pats him, so to or had that becomes to our haiku. However, if the verb stem ends in Patch him, we add 2k, so that becomes new toric IOL. Now impose sentences we are stating what we believe to be true with a strong degree of certainty, stronger than Casio, which we learned in the previous lesson. And the certainty may be based on a personal belief about something or based on what the person has heard or seen. And if we were to quantify the differences between casts soil and we use Cassio when we are about 70 percent certain, but we use when we are 80 to 90 percent certain about something. Let's take a look at few more examples sentences, banana and vacua, cargo ship protocol a, meaner. We want to go to school, B9 and vacua hogwash prokaryote, ischium and audio recording. This exam will be difficult, ease Sharman, audio guy AR chins Ugarit, some motor possessory claim. Chin so must have sent the present tinsel gas Hammurabi possessor. So again, in each sentence we've added the eukarya to the verb stem to talk about what the speaker believes to be true. But just like Casio, we can add to the vault past form and talk about things we believed to have been true in the past. So in the last sentence, we've added to the verb poor net that, which means send. So poor necessary by AR means must have sent. Okay, so let's first do a listening repeat practice of the sentences that use the eukarya to talk about things we believe to be true. So GNN digital audio, great efforts, well done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, you will see full sentences and I'd like you to add that to the verb or descriptive verb stem and say the full sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. Cheddar has silica, Sant'Agnese. Suchi guy couldn't matter. Honest silica. Silica. Excellent job today. Well done. Okay, so today we learned how to use the verb ending Gaya to talk about things we believe to be true. And eukarya expresses a stronger degree of certainty about what we believe to be true than casts soluble. That's it for this lesson. And in the next lesson we will review what we learned on the QSR, your and eukarya to talk about what we believe to be true. See you then, Bye bye. 21. 2.6 Review lesson: Hi there. In this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the previous two lessons on using Cesario and the eukarya to talk about things we believe to be true. Let's first revisit cast sayo. We can add a cast. So your two verbs and descriptive verb stems to talk about things we believe to be true. And this belief is based on what we know about that thing. What we have heard. The use of Casio is similar to will and must in English. In terms of how we add a cast soil to verbs and descriptive verbs, we add cast sayo to the stems regardless of how the stem ends. Additionally, we can add a cast soil to verbs and descriptive verbs past tense to talk about things we believed to have been true in the past. Okay, So with that in mind, let's first do a listening repeat practice of sentences that use case scenario in this way. Or no, do knee or guests IR, bins, UGA on tongue, pico, and I guess I guess, I guess, I guess that was great, Well done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, you will practice full sentences and the final verb in the sentence will be in its infinitive form. And I'd like you to say the full sentence by adding cast soil to the verb or descriptive verb stem. Okay, so let's begin the practice. Hoc secondary audio or high gas CYA, Shinzen and Pago. Pago SIR. Png guy told Chicago SIR e to damage hemiola. Guess I eat band basic SIR. On Maga cock, Jiang ha guess CYA. Fantastic efforts. Weldon. The use of a eukaryote is similar to cast soil. We use to talk about things we believe to be true. However, we use the eukarya when we are more certain about something being true in terms of how we add the Gaya, if the verb or descriptive verb stem doesn't end in patched him, we add Lyrica. But if the stem ends in Patch him, we add the eukarya. And similar to cast soil, we can add to the verb or the descriptive verb past tense to talk about things we believed to have been true in the past. Okay, So let's first do a list and repeat practice of sentences that use the eukarya. So GNN digital audio. Great job, well-done, less than two. The independent practice. In this practice you will see full sentences and I'd like you to add to the verb or the descriptive verb stem and form a sentence that refers to something the speaker believes in. Okay, so let's begin the practice. E on one end, Jamie silico AR. Subject has silica. Sant'agnese. Suchi guy couldn't matter of silica. Fantastic efforts, well done. Okay, so today we review the use of Cesario and go to talk about things we believe to be true. In the next lesson, we will learn how to talk about things we think are true. See you then, Bye bye. 22. 2.7 I think that... | ~는 것 같다: Hello and welcome back. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to say, I think in Korean. Now to say I think in Korean, and we can add that to the verb or descriptive verb stem. So let's first take a look at an example. Sentence means UGA, Sue-Je to our Hannon got CATIA. I think that Min Zu like Suzy, Suzy Roach one and Gaga. So as you can see in this sentence first we have the clause means to Suchi do to our Huldah means you like Suzy. And then we add that to the verb stem of Chihuahua, Hadar, and dysfunctions. Like, I think that how we add the line got cut that follows the same way. We change verbs and adjectives into modifiers, which we learned at the start of this course. So depending on whether it's a verb or descriptive verb, or whether we're referring to things in the past, present, or future, we would need to add in God, then God, or it got. So let's take a look at few more example sentences that use these structures. Banana and Papen got cut tile. I think Mina is busy. Mina and then Papen go Katia, our body guard, she bear on Gaga tire. I think father came home. Apogee, got shebang, got Gutai. Are they nice? You guys got CATIA. I think the weather will be good tomorrow. They're CATIA. So in the first sentence we've added in got cut that to the descriptive part Buddha. And changing descriptive verbs into modifiers is something we learned in our level one course. And we add into the descriptive verb stem to form present tense modifiers. However, as the stem of PackBot that doesn't end in Patch him, we add new got cut down. In the second sentence we've added in God got that to the verb or there. And as we learned before, when we add into a verb stem, it forms a past tense modifier. Therefore, the sentence relates to the speaker's opinion about a past event. Finally, we've added that to the descriptive verb, a Choctaw. And as they got cut, that relates to the future. This statement is about the speaker's opinion of the future. However, although we generally don't form future tense modifiers with descriptive verbs, we can use this structure. They got to talk about what we think will be true in the future. Okay, So with that in mind, let's first do a listening repeat practice of the sentences. Means UGA, Sue-Je to a 100 and got cut Tyre. B9 and Papen go Katia. Apogee, God she bear on, got Gutai. They die. A cigar, told Kafka, excellent job, well, less. Now do the independent practice. In this practice, you will see full sentences and you will be given prompts to add. Either one got cut that, didn't got, got that, or you could cut down. So I'd like you to add these verb endings and say the full sentences. Okay, So if you're ready, let's begin. Cargo garb, lunar hadn't Gaga, nan and gaga. Gaga. Gaga. Moreover, coca. Excellent efforts at a well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we went over how we add that. Then got, got to say, I think in Korean. And we went over how we add in gut, gut that didn't got, got that and you got cut that to form sentences that relate to different tenses. In the next lesson, we will learn how to form questions that ask about other people's opinions. See you then. Bye bye. 23. 2.8 Do you think...? | 을까요?: Hello and welcome back. In this lesson, we will learn how to ask, do you think in Korean? Now in our level to grammar course, we learned to use guile as Should. We can use it to ask questions like Rudy more hierarchy. This means what should we do? However, another way of using Ricardo is to ask what the other person thinks about something. And depending on how we use guile, we can ask the other person about events in the past or the future. Eukaryote is similar in meaning to Do you think that in English? Let's first take a look at how we ask about the future. Here are two example questions. They dissect separate AIA. Do you think the weather will be humid tomorrow? Night? Shiga acid pericardial, chins, UGA, E is hanger e-book Gaia. Do you think Kinsey would wear this costume? Chins, UGA, use Angular illiberal KaiA. In these questions, we've added two verbs or descriptive verbs in the present tense. And in these questions we're asking the other person's opinion on some events in the future, whether the weather will be humid and whether they think chin x2, we were the costume. When we respond to these questions, we often use GO ALL or dingo Kao to say what we think will happen in the future. In terms of structure, we add Lear Kyle, if the verb or the descriptive verb stem doesn't end impacts him. In the first question, we add Lear Coyote to the descriptive verb, SIP pada to be humid. However, if the verb or the descriptive verb stem ends in part-time, we add Luca, yo. In the second question, we add UGA Yo to the verb, but deep that to where. Let's take a look at two more example questions. Being x2 guards, hurried Kyle, do you think that means it will call bins UGA tonight, Gaia, giga digital, Kyle, do you think father will be late about giga digital Kyle? Again, in each question we're asking the other person about some event yet to happen in the future. Whether it's been Xue we'll call and whether father will be late. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of these questions that use 2k IO to ask about the future. And I see guys separate Gaia. Chins UGA, use hanger e-book Gaia chins UGA, Tana Hezekiah, bodyguard, digital Gaja. Great job, Well done. Let's now consider how we use Coyote to ask about events in the past. Let's imagine that our father was late getting ready for work. So we left the house rather late. He's doing the office at nine, but I think he may have been late at ten o'clock. I asked this question to see whether mum things he was late to work. Bulgy got the just city KaiA. Do you think that was late? Our body guard, the adjusted KaiA. In this question, we've added to the past form of the descriptive verb. Digit. When we add require two verbs or descriptive verbs, past form, we're asking about an events in the past. In this question, we're asking about an event in the recent past, which is about our father getting to work on time. In terms of how we add CO2 verbs or descriptive verbs in past form. Since the past form of any verb or descriptive verb stem always ends in potassium, we always add to the stem. Here are two more example questions. P&g got to check acidic AIA. Do you think that airplane arrived? P&g got to chuck herself, Gaia. Gaia. Do you think the lesson started? Kazaa Gaia? So in both questions, we're asking about some events which may have happened in the recent past. An airplane arriving in the lesson starting. In each question, we've added Coyote to the verbs past form to check Quetta arrived and she jacket, started. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of these questions asking about some events in the past. Apogee God, the just sedate Gaia. P&g got to check JSR KaiA, RB, she Jack Castle, Gaia. Excellent job, well done. Let's now move on to the independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences with verbs or descriptive verbs in the infinitive forms. And I'd like you to add either a eukaryote or Lear, Kyle and form appropriate questions. Verbs will already be in the present or past forms. So all you have to do is add the Geico appropriately. If you're ready, let's begin. Gaia. Gaia, omega t dot search. Gaia, chins, UGA has so Gaia, car giga, your acetyl-CoA. Great job today. Well done. In this lesson, we learned how to add two verbs and descriptive verbs to ask the other person's opinion on events in the past and future. In the next lesson, we will review what we learned over the last two lessons on the use of dengue, got Carta and Ricardo from this lesson. See you then, bye-bye. 25. 2.10 Background assumption | ~을 텐데: Hello and welcome back. In this lesson, we're going to look at how we use the structure. Ou 10 them. Now, do ten-day combines two verbs structures to tear that which we can use to talk about the speaker's intention or plan to do something in the future. And then there we use to state a background information to something. So when we use 10 there to join, two clauses were indicating the speakers strong assumption of the first clause. And this strong assumption can be related to the present or future situation. And this first clause provides a background information to what the speaker is going to say in the second clause. The information in the second clause may be a suggestion or the speaker's intention to do something, but it can also contain information that contrast the first clause. Let's first take a look at an example sentence where the second clause suggests an action based on the information in the first clause. Eat pizza or 10 there, eject Gaia, it's going to rain later. So let's go early. It daga, Pico, 10 day Egypt Gaia. The first clause is it dagger, p guy over there? And this means it rains later. And when we add X2 Ten there and form a DAG peak hour or 10 there. This helps to form a strong assumption about the future situation. And it's similar in meaning to It's going to rain later. The second clause then stays what we should do because of the strong assumption in the first clause. And this is Egypt, Cairo. Let's go early. Let's now take a look at a sentence where the second clause contrast the first clause. Omega t bear is silicon. They're charging either. I'm bad. Mom must be at home, but she's not answering the phone or mortgage eBay certain there tonight. I'm bad at this time, the speak of first days, a strong assumption about mother being at home in the present situation. However, the second clause contrast this first clause because even though I believe that mom is at home, she's not answering the phone. We can add new tended to descriptive verbs and verbs. And in terms of how we add the 10 there, we add Lear 10 there. If the verb or the descriptive verb stem doesn't end in potassium. But if it does end in patching, we add the 10 there. Let's take a look at two more examples sentences. Pseudogene in peak on I attend their chin Quran. Could, Jenga CYA, Susie must be tired, but she went to the cinema with a friend, Sue-Je nano pico and I attend the singular and cook Jagger CYA chin, so God she bear to Jack Castle 10 there. Guard Han, I abort. Gail Junzi must have arrived home, so I'll try calling him chin Sugata seabed to Jack has certain there, check out tonight or gal. In the first sentence, the second clause contrast the first clause as the speaker strongly assumes that Susie is tired in the present situation, but she has gone to the cinema with a friend. In the second sentence, the second clause states and action the speaker will do due to the strong assumption in the first clause. And in the sentence, we can see another feature of 10 there, which is that it can be used with verbs in past tense to make a strong assumption of something that was done in the past. Now, Ooh, ten, there can also be used as a sentence ending suffix. So we can add your at the end and a sentence can end in ten days ago. However, this use of the 10 day or differs from when we use oo ten there to connect two clauses. So for this lesson, will focus on how we use 10 there to join two clauses. Let's now do a listening repeat practice of sentences that use the 10 day repeat after me. It P Gao, a 10-day eject Gaia. So GNN, pico and I tend to take great job, well done. Let's now do an independent practice. In this practice, I'd like you to add, you can dare to the highlighted verb in the sentence and say the full sentence. Remember that we add liter ten there if the verb stem doesn't end in Patch him. But if the verb stem does end in patched him, we add the 10 day. Okay, So let's begin the practice. Gene Cernan, Tony sultan there or Docker charters has silica P tag on a certain day, you're lucky. Fantastic efforts today. Well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned how to use oo ten there to join two clauses where the first clause is a strong assumption and the second clause relates a suggestion or an intention to do something based on the information in the first clause, but it can also contain a contrasting information to the first clause. In the next lesson, we will learn a similar expression. Tanika. See you then, bye bye. 26. 2.11 Reason for suggestion | ~을 테니까: Hi everyone and welcome back. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to use Tanika to join two clauses. Now, early Tanika combines the Teradata, which we use to talk about one's intention or plan to do something in the future. And that which we use to talk about a reason. And when we use the combined form UX tannic got to join two clauses. The second clause is a suggestion or advice to the listener. And the first clause is the reason or the basis for the suggestion or advice in the second clause. Let's take a look at an example sentence. Gene Cernan community there, papel, Tanika, woody, Toyota. Them unlike Kinsey, will be busy on Friday. So let's meet on Saturday. Shinzen and community their pepper tannic God, would he, Toyoda, my name. In the sentence. The suggestion in the second clause is to meet on Saturday. And the reason for this suggestion is the first clause, which is that chin x2 will be busy on the Friday. The first clause, which functions as the basis for the suggestion or advice in the second clause is usually a situation in the future. In terms of how we add new tannic got, we follow the same rules as the 10 day. If the verb stem doesn't end in patching, we add Lear Tanika. But if the verb stem does end impacts him, we add the Tanika. Now one thing to note is that the same sentence can be said using 10 there. So we could say Shinzen in community there, papel 10-day woody Toyota them an-ion. Now in essence, meaning of the two sentence is pretty much the same. The second clause is a suggestion, and the basis of the suggestion is the first clause. However, in the sentence that uses 10 there, the suggestion that comes across weaker because even though the first clause is the speaker, strong assumption is more stated as a background to the situation rather than a direct reason for the suggestion. On the other hand, in the sentence that uses UX Tanika, the second clause is a stronger suggestion, as DKA indicates that the reason for the suggestion is the first clause. So the key difference between the two sentences is that tannic gap makes a suggestion or advice much stronger. Let's take a look at few more example sentences. Sons AND me or woody Yogi. The teacher will come. So let's stay here. Son Zheng The me OR gate on yogurt can be ascertained by Lynchburg. Dad will have prepared food. So let's go home quickly. Our bug I, Tanya, virtual mere satanic pilots, Rebecca. I did the Pago. We'll pretend it got sick. Kids will be hungry. So look for restaurant. Either the peg, I will pretend it gosh, rectangular. So in each sentence, the second clause functions as a suggestion or advice. And as with the ten there, we can use Taniqua with verbs and descriptive verbs in the present or past tense. When the verb or the descriptive verb is in past tense, the information in the first clause relates to a past situation. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use UX Tanika to give advice or suggestion due to the reasons stated in the first clause. Shinzen and community, their Pap Britannica, would he toyed airman 90? Ideally peg I could put any excellent job, well done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, I'd like you to add Tanika appropriately to the highlighted verbs and say the full sentence. Remember that we add Lear Tanika, if the verb stem doesn't end in Patch him. But if the verb stem does end in Patch him, we add the Taniqua. Okay, so let's begin the practice. She armored, tire, passive Tanika, cocked Jiang IG by hour. Tanya. Tanya. Great efforts today. Well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned how to use UX tannic got to give advice or suggestion based on the reason given in the first clause. In the next lesson, we will review what we learned on the use of 10 there and the Tanika. See you then, bye bye. 27. 2.12 Review lesson: Hello and welcome back. In this lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the previous two lessons on the use of the 10 day And Taniqua. Let's begin with a 10 day. Two lessons ago we learned that we can join two clauses using UX 10. Then when we use a 10 day to join two clauses, it indicates a strong assumption of the first clause. And the second clause may be a suggestion or an intention to do something in the future. All information that contrast the first clause. We can add a 10 day, two verbs and descriptive verbs. And in terms of how we add the 10 day, we add liter 10 day if the stem doesn't end in Patch him. But if the stem does end in patches, we add a 10 day. We can also add a 10 day. Two verbs and descriptive verbs, past and present tense. Okay, so let's first do a list and repeat practice of sentences that use the 10 day, ten, the Gaia. Hey Sue, Sue, GNN, pico and I tend to talk, has certain there. Great job, Well done. Let's now do the independent practice. Same as in the lesson. I'd like you to add a 10 day appropriately to the highlighted verbs and say the full sentences. If you're ready, let's begin. Gene Cernan, Tony Sultan, the AutoCad charters has silica P tag on a certain day. You're lucky. Dr. Dawna, certain they're excellent job, well done. In the previous lesson, we learned to use a new technique, got to join two clauses. When we use a technique, God, the second clause functions as advice or suggestion. And the first clause is the reason for the advice or suggestions in the second clause. And how we add the Tanika to verbs and descriptive verbs is the same as 10. Then if the verb stem doesn't end in Patch him, we add Lear Tanika. But if the verb stem does end in PennSim, we add a new Taniqua. Okay, so let's go straight into a listening repeat practice of sentences that use Tanika, Shinzen and community. They're papel Tanika, woody Toyota, son Zheng, The me or Taniqua hoodie Technique. Ideally peg are cool, pretend. Excellent job, well done. Let's now do an independent practice. Now same as before. All you have to do is add Tanika appropriately to the highlighted verbs and say the full sentences. If you're ready, Let's begin the practice. Tanya, taken either Tanika, Taniqua. She's a fantastic efforts today. Well done. Okay. So today we reviewed what we learned on the use of the 10 day And Taniqua to join two clauses. In the next lesson, we will learn how to talk about how something appears in Korean. See you then, bye bye. 28. 2.13 Seem, look + adj | 아,어 보이다: Hi everyone and welcome back. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to use R or Podeh to talk about how someone or something looks or appears. Now in English based on how something looks or appears on the outside. We can say things like that car seems expensive or this Kate looks delicious. So we use verbs like seem or look with adjectives to make assumptions about how something appears. In Korea, we can form these kinds of sentences by adding all ploy to descriptive verbs. Let's take a look at two examples sentences. Chart, tannin, pisa, Boyar, that car seems expensive. Child channel and P sub E, K can and biases. So Boyar, this cake looks delicious. Ek, Columbus's subway. In both sentences, we've added our point out to the descriptive verbs, peace Sadat's to be expensive and match it to be delicious. To talk about how that car seems expensive and how this looks delicious. And in terms of how we add our point that it follows the same pattern of adding any other verb ending that begins with our. If the descriptive verb stem ends in vowels, or are we add our body down? But if the descriptive verb stem ends in vowels other than or are, we add, avoid them. There are of course, various exceptions to these two patterns, and these will be listed in the lesson worksheets. Let's take a look at few other examples. Sentences mean sooner and peak on their pooja Messiah, Min Zu, look tired. Mean Xun and P1 AB, we're CYA. Nice. You got to watch. The weather, seems good. Nice. You got Schwab. Today's cigar yet, but poetical AR, the dress will look pretty. Today's bubble eukarya. So again, in each sentence we've added our appointed to the descriptive verbs, peak on how to be tired too, to be good, and yet Bu dat to be pretty. However, one thing you can see in the sentences is that opioids can be used in past and future tense. To use our RPO IDA in past tense, we change, point out to his past form, Pooja that. And we've used the polite form Pooja CEO in the example sentence. To use our opioids in future tense, we add Ducasse that and form our political cheetah. And the polite form is our POJO. The use of the past form is the same as a present form as we're making an assumption of how something appeared in the past. However, when we use the future form, we're making a prediction of how something will appear in the future. Okay, So with all that in mind, let's now do a listening repeat practice of the sentences. Use all the k connected. Today's cigar, yeah, bub, we're going great efforts world on less than two the independent practice. In this practice, I'd like you to add our pointer to the highlighted verbs and say the full sentences. We will indicate the tense you need to use in each sentence. Okay, so let's begin the practice. Cognigy got our power Boyar, excellent efforts at a well-done. In this lesson, we learned how to use the verb ending or point to talk about how someone or something appears. In the next lesson, we will learn another way to say, I think in Korean. See you then, bye bye. 29. 2.14 I think... | 을걸요: Hi everyone and welcome back. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to use Codio to talk about our assumptions. We use Codio to make assumptions about things that may have happened or may happen in the future. When we use Codio to make assumptions, it's generally a very uncertain assumption. Eukaryote is similar to, I think, or probably in English. Now, we've already learned various ways to talk about what we think are true. And the way we use a eukaryote is similar to the Galileo and then got, got that. And of these, eukaryote is similar to that in terms of level of certainty and expresses a more certain assumption than the other 21 key difference between Codio and then God, god, is that oligo your comes across more casual. So if you wanted to tell your boss, your friends, parents, or someone much older than knew about your assumptions, then it's more appropriate to use and then got data. Okay, so let's take a look at two examples sentences that use the Codio Shinzen and she bare silica area. I think Kinsey went home. Shinzen and Seebeck, acyl-CoA been Cernan patio eukarya. I think Min Zu will go to the party, been Xun and patio area. In the first sentence, we've used Goguryeo with a past form of k1, cut down. And when oogonia is used with verbs past form, we're making assumptions about a past event. In the second sentence, we've used Codio with the present form of CUDA. And when you go your is used with a verb present form. We're making assumptions about a future event. In terms of how we add oogonia. We add oogonia if the verb stem ends in potassium, so cut that becomes cosine eukarya. On the other hand, if the verb stem doesn't end in patching, we add Lear, Goryeo, so cadaver becomes Kaguya. Lastly, when we say the sentences, the tone of the speech rises a little at the end. So we don't just say Shinzen and she bear castle Eukarya. We always say Shinzen and she bear classical area. Shinzen and she bear castle Eukarya. And this rising intonation at the end suggests that we're not entirely sure that what we're saying is true. Let's take a look at few more examples sentences. To Chang'an a quote an oxyanion acyl-CoA. I think Kinsey was a high school student last year. Shinzen and ganglionic axon Yusuke IOA. They leave us hanging. Did it go? Yeah. I think tomorrow is Kinsey's birthday. They each in Suez hanging the Kaya identity, Pago put Gaia. I think children will be hungry. I did a pebble Pikaia. So in each sentence we've used in eukaryotes to talk about things we think will be true or work through in the past. In the first sentence, we've added eukaryotes to IATA, the POS form of EDA to be. So we form ie acyl-CoA. However, if the noun EDA is used with ends in Patch him, the past form would be yacht there. So this would become Yasu go, yeah. In the second sentence, we've used oogonia with the present form of EDA, so it becomes Codio. And lastly, in the third sentence, we've used Goguryeo with a descriptive of Pago, put that to form peg or Pikaia. So we can also use a eukaryote with descriptive verbs. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of sentences that use the repeat after me. Eukarya. Eukarya, hexane, your silicon area data each ensue as hanging Eukarya. Idd Pago. Great job, well done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, I'd like you to add appropriately to the highlighted verbs and say the full sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. So GNN, GNN, silica, silica area, carbonyl. Son Zheng the men, pappa cercaria. I didn't pick on IOA. Fantastic job today, well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned how to use Goguryeo to talk about uncertain assumptions about the past and future situations. The next lesson is a review lesson, and we will review what we learned on the use of data and eukarya. See you then, bye bye. 30. 2.15 Review lesson: Hello and welcome to the review lesson. In this lesson, we're going to review what we learned over the last two lessons on the use of the data and the Codio. Let's begin with our two lessons ago we learned to use, are appointed to talk about how something or someone seems all looks. Our opioid that is always attached to descriptive verbs. And this combined structure is similar to a siem. All look plus adjective in English are 0 that can be used in past, present, and future tense. When it's used in future tense, we add the CAUTI dam. And the future tense is generally used to talk about our prediction of how something or someone will look in the future. Okay, So let's first do a list and repeat practice of sentences that use our chart, Cheonan, PSR, Boyar, EK can then my sister means pico Nappe. We are psi Nicea guys. Today I see a guy that was great, Well done. Let's now do an independent practice. Same as in the lesson. You will see sentences with verbs in the infinitive form, and you have to add up to the highlighted verb and say the full sentence. Do make sure to say the verbs in their polite forms. Okay, So if you're ready, let's begin. Our power Boyar, or man and boy Josiah. I did the pig on Nebula CYA. Could tell guy yet Bobo Eurycleia, banging my c sub o, erica. Excellent efforts, well done. In the previous lesson, we learned to use go Your to talk about uncertain assumptions. And eukarya is similar in meaning to, I think, or probably in English. The use of a eukaryote is similar to the one God got that when we talk about things we think are true. However, oogonia comes across more casual. So if you need to be more respectful than you should use and then got, got that rather than Codio. When we use a Goto with verbs in past tense is used to talk about under certain assumptions in the past. But when we use oogonia with verbs in present tense is used to talk about uncertain assumptions about future events. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of sentences that use the go you cosine. Been sooner and Pat TA saying your silicon, hanging Eukarya, IDD, Pago political area. Great job, well-done, less now do an independent practice. In this practice, I'd like you to add that to Codio to the highlighted verbs and say the full sentences. Remember that we add the Goryeo if the verb stem ends in pats him. But we add Lear Codio, if the verb stem doesn't end in patched him. Okay, so let's begin the practice. So GNN, the Gael Garcia. So GNN, silica, silica, carbon Eukarya. Son Zheng, the main part basilica. I didn't pick on either Korea. Fantastic job today. Well then in this lesson, we reviewed the use of R or poorly dad to talk about how something or someone looks. And Godel to talk about uncertain assumptions. In the next lesson, we're going to learn how to talk about incorrect assumptions in Korean. See you then, bye bye. 31. 2.16 는 줄 알았다, 몰랐다: Hello and welcome back. In this lesson, we're going to learn another structure we can use to talk about our assumptions. Now the key structure is Ninja, Malacca. And there are various ways we can use this structure. So we're going to spend the next three lessons on learning how we can use this structure to talk about our assumptions. Now, ninja at, at that consists of two parts, then Jew and Arata, which is the past form of the verb, meaning to know. And in this part, nim is a modifying suffix which is added to verbs to form modifiers. And we learned this earlier in the course. When we use the width tool, we can use this structure to say that we either know or don't know a particular thing or situation. And afterwards we can use the verbs IDAT to know and border that to not know, to say whether we know or don't know something. Now, we've actually already learned a similar structure, iodine in level one cause. And we use this structure to say, I know how to do something or I can do something. However, when we use the verbs iodine and border that in their past tense, we use the structure to talk about things we thought we knew or we didn't know. Now this structure didn't injure Arata and bullet that can be used in many different ways as they can be used with verbs and descriptive verbs, but also in various tenses. So in this lesson, we'll focus on using the past and present tense structures. And in the next lesson, we'll learn the future tense and how we can use this structure with descriptive verbs. Okay, So let's first take a look at a sentence that uses our data and see how this structure is used. Pka, Messiah, I thought it was raining. P Gao or none Gerasa. First ninja at, at that refers to a present situation as the modifier suffix refers to the present. And regardless of whether the verb stem ends in Patsy more naught, we just add the Arata. And in terms of how we use our data, we use this structure to talk about our incorrect assumptions. Therefore, you might say this when it's not raining and the other person asks, why have you got an umbrella? And in response, you can say this sentence to say that you incorrectly assume that it was raining today. Let's take a look at few more examples sentences. Yang Hua Guan Shi Jan, Cannon, Messiah. I thought the movie was starting now. Yogurts you go MRSA, canon Gerasa Hennessy, Thomas, im Moment Ebola, SIR. I didn't know you were having lunch at one o'clock hanging J. Thomson, Mary Magdalene dribble less sayo. Child who needs hunting, the messenger will last CYA. I didn't know that she was the teacher. Child bunnies, limb injury. Ooh, lasagna. In the first sentence, we've added ninja Messiah to the verb. I see Jack cuda to start to talk about my incorrect assumption of when the movie was starting. In the second sentence, we've added the injury bullous Saya to the verb, a mock data to eat, to talk about our incorrect assumption of when the other person was eating lunch. We had incorrectly assumed or understood lunch to be at one o'clock. In the last sentence, we've added danger, Ebola, soil to EDA, which functions like the verb to be. And when we add the injury Ebola soil to eat that, we add the enjoyable lasagna. So we have endurable lasagna. And in the sentence, I had no idea that someone was a teacher, even though she was. And although the sentences lack context, we would generally use these sentences when telling the other person that we had incorrectly assumed or understood a particular thing or situation. And these statements relate more to the present situation. But we will discuss more about the tense of modifying suffixes as we look at the past form injury, Arata n will let them. Okay, so let's first do a listener repeat practice of the sentences john n and p Gao and enjoy our Isiah. Young Wow, God. She, Jack canons are highly CH homicide, Merryman injury, bolus IR. Chobani is Han Zheng the manger bolus IR. Great job, well-done. Let's now take a look at how we use the past tense form are at Taboola. Here's an example sentence. Yang Hua Guan Shi Jack can do SiO. I thought the movie had started yoga. She can Gerasa first in terms of how we add. We add neon jury. If the verb stem doesn't end in pats him. So here we've added a new injury that she Jakarta to former she Jack era. However, if the verb stem ends in Patch him, we add the injury data. So for the verb block that we would have bargained jus ad at them. Now, this sentence is very similar to the sentence earlier, but the tense of the modifying suffix means that they refer to different time-frames. The earlier sentence that uses our data will be used in situations where the person has hurriedly arrived at the cinema so that he or she wouldn't miss the start of the movie. Which is why we've used the word sugar, meaning now, on the other hand, the sentence would be used in situations where the speaker assume the movie had already started and the speaker has hurriedly arrived at the cinema so that he or she wouldn't miss too much of the movie. So the important difference between these two sentences is the incorrect assumption about when the movie was starting. Let's take a look at two more sentences together. Cheonan pKa or Messiah. I thought it had rained. Cheonan P gown, Gerasa, Cheonan PCR on in Gerasa. I thought it was raining. Cheonan P Gao on and Gerasa. In the first sentence, the speakers incorrect assumption is that it had already rained. While in the second sentence, the incorrect assumption is that it would be raining in the present. So again, the key difference is the incorrect assumption that relates to different timeframe. And in terms of when we would use these sentences, the first sentence might be used by someone who was wearing boots as he or she assumed the ground would be wet due to the earlier reign. However, the second sentence might be used by someone who was carrying an umbrella as he or she thought it would be raining at the time of speaking. Let's take a look at two more examples sentences. Thomas, Morgan gerbils, ISIL, I didn't know you had lunch at 12 o'clock. Hence year Thomson, Mary Morgan and durable last Psi are tabu nice, Hongzhang, Nemean and durable lasagna. I didn't know that she had been a teacher. Chobani is Hongzhang Nemean and durable last sigh. So in the first sentence we add endurable lasagna to the verb, bought that to form a Bogan, durable lasagna. But in the second sentence, we first formed the past form of E dot E, and then add the durable lasagna. So do you know that for IDA, we first change ie dad to his past form and then add noon jury Arata, overlap there. And same as before compared to sentences earlier. These sentences contain our incorrect assumptions of past situations rather than the present. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use the arrow or bulla To talk about incorrect past assumptions. Young La, Raza, Cheonan P gown, jury. Trial, Bhutanese, hands-on Nemean, enjoyable, less. Great job, well-done, less now do an independent practice. In this practice, you will see Korean sentences with verbs in the infinitive forms. And I'd like you to combine that ninja will or the RR Taboola appropriately and say the full sentences. Remember to use the polite form of RR or laptop, Messiah and more lasagna. Okay, So if you're ready, let's start the practice. Durable. Now Gei Yang, wonder plunger, bolus CYA. She now guys Shimbun and Gerasa. Excellent job today, well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned how to use the ginger who are at Taboola to talk about our incorrect assumptions in the present and also in the past. In the next lesson, we will learn how to use Bu dat bullet that to talk about incorrect assumptions related to the future. See you then, bye bye. 32. 2.17 을 줄 알았다, 몰랐다: Hello and welcome back. In this lesson, we're going to learn how to use Bu dat and bulla to talk about incorrect assumptions that relate to the future. Now as we learned earlier in the course, we can add a modifier suffix to verbs to form modifiers that relate to the future. And similarly, we can use that to verbs and talk about incorrect assumptions that relate to the future. Let's take a look at an example sentence. Cernan p or true. Sir. I thought it would rain Cheonan peak hour Gerasa. First in terms of how we add X2 to add our data, if the verb stem doesn't end the impacts him, we add literature Arata, so all that becomes old jury ADA. However, if the verb stem ends in Patch him, we add our data. So for the verb bought, it would become boggled down. Second, in terms of how we use that we use are attached to talk about an incorrect assumption that relates to the present, which was made in the past. So in essence, we're talking about a future assumption which was made in the past, but as turned out to be incorrect. And if we compare this to the sentence that uses ninja Dam In this sentence with the injera sayo, the incorrect assumption relates to the present situation, but there is no indication as to when this assumption was made. So these two sentences could be said in the same situation. But the difference is that with our data referring to an assumption that was made in the past, relating to the present. Let's compare two more sentences that use Jew and the Arab. Taboola. Young, wow, guar, gum, she Jack canon, Jewish, messiah. I thought the movie was starting now. Young mortgage. Canon Gerasa. Young. She comes, she jacket Gerasa. I thought the movie would be starting now, yogurts Messiah. So in the first sentence, the incorrect assumption relates to the present situation and there is no indication as to when this assumption was made. But in the second sentence, arrow that indicates that at some point in the past, this incorrect assumption was made about the future. However, one key usage rule regarding our data is that we can use that to talk about how our assumption which was made in the past is actually correct. So let's say that you arrived right on time as the movie is starting. But others thought that you didn't know the starting time. Then you can say the sentence to emphasize how you actually knew when the movie would be starting. So if original art that is used in this way, the meaning in English would be more similar to, I knew the movie would be starting now. So that's another way we can use our data. However, do note that this usage only applies to our data and not Ebola data. Let's take a look at few more examples. Sentences B9, vacua, Kaltura CYA, I thought meaner would go to school. Be Nagasaki way Kaltura CYA, Min Zu guy, Kay, carry boggled Gerasa. I thought Min Zu would eat the cake. Means UGA k colorable girl, Gerasa. Son Zheng, the military Ebola Messiah. I didn't know Gina would be a teacher, Nagasaki during the military rule, lasagna. So as with earlier sentences, in these sentences, we referring to our incorrect assumptions we had made in the past about a certain event in the future. However, as mentioned before, sentences using Arata may be emphasizing how we knew something would be correct in the present. Okay, so with that in mind, let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences. Cheonan peak, our Messiah. Young. Guy k could go to the military, but great efforts, well done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences with verbs in the infinitive form. And I'd like you to add bullets appropriately and say the full sentence in polite verb ending. Remember that we add the verb stem ends in Patch him. But if it doesn't end in part Tim, we add literature. Okay, so let's begin the practice. Cernan, Sugata, wild giraffe, son, saying name and taxing the ball will do daily top-secret material. Amen, integrity and anxiety, Ebola, CYA. Excellent job today. Well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned to use data and bullet to talk about incorrect assumptions we had made in the past about future events. We also learned to use Arata to emphasize how we knew something would be correct in the present. In the next lesson, we will learn how to use the arrow down with descriptive verbs. See you then, bye, bye. 33. 2.18 은 줄 알았다, 몰랐다: Hi everyone. In this lesson, we're going to focus on using injure, add up that with descriptive verbs to talk about our incorrect assumptions. Now how we use descriptive verbs to talk about our incorrect assumptions is the same as regular verbs, but the way we add the modifier suffix is a little different. When referring to incorrect assumptions that relate to the present situation. We add damn bullet that rather than ninja are at Taboola with verbs end to refer to incorrect assumptions we had made in the past relating to a future event. We add tab, we'll let them same as we did with the verbs. Unlike the verbs, we don't have a structure we can use to talk about an incorrect assumption relating to a past event. So do keep that in mind. Okay, So let's first take a look at a couple of example sentences that use the Arata bullet charts Min or max, peak on Andrew, Messiah. I thought mom was tired. John and omega p gone and Gerasa. John and I see God tune durable lasagna. I didn't know the weather was good. John and I. A cigar challenger will last CYA first in terms of how we add. That is the same as we did with the verbs. So we add neon jury, if the descriptive verb stem doesn't end impacts him. But if it does, then we add the injury. And as mentioned before, we would use these sentences to talk about incorrect assumptions about the current situation. So for the first sentence, I may have assumed that my mother was tired because she had a busy day, but as it turns out, she isn't tired, then I can say this sentence. For the second sentence, I may have assumed that it would rain. So I was dressed for a rainy weather, but as it turns out, the weather is actually good. So then I can say that I didn't know the weather was good. So that's how we use the ARRA Taboola with descriptive verbs. Let's now take a look at sentences that use Taboola, damn, Charmin or Maga, pico nature. I thought mom would be tired. Charmin, omega p gonad, euro, SIR. John and she got Ebola, SIR. I didn't know the weather would be good. John and I see gradual, durable lasagna. Now same as how we add with verbs. We add literature if the descriptive verb doesn't end in pats him. But if it does, we add UI. And the way we use this structure is the same as how we used it with verbs. So these sentences referred to incorrect assumptions made in the past about the future. However, as we mentioned before with our data, we can also use this structure to emphasize how we knew something to be correct. So do keep that in mind. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of the sentences that use n pico and then Tomlin, omega p gone. John and I assume that was great, well-done, less than do the independent practice. In this practice, you will see sentences with descriptive verbs in the infinitive forms. And depending on the prompts, I'd like you to add either injury or UX, ARRA or bulla, and say the full sentences. Remember to say the sentences with polite verb ending. Okay, so let's begin the practice. Tag. Open. Tag. Be Nagar, super durable lasagna. Excellent job today. Well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we learned how to use endure who are at dam or lata with descriptive verbs to talk about our incorrect assumptions, but also how we can emphasize that we knew something to be true. In the next lesson, we're going to review everything we learned over the last three lessons on using injure the danger, and that will let them see you then, bye bye. 34. 2.19 Review lesson: Hi everyone. In this review lesson, we're going to review what we learned in the previous three lessons on using the injury, the injury and ARA Taboola. To talk about our incorrect assumptions. Let's begin with and injure at Taboola that with verbs. Three lessons ago, we learned to use the danger Arata bullet down with verbs to talk about our incorrect assumptions. We use injure Arab dam would love to talk about our incorrect assumptions relating to a past situation. And we use danger, Arata more lotta to talk about incorrect assumptions relating to a present situation. If we're talking about something we believe to be true but turned out to be false, then we use Arata, the past form of iodine, meaning to know. However, if we're talking about something we didn't know, we use bullet, the past form of motor that to not know. When we add the injured heart attack, we add the errata if the verb stem ends in Patch him. But if it doesn't, we add neon jury. With danger, Arata, we always add and injure regardless of whether the verb stem ends in patching or not. Okay, so let's now do a speaking practice of sentences that use the engine danger at Taboola. Charmin P. Gao on Andrew RSI. Hi, young Malagasy Jack can Gerasa, fungi J. Thomson, Mary Morgan, jury bolus, IR. That was great, Well done. Let's move on to the independent practice. In this practice, depending on the prompts on the screen, I'd like you to add the injury or the injury Arab dam, let the appropriately and say the full sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's start the practice. Durable less sine t Now guys symbol in July, Mina Gei Yang water Punjab or CYA. She now guys Shimbun and Gerasa. Excellent job, well-done. Two lessons ago we learned to add, add, add. Dam would love to talk about incorrect assumptions. When we use x2, y2 are attached to talk about incorrect assumptions. We're referring to an incorrect assumption which we had made at some point in the past regarding a certain event in the future. However, we can also use UDP are attached to emphasize how we knew something would be true. So we can use that to say that our assumption was actually correct. However, do note that this usage only applies to Arata and not bullet down. And in terms of how we add, we add the verb stem ends in Patch him. But if it doesn't end in Patch him, we add literature. Okay, so let's first do a listener repeat practice of sentences that use who are at or bullet. Young. Guy k could be Mobutu. Tonight, the military will last CYA. Great efforts, well done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, I'd like you to add a UI or bola to the highlighted verb and say that full sentence. Okay, so if you're ready, let's begin. Challenge. Son Zheng naming hexane deadly Ebola. Ebola. And then daily top-secret material on man and nature, Ebola CYA. Fantastic job, well done. In the previous lesson, we learned how to talk about incorrect assumptions using descriptive verbs. If we're making incorrect assumptions about the present, we add the Taboola to descriptive verbs. However, if we're talking about assumptions we had made in the past about certain future events. We still use Bu dat. There is no structure we use to make incorrect POS, assumptions with descriptive verbs. Okay, so let's first do a listener repeat practice of sentences that use descriptive verbs. Charmin, omega p gone and Gerasa, Ebola, Saya. Then omega p gone higher it Gerasa. Great job, Well done. Let's now do the independent practice. In this practice, depending on the prompts on the screen, I'd like you to add either or are at Taboola and say the full sentences. Okay, So if you're ready, let's begin the practice. Ooh, ooh, ooh. Today. Super durable lasagna. Fantastic job today. Well done. Okay, so in this lesson, we reviewed the use of danger and uj out at Taboola to talk about incorrect assumptions. However, we can also use UDP to emphasize something we knew to be true. That's it for Part 1 of level three essential Korean grammar course. And I will see you soon again in part 2.