Composition ▶️ Part #5 of Adobe Photoshop Drawing Course | Xenia Sorokina | Skillshare

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Composition ▶️ Part #5 of Adobe Photoshop Drawing Course

teacher avatar Xenia Sorokina, Illustrator & Graphic designer

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Focal points


    • 3.



    • 4.

      Symmetry & Asymmetry


    • 5.

      Dynamic & Static


    • 6.



    • 7.

      3D Composition - Arrangement


    • 8.

      3D Composition - Movement


    • 9.

      3D Composition - Rhythm


    • 10.

      3D Composition - Hierarchy: dominance levels


    • 11.

      3D Composition - Rendering, cropping, odd numbers


    • 12.

      Final work: Sketch


    • 13.

      Final work: Lining part


    • 14.

      Final work: Flat colors


    • 15.

      Final work: Fixings & Analysis


    • 16.

      Final work: Adding shadows (and fixing exposure)


    • 17.

      Final work: Fixings & Beautification


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About This Class

This is the 5th part of the Adobe Photoshop drawing series.  

If you haven't seen the previous classes of this course, please, check them out first, because the knowledge we’ve gained there would be needed in this part, as well. 

Into this class we’re going to be exploring composition.

During the class we'll discuss the theoretical basics of composition such as focal points, balance, symmetry & asymmetry, dynamic & static, rhythm and much more.

At the end of the class, in order to apply the received knowledge, we’ll complete the final full-fledged work. For the final work of this class and as a mid-course milestone, we’re going to be creating a bookcase.

Into this assignment, we’ll need to use and reinforce all the knowledge we gained from the previous classes of this drawing course.  We’ll go through all the main parts of creating a 3D composition and also learn a few tricks.

For this class, and for the whole course in general, ideally, you should have Adobe Photoshop and any kind of graphic tablet.


Previous parts of the course:

▶️ Part #1: Linear Perspective

▶️ Part #2: A Theory of Light And Shade

▶️ Part #3: Materials Study

▶️ Part #4: Color Theory

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Xenia Sorokina

Illustrator & Graphic designer


Hello there!

I'm Xenia, and I'm an illustration and graphic design enthusiast. I know firsthand how complicated and confusing the new software, tools and simply learning new skills could be, so I'm here for all the neophytes and enthusiasts to help you with learning new things.

So if you want to learn something new or refresh already known but forgotten knowledge about Adobe Illustrator, Photoshop, Procreate and digital illustrations in general - you're more than welcome to join the creative journey!

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1. Introduction: Hello, everyone. My name is ene, and welcome to the fifth part of the photoshop drawing series. If you haven't seen the previous classes of the scores, please check out them first, because the knowledge we've gained there would be needed in this part as well. Into this class, we are going to be exploring composition. During the class, we'll discuss the theoretical basics of composition, such as focal points, balance, symmetry and asymmetry, dynamic and static rhythm, and much more. At the end of the class, in order to apply the received knowledge, we'll complete the final full fledged work. For the final work of this class, and as a mid course milestone, we are going to be creating a bookcase. Into this assignment, we'll need to use and reinforce all the knowledge we've gained from the previous classes of this drawing course. We'll go through all the main parts of creating a three D composition and also learn a few tricks. For this class and for the whole course in general, ideally, you should have an Adobe photoshop and any kind of graphic tablets. But the knowledge you'll get, you'll be able to apply in any other graphic software or even traditional materials. So if you are ready, let's begin. 2. Focal points: In today's class, we're going to be talking about the composition. We'll start from the theoretical basics and then move on to the practical parts. Let's start from the definition of composition, and it is the arrangement of elements within the pictorial space. Positioning and arrangement of elements affects how a viewer interacts with the picture. Composition is probably one of the most important aspects in drawing, and if your composition is weak, even if everything else is perfect, your picture may occur boring and weak as well. So a lot depends on the composition, but the good thing here is that we have certain rules for better planning and for better arranging. Let's start defining what these rules are. The first thing need to get familiar with is the focal points. The focal points are the places that attract focus, and command the visual attention of the viewer. Every work should have at least one focal point. Otherwise, what's the point of the whole picture if there is nothing to focus on? You can achieve the presence of the focal points by using the contrast, isolation, placement and convergence. This was just an introduction to the focal points and we'll get back to it a little later during this class. 3. Balance : Now, let's start talking about the main principles, and the first one is going to be balance. As you can see on your screen, the balance is the distribution of visual weights in composition. Each object in your drawing has its own visual weight or mass. When we add an element to one side of the composition, we should balance it out with another element or several elements on the other side. We have a few options of how to balance the objects on the composition to achieve an equilibrium. Let's think about the balance as the C saw. If we have one pretty large object on one side, we should balance it out with the same weight on the other side. Let's check out the example. Here we have the frame, and if we add the box on the other side, and if this box will have almost the same visual weight, our composition will start to look pretty balanced. But what if our C saw looks this way? We have a larger object on one side and the smaller object on another side, and this doesn't look balanced. Let's check out another example. We get one small box on the right, and you can see that the visual weights are different, and again, it's not looking balanced. So how can we resolve this problem? As been said before, we need to add the same or almost the same visual weight on the other side, and we can do it in a few different ways. We can add the object that will have the similar visual weight as we saw here with the big box, or we can use several objects that together will have the similar visual weight, but will be separated from one another. These three boxes have the similar visual weight and make everything pretty balanced. But what if we need to add the smaller object into the composition? What can we do to balance out everything? For example, we have just the small box. Let's check out the CS once again. If we have one larger object on one side and if we need to add the smaller object, we need to balance it out by shifting the larger object toward the center of decomposition, thereby shifting the weight to the side, just like the real life saw would work. Let's get back to the example. We shift in the frame toward the center line of the shelf, and now our picture looks more balanced. Remember these three options that we have in order to achieve an equilibrim. We can have one large object. We can have several smaller objects and we can shift the heavier object toward the center of the composition to balance out every fan. Keep in mind that if your work isn't balanced visually, it may feel heavy and less aesthetically pleasing. 4. Symmetry & Asymmetry: After we got familiar with the balance, we can move on to related concepts. The next principle that we will discuss is symmetry and asymmetry. Let's start from the symmetry. In symmetrical composition, we have equal weights on equal sides, balance around the center line. As you can see in this picture, the elements are about equal in shape, weight, and even color. They are almost identical and have nearly the same visual mass. If we take a ruler and find center line, we'll see that we have both masses equal on both sides. When we are creating the symmetrical composition, we need to think about the area that is near the center line because it attracts attention. In the center, we should have an element that connects two parts of the composition together. Here we have this frame, and if we hide it, we'll probably lose the whole composition. There'll be just two visual messes with no connection, and the frame helps us to achieve balance. Keep in mind that in symmetrical composition, we should have a binding element near the center line. Also, as you might have noticed, the distinctive feature of symmetrical balance is mirroring objects. When we have a symmetrical composition, we are talking about something restful, coming, visually stable, static, and maybe boring. But of course, it all depends on what we want to achieve in this composition and what we need to convey through it. On the opposite side of symmetry, we have asymmetry. The asymmetrical composition has the unequal weights on the sides. One side has a dominant elements and another is balanced with the dominant object by a couple more focal points. In the example, we have a dominant object on the left and a few more focal points on the right that are balancing out the whole composition. We don't have the precise binding element near the center line as we had in the symmetry composition, but still it looks pretty balanced. Asymmetry compositions are more casual, more dynamic, and more interesting, but also they're more complex, so might be difficult to achieve. If in the symmetry we were mirroring object in asymmetrical compositions, we have the repeating parts, like here with the rectangular elements. What we also need to know about symmetry and asymmetry is that we should avoid the absolute symmetry. We need to save the mass and weight, but play with the smaller details and elements. 5. Dynamic & Static: Let's move on to another principle of the composition that is related to the balance, and it is the dynamic and static compositions. Let's start from the static one. Static composition is straightforward, direct and stable, and it will work well if you want to create some visual stability and stillness. On the opposite, we have the dynamic composition. Dynamic composition creates a greater sense of story. It engages more with the viewer by creating the illusion of actual movements that the viewer's eye takes while looking on the picture. You can see that everything here in dynamic composition is riddled with the diagonal lines. Take a look at the lit of the box, the book on the right, and even the rocket goes diagonally up. If we look more precisely on the composition, we'll see that everything here goes along the curve. It controls and influences our eyes and it creates the direction that the viewer's eye would follow. In order to create the movement, we can use the different tools, such as contrast guidelines and some overlapping elements, but the most effective are curves and diagonal lines. It would be only better if we could achieve the looping effect to maximize the control and influence of the viewer's eye. Another related topic in the dynamic and static composition block is the concept of stability and instability. Dynamic compositions are more unstable because instability establishes more potential movements. We already marked the diagonal lines. The book, the boxes, the rocket going on the diagonal trajectory, all of them are creating instability. But the best thing here is that we have these boxes on the left arranged in a peculiar way. They are completely unstable and show a lot of movement. On the opposite, let's take a look at the static composition. Everything here is very stable. The rocket is going up, little boxes arranged in a stable way. The book on the right is strictly vertical as well. Take a look how stable the boxes on the left are. We don't experience instability. Let's compare it with the dynamic composition and we'll see the difference between stability and instability. To sum up, dynamic compositions are unstable. If we put the larger box on the top of the smaller one, we will have the illusion of the movement. We will have the sense that the top box might fall right away and it is the potential movement, and this is what we need to achieve while creating the dynamic composition. On the opposite, if we put the larger box on the bottom and add the smaller one on top, we'll have a very static composition. It is straightforward, centered, and showing stability. Most of the time, dynamic compositions are asymmetrical and the static ones are mostly symmetrical. But the best way of working with stability and instability, dynamic and static is combining them together and balancing the picture in that way. 6. Rhythm: Next and the last concept here is rhythm. Rhythm is regular or irregular pattern of repeating shapes. Regular rhythm is also called meter. The difference between them is that in the regular rhythm, we have the repeating objects with the same distance between them. We can depict the meter in that way. It is stable and static and we can use just two numbers to mark the changes. We already know how it will behave later because we are using just the same distance. Regular rhythm is mostly used for some architectural stuff like colonnades, bridges, and so on. It is useful in static compositions. On the opposite, we have an irregular rhythm. Let's see how it works here. We can enumerate the steps with six numbers in that case, but it can be any amount of numbers. We finished with number four, and that can lead us to repeating the whole rhythm once again, thereby creating another regular rhythm, or maybe it will continue more iotically. Repeating the elements within a work is often referred as a motif. Including the motif into your work can lead us to sense of unity, harmony, and consistency. Also, masses in rhythm should vary for a better composition, and that's probably it for this part of the class. We will continue to discuss some of these concepts a bit later in the second block. 7. 3D Composition - Arrangement: We got familiar with the compositional principles, we can move on to the three D objects. They will help us to understand the rules more and to apply the received knowledge in practice. Composition starts from one subject placed into the artwork. Here we have these tapes or VHS that will be a part of the composition and will help us to understand the rules and apply them correctly. As been said before, the most important aspect in composition is positioning and arrangement of elements within the pictorial space. Let's start making our layouts. We are going to be starting from defining what is the center of the composition, what is the geometrical center and what is the gravity of the canvas? You might say, and it probably seems like that in that case, that usually we are placing the objects in the center of the canvas, or in other words, in the geometrical center. But if we find the center of the canvas, we'll see that it's not where the center of our object is. The center of the object or in other words, the center of the composition is shifted toward the top part of the canvas and doesn't match with the geometrical center. That is how the gravity of the canvas works. Any object you put on your canvas would seem a bit lower than it is. If we now add one more object to the composition, we'll have a different mass, and we'll need to define the new center of this mass. Let's just quickly and closely trace the mass and find the approximate center. When we define the center, we need to put these objects into the center of the composition, but not the geometrical center. We are placing the mass a bit above the center of the canvas. Let's check it out without the grite. But what if we need to add one more object? What will we do? Here's the popcorn Let's just move it a bit to the side to clear a space. Again, we have the new mass and we need to find its center in order to position it well. We're taking the brush, loosely tracing the mass and finding its approximate center. Now we need to move and position it. Maybe now we'll shift everything a bit below, but still above the geometrical center. What we have here now is a bit unbalanced because we have different weights on the sides. Two pretty heavy objects on the right and a lighter object on the left. If you remember the CSO that we discussed in the previous part of the class, we can solve this problem by shifting the heavier objects toward the center. We might adjust it a bit, move it back and forth up and down, bearing in mind the gravity and position it in the way it achieves the visual weight balance. In the end, we will have something like that. When we are starting to make the three decompositions, we need to start thinking not only about the lines because we're not limited by them. We need to start thinking about the volumes and masses as well. We need lines mostly for creating the right perspective. Let's check out another example. There is some black and white background, and we also added some tones for the objects. We are starting to see objects as a messes and these masses have their weights. What we can see clearly now is that the weights of the objects on the right and the objects on the left are super different and that still makes the composition unbalanced. Plus we can see that these two masses are not connected with each other. It doesn't mean that we need to add another object between the already existing ones to connect them together. We can use other messes to create this connection. For example, we can use the cast shadow. Now, when we cast the shadow, the gap between the popcorn pack and tapes is filled, and we've connected these objects together. Now we can darken all the objects, including the cast shadow to inscribe it more into the composition, and we can see that we again have a little problem with the balance. That's because the cash shadow has its own weight as well. So we can solve it by selecting all the elements and by shifting everything a bit to the upper right. We'll clear some space for the cast shadow and thereby we'll achieve the balance. Now, if we select the object as one mass and also select the cast shadow, the weight will be approximately equal, and the picture would be more balanced. 8. 3D Composition - Movement: Next thing that we need to talk about is the movement. We already explored it in the previous block of the class, but let's check out it on the three decomposition as well. What do we see when we are looking at this picture? We're probably moving our eye along the curve. Also, we have two main guiding lines on the bottom that are showing us where we should look. But there's a feeling that something is wrong with this curve. We have the area here where we are losing attention and getting lost in general. That's because we have nothing here between the popcorn pack and TV. So probably our gaze won't go along the whole curve. We will pay more attention to the area with TV and tapes. Then what do we need to do to achieve the harmony and to send the viewer's eye along the main curve. For example, we can add the horizontal line like this. It's not the horizon line, it might be a table g or something like that, and what will we achieve by adding this line? Our gaze will follow along the curve, and then a pin countering the horizontal helping line would slide along it and finally mean the curve again, thereby creating the loop. Even this tiny horizontal line on the right would help us to move along the curve. That is what we need to know about movements. To sum up, the main thing is that we need to make a nice curve, a nice direction to follow and to add the supporting lines that will move us through the whole picture. Also, to support this curve even more, we can add a few details between the popcorn pack and the tapes. Let's add a few popped corn seeds. We can arrange them on the curve line in order to influence the eye movement. 9. 3D Composition - Rhythm: Now, let's move on to the rhythm. We already briefly discussed it in the previous block, but it wouldn't hurt if we check it out in a three decomposition two for a better understanding. The rhythm is changing of objects or their parts, changing of visual characteristics such as mass, son proportions, in other words, any dynamic changes, and dynamic changes attract attention. For example, if we had four objects with the same weight and size, it would be probably a pretty boring composition, and it will be hard to arrange them nicely. Here we have a few objects with the different masses, different weights and sizes. All of them together make the composition more interesting to look at. And the rhythm is not just about the objects in general. We can find a rhythm everywhere in this picture. For example, let's take a look at the TV. We have another rhythm here. There is the repeating shapes of different sizes. The smaller rectangle on the right, a bit bigger one on the front side, and a few even larger ones as the screen and the frame. As you might have remembered, we have regular and irregular rhythms. And as been said before in the previous block of this class, for more dynamic and interesting picture, we usually use the irregular rhythm. Here with the TV, if we go clockwise, we'll see that we have the following rhythm, one, two, four, and three. Let's write it down. For example, if we have the ascending rhythm as one, two, three, and four, it would be no that fun to look at. Let's check out other objects as well. Let's take a look at the popcorn pack. We can find the parts with the different sizes, and if we go clockwise, we'll see another rhythm. The same for the tapes and the same even for the popcorn seeds. We didn't place them in regular order by their size. We've created a more exciting rhythm. So to sum up, rhythm is everywhere, and if you succeeded during creating the rhythms, you'll have a nicer picture as a result. It will be more exciting to contemplate. 10. 3D Composition - Hierarchy: dominance levels: Next thing that we need to discuss is the visual hierarchy, and we'll start from the thing that is called emphasis or accent. If you remember, when we were adding these popcorn seeds, we were talking about the movement that our eyes take while looking at this picture. We added seeds to exaggerate the curature of the gaze movement. This element attracts a lot of attention, and there are a few more of such elements in this picture. If we take a look at the objects one by one, we'll see that each one of them has some elements that catch our attention. Here on the TV, it might be either the detail on the right face or these two handles on the front, depending on what you want to show and what you define as a focal points. These elements as been said before, are called emphasis. They are defining the focal points and adding some rhythm. When we added the popcorn seeds, we've created a new rhythm for the composition. Let's write down the rhythmical order determined by the size of the objects. As the opposite for the emphasis, there are dominant objects. The dominant object is the largest object in the composition. It might be a part of the center of the composition or it might have the supporting background role for the center of the composition. Idally it's better to have a single dominant object within the composition. There might be a few dominant objects, but they might compete for attention and distract the viewer. Here we can definitely say that the TV is the dominant object. And if we start adding more details to the tapes that are center of the composition, the TV will play the supporting role. Quick reminder, when we're talking about the center of the composition, we don't mean the geometrical center. The center of the composition shouldn't be in the center of the canvas, I only it's not your purpose. It more likely will be shifted from the center in order to achieve some dynamic and nicer look in general. In that case, the tapes are the center of the composition. If we take a look again at the movement scheme, we'll see that our gaze is leading us to the tapes. Also, one more thing about the dominant objects. It is always good to have some large elements within the composition because if there are a lot of small objects with a similar weights, it becomes very cluttery we scatter the attention and have nothing to focus on. The dominant object helps our eyes to find the place to focus on and lead us to the center of the composition. We define the emphasis, the dominant object and the center of the composition. The last object here will be called the periphery. 11. 3D Composition - Rendering, cropping, odd numbers: Last main thing that we need to discuss is rendering or detailing. So there's the thing that we don't really need to render the whole picture and the whole composition similarly. In composition, we have the detailing zones. We're always starting from the center of the composition, and it will be the most rendered part. Because it attracts more attention, there will be more details, and it is the object you want your viewers to look at. The further you go from the center, the less rendered the objects would be. Some remote from the compositional center areas might last not rendered at all or left super sketchy. The first zone, the center one is fully rendered. The second is mildly rendered. The third one is low rendered, and the fourth one is non rendered or left sketchy. We are decreasing the amount of details in order to attach the viewer's attention at the places we need. In other words, at the center of the composition. Because if you render some side elements more than the center of the composition, these side elements will compete for attention and distract the viewers. They won't get while you're trying to move their eyes to the non central object. So we are rendering the main central elements more. In order to keep the viewer's attention on the places, we need them to keep their attention on. As for the emphasis, we need them to send the viewer's eye along the right curve in order to get to the central focal points. That's probably it for the main theoretical parts. All of this theory will help you to analyze your pictures better and to apply the knowledge to create the better pictures. A few quick side nodes before diving into the practical parts. While creating the pictures, we need to keep in mind the cropping. You might have noticed that almost everywhere in the previous classes, and in this one as well, we had the frames on the canvases. These frames provide enough space and won't let you mess up much with arranging and positioning If the edges of the elements are close to the edges of the canvas, they are drawing more unwanted attention and increasing the visual weight. Try to position your elements in the safe zone inside the frame and list some areas outside the frame for some foreground elements. One more thing to discuss is the odd numbers. We should consider the number of elements we include while composing the artwork. Usually, the human mind finds balance into at numbers. The most optimal number to use is three. But of course, we are not limited into three objects. If we put the even number of subjects, it will be difficult to define which of them is the focal points. For example, if it add two popcorn seeds, it might have looked a bit weird. We'd start to think which of them is the main one and which of them is the additional one. When we include the third element, the other two elements act to frame the third and thereby creating the balance. Now it's the end of the theoretical part for sure. And in the next part of the class, we're going to be making the final work. And this time, it will be the bookcase. 12. Final work: Sketch: For the final work of this class, and as a mid course milestone, we're going to be creating a bookcase. Into the assignments, we'll need to use and reinforce all the knowledge we gained from the previous classes of this course. The process of making it wouldn't be that detailed in order to save time, but we'll go through all the main parts of creating the piece and also learn a few tricks. A has been said before, here in this work, we are going to be using everything that we already know, perspective, tunnel drawing, materials, colors and the composition. So if you miss something, consider going back and feeling the blanks. Before diving into sketching a three D sketch, we need to start with a flat visualization of what we are going to be creating. Firstly, you need to make a flat variation of the bookcase as a planning part and put some objects on the shelves. I'd suggest you to make a clean and detailed scheme because in the future, you might use some elements from it into your three D drawing. You can make any kind of bookcase you like and put on any objects you want by using any type of composition. Just keep in mind that you'll need to project them into the three D in the upcoming future. Try to make it feasible. If you don't want to make your own bookcase, you can find the prepared example that you now see on your screen in the project and resto stop. When you have the proper visualization made in two D, you will need to draw the exact same bookcase in the perspective. That is your next step. Try not to use some crazy perspectives. Keep it neutral, so you won't suffer that much while recreating your two D composition. If you chose not to make your own bookcase and use the prepared one, you can find the three D example in the project and resusab as well. If you are using this file, you'll see the grid that was used to inscribe the bookcase in the right perspective. The orange horizontal line is the horizon line or the eye level. From the very first class of this series, you might have remembered that all the objects should be treated in accordance with the horizon line. Objects place above and below the horizon line should be built differently. These green schematic objects on the different layer, are showing the right perspective that should be used for positioning the objects in accordance with the horizon. If you're recreating your own bookcase in the three D, the first thing you need to think about is where the eye level is, and by proceeding from this information, build your own bookcase and position your objects. When you have the three D bookcase, we need to start recreating the objects we have on the flat image into the three D, start making the sketch on the new layer. You can use any brush you like, and you also can use the buttons with the targets on the top toolbar. These buttons will help you to adjust the opacity and pressure of the brush if it's needed. So it's time to move on to sketching. The tips here is to keep in mind the perspective and to simplify the objects. You don't need to keep it very clean because it's not the final result of the lines that we're going to be using in our work. Our goal here is to recreate the two d shapes in a correct way, start from the top and position the objects. You may use the pen tool for making the lines for convenience and to speed up the whole sketching process. Copy the created lines and adjust them in accordance with the perspective. For the correct strokes for the paths, you might need to deactivate the opacity and pressure buttons on the top tool bar. If you're not sure of how some objects might look, use the reference from real life or from browsing the web. It's always good to use the references. Not for tracing or recreating the objects in exact pose they are, but for analyzing the shapes, textures, and so on. I. For some objects such as plant pot, for example, in order to make them symmetrical, you might need to use the symmetry button on the top tool bar. Select the vertical option from the drop down menu, and the vertical guideline will appear. Move it the way you need by holding down the control key, position it in the center of the future pot and half of the object on one side. The second symmetrical part will appear by itself. It works with the brush and with an era tool. When you are satisfied with the object, get back to the symmetry icon and choose symmetry off and continue recreating other objects that don't need the symmetry to. Also here with the sei round objects, we need to understand how the ellipses work in the perspective and in accordance with the eye level. You can find the ellipses mammo on the separated layer. This scheme will show you how the ellipses behave in accordance with the horizon line. There are two key elements of ellipse, the minor and major axis. As an epse moves above or below the horizon line the width of the major axis doesn't change. But the high of the minor axis compresses as it moves closer to the horizon line. So here with the plant pot, we need to recreate the ellipse in accordance with the horizon line and by rely on the scheme. Continue sketching and checking your three D object sizes with the two D scheme. While drawing your objects, keep in mind the material they are made from. It might affect the line curvature and line direction, and don't hesitate to use the references. Don't be afraid to make a little mess, array something, redraw something, change some elements. We need the sketch part right for this reason. Find what looks best, even if it's not exactly the same as you have on your two D draft. Continue to position the objects and use the pen tool to guide you. Remember that the closer we get to the horizon line, the straighter the lines will be. Use the elliptical or any other market tool to create and adjust the objects. Don't try to make everything super neat. Now you need just to build the objects and have the general idea of how the objects will be positioned in the bookcase. Finish up the sketch. When you're ready, look at the whole picture in general, from the critical point of view, mark the places you'd like to change or fix in the upcoming future. At this stage for the sketch I've made, I'd fix the size of the boxes on the button shelf and work more on the scarf. When you're done analyzing the sketch, let's move on to the line in parts. 13. Final work: Lining part: Let's start out line in part from some preparation work. Decrease the capacity of the sketch layer, lock it and create the new layer for the lines. Here we're going to be drawing each object on its own layer, so keep this in mind. Each time you are starting to line an object, create a new layer and name the layers for convenience. Also, here we won't need the opacity and pressure buttons activated on the top toolbar. We're going to be working just with the basic round brush. As we are working on the final lines, everything here must be pretty neat, so we'll need a few helping things to achieve it. The first thing is the familiar pen tool, and the second is the perspective grid. But not the one we used before, we need a new one done by ourselves. So we'll take the pen tool and find the vanishing point of the right side of the bookcase. We need to make two lines, one on the top part of the bookcase and one on the bottom. Find the center by relying on the horizon line and on the already existing lines. So find the vanishing points and repeat the same on the left side. We need to connect these paths. We might not actually connect the anchor points of the two paths, but place them the way they'll be intersecting each other. When you have the nisian points, you can easily create the new paths that will help you to build the right perspective for your objects. This grid we just made is here just to guide you. We're not going to be using the stroke option to create the lines. Use the brush to trace the needed parts of the path. You may create the new paths connected with the venisian points for each object. Or create just one, connect both parts of it in the middle and just move it around along the drawing. Just a little reminder that you can fix aj or even redraw the sketch lines at this stage to serve some compositional aspects or so. Even if you're drawing simple books, you can use the principles we learned in the beginning of this class. For example, use a rhythm to create something a bit more interesting, neither just the plain straight books. Don't forget that objects are three D and have depth that you need to show. Add some smaller details to make the objects nicer, but don't add too many of them. Keep in mind the balance. For some objects, you might need to activate the pressure button on the top tool bar. It is needed to achieve the smoother lines. But of course, if you are fine with a simple lines with no pressure difference, use just them. Now, you know the steps you need to follow to create the lines in the perspective, so continue lining your objects. If some objects are challenging to recreate, keep in mind that every object is made from the planes and might be divided into smaller and simpler shapes. When one object is overlay, another one and you are not seeing if everything looks fine in general, plus you are not sure whether you need to change the outline later or not, you might use the mask trick. For example, like here with the bookcase and the scarf. We will go to the lay with the bookcase because it is getting in the way. Click on the mask icon in the lay panel, and by using the brush, we'll hide the lines we don't need. While we are working with the masks, we have three color options we can work with. If we take the brush and paint over the lines, color will hide the lines. White color will show the lines if they were hidden, and gray color depending on the shade, will be making the lines more or less transparent. The lines of the objects will still be available on the drawing, but won't bother you. Just make sure you are working on the mask layer. It is the right icon near the actual layer icon. When you're done with hiding the lines, let's get back to the lining. I. Draw the lines for the whole objects not just for the seen parts. It will help you to understand the shape and the relationships between the objects. You can always hide the unseen parts by using the masks. For a better hand flow, you can use the rotate tool to rotate your canvas in order to achieve the better lines. You can find it on your left toolbar or use the short card R, rotate your Canvas and make your lines. When you're done, invoke the rotation tool again and hit the set button on the top toolbar to get back to the default canvas position. Continue your lining process. Don't forget that you can always pick at some reference pictures to recreate the objects better. Use masks to keep everything needs and hide the lines you don't need. You can make a pair of path guidelines without connecting them in the center. Use them in that way for convenience and to speed up your lining. If you made a nice and detail flat scheme, you can use some elements from there into your three D drawing. For example, like here with the frame, we can copy and pasted the picture. Don't forget that you can use the market tools for creating shapes and strokes. Use the less to control C, and Control V keys to make a copy and move the appeared layer to the three D object folder. Position it correctly in the layer panel. It should be above the layer with the frame. If there is a need to make the object bigger, use the move tool, but check out the perspective. Transform and inscribe the coped object in accordance with the perspective as well. You can combine the corners first by holding down the control key and moving one corner at the time. And then decrease the size of the picture. When you're done, merge two layers together, continue the line in process. Use the whole variety of different tools we've learned to ease your line in process. Use the masks to hide the lines you don't need. If you are resizing the drawn objects, keep on tracking the perspective by using the guide paths. Try to make e as neat as you can. When we're done with the main objects inside the bookcase, we need to follow the two D scheme and create the plans near the bookcase. Again, we are going to be using our guidelines to make it. We can elongate the paths and move them as we want, as long as we have the other ends glued to the vanishing points. We'll start by creating the stool. All we need here is to use the guidelines in the right way, measure everything with the paths and make the clean lines. For the pot, use the elliptical market tool and then adjust it by adding the straight lines on the sides and by changing the curvature on the bottom. Hi, the lines may using the masks. I Again, if you made a nice and detailed flat scheme, you can use some elements from there into your three D drawing. Here, for example, you can select and copy the plant leaves. So and adjust the size of the leaves. Add some lines if you think they'll work for your drawing. Adjust the whole pot in general, resize it or move it a bit, but keep in mind the perspective, and in the end, use the mask to hide the useless lines. Basically, the lining part is almost. All you need to do here is to take a look at the whole drawing and fix or hide some lines that you missed before. 14. Final work: Flat colors: When we have the lines, we can move on to the next step, which is going to be adding the flat colors. Let's start from the bookcase to see what are the steps of adding the colors. Find the bookcase layer in the las panel, and let's do the following. Click on it with the right mouse button and choose Convert to Smart objects. When we are converting our objects into the smart objects, we can separately work with them in a different tab, and everything we will make here will appear on the mean drawing. When you're working with a large amount of objects, it eases up your workflow. When the object is converted, double click on the little window that appeared on the right bottom corner of the layer's icon. You'll be redirected into the new tab where you'll find the linework of the bookcase. Also here appeared the layer with the mask. To be honest, now we don't need the mask layer here. We made it earlier to have a clear understanding of the lines we were making, and now we can just disable or delete the mask layer. So hover over the mask icon and click on it with the right mouse button. Choose disable or delete. It's up to you. Now we have the whole line work, and what we need to do next is to add the new layer and put it under the layer with the lines. Now, nothing new treat it just like any other object we've already drawn during the course. Pick the polygonal lasso or magic one tool, select the faces, and add the colors. When you're going to be choosing the colors, remember which planes are parallel to one another. They're going to have the same tone. Also, here you need to decide what kind of lightning you'll have on your drawing and how it will affect your objects. Heat the sample or lays button on the top toolbar and don't forget to use select, modify, expand to avoid the white lines near the edges. You can use any colors you want from natural wooden hues to any unnatural colors. The only tip here is not to use over saturated tones. So even if you are using some fancy colors, try to keep them neutral saturation and lightness wise. Don't forget that you can always use the hue saturation window to adjust the colors. Also, while you are picking the colors, try to remember the previous part of the course, especially the part of the temperature. You can play with the shadows by tweaking the hue slider to the cooler or warm aside depending on the tone of the light source you've chosen. We see the bottom part of the shelves that are above the horizon lines, so the tone here will be a bit darker, and vice versa, the shells below the horizon line are going to be a bit lighter. Now, when the main tonal part is done, fix some miscolord places and pay more attention to the corners. When it's done, let's add a bit of the gradient to the back inner part of the bookcase. It will show the depth and separate the planes from one another. For example, you can use the overly blending mode and activate the pressure button on the upper tool bar, or you can make everything traditionally, by staying with the normal blending mode, picking the different color and using the soft brush. As always, it's up to you. You just need to darken the area just a bit by paying more attention to the places under the shelves. Use the hue saturation window to adjust the colors if it's needed. Always check the navigator window to see if your drawing looks fine. Now, get back to the normal blending mode if you changed it, and let's recolor the lines. Go to the needed layer and lock the transparent peak cells. Then start picking the nearby colors and painting over the lines. Do it for every line. It's always up to you which side of the bookcase the line belongs to. But try to make it the same everywhere. For example, if you pick the darker color on the top right plane to recolor the left line, do the same for all of these lines while going down along the bookshelf. When this part is done, see if you need to fix some blank spaces. You can accurately paint over these areas on the layer with the coloring or create one more layer, put it under the main coloring layer and just paint over the needed areas freely without being afraid you'll ruin the faces. If you've chosen the latter option, merge the two color and layers together upon completion. When you have everything done, hit control as to save the document. Now you can get back to the main tab and you'll see that everything we've done is here, and you can always get back to the smart object to edit it by clicking on the icon in the corner. Now you can the tab with the book smart object, and that's how we're going to be making each object here. Follow the same steps as we did with the bookcase. Go to the needed layer, click on it with the right mouse button and choose convert to a smart object. If the layer is locked, you'll need to unlock it first. There'll be no detailed process for the rest of the objects in order to save the time. All of them are made by using the same principles as the bookcase. But there'll be a few more additional things to show that could make your work better. For now, just keep adding the flat colors to your objects and tree color in the lines. Try to keep the colors balanced and try to keep them neutral saturation and lightness wise. Also here, we're going to be using the masks again to hide the useless parts just the same way as before. And when it's done, let's move on to the next part. 15. Final work: Fixings & Analysis: Next fin in our long journey is to find what we can fix, get rid or improve. Start checking out whether you've hidden everything you need. If you still have some places, accurately use the mask to get rid of them. Remember that if you need to find the layer quickly, you can use the move tool, click on the needed object, and you'll automatically find the right layer in the layers panel. Make sure that the auto select checkbox is activated on the top tool bar. You can decrease the capacity of the lays you are working on now to hide the objects more accurately without getting beyond the borders, and upon completion, get it back and increase the capacity to maximum. So go through all of your objects and clean them up. When this part is done, let's move on to some criticism and analysis. Take a look at your picture and check out what you can fix. I decided that the top cut of the large flower pot isn't working, and it needs to be more open. Let's once again, take a look at the ellipses scheme and compare it with the drawing we have. So to fix it, I'll just pick the ellipsical market tool and create a new selection that will make the cut a bit more open. I'll transform it and stroke it. Then I'll just open the plan smart object and copy the outline with the right mouse button and duplicate option. When there is a lay with the outline in the tap with a smart object, I'll transform and adjust it. Then by working with the eraser and brush tools, I'll create a new cut guided by the new outline. We can recolor it and use it in the work. Lately, we'll copy it and we'll create the border, just making everything as if it was a new object, filling the areas with the color, recoloring the lines, and so on. I In the end, I separated the leaves from the port by using the polygonal too, and I moved the leaves more to the c of the port. Now, recovering the lines and getting rid of all the useless parts. And saving and getting back to the main documents. During this part, you need to fix everything you can regarding the shapes, perspective, positioning, and visibility of the objects. When the fixing part is done, it's time for a bit of analysis of light and shade parts. We already have the shadows on some objects, so we have an idea of where the light source is coming from. By defining the position of the light source, we'll know exactly where we need to put the shadows. To ease our lives, we need to start from the global analysis of the whole picture, so we won't get confused later while putting the shadows on the separate objects. Let's create a new layer above all the layers. The position of the light source is up to you, but align it with the already existing shadows on your bookshelf. Also, you need to decide what type of the light source you have. Is it a natural light going from the window, or is it a light bulb hanging on the ceiling? Or maybe it's a lamp standing somewhere on the floor. Is it direct or scattered light and how intense it is. All of these criteria will affect your objects. Just for example, we won't make anything crazy with the light source here. We'll take a neutral light. The bookcase is standing in the room, and it is lit by the bulb Hanging on the ceiling. The direction is from the top right corner, so we can take a pencil and make this line. Pick some color and stroke the path. We don't need it to be perfect. We need a basic understanding of the light source. You can name the layer and create one more for the upcoming analysis. The next step is to define how the light source will affect the objects and how these objects will cast the shadows. Let's go from the top and let's see how the light will strike the objects. Just roughly start marking the areas that will be in the shadows. You can even make the notes. We won't be making the shadows in most detail and supernudy way as we did in a second part of the series. But still, we need to make them believable. Of course, if you want to build all the shadows in a way we did before, you are welcome to do it. The first thing is the bottom part of the books on the top. It is going to be darker. Next, let's think of how the top shelf would cast the shadow on the back side of the bookcase. Roughly saying, according to the light source and the size of the shelf, let's for now place the shadow somewhere here in one third. If it's needed, we can fix it a bit later. Don't forget that we need to make the shadows in accordance with the perspective. So we'll just make a few path lines with the pen tool for now even without stroking them. The next thing is the scarve. It cast the shadows on the back side as well. Let's mark it with the new path. If you're not familiar with using the light angle and projecting the shadows, consider getting back to the second part of the series where we are discussing the theory of light and shades. When we cast the shadow on the back side, we need to cast the shadow on the books. As they are positioned a bit closer to the scarve the shadow will be smaller. Let's move on and cast the shadow from the second shelf. It will be a bit longer than from the first shelf, and its length will increase exponentially with every shelf. Probably, when we've decided the length of the second shelf shadow, we can fix the first one and shorten it to bits, adjusted in accordance with the perspective and adjust the second shadow as well. Let's for now place it somewhere near the books on the left, but try not to place them at the intersection, they don't need to touch each other. Put it a bit above or below the object's border, avoid making the strict connection. The next thing is the continuation of the scarf so we can elongate the vertical line we have on the previous shelf. When the line is elongated, try to repeat the scarve edge on the shadow. Finish the path by casting the shadow of the two books on the right. Adjust the scarve path if it's needed. Mark the shadow from the purple book on the red book. Now, you probably know what to do, how to analyze the light source and how the objects will cast the shadow. So, for the sake of time saving, continue adding the paths and shadow edges on your own, add the rest of the shadows from the shells. Always keep in mind their perspective. When it's done, you can select all the paths and stroke them. The last thing I shed some light on into this analysis is the globe and how the shadow of the third shelf will look here. I'll pick another brush and firstly show the shadow of the globe itself cast on the stand. Then let's see the main shadow on the globe. As the globe is the spherical object, the shadow will hug it. By relying on the shelf shadow edge, use the curvature pen tool and create the curve on top. Repeat the shape of the globe on the left because the shadow will be here as well. Adjust it and then stroke it. And you can also mark the shadow from the globe on the frame. Continue your analysis. Add the shadows under the leaves on the boxes and also add the shadows from the corners. Analyze how the leaves of the plant on the top will cast the shadows. Move on to the large plans and mark how the shadows will look here on the leaves and on the pot. And let's see how the bookcase itself will cast the shadow. Repeat the direction of the shadow by using the pen tool and start adding the paths going from the bookcase legs. Continue with the plan tool. Add the line that the bottom of the bookcase will make. Then take a brush and trace the lines there by finding the shadow edge. When we analyzed everything, we know how and where we're going to be putting the shadows, and that is what we're going to be doing in the next part of the class. 16. Final work: Adding shadows (and fixing exposure): We analyzed everything related to the shadows, we can finally move on to adding the shadows, and we have a few options of how to do it. This time, we're going to be using the blending modes of the layers both for the shadows and highlights. It is one of the easiest and quickest way to add the tunnel changes into the drawing. Now we'll add one more layer for the shades and position it above all the layers with the objects. Set the blending mode of the slayer as multiply. The multiply blending mode works the best, but you always have the room to play around with the different blending modes. You can use darker color burn or linear burn and find what works best for your drawing. As for the color choice of the shadows, we have a few options. We can either pick just the same color as the object we're working on now has, or we can use the principles of the color theory. If you choose the latter option, adjust the color tone in accordance with the temperature of your light source. If the light source is worm, we are going to be using the cooler tone and vice versa. We can do it by going along the color wheel and by tweaking the color to the needed temperature area. Let's start from the bookcase. Pick the color from the object and change it just a bit in accordance with the chosen temperature. Remember that we always can fix it later, so don't think about that too much. Take the polygonal as a tool and start selecting the shadow areas. Keep in mind that one shadow can't cast into another one. For example, like on the bottom part of the top shelf, we already have the shadow here, so we don't need to add one more. Adjust the opacity right away. You can select each shadow and fill it one by one or make multiple selection and fill the areas when they are all selected. If you need the multiple selection option, make sure that the second icon here on the tool bar is activated. You need to be pretty accurate with the shadows because we are using just one layer for all of them and making some kind of one carved shadow. Also, we can fix the parts we don't need to be in the shadow like the lease right away. Just use the A is a tool. When most of the main bouquet shadows are done, we can use the hue saturation window to adjust the values. Find what works best. If you change the color values into the hue saturation window and you need to continue adding the shadows with the exact color, do the following. Increase the capacity of the layer, set it as normal and pick the color. Then through the history window or by heating control, get back to the previous layers options. When you have the right color, move on to adding the shadows to the difficult to access places such as behind the globe. Use a brush or work carefully with a lesser tool. So continue adding the shadows in accordance with the guidelines we've made. If it's needed, fix them within a too. For some objects such as large plans, we can use the object selection to ease the life. Find the needed lay in the lays panel and click on its scon with the Control key to select it. Then get back to the lay with the shadow and continue your work. Fix the outline and add the additional shadow there. Continue with the boat in the. To smooth and the shadow on the pot, we can use the magic one or lesser tool to select on the pot then add the soft brush and soft eraser to add the smooth shadow. Also, when we have the shadows on some objects that we want to fix, for example, like on the globe, we can make the object selection in the less panel, get back to the shadow and use the saturation window to adjust the color ex on the area with the selection. With the globe, we'll soften the shadow in the same way as with the pot. Continue adding and adjusting the shadows. When it's time to add the shadow to the floor or to the surface that our main objects are sitting on, use the polygonals tool, try to be accurate and follow the same shadow direction. The line be que parallel. When the selection is done, pick the color of the floor and fill the area with the color, adjust it with the hue saturation winsow. Make it a bit more colorful by checking the colorized checkbox and by tweaking the hue slider from side to side. Find what works best and keep in mind that temperatures. When we have all the main shadows done, we need to analyze the whole drawing once again. Fix some elements if there is a need for that. Roughly glancing on the picture, we can say that the main shadows seem to be darker than, for example, the right inner part of the bookcase where there is no light in general. Let's darken this part. We'll go to the lay with the bookcase, deactivate the sample or lays check box on the top tool bar and then select the needed areas with the magic one tool. Invoke the few saturation window and play with the sliders until you are satisfied with the results. Check in the navigator window while tweaking the sliders to see if it's working well. Then you can get back to the shadow layer and play with pacity and saturation window here as well. Continue adding the shadows on the elements. Use the brush, eraser, and all the other tools and windows that we used before. When you have all the shadows, we'll move on to the last thing we need to discuss during this part of the class. Now, if you look critically at the drawing we made, it might seem that the objects are too motley and don't belong to the picture. That's because their contrast is a bit too high. Of course, we can try to use the hue saturation window to fix the colors, but it won't be that nice and will seem a bit muddy. To fix the situation, we can do the following. Let's start with the box. Click on the smart object icon and go to the smart objects tab. Now, click on the layer of adjustments icon and from the drop down menu, choose exposure. Here we have a few sliders we can play around with to improve our objects appearance. So the exposure slider will darken or lighten the colors. It has a greater effect on the lighter tones of an image. The offset slider has greater influence over the dark tones. It will lighten or darken the shadows area, and the gamma slider has a greater effect over the mid tones. Play with the sliders and save the changes in this tap. Check out the difference in the main tap with your drawing through the history panel. If you overdid exposure changing, get back to the smart object tab, click twice on the correction lay icon and play with the sliders again. When you're happy with the result on this object, continue doing the same with the other objects that seem to be too bright. You might try to remember the numbers in the little windows near the sliders and apply them for each object, or do it manually for each object that doesn't fit or needs extra care. When you inscribe all the objects, take a look at your picture in general, and let's move on to the final part of the class. 17. Final work: Fixings & Beautification: Let's take a look at the whole picture critically once again and check out what we can fix. We obviously need to change the stone of the top phase of the back left stool leg. It also would be nice to add some volume to the horizontal planks. Let's find the needed layer and go to the smart object tap. Here we can work with already existing layers or create a new layer for the fixes above all the rest. By using the brush and by picking the color from the top phase of the stool legs, we'll accurately add the new plane. Erase the useless parts with an rasa and adjust it in accordance with the perspective. If you notice some other places that you can fix here, fix them as well. For example, miscolred parts or crooked lines, pick the right color and fix them right away. But of course, it's always up to you how much accurate and how detailed and also how much rendered you'd like your objects to be. Now, let's take care of the top plane of the back left leg. We need to remember that on our main tab, we have the shadow here, so we need to choose the color in accordance with this knowledge. Thereby, we need to pick some middle color of the two tones we have on the vertical faces. So let's get back to the main document. Pick the lighter of the two colors and add a bit more of the light by moving the brightness slider a bit to the right. Now we can get back to the smart object and by using the brush, just recall this top plane. Let's say the smart object and check out if it looks fine on the main documents. If it's not, we'll use the saturation window to fix the tone. When you are satisfied with the color, repeat adding the plane on the horizontal plank. Rely on the perspective, try to repeat the thickness and fix everything you need to fix. Now, save the smart object and get back to the main documents, and we'll fix the shadows on the places we just fixed. Go to the layer with the shadow. Pick the shadow color by setting the layer to normal and by increasing the opacity. Get back to the multiply blending mode and previously chosen opacity, fix the shadows by adding the strokes and erasing the extras. Repeat with other elements. Fix the miscolord parts, add some missing shadows, and so on. Go through all the objects. Let's take a look at the picture once again and check out what else we can fix. Probably now I'd want to darken the left side of the bookcase to inscribe it more into the whole composition. Let's go to the bookcase lay and select this face. As we have the smart filter here that works as a mask, we'll need to erase the area of selection with an A tool. Then by using some shade of gray depending on how dark you'd like it to be and by using the brush, go along the selection and darken these parts. When it's done, let's deselect everything and seek for more possible fixes. Adjust the exposure, make the shadows on the objects more visible, and so on. If you don't have any more places you need to fix, we can move on to adding the highlights. Create 1 mole and give it a name, and here as well, we are going to be using the blending modes. You could choose from pin light, very soft light or lighter or find another that works for you. I'm going to be using the soft light. Now, pick the bright color and decrease the opacity of the layer. The highlight will be a bit yellowish because we made the shadows cool. Also, now we can hide the horizon line layer because we don't need it anymore. And let's start adding the highlights. Start from the woods and create some beveled edges. Try to make everything neat and in accordance with the perspective. Erase the parts you don't need with an array the tool. Go on the whole bookcase and add the highlights. Adjust the apacity of the layer or change the blending mode if you need. Continue adding the highlights on other objects. If you notice some places where the shadow is needed, get back to the shadow le and add it. The next step here is to start the beautification and rendering process. So let's start with the bookcase and add some wooden texture on it. Here we're going to take it easy and just make a quick attempt to depict the texture. But of course, if you'd like to make a full render, you are welcome to do it. If you want to create a nice and appealing texture of wood or any other kind of materials that you have on your drawing, you can get back or check out the third part of the series and learn how to draw the textures from there. In the meantime, let's create one more layer above the layer with the bookcase and set it as a clipping mask. Now take a brush, pick the color, and start adding the texture on the left shadow part of the bookcase. It doesn't need to be super perfect, show the pattern. As we set the layer as a clipping mask, we don't need to be afraid to go beyond the bookcase frames, using a sea tool to fix or adjust some places. Keep in mind that it's better to start adding the pattern from the larger elements and slowly move on to the smaller details. When you're done with the one side, move on to the next planes. For the litactes, we might need to change the brightness of the chosen color. Play around with pacity of the layer to inscribe the texture into the picture, and when you are satisfied with the result, continue adding the smaller details. Remember that you can always log the transparent pixels on the layer. It can be useful if you want to paint over the already existing lines to change their own or value. By using this method, you can make some lines or lighter to your texture. Keep in mind that you can render your texture as long and as much as you want. If you're done with re color in the lines, unlock the transparent pixels to be able to draw new lines. When the main lines are done, let's create a new layer, set it as a clipping mask and pick the brighter color, and let's add the lighter lines to show that it's not a pattern but a physical texture. Remember that these are the additional lines and they don't need to be super visible. We are creating an ion. Play with opacity of the layer and use the saturation window to change the values if you need. If you notice some places that you want to change and they are on the different layer, go for it. Change anything you need. You can always get back and forth from layer to layer. Rendering is not the linear and sequential process. You might need to make some lines to achieve a better texture but always keep in mind the balance. You are creating the composition and you need the whole drawing to be harmonious. When you're fine with the texture on the bookcase, continue adding the texture on other objects if you want. In order to save the time, there'll be no process of texture other elements. But I'll show you a few things that you can use on your drawing that will spice it up. Let's move on to some books we have here. Go to the smart object tab and let's create a lay here above all the layers we have. Take a brush, the hard round will be fine and deactivate the pressure button on the top tool bar if it's activated. Pick some color, for example, a yellowish one, and let's draw the frame for the cover of the book. Just like that by holding down the shift key. It doesn't matter if it doesn't fit now. Fix the lines with an eraser tool and make them neat. Now, take the move tool and put the frame on the front book. Here we're using the same method that we used in a very first class of this course. If you don't remember, we're just holding down the control key and inscribing the frame of the book in accordance with the perspective. Adjust it nicely, and when it's done, let's do the following. Go to the last panel, click twice on the area with the lays name, and you'll get the layer style window popped up. Here we have a few options to try that will help us to create a nice effect. Activate the bevel and mbus checkbox and also the contour. Here are a few sliders that we can tweak. You already can see how the frame changed, and by dragging the sliders, you can achieve a nice convex foil effects. So we can play around with the sliders, use different directions and different colors angles of shade in. Change the blending modes of highlights and shadows, try some options and find what looks nice on your drawing. But try to keep in mind the whole composition and make the frame a part of it. Meaning, keep an eye on the light and shade parts. I When you are done with this part, we can add one more thing to the frame to make it look better. Check the drop shadow checkbox and play with the sliders here as well. Change the angle, opacity, distance, and try to inscribe it correctly and make it believable. When you are done playing, just click. Now you can see a few new lines under the layer we were working on. It shows all the effects we applied. Also, it means that any object we create on this layer will be treated in accordance with these adjustments or layer style. So let's create a few more elements and place them on the books. You can erase the parts of the frame, and it will create a nice effect as well. Of course, if you want to have different settings on different objects, you need to create a lay and set the different style. When you are done, just say the smart object and get back to the main document. You're welcome to use this beautification on other books or other elements in general, but try not to overdo everything, and remember to keep an eye on the correctness of highlights, shadows, and drop shadow. When you're done with this type of beautification, we can move on to adding some notable smaller details. For example, we can add some stickers on the boxes. So create 1 mole a bundle with the chosen box, set it as a clipping mask and create some little picture. Play with hues and inscribe it into the perspective by using the move tool. Adjust the color values if it's needed. You can add as many elements as you want and render everything as much as you want. When you are satisfied with your render and result, let's move on to the final stage, which is playing with the background color and playing with the layers of adjustments. Let's start with the background, so go to the needed layer. Choose some nice color both for foreground and background color boxes, and let's make a gradient. Adjust the color with a hue saturation window. Okay. You might want to change the exact colors, so you can use the drop down menu with the master title to choose the color you want to change precisely. Find what works for your drawing. If you want to add more light, we can add it manually by creating a new layer and by adding the second gradient. Here we can use the second icon in the gradient drop down window. Pick the color and the gradient, play with opacity and blending modes of the layer. Use the hue saturation window to adjust the values. If it doesn't work, you can always get rid of it, and if it works good for you, it will make your drawing a bit nicer. So when you've figured out the background, let's get back to very top layer we have and create the layer of adjustment above it. You can start from the vibrant or go straightly to the color balance. And the same as in the previous classes, go for all the tonal variations, shadows, mid tones, and highlights, and play with the sliders in order to find what looks better. Always check out the navigator window to see if the changes are working on your drawing. When you're done with the color balance and notice that some objects don't look right, you can always get back to rendering. For example, we can play a bit with exposure of the leaves of the large plants. Find the right layer and go to the smart object tab. Create the layer of adjustment with exposure and adjust it in a way. Save the smart object and check out the main drawing. Remind you that you can render your drawing as much as you want, depending on the results you want to achieve. In the end, just check out the whole drawing for some mistakes you didn't notice. For example, check out whether there's no double shadows like here on the boxes. Fix the parts with the polygonal a tool. Adjust the shadows on the places where they seem to be too dark. Adjust the background, if it's too dark or too light or if it isn't working with your composition. Just make the final fixes, and that's it. That will be all for the fifth part of the drawing course series, which was dedicated to the composition. I hope you found this class helpful, and if you liked it, please subscribe, so you won't miss the next part of the series, where we are going to be exploring the character design. Check out the other classes and leave your review, and thanks for watching.