Bookbinding: Make a Coptic Stitch Book | Caleb Sylvest | Skillshare

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Bookbinding: Make a Coptic Stitch Book

teacher avatar Caleb Sylvest, Designer, Developer, Maker of Things

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Materials & Tools


    • 3.

      Folding Signatures


    • 4.

      Cut Book Board


    • 5.

      Cover Paper


    • 6.

      Cover Flaps


    • 7.



    • 8.

      Punch Signatures


    • 9.

      Punch Cover


    • 10.

      The First Stitch


    • 11.

      Complete the First Signature


    • 12.

      The Second Signature


    • 13.

      The Third Signature


    • 14.

      The Last Signature Part 1


    • 15.

      The Last Signature Part 2


    • 16.



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About This Class

Learn the art of book binding! In this online class we will learn the techniques and process of making a one-of-a-kind handmade coptic stitch notebook. The course will cover the nitty-gritty details of taking raw materials and forming them into a functional book, as well as covering tips on craftsmanship and production.

Coptic Stitching is the most popular form of book binding. Coptic Stitching is one of the easier forms of stitched bindings, making it a great way to start learning, and it is one of the most intriguing with an exposed spine and intricate, visible stitching pattern.

Why Book Binding?

So, you're probably thinking book binding sounds like an unusual hobby. Well, you're right! After all, we live in an industrial society where every item we use is mass produced; and while a handmade has become a novelty, most people would never consider making their own books. That's why I want to invite you to join the cool kids! This class is for anyone with a sense of adventure and lover of learning. I will teach you the skills to create excellent quality Coptic Stitch books, become better craftsman, and have fun along the way.

Next Steps!

I have been making and selling books for years, producing a variety of binding styles, but Coptic Stitching is by far my favorite. I want to share my expertise and skills with you, and hopefully have fun too! My goal is to turn each student into an expert book binder, teach you enough to be self sufficient, and introduce you to terms and techniques so you have the ability to explore new book binding techniques on your own.

What You Will Learn

  • Materials & Tools. We will cover materials and tools needed, where to find them, and brands and tips to keep an eye out for.
  • Process. We will cover the step-by-step instructions of making a handmade Coptic Stitch book.
  • Tips & Tricks. Throughout the class we will talk about tips to improve craft, work more efficiently, use our tools better, and be awesome!
  • Ideas & Alternatives. We will discuss alternative ways to make books, materials to use, and how to make things new and exciting.

Materials We Will Need

We will need to gather some materials before we get started. Below is a general list of materials, we will cover the material list in more detail at the beginning of the class.

  • Paper
  • Chipboard
  • Glue
  • Decorative Papers
  • Binding Thread
  • Mattress Needle
  • X-Acto Knife & Blades
  • Metal Ruler
  • Pencil

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Caleb Sylvest

Designer, Developer, Maker of Things


My name is Caleb Sylvest, I’m a guy that likes to make things. I am a Designer & Developer living and working in Dallas, TX. To me, design is a way of life and I like to incorporate good design in everything I do.

Bookbinding is a hobby I discovered and have practiced for years. I love the process of taking everyday items (paper, glue, tape) and crafting them into functional, beautiful books. I have spent years studying the art of making books and learned many techniques, including perfect bound, pamphlet, coptic, Japanese stab stitching, and more. I have made books to sell, give as gifts, for personal use, and for decorative display.

Why buy something when I can make it myself?


Each class covers a different bookbinding technique. All classes fun... See full profile

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1. Intro: hello and welcome to this course on making a Coptic Stitch notebook. My name is Caleb Sylvester, and I'll be your teacher throughout this course will be talking about the tools, materials and process of making a one of a kind handmade Coptic Stitch notebook. I'll share with you the tips and tricks that I've learned to make really excellent professional quality books. By the end of the course, you'll have all the knowledge that you need to make your very own book and hopefully share it with the class. Bookbinding is a passion of mine, and I'm really looking forward to sharing this experience of feel. I can't wait to see what you'll make before we get into the lesson. I want to give a quick overview of the book and some terms that we all need to know to be on the same page. So in this course, we are going to be making a Coptic stitch book and a Coptic Stitch book Differs and other types of bindings because it is a soon book, but it hasn't exposed spine showing the signatures and the threat, as you can see here. So a few terms that we all need to know. I'm sure you already know these, but the front of the book and the back of the book are the cover. Along the end is the spine, and that's where the cover and the signatures or text block are connected. We're using a wax thread. Two. So the covers to the signatures on the inside of the book on the inside of both covers we have in sheets and then the center part of the book where we write and we draw. It's called the text block, and that's the entire grouping. The text block is made up of groups of pages or leaves into what's called signatures, and that's basically all we need to know to get started. 2. Materials & Tools: I want to give an overview of the materials and tools that will be using in this class so that you understand what everything does and the and its purpose. So the first thing I want to talk about is the paper that we're gonna use on the inside of her book. The paper that you write on redraw is actually called a text block, and in this case, each grouping is called a signature. So the paper that I decided to go with is a paper called New Leaf, and it's a nice Noah type. Smooth paper. It's £24 which is similar to what you would use in your home printer. Um, but it's a little bit higher quality than that. Here's another type of paper that I do have that I like a lot. It's actually by the same company, but but it's made out of recycled bananas, so it's a banana paper. So for Coptic stitching, I really suggest that you pick something a little bit higher quality, something that was similar to this. But I discourage using just plain bright white paper from the printer. We're also going to be using book aboard or chipboard, and that's what's going to reinforce, be the basis for our covers. So book board is this gray board right here, and it's a little bit higher quality than something like chipboard. But chipboard is definitely easier. Find you confined chipboard at a craft store or art store. It's kind of like a dense cardboard, but board you may have to order it online. If that's the way you want to go. It's typically archival and sue it last a lot longer. It's a little bit higher quality. It's a little bit more expensive, but you definitely don't need to get this. Chipboard will be fine. We're going to need decorative papers to cover our covers and for our in sheets. So I like to get papers from any craft or art store. They so a wide variety of styles from solid colors, the patterns, checkerboards. You can also use any kind of old paper materials that you find. I like to use old maps. You can use wallpaper or wrapping paper. Anything like that will work. We're gonna need glue to glue our papers to our boards, and what I will you really need is a PV a glue and this for this book, it won't be as important. You can use any type of glue that you like, but I definitely suggest the PV a glue. It's archival, and so it won't over time. It won't get old and brittle or corrode, Um, but PV a go a good bookbinding. PV glue is a little bit harder to find. You might not be able to find it at just any craft store. I order mine online from a psycho Hollander's highway. Suggest it, and I know that it's reliable. I will have a link to that in the class notes, so check that out. You also need a brush that you don't mind destroying, basically, because once you use a brush for glue, there's not much else it's good for. So I keep a brush specifically for glue you will need in all, and then all is a special bookbinding tool. It's a wooden handle with a long, pointy shaft on it. It's kind of like a fat needle, but a lot stronger, and we're gonna be using the all to punch holes into our covers and our signatures. You can get away with using a needle or maybe a small nail if you don't want to purchase in all. But if you have the opportunity to get one, I would just go ahead and do it. There are only a couple of bucks, and it will definitely perplex your friends with this tool is you also need an Exacto knife . Um, it's for cutting book board and papers an Exacto knife highway suggesting exacto knife over anything else, like a box cutter or other types of cutting utensils. Exacto knives are what more accurate and sharper on good for working with paper and other materials like we will be using. We'll need a pencil and ruler for this project. You can use any kind of pencil you like. I happen to like architecture pointers, I guess back from my architecture days, and you'll need a metal roller from for measuring and cutting with your Exacto knife. So a couple of tools that you may have never seen before our waxed thread, and that's what we're gonna be using to so our covers to our signatures and waxed thread. It's a unique item. You may be able to find it a crap stores, but you definitely find it online. That's how I got these. And you can buy them in either large rolls, like 100 yards or smaller roles of 10 yards each. These air, 10 yards, they come in a variety of colors. Um, so either order one that you think you'd like to use for this book or you could buy a whole set if you think you're gonna make multiple books, Um, but definitely get pre waxed thread. If you don't get waxed thread, you will have to buy bookbinding, wax, toe watcher and thread. So it's just it's really gonna be easier to buy pre wax thread. We're also gonna need a mattress needle for this project. You can get away with using any type of needle or just straight needle, but mattress needles, A really unusual because of their their bent. They're shaped like a C, and it's just gonna make it a little bit easier. Whenever we're selling our signatures, you can get one at any craft store art store upholstery store on the very cheap. You get a whole set for a buck now for a couple of tools that aren't necessary but definitely make the job easier. This is a bone folder, and it Roy has made out of bone. But it makes folding paper really easy, and it's easier to decrease the edges. Um, you get a bone folder for just a couple of bucks so and you can find them at any craft or art store. So if you can get one of these, I suggest getting it. It's another tool that it's very unusual, but when she start using it, you're going to find out that you love it. And it's also another one of those tools that will perplex your friends, and you can blow their minds with a cutting that is not essential. But I kinda like the Bone folder. It makes a lot of other things easier. Cutting mats are made out of a rubberized material that you can repeatedly use your exact an iPhone, and it's a good one will be caught a self healing cutting mat and so you can use it again and again. I've had both of these cutting mats for years, and they're still holding up very well. They do come in a variety of sizes, small ones medium. They even have some that will cover your entire table that can be quite pricey, so it's not necessary. But it will make your life easier if you plan on doing more bookbinding or any other types of crafts. If you don't want to buy one, that's fine. You can use magazine to cut on a piece of glass. Um, an extra piece of chipboard, really anything. 3. Folding Signatures: - The first step is to fold our individual sheets of paper in preparation. - Making signatures were gonna fold them hamburger style. - So Avery County out 35 sheets of paper. - I would take them individually and told the member, - I like to fold them towards the left because I'm a right handed person. - But do whatever feels most comfortable for you. - Take care when aligning the corners to make sure that they are perfectly aligned. - Start in the center and make a little David. - You can use either your finger or your bone folder and then work your way towards the - outside. - It's moving the edge right to put whatever once and run my bone forever one more time. - Can I continue this for all of the other sheets? - Now that we've folded over - leaves, - let's create signatures. - We want to group our leaves into groups of five. - So I'm gonna stack thes and something I like to do is just for my bone. - Former over the edge. - One more time as a group. - Smooth them out and then we're going to insert each leaf inside of one another. - Shore up the edges. - Now I have a signature, - so continue with this on. - Make seven signatures, - each with five leaves 4. Cut Book Board: The first thing we need to do to prepare our cover is to cut our book board. The book board is going toe overhang the signatures by 1/8 inch on three sides. In my example book, you can see how the cover overhangs the text block just a little bit. So since we used a standard paper for our leaves 8.5 by 11 and when folded that in half the folded paper is then 8.5 by 5.5. We need to add a 1/8 inch to the top bottom and outside edges. Which will mean that we need to cut book covers that are five and 5/8 by eight and 3/4. So I start off on this corner. Previously, I've already used this board, and I've made my own cuts on the outsides on these two. Besides, because I really I suggest using a clean edge and not a factory edge. The factory edge on this board is very rough, and I don't want to use that on my nice book. So I'm going to start by measuring five and 5/8 in making a tick mark and I like to say my tick marks small V's, and that gives you a better target to aim for, then just a straight line. Also, another thing I like to do whenever I cut it's the actually, um, cut on cut facing the side that I'm not planning on using. So since this is the piece of board that I I want to use for my cover, I'm gonna have my ruler over that side and my blade on the far side. So that way, if I'm cutting and I do mess up and I and I cut across the face of this board, I'm not messing up the piece that I'm using. So start off. I'm just gonna run my blade lightly over the board to make a slight invention. And that way, it's kind of like setting up a race track were for your blade to run along each time. You don't need to cut the same and one go. Were you in two or three. Just take your time and repeatedly run your Boyd over the board. Oh, it's getting close Now. I need to measure the height of the board, which should be eight and 3/4 and you may notice that I always put my tick marks closer to the to an edge of the board. And that way I can keep my ruler parallel to the edge to make sure that I'm not angling it something like this and marking and getting off eight and 3/4. I always remember the rule measure twice. Cut once, so be sure that you are cutting the correct size, measuring up to my tick marks on the board, taking my time Better take it slow and cut well, that duty in Ueo. So one other thing I like to do is get a old rag but something clean and burnish three edges. Often times there will be some rough spots or straight fibers, so Bernstein badges will just clean those up and smooth the board out. There we go. So that was good. And now I'm going to cut the other board 5. Cover Paper: At this point, it's time to wrap our cover boards with our decorative paper. And we didn't have it and pulled out the materials that I decided to use for this project. For the cover paper, I decided to use this blue circular pattern paper for the in sheets. I'm going to use a solid red accent color and for the thread, I'm going to use a muted maroon. It kind of goes with the designs on the boy paper. So it's, uh let's cover aboard. When we blew our cover board to our decorative paper, we want to leave an overhang so that we can fool and wrap the cover the flaps over the board. So the first thing I'm going to do is measure a couple of marks to help me place the board . After I've already put glue on it. I'm gonna mark 1.5 inches in in a couple of spots on one side and on the bottom. It won't be super necessary, Thio Thio perfectly accurately hit these points. But it will help. Okay, Now we need to glue our board. So if you look at your board, you might notice that it has a slight warp to it in one direction, and that's just natural from the board sitting in a box somewhere. So what I suggest is that you you determine which direction your board warps, and my looks like it warps this direction kind of like a C, and you put the glue on the outside of the curve, and that will help draw the board back up to make it straight. So I'm getting a good amount of glue on my brush and quickly dabbing it over the cover and then brushing away, smoothing it out. I would start in the centre and worked my way out. The most important areas are is to get glue on the outside edges and corners, but you want a thin layer everywhere else looking it over. It looks pretty good around. It's the last little section need hit. Check my corners really quickly. That looks good. Now I'm gonna line up the cover with these marks that I made at 1.5 inches away from the edge and place the board, smooth it out, go to flip it over its role and sure, without any air bubbles. Also be sure that your hands are clean when you do this. Okay, There were you. Now we need to trim the paper down and leave a 3/4 inch flap around the entire cover. So I'm gonna measure from the edge of the board 3/4 inch and go ahead and trim this. Remember what I said in earlier step. Always cut with the peace that's coming off on the outside so you don't damage good hurt. 3/4 inch require courage this next part a little bit tricky. So what we're going to need to do is trim off the four corners at a 45 degree angle so that weaken later, fold the tabs over our cover. So the first thing we need to do is measure from the corner of the cover to the corner of the paper and make a small tick mark about 1/8 of an inch away. It's definitely better to go farther than 1/8 of an inch in, and it is to go under so anywhere over 1/8 of an inch is good. Now, if you have ah, cutting mat like I do, they have some guides on here that were growing handy. So here's a This is this one right Here is a 45 degree angle, so I could work off of that place in my Royer along that guide and then using the grid tow line my book up to that mark, like so and trim like that. If you don't have a cutting mat with the grid system, you can measure along, uh, this the side of the paper. You know, we make him mark and put a tick mark around one and 1/4 inch. So if you don't have a grid to work with on your mat with a 45 degree angle, measure this threat one direction and put a tick mark at one and 1/4 inch and the same the other direction. And then you can line your roller up according to that, to trim your 45 degree cut. So this is the only one of those few rare times where I'm cutting differently than what I normally suggest with the safe side under the ruler. And the Expo side is the garbage side. But you can't really get away from that in this case, so it does suggest taking your time and turning very slowly. This is about what we're looking for. Do another one is in my roar on the 45 degree angle in the grid to keep my board parallel. And I'm just gonna estimate the distance right here. But it's definitely over 1/8 of an inch every so this is about what your book should look like at the moon. 6. Cover Flaps: before we glue are tabs, we want to first pre fold them. So when I start by just gently rolling the flap against the cover board, this is just gonna make it a little bit easier whenever we actually put glue and adhere it all the way around. You really can't overdo this step either. It's better to have good creases than to not have enough creasing whenever it comes to going area to grow the tabs. We're going to start with the two long sides most of putting a piece of paper underneath, so I don't get glue on my working space. So I'm just gonna dab glue across this first tab painted on. Get a little bit on the board where the tabal touch and be sure to get a good amount on the very edge in the corners. Okay, fold it. Kind of like how I started folding it without the glue and then raised my fingers to start in the middle, tag it down and then work my way towards the outside starting in the middle with just about any kind of going technique, you're going to help reduce any kind of wrinkling or air bubbles check my that side crease looks good. Fear of her one more time. Okay, It's to the other long side. Be sure not, uh, sticker cover in that glue spot that'll do. For the short end, we're gonna be doing something just a little bit different. The reason that we cut the corners off at a 45 degree angle so that we can get a nice sharp edge whenever we fold this over. So the first thing you need to dio his ad go to the tab. Then before we start folding it over, grab your bone folder or some other small instrument like a pencil and fold these corners with a has. There's a little bit of overhang so fooled this inward from both sides. And this is why we cut about an eighth of an inch out from the book cover corner. If you cut too short, then you might end up having a little bit of a problem whenever we fold in. So for you, if you do end up with that, you can uh Banega, what a little bit. And somebody that here we're full. Just like we've been doing Starting center. I worked my way out. I think I put too much glue wavy, but it's not bad. It's working out. Okay. Yep. Those corners with Good. Okay, let's do it one more time. On the other side, - he's bone folder to push these corners in. You probably get a better handle on this. Whenever you do it yourself, fold the tab over. All right. And that looks like a really nice corner. So now that we've completed one cover to this stage, go ahead and finish off the other. 7. Endsheets: foreign cheats. They're gonna be almost the same size as our signatures. So since we used 8.5 by 11 paper when folded that in half, our signatures are now 8.5 interest hole in 5.5 wide. The only difference between that size and in sheets is that we want the width to be at 1/4 inch less. So we're gonna cut, are in sheets to be five and 1/4 wide and 8.5 tall. Time to start off with the width and measure five and 1/4 five and 1/4 trim. But I'm gonna measure 8.5 height trim. There's our in chief. I was gonna finish off this other in chief. This is where we need to start paying attention. It's time to glue or in sheets to our covers. So what I mean by paying attention is that at this stage, we're going to designate which of our covers is the front cover in, which is the back. We trimmed our inch EADS down just slightly smaller than our signatures. So if we place them on our covers as a demo, we can see that the spacing is not completely even around the edges. What we want is to allow a 1/8 inch space on the top and on the bottom and on the outside corner. So if we align our in cheat like that, we'll see that we have about about three eights or or so inch on the inside corner. So looking at it this way, this will be the front cover, and this will be the back. So whenever we glue the entry down, this is what we're gonna want to do. So let's go ahead and start with the front cover. I'm gonna dad glue across the back of the and she for minimus and then spread it out. And whenever you place on the cover, if it helps, you can make tick marks. Measure when a bench in a tick marks that may help you place. Okay, so I think I'm ready. Did make quite a mess doing this, so we'll try not stick my cover in the glue. Ruit is eyeballing the spacing and that scared right there, - and I'm gonna bring out my clean rag again. Just kind of brush over the edges of the paper. smooth everything out. Every rubber over the edges. Uh, where you folded the cover paper in underneath the And she do. You kind of see that you create a decrease. You can work that and emphasize it if you like. If you don't like it, then you might not want to press down too hard right there. But I think it kind of looks nice, in my opinion. Okay, there we go. So now we're gonna need to glue the other inch the other entry to the cover on what? You do that on your own. But you sure that you're going it correctly with less space on the outside corner in more space on the end said 8. Punch Signatures: Before we start stitching, we're going to mark our signatures and punch holes in them for the needle and thread passed through. As you can see in our example, book will be measuring marks. The outer most will be 1/2 inch away from the end, and then each subsequent mark will be one and 1/16 inch. So to do this, we're gonna start off by taking one signature. Put a mark right at the end of the spine at 1/2 inch on this side and 1/2 inch from that said. And then we're gonna measure one and 1/16 inch from the Ademas, Mark said. One in 1/16 inch, one and 1/16 inch continue like that all the way across. No, if you actually measured what's available, which is 7.5 one and 1 16 inch doesn't actually go into that perfectly. But the leftover is so minute that you really can't tell the difference whenever we punch holes and start threatening. But Rudy now is stacked all over signatures back together with the one that we just marked on top. Make sure to align them as even we asked, possible as a group Play something heavy on top, like a book or your iPad or something like that. We have. So I can see the marks that I made. And I'm going to use my ruler to make a vertical mark across all the signatures. Oh, don't worry about the marks being too dark or too large, because once we punch holes, it won't be an issue. They won't be visible. I do. And one last thing that I'm going to do before I separate any of these signatures is I'm going to mark at the top each signature with a with a number to keep them in an order because we want from going forward. We don't want these to shuffle around or get mixed up. Probably the 12 three for five 67 were all done with the book out. Race these numbers every year, so it's punch holes in the signatures. I'm keeping them in the same order that I originally staff them. I have the numbers in the top right hand corner. I was gonna set them aside and bring one signature to me at a time. Open it up, Wait flat. Be sure not to jostle the pages too much because you don't want them. Teoh get often be at an angle on every punch, the holes. Basically, this is what we're doing. So WeII it flat and then using your all start at any of the holes, it doesn't matter which one and exactly on the crease, punch in press and kind of work it in a circular motion. The main thing is to be sure that it goes through all the way through and we still a little bit okay, one foot, but over to the inside, inspect the whole. So they all went through. That's good If they didn't just go back and punch through a little bit more. I understand a poke in from the inside and clean these holes up just a little toe. Widen them area. So one signature down. And we've seen to do this with all the other signatures and keep them in the same order. So here's my number one over the top right hand corner. So I'm saying, step aside like that and then after I complete this one, I'll send it over there and check the order again. Once I'm done 9. Punch Cover: we're gonna use the signatures that we just punched holes in to mark our cover and then punched rolls into the cover boards. So I'm gonna set this cover aside for now. I'm gonna take my signature stack, make sure it's sharp. Also remember that we now have already designated, which covers the front in which is the back in which direction the signatures are stacked. So here are my numbers up here said, this is the front. This is the back is the back cover some lining my signatures. They're the same exact height as the in cheap paper. So you should be able to just line your signatures up with your entry paper to the very edge, and then we're gonna make a tick mark based on the holes that we've already punched. I'm marking the cover paper in this 1/4 inch gap and really only using the bottom most signature for this alignment. I don't even sing. Choose anymore. Take my ruler, find these marks measure along the x axis of the book and put a tick mark halfway between, uh, the in cheat edge and the cover edge, which is 1/8 inch. So I'm crossing the mark I just made based off with signatures and creating a little close sign because my paper is has some patterns on it. It's a little bit difficult to see, but I did make a decent enough mark so I can tell where to mark. Okay, take my all. I'm going to start here in the middle, hit the target, and then work that all all the way through. The main thing, like on the signatures, is toe. Make sure the tip always makes it through because we're gonna go back around to the front side and queen at these holes, huh? And once I get all of the holes punched all the way through, one thing I like to do is go back and just inspect them, especially on the outside, the exterior of the book to make sure that they that the holes air clean and don't look like a volcano sometimes on a repressed through the paper will get ruffled up. So mind look pretty good so far. But now we're gonna get the other book cover, and we're actually use this one as a stencil. So this is the side where I'm threatening and So is this side. We're gonna line these. It was good. And then use the holes. I've already made toe mark front cover, not pushing all the way through the front cover. I'm just marking it. And now that I have marks, I'll go ahead and continue punching all the way through. You know which I'll do that girl's name. 10. The First Stitch: we've made it to the end, and it's time to so our signatures and cover together. So I have my my book together in the form that I created it. So up here in the top right hand corner, I have my numbers one through seven on my signatures and this in my front cover. So what I'm gonna do is take six signatures in the front cover and foot bit outward and poise that directly in front of me. So I have the seventh signature on the back cover, and that's where we're gonna begin. We're gonna measure out or waxed thread and a good rule of thumb for how much threat you're going to need in a recent. This case is one foot per signature. So I'm gonna measure what, seven feet? And then I might just give it a little bit of extra, just just to be sure. So, seven, I was gonna give a few more inches. And don't worry if you happen to undershoot how much threat you need. I've done that plenty of times. You can remedy that partly through the book, and I'll explain that in the in the Project guide, so start off we're going to thread are needle and I put it through about 4 to 5 inches and then cinch the thread for old max your thread over here. When it comes to sonar book there three steps. The first is sowing the first signature onto the back cover. The second is sewing all the intermediate signatures and then the third is sowing the last signature to the front cover. So to start the back cover, we're going to insert a needle from the inside into the far right hole import all the way through, and I'm going to leave a tale. We've got five inches. We're gonna take our needle and go through the whole the far right hole in the book cover from the outside in. If you find that your holes are too small for your needle, you may want to go back with your all and just loosen this up a little bit and work the thread back through. This is definitely the most time consuming part of making a copy stitch book. A tale almost came out, so let's pull that back out. OK, there we go. Now we need to take the new and go back into the hole, and that should be on the inside. Here we go and using wax thread eyes definitely necessary because it helps prevent the threat from getting in binds or frame. But you'll probably still run into that issue. It's not. It won't be too difficult to fix it area. So let's take our needle and jump to the next hole over. Go from the inside to the outside for all the way through before we continue. Let's tie knot using this tail piece, so I'm going to do Let's go under here, group around. Come back to that hole, so it's a simple cinch. Cinch it tight and that'll do. 11. Complete the First Signature: one thing we want to ensure that we do as we stitch is keep tightening that thread so that it's not loose. So her on her second hole of the cover. And we're gonna do just about what we just did for the first that we're gonna come over the edge of the board and from the outside first a needle through to the inside Were they able through tightness up. Whenever you pull this, you can check on the inside to see the tightness of this thread. So loose area that's a little bit better. You want to be like a tight guitar string, not weasel. Now go back in to the signature. And basically, what we're doing with these woops is locking each signature together, so that's a little bit loose, but that's it will be okay. I'm jumping to the third hole inside out. Okay. Through the book cover. Pull it tight. Check it right here. And it was good needle back through the signature. I realize this part is very, definitely difficult to follow along with, So we do the best I can to explain it as i g o a. Zwolle's provide diagrams in the project guide. So hopefully between the two of these and feel free to re watch the videos, you can figure out exactly what to do off the threat so long it gets unwieldy sometimes and gets caught on things. Just keep an eye out for that. The last poll. After we look around the cover, we'll jump up into the second signature. 12. The Second Signature: so it's time to jump to our second signature. Remember, we flipped our stack of signatures and cover over this direction. So we're gonna bring this one back and to confirm I can work up here and I see the number seven and here's number six. So I'm doing this in the correct order. So what, you'll find out as we g o and as you make over your stitches is that the outside the outer to most line in a row of stitches will look a little bit different than the centre stitches . So we're gonna do here we after we hooked our our West Pole to the cover, we're gonna come straight up and from the outside jumped into this signature a bit of a tangle, no problem. And this isn't going to be nodded and tied down tight. We until we get to the third signature and lock it in. People that talk, scoot over to the second hole and shoot to the outside. This is where the magics really going to start happening and why I really suggests having at least seven signatures because the more you have, the more visible the beautiful stitching is going to be. And if you don't have enough signatures, it'll just look like a line of thread. So what we're gonna do is we're gonna come down and go from the right side of this bottom stitch to the left. The most important thing, no matter what you do, is to be consistent in your stitching. So, you know, right here, we want to go from right to left, not left to right. And we want to consistently do that throughout. So I'm gonna hook this my needle under the bottom signature and around the threat so you can see it really well here. And this is why I really like the mattress needle. Because I can do this without having to flip my signatures back and forth and and hook everything is through somewhere. Pool here taught. I'm gonna go ahead and check the inside to make sure that that's Yep, That's nice and tall. Pull. Now, take my needle and go back into the second signature hole. Right. Just came out. As we pull through here, it'll be locking this point of the signature down. Will that help? Let's get over to the third hole. Threat. Your colt do the same thing, right to left around the bottom. This stitch put through Okay, so that needs to be tightened up a bit. There we go. I'll take the needle and go back in that hole that we just came from since that tape jump to the fourth hole, right to left. Go into the first signature. I put that talk. Here we go back in. Take that up. This is basically what we're going to be doing for the next several signatures until we get to the last signature and the last signature. In the end, the front cover will be added at the same time Every now and then. I forget that Make a mistake and have to undo my stitching. That's a good thing about this method. As only don't get too far ahead of yourself. If you realize that you mess something up, you can typically go back and fix it. Bayan stitching and the re stitching. Okay, so now we're at the last one. We're gonna do something like what we did in the other end. We're gonna hook it and then jump to the next signature. So get from right to left. Take that up and then we're jump to the next signature 13. The Third Signature: Saker. Third signature and foot, but over. So you're six years five. Still in the correct order. We're a shoot straight up into this last hole. Like I said, the outermost Rosa Thread will look a little bit different in the inside threat threats. So this jumper to the second hole and we're gonna go down one signature. So we're going in between signatures one and two, whooping from the right to the left and then point that all the way through taking that up . I'm here. Just check that guy so much tighter. Pull fairly tight on this thread and it won't. I heard it at all. Okay. Lets you do that. Woop, go back into the signature hole. Just came from take a toke. Okay, Same deal going in between signatures one and two or going in between the singer right below us, right to left flat. And as we continue doing this with each signature that we add, we'll see a pattern emerge of the thread. I want to continue as I as I worked through, I'm gonna kind of shift and cool and push to try to make sure that my signatures are staying straight and they're not bowing over too far. So same deal. Go. One signature down left, right to left. Okay. From them. Back into the same hole. - No , this last hole already. Just like we did on the other ones. We're going to go down one signature who get from right to left and then jump up to the next signature. So I think you probably have a good handle on how to do this now. So I'm gonna let you continue on your own. Um, just stop whenever you get to the last scene that you're so don't. So the last signature? Only. So to prevent ourselves from doing that, making that mistake, Just go ahead and take the last thing that you're and the final cover piece and set them aside. So we have three more signatures to go 14. The Last Signature Part 1: Okay, We've made it to the end. All we have left is one more signature in the final cover. And the way this actually works is we do both of them at the same time. Some fucking the mover. See number one here in number two years. So I'm in the correct direction. I've already soon all my signatures together from here we have. So the way this is gonna work is we come up way. Skip this. This is the new signature. Right now we go into the outside of the cover, but let through bring it out from the rights I don't get this thing about. Okay, Now we hook under the this six signature, and then we go inside the seventh signature. I'm not gonna lie. This is the most difficult part of the entire book, in my opinion. Okay, so I made it. So that's in. It's a little shaky. There's nothing locked in yet. I wouldn't jump over to the second hole. Okay, some out now our stitches just a little bit different than what we did on the 1st 1 So we're gonna get dropped down one signature, hook it, tighten that up, then we come up, go through the book cover. Sometimes I have to hang up the edge of the table to get my needle. And at this point, after we hooked the cover, we're going to drop down right below the seventh signature. Hook that and then go back inside the seventh signature. So, basically, we're We're doing two hooks this round. Trump to the third hole. Okay, Dropping. But where? The sixth signature hook. Well, that through then. Up. Over and through the cover. Hey, off the table. Sorry. If you can't see this for a second area, drop over the seventh signature and hook. 15. The Last Signature Part 2: been back into the seventh. Signature. Back out. Drop with six signature. Look it cool through. Go up over the cover out and what's on the right side. Then drop down before the seventh signature. Hook it and pulled her. I wrote my paper, my signature Just a little bit, but that should fix that. I think it does. It's barely noticeable. Okay, now go back into the seventh signature. I have to clean that up a little bit. Once I'm done. Go back into the seventh signature. Clean that up a little bit once I'm done. Actually, what I'm gonna do to kind of fix that problem right here is, uh, do a quick loop and that will help hold it tight and not rip anymore. Yeah, one more week at a little bit more backing. Really not ideal. But it does happen. Okay? Going up the next hole, but dropping before the sixth signature and pull going up over the cover, coming out on the right side of the threat. Troubling gamble with seventh signature hook and pull. And then back inside the seventh signature aereo. So I made it in. So I really adding the last signature and cover is my least favorite part, for obvious reasons. But now I feel like I'm finally getting in a groove after doing a few, But but I'm getting your groove, adding the last cover your already at the end. My school, during the exact same thing, dropped for the sixth. I was very start to get tight because the covers very well owned there by now. So you gotta get the needle up and over the cover. Now make sure the needle comes out on the right side of Fred tight, drop with the seventh signature and then back into the seven signature. And we made it last thing to do. Guy this tail off. Let's go under and through the hole. What's that? One more kiss for measure and then we could turn that tail here. Then here we made it, but we made it to then congratulations. Have a couple of last things to mention um, before you enjoy your new book. One thing in noticed, if you can see on my book, is that the front cover is angled up into the air a little bit. We call this and finding a talking book, and it's something you want to avoid. So it probably happened is that I put my covers on a little bit too tight or my stitching was just a little bit too tight. Throat use. I think this will probably lesson a little bit, and the book will lay down flat. Another thing I can do to try to remedy this is to place some heavier books on top of it and let it sit overnight. One last thing I like to do is look over my my stitches because since we are using a wax thread, sometimes the wax builds up and leaves wax boogers on your threat. So I want to take my needle and it's clean up a few of those little spots. You may locate your stitches and see a few inconsistencies. I know. I certainly dio I always end up messing up at least one or two of my my rose or especially my Ademas. That's just something that you can learn from the future. Besides that, I hope you of your book. Congratulations 16. Outro: well, read it too. Then I hope you had fun along the way and learned a little bit about how to make your own copy. Sits notebooks. I'm looking forward to seeing what each of you have made and hope that you will post your work in the student gallery. Now, what I've shown you in this course is really only a very basic form of copy such binding. There are plenty of other techniques and methods and modifications that you can choose to make on your own. You can try to from papers you can try to from materials, and it's complicit binding. One of the most popular things to do is to change up the style of stitching. You can find plenty of examples online. Just Google cops. It's binding or check Pinterest to see different types of work that other people have made . I hope you've learned something, and I can't wait to see what you make with it.