Camera Basics | Essentials | William Buckley | Skillshare
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Camera Basics | Essentials

teacher avatar William Buckley

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Camera Basic Intro

      4:06

    • 2.

      Frame rates

      10:18

    • 3.

      What is ISO ?

      6:39

    • 4.

      Shutter speed

      9:30

    • 5.

      Aperture

      16:37

    • 6.

      White balance part 1

      10:52

    • 7.

      White balance part 2

      6:49

    • 8.

      Real life 1 No ND filter

      2:44

    • 9.

      Real life 2 with an ND filter

      2:03

    • 10.

      Real life 3 outside settings inside

      3:18

    • 11.

      Real life 4 inside settings outside

      2:18

    • 12.

      Summary & wrap up

      0:33

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About This Class

To create great Photos and Cinematic video, we need to understand the basics or essentials of a camera.

No Matter if it's a DSLR, Mirrorless, iPhone, or Android.

The principle are the same.

When starting out these items are often talked about as the "exposure triangle"

However, it can be extremely confusing and frustrating to grasp.

Often, they neglect 2 other vital items which are

Frame rate for video and white Balance

I want you to be able to look a a Photo or video clip and know how you would correct it,.

What shutter speed did they use?

What ISO level was used?

What aperture was used?

what value on the Kelvin range does the light fall into?

 

In this course we are going to go over the 5 pillars that are essential for you to grasp as a photographer or videographer.

  • Frame rates
  • Shutter speed 
  • ISO
  • Aperture
  • White Balance

In the examples I will be using an iPhone, but the principles apply to all cameras.

Also, it's important to have manual control. On DSLR's and Mirrorless cameras that's easy however,

on a phone the native App usually does NOT have the functions we need to master these topics.

Therefore, in Some lessons I will use an App called Filmic Pro to explain the topics.

We also point out other Apps that are available to use on a phone.

Lessons covered 

  1. Introduction
  2. Frame rates
  3. ISO
  4. Shutter speed
  5. Aperture
  6. White Balance part 1
  7. White Balance part 2
  8. Real life example 1
  9. Real life example 2
  10. Real life example 3
  11. Real life example 4

There are also cheat sheets on:

  • Aperture
  • The Kelvin scales 

Available for you to download and use as a reference .

This is the course I wish someone had given me when I was starting out.

I truly think you will enjoy it and it will help take your Photos and video to the next level.

For the project. I would like you to upload a Photo or Video clip and explain the following,

  • What shutter speed was used
  • What framerate ( for video) was used
  • What was your ISO value
  • What Aperture was used
  • What was you White balance setting value.

For the project. I would like you to upload a Photo or Video clip and explain the following,

  • What shutter speed was used
  • What framerate ( for video) was used
  • What was your ISO value
  • What Aperture was used
  • What was you White balance setting value.

 

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Transcripts

1. Camera Basic Intro: Hi, my name is Bill and I've been film-making and teaching for over 30 years. Beam where you are. It can be confusing and frustrating, trying to understand all the elements of a camera. You leave it on auto, you put it in an aperture control. Do you put it in shutter priority? And it goes on and on. Even with phones watching those Apple adverts, I buy the latest iPhone. Then I always wondered why this stuff looks so fantastic. And mine didn't. I'd shoot some video and it looks grainy and noisy, even though I had the latest and greatest equipment, whether it was a Sony mirrorless camera or the latest iPhone, just go into YouTube, just makes it more confusing. There's nothing that actually connects the dots. She just watching a bunch of different videos that just gets you more confused. My golf you in this course is to give you the five items that you'll take your photo is in video to the next level, understanding shutter speed, aperture, ISO, frame rates, white balance. These are the key items of photography and videography that I'll take your photos and video to the next level. And it doesn't matter whether you shoot on a DSLR or mirrorless camera, an iPhone and Android. The principles are all the same. These five principles of the key pillars of photography and videography. I want you to be able to look at a picture or video clip and understand it and be able to see what you would do to fix it, fix white balance or fixed What's shutter speed did they use? What type of aperture that they use? And you'd understand what went on. Take white balance for example, maybe you come in at night, There's nothing on but lamps. And then when you go to put your phone, for example, and go to take some footage or a picture. Everything looks totally orange. What would you do to fix it? You could hit the White Balance Control, scroll over at the tungsten and then your iPhone or a camera will then add cool tones to neutralize that image and then bring it back to normal. That's what white balance is trying to do. Or you could have the opposite where you go outside and it's an overcast cloudy day or late at night and everything has a blue tone to it. You could choose cloudy or outdoor, and again, then your phone or camera without warm tones to that scene. Again, trying to neutralize the blue. And the examples that I use in this course, I'll be using an iPhone. But again, as I said, the principles are the same no matter what camera you use. Now even though the native app on the phones, whether it's Android or an iPhone, a great having manual control is vital to getting the very best footage or picture that you can, especially in video, I'll be using an app called filmic pro for some of the item, but any app will do as long as it allows manual controls if you're using a phone like the one shown here. There's also to cheat sheets for you to access in the project area. Down below somewhere. One is on aperture. What is aperture and how to understand it. And one is the Kelvin range. What does that mean? Because I know that it's really difficult to remember all this technical stuff. We've made some cheat sheets to make life easier for you. The project for this course is for you to shoot a picture or some video and then write a short summary on what you did, the process that you did to get to where it was, what shutter speed did you use? Why did he use it? What was your white balance set at? What was your aperture, and why you chose that type of thing. And we can all take advantage of that and learn from each other. So with all that said, let's jump into our first costs. And I'll see you in there. 2. Frame rates: In this video, we're gonna take a look at frame rates and why they're important. Frame rate refers to how many frames are shouting 1 second of time. For example, every shoot at 24 frames per second, there'll be 24 individual frames captured in 1 second. If you capture in 25 frames per second, Empower regions, for example, there were 2530306060 frames per second and so on. The reason why this is important to understand is this will affect the feel or look of your video. The standard frame rate for cinematic video at the moment is 24 frames per second. This is what Hollywood films are shot in, gives us that natural blur motion effect that the human eye, if you remember the movie, The Hobbit, they filmed that in 48 frames per second. But no one liked the effect that look more like a video clip versus what we're used to seeing in a Hollywood film on the big screen, shot at 24 frames per second, as we said, which has more natural motion blur that we're used to seeing. And that looks good. And that's what we became used to. 30 frames per second is about daytime TV on news programs is shot in. This has less motion blur that a little bit more sharp, but again has a different look. If you're looking for that cinematic look, shoot in 24 frames per second. If you want to shoot in slow motion, you need to shoot at a higher frame rates such as 60 or 120 or 240. This means that you have a lot more information in frames in 1 second. This footage can then be slowed down later in post to give you a really slow motion. Slow motion effect is quite dramatic and it's what a lot of YouTubers and filmmakers do all of the time. Note if you shoot in 24 frames per second, you can't slow it down because around as much information in at 1 second. And they'll just look choppy. Here we see 24 frames per second and playback normally. But then this is the same 24 frames per second and slowed down by 50%. And if you look at the water coming off the rocks, it's very choppy and doesn't look natural. In this one. We've shot it at 120 frames per second and playing it back at 24. Then we've slowed this ten to 20%. And as you can see, you get that nice tree me slow motion effect. Note. If you shoot in 24 frames per second, you can slow that down later as it doesn't have enough information. If you want to slow it down, like we said, shoot in a higher frame rates such as 60 or a 120. Now let's take a look at where these settings are on your iPhone and how to set them. So the first thing you want to do is just tip of the day really as goto, your settings, turn airplane mode on and turn off notifications so that you don't get notifications popping up while you're filming while you're in settings. Now, let's go down to camera. The very first thing we're going to do here is look at formats. Format you have high efficiency. And this basically tries to save space so that it doesn't fill up your iPhone or your most compatible. But it'll tell you later on here if you can read the text underneath here that for kids 60 frames per second, ten ADP it to 40 requires high efficiency. First thing you're gonna do for recording your normal video. You can see these are your options here. For K at 24. Mike, my tip is **** shoot with a purpose that if you're going to shoot 24 frames per second, set your phone to that. Then when you want to shoot B-roll, Let's slow motion shoot that separately. Not jumping between settings all the time. What I always do actually is I set mine to four kids, 60. That gives me a little bit of wiggle room so that I can slow it down and it's in four K. The other thing, if you're in Europe, you see here it says show power formats. You can shoot it Twenty-five frames per second. In Europe and Asia. You can turn that back off if you don't need it. So I set my net for k 60 and then I go from my slow mo, I set minus ten ADP and a 120 frames per second. And for me that's perfectly fine for what we need to do. What happens if you set your format to most compatible? And then you want to set this to record video. See it says down here. And if I went for k at 60 frames per second, then I have to set it to high efficiency. But I can go back here and set that up here. If I go back in. It's now normal. Okay, so let's see, I've got my slow-mo is set at 120 frames per second, and my video is set at 60 frames per second. I'm good to go. That's our frame rates completed. So in summary, for a cinematic look, shoot in 24 frames per second. For talking heads such as this, as a talking head, you can shoot at 2425 or 30 frames per second. But for slow motion, you need to shoot in a higher frame rate, like sixty one hundred and twenty, two hundred and forty. And then slow it down. Post editing. What we're gonna do to test out when you shoot slow motion. The same hs and usable. Because when you slow it down, so does the sound, it goes at a different speed. In posts where you can do is save out the sound separately. And then you can play that a normal speed over the top of it later on. But we just tried to take it as a normal file and just slow it old name, the sound gets distorted as well. Third party apps normally don't let you record sound in slow motion. So that high frame rates. We're going to turn this waterfall on. Now. We're gonna capture some slow motion using a native app and see where we get. I'm just going to go and open this up. Now I'm going to go into my camera. I'm gonna go too slow motion. Here. I'm gonna click on the screen to set exposure and focus. Turn this on now. Then record. I'm gonna press record. Let's see what that gives us. While doing this video. When I was filming the waterfall earlier, we talked about high efficiency and most compatible in the camera setting format. In the first clip, you'll see next is in high efficiency. I did ten ADP with a 120 frames per second. I'll just play it back. But it had a lot of glitches in it. Playing it back. It was glitchy, almost like an artifacts. Now in this second clip, all I did was change it from high efficiency to compatible. In the format setting, I left all of a sudden the same. So it's ten ADP, 120 frames per second. Just re-shot it and no glitches whatsoever. Just keep that in mind if you start getting some glitchy effects with the video. The tip of the day for this is don't just fill the whole day worth of video and then check it when you get home. Just make sure you take some quiet time and actually go and check it through some test checks like shoot a couple of frames. Thirty-seconds a minute, check the audio, check the video quality. Now we understand frame rates. What else do we need to know to get cinematic video? Well, let's go take a look. 3. What is ISO ?: In this section we're gonna talk about what is ISO. Iso basically is a sensitivity of light hitting the sensor, the camera sensor. The rule of thumb here is you want to get, use a low ISO value. To get a low ISO value. You need a lot more light, whether it's outside or false lights inside a room with lamps and what have you, um, because if you go very high with the ISOS, You get a lot of grain and image in your footage. So let's jump into it and see what I saw with shutter speed and aperture control, the physical amount of the light hitting the sensor. On phone cameras, normally there is not any physical moving parts for the aperture. The aperture is fixed. We can see here these are some results of some camera aperture. Iso controls the amount of light, the sense and needs and is a digital game for the sensor. As the ISO increases, the amount of shutter light it needs decreases. For example, changing the ISO from 400 to 800 results in the camera needing half as much light to get the same exposure. This is why indoor photographers pump up their isovalue is in low light, especially at low lead sporting events or shooting wildlife, but tried to capture fast movement action. They need a fast shutter. This in turn will lower the amount of light hitting the camera sensor. In turn, they increase the isovalue. Some mirrorless and DLSR cameras can have an high ISO value without causing too much image grain. Phone camera sensors, on the other hand, are much smaller than mirrorless cameras, and usually they have a fixed aperture. So the physical size of the sensor is a lot smaller and lets in less light I so does come with drawbacks. However, take a microphone as an example. The microphone inputs are audio waves, just like a camera gathers lightwaves each convert the inputs into electrical signals and output, in a case of a microphone, a sound file, and an image for a camera, if you'd recorded a sound file but is really low, such as somewhat speaking reading now, pick up a lot of the background. We'll need to increase the amplitude of the recording. But along with the sound, you'll also increase the hiss and the background noise. The same is true in the camera. Increasing the sensitivity or the ISO increases everything else. From lighting artifacts, electrical grain. This is known as noise. This also affects dynamic range and color accuracy and the image. It's always a good rule to the smallest ISO that you can to get the best image. Note that terrible small ISO value means having more external ambient light to expose the scene where the right side or you have more lamps and overhead lighting in an indoor scene. Legit DLSR mirrors cameras have a known bias or iso level for the sensors. So this means having the same ISO setting for different cameras will not produce the same image across them. Lower ISO values as suited for outside daylight videos. With his plenty of ambient light. And also this can be used as fastest shutter speeds in small apertures, mid range ISOS. It can be used Indoor as always as enough lighting to light the scene, such as lamps, external lighting, etc. Like that. If your subject is not moving in an indoor light scene, you can actually lower your shutter speed slightly, which means that the sensor will get more light. High range iso, you'll use in a dark lit room and outside night photography needs higher ISO values. This is where you'll need to experiment to see how far you can push your ISO value without degrading the image or the video footage. Let's summarize that again. So it makes some sense to you. Iso is the amount of light that hits the sensor in the phone camera or a mirrorless camera. On a mirrorless camera. On a mirrorless camera, you can see right here, this is the sensor. It's quite large. Lot more light can come in and actually hit the sensor and the light will collect on it. Now what that means is the more light that the sensor gets, the slower the shutter. It's not a physical shadow or a mirrorless cameras of phones, it's electronically turning the shutter on and off. Basically it controls the shutter speed. The more light that comes in, the faster the shutter speed can be. Or if it's less light than the shutter speed is a lot slower to try to get them more light into that sensor. You can see the difference between a mirrorless camera. And then on your normal phone that these guys, the cameras, there are a lot smaller to gather light. That's why you might hear that phones don't do well in low light. The reason being is that the sensors are a lot smaller than a mirrorless camera. And so what happens there is they have to try to get more light in. The phone electronically increases the ISO to try to brighten the image. By doing that, the trade-off is, you can get a grainy image as we just saw in the previous little video clip. Hopefully that explains it a little bit more. And we'll move on to the next lesson. 4. Shutter speed : Next we have shutter speed. So why do we need a shutter? Well, the shutters job is to control the length of time. The outside light gets exposed onto the sensor. Back in the day when they use film stock to create movies, they'd have a physical metal shutter in front of the film. This was a semicircular shape or 180 degrees. And it would move in a circle around the film, would block the light for half the time in the film were to move up. Then it would move around, unexposed the next frame. And it will continually do this all the time as I move the film stock through in front of the shutter. In today's cameras and phones, we have a mirror type of camera known as a DSLR. This basically has a mirror in front of the shutter and sensor that allows an image of what the lens sees to be reflected up to the eyepiece that you can see what the lens sees. When the shoulders pressed, the mirror flips up in front of the shutter, and the shutter is opened and closed for a certain length of time. And when it's opened, obviously the sensor inside gets exposed to the light. The longer the shutter is open, the more light it gets. And the brighter the image, the quicker the shutter moves up and down, the less light the sensor gets, and the darker the image. In mirrorless cameras, they have a mechanical shutter as well as an electronic sensor. Electronic sensor is turned on and off for the camera processor. So basically it's an electronic shutter and it's also silent. This is used when shooting video or when shooting photographs, and you put the camera in silent mode. The mechanical shutter is used mainly for taking photos. It's very fast and it can help prevent banding, as well as rolling shutter effects. So there's no need for flipping mirror mechanism because there's an electronic viewfinder, which always allows you to see what the lens sees in real time. It's exactly the same for the iPhone. It's shutter is electronic and it simply turns a center on and off as needed. Shutter speed is measured in seconds and fractions of a second. Shutter on an iPhone has a range of one over Twenty-four thousandths of a second. So that's really fast. It's very quick, up to approximately three seconds. So imagine that shutter opening or an iPhone's case. The sensor turns on for up to three seconds, that's really slow. They capture as much more light in photography terms. The slower the shutter speed, the longer it stays open, and the more light is exposed on the sensor. Sorry, if open too long, the image is too bright and overexposed. The faster the shutter speed, the quicker it opens and closes. So less light is exposed on the sensor, making the image darker or underexposed. Invideo, it acts exactly the same way. For example, if you shoot at 24 frames per second, the electronic shutter is exposed in each frame, in our case, for 24 frames in 1 second. So the slower the shutter speed, the light of the image, and the faster the shutter speed, the darker the image. So let's take a look at this now on the native app on the iPhone. So we'll go into video. And here we can see we are in 24 frames per second. Then for k. Now if you press and hold the screen, you'll get a0b0 AF lock, which is automatic exposure and automatic focus lock. I just click on the screen and drag this little sun icon down. And this will affect the ISO and shutter together. And it'll make it darker. If you drag it up, it will go brighter and lighter. So the ISO and the shutter as being affected. So this is the only adjustment you have in the native app. Let's look at a third party app to do the same thing. Here we can see I'm in 24 frames per second. And for K Again, this is a histogram which has shown me that my exposure is fine. Now here, I can see that I met one over 48 for 24 frames per seconds. So that's good. As I move this dial, I'm adjusting the ISO, so I wanted to get that down with the histogram. Looks good. Like a lock that. So now when I move the dial, it's affecting the shutter. So here I can see my values. And as I move up and down, this is showing me my shutter speed. And the lowest I can go to is one over 24th because it's 24 frames per second. However, shutter speed not only affects light and dark exposure, but also affects something called motion blur. If you think of normal photography, if something is moving really fast, when either shoot at a higher shutter speed to capture the moment. A faster shutter speed like one over a thousands of a second, has the effect of freezing motion. While a slower shutter speed, like one over 60th of a second, will blur motion in the scene. Invideo, the shutter speed can be used for a specific effect. A slow shutter speed is usually unusable in normal situations, unless you're trying to portray someone fainting or they're spaced out or dreamy feeling effect. On the other hand, in action movies, they can use a high shutter speed along with a handheld camera effect, which gives them more choppy look to the action. There's nothing special, no extra lenses used. They just simply increase the shutter speed to achieve this effect. So what does all this mean? There's a rule that we need to follow for what the eye sees isn't natural motion blur. It's known as the 180 degrees shutter rule. The rule is simply as whatever your frame rate is, you double that for the shutter speed. Remember that shutter speed is measured in fractions. So for example, if your film in 24 frames per second, your shutter speed is one over 48. Some cameras will not have settings such as one over 48. They just go up in increments of five or ten. So you get it to as near as you can. So if you have 24 frames per second and your nearest value on your phone, or your camera is 50, for example. Just set it to that. To keep it simple, forget the fractions and just remember, take the frame rate you shoot and double it. So here we can see a range of frame rates and shutter values. So for 24 frames per second, shoot 48, Twenty-five, fifty, thirty, sixty, sixty one, twenty, and so on. This allows you to have the most natural look in cinematic motion blur. The native app on the phone doesn't allow you to manually set your shutter. But third-party apps like filmic pro does let you have full control of your cameras. To show this effect, I will set my iPhone to 24 frames per second and set my shutter speed to one over 48. Now if you look at me waving my hands, emotion looks normal to the eye. If you pause the video, you can see motion blur. In this next example. I'll shoot again at 24 frames per second. But this time I'm going to increase my shutter speed. So in this example, it's one over 768. Very fast. Now that you can see what I'm waving my hands, it looks more choppy and unnatural. If we pause the video, you can see there's very little motion blur. Let's do a little recap. So here we can see that ISO changes exposure. So that means it gets lighter or darker and it's done electronically. It's nothing like a mechanical shutter. It's just a game value on the camera sensor. Caution if it gets too high, it's going to introduce noise and grain in the video. And the good idea is to keep it as low as you can. For shutter speed, that also changes exposure. So lightened dark again. But the added effect of shutter speed is it causes and effects motion blur. If you want cinematic video and you've set your frame rate to whatever values such as 24 frames per second, always double your frame rate to the shutter speed if you can. You can't really do this on the iPhone native app. You'd have to use a third party app to do this. The next thing we're going to talk about is aperture and how that affects also changes in exposure, but also something else known as depth of field. So let's move on to the next video. 5. Aperture: Now that we've covered ISO and shutter speed, the final part of exposure control is aperture. The aperture is just like the human eyes pupil. It's responsible for just how much light is lighting. Just like the pupil, it responds to light. For example. There's a lot of light. The pupil contracts or closes down when there's less light and expands and lets more light in. Aperture works in the same way. The aperture refers to the opening that's not in the camera, but it's in the lens itself. It's a physical diaphragm through which light passes. And it's measured in f-stops. The smaller the f-stop number, like 1.4, for example, means the aperture is wider and it's fully open, letting in more light. The larger the f-stop number like F22 means the hole is a lot smaller, letting in less light. Just like the shutter and ISO. It affects how much light is seen on the sensor. But larger the hole, the more light, the smaller the hole, the less light. However, this not only affects the brightness of the image, but also affects the area of the image that's in focus. This is known as depth of field. White aperture like F 1.8, meaning the aperture hole is open wide, gives us small depth of field. This is where you'll have someone or something in focus. The background is blurry or out of focus, known as Boca. This is very popular with filmmakers and cinematic video. Let's take a look at this diagram, which hopefully will explain aperture a little bit easier for you. To. At the top we have a range of apertures. Math 16, it can be F22, but in this case it's F6 stain. You can see the aperture is fully closed and without means just the minimum amount of the light. This pinhole is what is letting light then. So it's very dark as we go down in the numbers. So F11, F8, F5, 0.6, and so on, all the way down to F14, you'll see that the numbers get smaller, the hole gets bigger. Put F1 point for its very large, lets him the most amount of light and you can't actually get lenses that are F1 point to and things like that. What does this mean for depth of field? If we look down here at depth of field, we have three scenarios here. In this case is the aperture gets larger, the hole gets larger, the depth of field, the stuff in blue here actually shrinks. It gets narrower. So in this case, if we have a depth of field 2.8 or if we were using 1.81 for the depth of field is very narrow, so it means everything in blue. So this tree, these flowers in the foreground, would be in focus. But beyond that, so the stag and the border and the other tree and the mountains would all be out of focus. If we go to a slightly larger F-stop here, this is 5.6, is getting a lot smaller than this lets in less light. But it increases the depth of field scenario, the tree and the stagger both in focus here. But everything from the stag, it forward will be in focus this tree, the flowers and the stag, but beyond it, for the other tree in the mountains in the Lake will be blurry, be out of focus. Then finally we get down to F 16 or F22. And what this means is the aperture is the smallest. It lets in less light, but the depth of field is the most. Everything in the scene is in focus from the maintains, the trees, the flowers, the stag, the river, everything. This is what if you want to shoot landscapes so wide open places, you want to go with a higher f-stop number. The smaller the hole, the more depth of focus, the larger the hole, the lower the number. The minimum depth of focus or the shallower depth of focus. This focus range is very shallow, meaning if the person walks back and forth a foot or two, then they too will be out of focus because they've stepped in at the depth of focus area. Now if your aperture is set to a high value like F6, meaning that the hole is very small, is a large depth of field and everything will be in focus. This is used for landscapes, scenes where you want everything in focus or used in movies to tell a story where you see everything behind the main characters. This was done in this movie scene. We get a sense that these soldiers have been here for awhile because the people in the background, they're doing day-to-day tasks, such as washing or getting haircuts. This was shot on a small aperture, something like F22. The people behind the main characters are also in focus. If they've used the large aperture like F 1.8 and a small depth of field. The soldiers in the background would be blurry and the story wouldn't be so obvious. But what about medium aperture like F eight? This, unlike the other two, gives you a larger depth of field, but still has some blur in the background. But not so blurry that you can't see what's there. This draws the eye again to the multiple things in the foreground being in focus. And again helps with the story. Let's look at this thing. This was shot with an F2 0.8 aperture. The hole in the aperture is quite large, so the depth of field should be quite shallow. It's very bright. This was shot at F6, which means the whole was very small and lets in less light. You can see here, even though bright, the background is blurry. The same goes with the one-shot on F6. Even though it's dark, more focus in the background is obvious. To compensate for this on the bright image, I can dial down the ISO to help get exposure correct. On the dark one, I can increase the ISO to make the exposure lighter. But what about iPhones in your iPhone and most other androids, other than some Samsung's of a fixed aperture for each camera. This means that it is not variable. You can't change it in the normal way. Unlike in a mirrorless camera where you have three elements that you can adjust for exposure, which is ISO shutter speed and aperture. On an iPhone, you only have two. Because the aperture is fixed. To adjust exposure, we can only really use ISO and shutter speed. One other trick for aperture, if we want to get a blurry background, we can move closer or further away from it. Because your aperture is fixed. You'll know what your depth of focus is. From the iPhone 13 series. Apple has introduced cinema mode for video. This allows you to change the f-stop using software. Basically it's portrait mode for video. In iPhone 1112 Pro, you can get the same effect using a third party app like focused live pro take. Let's go as psi now and see how we can get that bokeh or effect using cinema mode. While we're talking about aperture from the phone 13 series, they have a thing called cinematic mode that Apple introduced. In the native app. You're able to use this. We can keep this bush here and focus. And anything beyond that will be out of focus. And it will use software to mimic an aperture change. Even though the iPhone has a fixed aperture, it's going to use software to mimic that blurred background. Let me show you how. Wherein photo mode. Now we're going to head over to cinematic mode. Once we're in cinematic, we're going to hit this F at the top left cell and bringing up that were in 0.8 f-stop. I can do is I can track that. The background isn't quite as blurry like this. We're in the one times camera. All right. I can hold and press on the bush. I wanted to be in focus to focus lock cameras on. And then what I want to do then is I can make the background even more blurry by going the other way here. Some people say that during video recording, the f-stop is too low. You might get out of fact around edges, especially with people moving. So they suggest going a little bit higher. F5 or something. It's still quite blurry in the background. Before what I'm gonna do here, I'm going to go all the way down to 2.82. I'm gonna hit just hit the focus area I want hold it so I had locks onto there. And then record some video. Then he got that nice blurry bokeh feeling. Even if you shop, the cinematic mode doesn't matter what your f-stop was, really because this is later on in editing, you just add it to the video. Click on the F, the F stop here. Then you can change your aperture. Here we are 2. We can go down to where it was shot around 4.5 or five. And we can go all the way up to 16. And we can see the background getting clearer. If you don't like a certain pot, Let's say we shot it, like we said, way down low. You're able to edit it out and then bring the f-stop backup a little bit to the depth of field is a little bit more deeper and then you may not get that out of fact image that blurriness around the edge of the bush there, where it gets right at 2. So again, it's great idea that you can shoot it like that or you can actually edit it later on in post. Okay. So I just wanted to let you know that it doesn't matter if you don't have the latest iPhone. So this is a model eight. So the eight plus, I think this is it has two cameras and wide and normal. So I think the normal camera is an F1 0.8 and the tally is it is 2.8. So we're going to use the 1.81 time is magnification, which is the best quality camera on all the iPhones. If you don't have cinematic mode, there is no problem. If you can get that same blurring effect. What you have to do is get as near as you can to the object that you want to keep in focus. And that will blur the background. So I'm just going to put the phone in here on this tripod, lightweight tripod just because it makes it easier for me. Then what I'm gonna do is get this as close to the object that I want to keep in focus and that will automatically blur the background. So let's take a look and see what we can do. So I'm in the video app. What I've got here is I've got this near to this top of this Langton as I can. So I click over here, you can see it's going to affect the sky, which were just an exposure and that's what I want. So moving that too much now I'm going to just click on focus onto the lantern and you'll see automatically that the Lemon Tree in the back is blurry. So I click on the lemon tree, it goes into focus. But if I don't like the sky over on this side here, so I'm just going to click on that to bring that back. And then I'm not too far away there. That's the video that I'm going to capture. The one times magnifier. So the main camera and the image of the land in front of us is in focus. The tree and everything else behind this slightly blurry. Even with this older iPhone camera, you can still get the same effect. Let's summarize what we've learned here with aperture. Aperture also can change exposure to make the exposure lighter or darker. It affects depth of field as we've seen. And also just a reminder that the lower the f-stop number or the f-number, the more background blur, the lower the number like 1.41.8, you'll get more shallower depth of field and more background blur. The higher the f number, like f 16 or F22, you'll get everything in focus throughout the whole scene like a landscape. With that, let's move on to the next video. 6. White balance part 1: The final piece of the puzzle for gradebook in video and photographs is white balance. This sometimes gets misunderstood. It confused with color grading. White balance is used to color, correct? And color grading is a look or feel that you can put on top using a lot. For example, white balance is basically making sure that white looks white in your picture or video. The idea of white balance system and colors look as real and natural looking as possible. If white balance is correct, then all the other colors in the spectrum will also show themselves as correct. Meaning they all look on film the same way they look to you in real life. For example, getting the white balance correct is very important so that skin tones look natural. Your eye sees colors of light in a spectrum and then transmits that to your brain. We interpret the colors. You can tell if something is white and bright daylight in shade, or even at night. If your white balance is off, all other colors will also be off. You may have noticed a scene where everything has an orange cast or a blue cast to it. Each light source has a color temperature range measured in Kelvin. Low color temperatures shift towards the orange colors, and it's known as a warm color spectrum. High color temperatures shift towards the blue color range, then known as cool temperatures. The goal of the color spectrum is to neutralize different color casts. Back to neutral. Meaning. If the cast has a blue tone to it, the camera will add warm tones to bring it back to a neutral tone. Or if it's too orange or warm, then a blue color range can be added to it to bring it back to neutral. The iPhone uses auto white balance in auto mode on the phone, exposure and white bonds to read by the camera's sensor. The phone software tries to compensate from what it sees. So if the scene is dark, it will lighten it. If you're at a bright window, it will try to dock in it. This is especially bad if you say film across a really light area like a window, and then move into a dark area of a room. The phone camera will shift exposure for the change in light. Brand video. And we're in the native app, we're on video. If I'm in front of a bright image like a window, it will expose for that. But if I move towards the inside of the room, which is dock, it will change color and exposure and compensate for the dark. But if I move back to the window, to the other side of the room, which is dark. You can see that it keeps changing. What we can do is press and hold and do AF AE lock. Now when I move to the other side, this side of the room will be darker because when I come back to the window, That's what I'm exposed him for. When you're filming. Keep that in mind. That exposed for the right parts like the windows. But try not the crossbreeding bright parts where the really dark areas. And we can increases a little bit so we can see what it is that's still shows the window as exposed. We could see it and we don't get such a drastic change. But normally you would expose for a bright area like the windows or a dark area of the room. But it's really difficult to expose for both. Like changes in your scene. So while the white balance for photography outside and a bright environment, this may be perfectly fine. But in high contrast areas, contrast meaning lots of dark areas and lots of bright areas, the auto white balance might be a problem. Let's take a look at the native app to see how the auto white balance and exposure is handled. Here is an example of white balance. Your phones in older white bonds. Now my screen on my computer is white. But look at the color of the doors, almost a yellow or green. But if I move around to them, they turn white. Go back where the screen is the most dominant. But those almost like Gallo. Then just for skin tone, if I look, if it's mostly on the screen, my legs almost green or yellow, but if I move the camera towards my legs, they change. Color. Near the door looks white. Right leg's skin tone look a little bit more natural. But again, looking at the dominant screen, the DOAS look almost yellow and green. But if I move over to them, they turn white so you can see what will happen depending on if you move your camera around the video. The setup here is that. I have gray, dark walls with the dominant image on the computer screen. It makes everything in green. I move up and then it focuses over to that. So that's what's goes on and why we went to lock exposure and white balance. But it doesn't keep changing. These multi, multi colors. Imagine that too, on someone's skin tone, my legs, kinda green. Some other color is not natural looking. Now let's see how we can lock the exposure and white balance so the color won't change as much. Here we can see that talking about white balance in the native app. Whether we're in video or photo. You look at the white screen here compared to the door. It looks yellow like we've shown. By about I move over towards the door. It turns white. What happens if we come over here, press and hold the screen to AEA AF lock. Then as we move over back to the screen, we don't get such a change at all with white balance. Using a native app. We can get more control the set, the white balance. It's better to use an app. We can set and locked the white balance to stop it changing as we move the camera around. Apps also have built-in presets. Let's take a quick look at one of these. It was going to use an app called filmic pro in auto mode. We can see here that it sees in the scene as a temperature of 4,587 Kelvin. We also placed the color reference card so that we get a good visual of all the colors and see if they look natural. So far the colors are correct and this color temp falls here on the Kelvin shot. You can also choose a preset by telling the camera won't lighting was used for where you're filming. Along the bottom we see full presets that we can choose. Each represents a position on the Kelvin scale. The first is incandescent light, which has an incandescent bulb, which has a temperature of 2900 Kelvin. So we're telling the camera that although it's a temperature of 4,500, maybe seven Kelvin, its actual color for the lighting is the same as an incandescent light, which falls in a warm tone of 2900 Kelvin. The camera thinks, Wow, I was way off for 4500. So I need to cool it down and also change the tint down towards the green. We can see here what it did to the image. It did this because we've given it false information. This image was actually indoors with a large window nearby, and it was sunshine outside. But we told it that it was lit with incandescent bulb lighting. The camera doesn't know it doesn't have a brain. It's just worth telling it. Even though you sorted it 4500, I'm telling you that it should be incandescent, the 2900. Next we choose sunshine, which has a value of 5200 Kelvin. We can see the effect. You could use this if you're reading, I'd cite in sunshine. Next we choose cloudy and it sets a white balance to 6500 Kelvin. Again, do this if you're citing cloudy conditions. Finally, we tell the camera was shooting under fluorescent tubes. It sets the temperature to 4300 Kelvin. Now we go back to auto mode. Actually it's pretty accurate to what it looked like in real life. And we can tell that by looking at the color chart. You have the option of using auto or one of the presets depending upon the actual lighting condition they filming under. Choose the one that makes the image look the most natural. And his close to what you really are shooting at. 7. White balance part 2: Absolutely you to have more manual control. This means we can lock our white balance to what the camera sees and stopped it changing as we move the camera around the scene. Actually to get the perfect white balance every time is not all that difficult and can easily be set using a reference card. The ideal thing we can use as something that's non-reflective. They say team percent gray card can be bought for about $8 online and is used by all filmmakers to set the white balance. I realize it's not white, but that's a discussion for another day. The mid gray or 18% gray card is also used a set exposure. Because exposure is nothing more than really dark and really liked shades. And if we can get everything to the centre, that's a neutral gray. And that will help us set our white balance. If you're really stuck some kitchen roll or white handkerchief could also be used. Anything, as long as it's not reflective. The key here is to place the card in the same light as a subject. For example, don't put the great caught in shadow. If the subject you go into film is indirect sunlight. Put the card in direct sunlight NEA to the subject. Then we want to fill the frame with the calibration card by zooming in. Don't take the car to the camera, either. Zoom in to fill the frame. I'll move the camera nearer to the subject so that the great CAD is in the frame as much as possible. Set your white balance, and then move your camera back to it's shooting position. The reason for this is the iPhone uses the entire frame, calculate the white balance. Now we're locked the auto white balance button and then zoom back out again. White bonds will be sad for the same. Let's go outside now and we'll use an app. It gets some real-world examples. If you're stuck, your white balance is extremely off like this. You can do if you have a gray card. We tried to put it. You try not to put it right up in front of the entire screen if possible. If you want to get it towards the area that you're looking at. So I've got some double-sided tape on here. What I'll do is just come down here. Just take this to this tree which is more near where I need it to be. What I'm gonna do now is I'm going to zoom in and try to fill as much of the frame as I can. I might have to change. What I'm looking at. That card is not fully fill in the screen, but it's in the area. Then I hit my white balance that it adjusts to that and we can see we're at 50 to 26. I can lock that then, so it's not gonna change. Then I can zoom back out again. And I want to be, and I can even, can even set up my composition. Exactly like that. Let's say I want to move it a little bit over here. Then I would be able to record. We've stuck because chances are you will not have this gray card with you and especially the sticky tape. What you can do. Like we said, Don't try to bring it to the camera, but try to put it in the composition. I'm not right back where the trees are. Where you can't do this. Move it in the frame. Again. Let's see. Let's pretend that this guy had a blue tone to it and I'm not totally in the frame, but I'm at arm's length. Now what I can do is click on the auto. It's going to look at this. Then I can lock it. Again. We're at like 5246. That's what you can do there. Now, if you're at a total pinch, just to show you if you add some kitchen roll or white handkerchief or a piece of white paper. As always, it's not reflective. Let's do the same thing again. I'm gonna make it blue. All I'm gonna do is use a piece of white paper and this thing bring it near to see it's filling the frame, even though this is right up next to the camera, we don't really want that. But it's filling the frame of this scene that we're looking at. Then I can just hit auto on here. Click lock. We can see we're at 5291. Even a piece of white paper, tissue paper because it's normal reflected will do just if you're in the sun and that's what this is doing. Keep your paper or gray cat in the sun. If it's very sunny, don't put your Greek had in the shade. You want to get a good representation of what you're trying to film. That's how you would set your white balance using a gray card. To get the best results, we should start to take control of your iPhone in manual. That way we'll have full control of ISO, shutter speed and exposure. We can also take full advantage of focus and white balance. The only thing that we don't or can't change is an aperture because the iPhone as fixed apertures. But we can work around this. 8. Real life 1 No ND filter: Looking at this screen, we can see that eye color is off and the sky is really blown out. So let's see what's going on here was set at 24 frames per second. I've taped a white card to a tree, so it's in the same. If we look at our settings, we can see that ISO is really high. So is the shutter. If I bring down ISO, I'm moving this rocker. Sky looks okay. But what happens now is that if we lock the ISO and we move our shutter down, try to get one over 41 over 48. We're still blown out. It doesn't really help us. So the only option that we have, this is where an ND filter would come in handy. So we would use an ND filter somewhere in the way here to put, would think having sunglasses on this thing as what would help. But let's say we don't have one of these. What we're going to do, we're going to lock ISO, but we're going to turn on your exposure of either increase our shutter speed, then we can be okay here and that's good for exposure. Temperatures off. So what we can do is zoom in to get this somewhere in the same here, hit our temperature on. Then lock that saying it's like around six hours and hit Okay. And then drop thing back. That would give us a way to do our recording. 9. Real life 2 with an ND filter: This is take to win the ND filter on this time. So we're looking at this scenario. We have bright sky, the colors off. Again, let's look at where we are for shutter speed. Shutter speed is 1288 and our ISO is at 15 something. So let's first of all drop the ISO all the way down as far as we can go. Lock that. And then I want to do things. My shutter speed to one over 48. Okay? Not too bad there, but now I have an ND filter on. I can adjust my ND filter to get my classes spreader. Then what I can do then is, let's zoom in as far as we can to that white cat or gray cod temperature control. Lock that and then hit zoom and then we have everything. Looks good. Thing is that one over 48 where a low ISO. We can record. Sorry. 10. Real life 3 outside settings inside: Let's take the settings that we added side. The one where there was no ND filter, will take those same settings, bring them inside and see what that looks like and how we can get good exposure and white balance. So we brought this one back in and we left the settings as it was set up outside. So because of that, you can see it's really, really dark because we had a high shutter speed. Let's take a look at what we have here. We can see that the ISO is low at 34, but the shutter speed is one over 576, just really, really fast and that's why it is spoken so dark. We want the ISO to look low. Let's lock that at 34. First of all, let's change our shutter speed. We're shooting at 24 frames per second. So ideally we want the shutter at went over 48. But we can still see that it's really dark because we're indoors. It happens to be dark. What can we do? One of the things you can do is add lighting. We can't go any slower with a shutter. We don't want to bring up the ISO if we can help it, possibly at the moment. I shouldn't. Speed is 148. So let's turn on this lamp and it looks really, really orange. Obviously our white balance is off and it wouldn't be inside versus outside. That's sending any other lights that we can around. I'm going to turn up the ISO little bit here. I'm going to turn it up to 769, brightens up the image here. Shutter speed is good, one over 48. But our colors are off. Now this is where we can bring in something white or the 18% gray card. Again, we can calibrate these colors balances here as best I can without it falling off. There we go. Now, I'm going to click on a color wheels down and bottom-left. I'm going to zoom in and just hit the auto white balance so it sees the color card, which is filling up the screen. Now once I've done that, the colors have changed and I can zoom back. Then that shows us ISO is good, shutter speed is good. The colors now calibrated to the white balance. Now let's move that kind of the way. Now we're ready to record. 11. Real life 4 inside settings outside: Now one last time, let's take the settings that we just took for the inside and go back outside and readjust. This is where we are. This is taken the image from inside and bring it to the right side. We have to increase our ISO on the inside, turbine 768. And I should've speed is at 148, shooting at 24 frames per second. As we can see, it's totally blown. Aired shadow is where we want it. So let's try to decrease the ISO. Even at 34 is the lowest I can get it. We still can't get any Docker. What we could use as an ND filter. And as we know, this will block the light and allow us to get a low ISO and the shutter speed. Let's lock the ISO and increase the shutter speed. The shutter speed. Go and hire will decrease the light coming in. If I open it right up, you'll see that histogram go to the right side. And if I read it, get really dark. It's the grandma move to the left. The perfect exposure is when that histogram is even in the center. I'm looking at the sky is to see what type of when the blue and the clouds look. Okay, ran 768. The histogram looks even. Now we can see our white balance is off. We can get our gray cod. I'm holding it out as far as I can with the arm's length so it's filling the actual frame of the composition. Then I'm going to do auto adjust on it for white balance. And I'll lock it when it goes red. And our colors a change there, 5,817 Kelvin. The explosion looks good. And this is where I can record. 12. Summary & wrap up: Nice. You finish the course. For those of you that want to take it further, you can check out my other Skillshare courses, like the 4.5 hour course on film in your video with a mobile phone. Or my five-hour understanding color course and Adobe Premier, as well as these other courses. I really hope you enjoyed the course and I'll see you in the next class.