4 Secrets to Drawing In Perspective Like the Pros | Reuben Lara | Skillshare

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4 Secrets to Drawing In Perspective Like the Pros

teacher avatar Reuben Lara, Illustration | Animation

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      The horizon line is not arbitrary


    • 3.

      VPs help describe the field of view


    • 4.

      (Almost) Every scene should have a vertical VP


    • 5.

      Everything on the grid shares HL and VPs


    • 6.



    • 7.



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About This Class

If you're like me, you started your drawing career with only a vague understanding of how drawing in perspective works. Then, you spent then next several years avoiding the topic, hoping that one day you would wake up enlightened. Since that never happened, you keep dodging the following questions:

  • Which perspective grid should I be using?
  • When should I use 1, 2 and 3-point perspective?
  • Where do I put the horizon line?
  • What happens when objects rotate off-grid?
  • How do I set up a wide vs. narrow angle drawing?
  • How am I supposed to draw people on the grid?
  • Why does it have to be so complicated?

And finally:

  • Why don't my drawings look good?

In this course, I go over 4 incredibly important pro tips you may not have understood yet that will fill in the missing pieces. With a little bit of practice, I know you'll lose any lingering fear of the perspective grid and you'll start to wield it like the pros do.

You'll learn how to:

  • ...extract a perspective grid from a photo
  • ...start using a picture plane
  • ...create wide and narrow angle scenes...on purpose
  • ...use random photos as the basis for any sketch
  • ...start imagining a perspective grid in your mind while you're sketching 
  • ...use cubes to map out where to draw figures in your scene
  • ...not be confused when an object rotates off-grid
  • ...feel good about yourself while you're drawing

The principles in this lesson apply to any software or medium of drawing. But as a bonus, if you are a Clip Studio Paint user (which I highly recommend you become), you'll learn how to master Clip Studio's incredible perspective ruler. If you've never seen it before, you won't be disappointed (I haven't seen any other tool like it).

Let's get started!

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Reuben Lara

Illustration | Animation


My wife and I live in the heart of the Berkshires in Western Massachusetts, and we love being surrounded by so much natural and artistic inspiration! For the last twenty years, I’ve both freelanced and have been contracted as an illustrator, print designer and animator, diving into multiple disciplines, many production workflows, and many roles of project responsibility. I also spent about nine years at a non-profit educational organization as an art director and illustrator. But regardless of where I’m at in the creative pipeline, I join fellow artists in aiming to create imagery that triggers a response in my viewers, even if only for a moment of pause.

I enjoy sharing my techniques with other artists looking to expand their painting and illustration abil... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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1. Introduction: Hey, guys, Rubin Lara here and today we're gonna talk about four things to help you lose your fear of perspective. You know, for many artists, the whole concept of perspective is just scary, complex and overwhelming. But it doesn't have to be. In fact, perspective can become a tool that's so useful and versatile that you can't imagine working without it when sketching for a client or a project where multiple team members are involved and have to work together, sketches need to be two things clear and productive. Clear sketches create accurate expectations, and they lay a successful foundation for whatever intention the sketch has in the future. Whether that's a storyboard or an illustration or the basis for a photo session, and sketching productively is really important as well. Spend too much time on sketches and you just won't get that many done. And that can create frustration for the client. And it doesn't contribute toward a creative workflow. And this is where understanding and using a perspective grid will help us with both goals, clarity and productivity. At the beginning of a concept, clear perspective will help generate many ideas because they provide a framework for primitive shapes, which is how you're gonna block out your scenes quickly and toward the end of a concept. Clear perspective will make images believable, and, perhaps more importantly, it will make them execute herbal. It's something that can actually be filmed or implemented in a real life photo shoot. Now, some people feel that using a perspective grid when doing rough concept work is just too constraining, and it stops them from organically discovering ideas. And that could be true to a certain extent. And that's why how you use a perspective grid is really important at the beginning of any age. Yet that perspective grid is just in your mind's eye, more likely as the idea crystallizes, and it gets approved by your client or you, for that matter, polishing that drawing on an actual grid or even using a digital perspective ruler will help turn it into something believable and execute herbal. You'll start seeing perspective as an ally and not as an enemy, but it all starts with understanding a few super important principles that chances are if you've taken classes on perspective, but you're still frustrated with using it. You may not have completely understood yet. So I'm assuming at least have a working knowledge of the basics. And you probably at least heard of 1.2 point and three point perspective. There was a lot of really great lectures online, and I have some good recommendations on my website at Rubin laura dot com slash perspective to get you started, so I'm not going to start from scratch. But if you know what a horizon line is, you know what vanishing points are. And you know how to at least draw a two point perspective cube on a grid. Well, that's good enough. The Cube is the most basic primitive shaped A master because it defines cages for all other complex structures that we're gonna be putting on the perspective grid. So if we can understand and manage how cubes get drawn on the grid, we're on our way to controlling the grid and not letting the grid control s all right. Let's get started 2. The horizon line is not arbitrary: all right. The first thing that we need to remember is that the Horizon line isn't not arbitrary or accidental. I often see artists started sketch and just randomly placed a horizon line in hopes that it will lead them to some kind of creative discovery. But the Horizon Line is one of the first cues as to what is happening in terms of the point of view of the person or the camera looking at the scene to boil it down to two things. Horizon Line does not define altitude. It only defines if the viewer or the camera is looking up or down in the scene. Now, to understand that a little more clearly, let's head on over to my website at Rubin laura dot com slash perspective, And I do have a section on this with a couple of helpful exercises. We're gonna call this bird's eye view in a warms, a view, which is something that is often used when talking about where to put the horizon line. Let's just read through this real quick. It's important to remember that the position of the horizon line does not depend on elevation, but the forward or backward tilt of the camera or put simply whether you're looking up or looking down. So when you're starting a sketch, the first thing you need to do is imagine yourself in the scene and determine where you are looking on the vertical plane, up or down. Then follow these simple rules. If you're looking straight ahead, the horizon line will always be in the vertical center of the composition. So we're talking about this vertical center, always in the center. That means that no matter how high you are in the scene for both the street level seen and it seemed looking out of an airplane window, the horizon line will be in the center if you are looking straight ahead. If you are looking up, we call that worm's eye view. Then the horizon line goes down the page. And if you're looking down Bird's eye view than the Horizon line goes up the page, so in the example below, drag the image up and down to shift from looking straight ahead, toe, looking up and looking down. So both the street rat on the left and the airplane passenger on the right are able to both have a bird's eye and worm's eye view of the individual environments. Even other elevation from the ground is miles apart. So let's go ahead and do that here. We see that our horizon line is right in the center of the composition because both the rat and the passenger are looking straight ahead as soon as they look up. What happens if that horizon line it goes down the page? So again, the elevation or the altitude of the camera isn't what to dictating the horizon line here. It's whether that camera is looking up or looking down. So as soon as we look down the page, the horizon lane goes up the composition inside the picture plane. So here's something you can practice. Just take your pencil, hold it out. And I still do this down to this day because once it becomes just instinctual, it helps me remember in this scene helps me remember where to put that first line in the sand. So hold my pencil out and decide by looking up or looking down. So pencils going opposite direction of my gaze up and down so immediately I'll start on the blank page and just hold my pants up. Yeah, I'm looking up in this scene. I know my horizon line is gonna be at some point below the vertical center of that picture plane. Okay, let's take a look at a couple of practical examples of this in an actual three d scene. So I'm having over to my three d program here, and I just have a really simple ah city type model here with a camera. The camera, as we can see, is looking straight ahead. So I have the ability to look up and looked down just like if we were looking up and down in our scene. So right now it's straight ahead and let's go ahead and look through this camera and we can see that the horizon line, this little gray line here is right in the vertical center of our composition. Because we're looking straight ahead. I'm just gonna take this camera and imagine that we're going up in an elevator up into the sky. So we're going now up all the way up into the sky. Well, what is happening with the horizon line? The answer is nothing. It's staying in the vertical center of the screen because our camera is looking straight ahead. So no matter for on the ground plane or for way up in an airplane are rising, line doesn't change Onley time it will change is if we now tip our gaze down or up. So I'm gonna just the pitch of this camera, which is the forward tilt. And now, as soon as I look down, the horizon line is going up the page. And as soon as I look up, the horizon line is going up the page. I'm resetting this back to zero, so we're looking straight ahead and let's go back to discrete to the street level may do the same thing. I'm looking down to the street. The horizon line is going up. I'm looking up into the sky and horizon line is going down the page. So hopefully this will just reinforce in our mind that the position of the horizon line doesn't not depend on altitude. It depends on the forward or backward tilt of the camera. All right, now let's see how we can get this same sensation or effect when we're moving around on a perspective grid. So I'm heading back to my website and at the bottom. You can click this link Rubin laura dot com slash perspective grid And it will take us to a perspective Good generator that you can move around, play around with, take a screenshot and put it into any of your favorite drawing. APS. I was gonna go here to the loose grid, so we have a little bit, uh, fewer lines, and all I need to do is now drag this around the screen to just play around with where this horizon line is in my picture plane. So right here at the center and again we're looking at, we're looking straight ahead. So nothing's happening with the horizon line were at the vertical center. And as soon as I want to look up in my scene, I just simply drag it down. So we're looking up, and now we're looking down. You really get a sense from the way the vanishing point grid lines are converging. We can imagine a cube, you know, up here in the distance, looking up up in the sky. And as we kind of go down, you know, our people will start seeing the top faces of those cubes. So here will be seeing the bottom faces of those cubes and other top faces of those cubes. Now, the way this particular interactive greatest set up is that our vertical vanishing point automatically adjust depending on whether we're above or below the horizon land and our picture plan. We'll talk about that on another point, but the take away point here is where the Horizon Line is in relation to our view. Okay, let's do one more exercise to really drive this point home and let's see how this plays out in real life and actual photos. So I'm heading over to pixels dot com, which is free stock photography, and I'm just gonna type in buildings. And let's pull out a few examples here that will help us get a sense of where that horizon line is. Okay, here's a good one, and I'm starting off with an easy two point perspective grid just so we can get a sense of where the perspectives that I'm going to copy this image All right now here I'm using clips studio, but you can use your software of choice and you'll see why I prefer clip studio for perspective work just because of some of the perspective tools that come with it. So the first thing you want to do is find out where the vanishing points are in this image , and that's going to tell us where the Horizon line is again. These are just some really basic perspective. Exercise is here, so I'm gonna reduce capacity that a little bit. I'll give myself a new layer. I just grab something simple like my rough pencil. And all we need to do is find uh, parallel lines in the scene that describe a cube so that we could get our to vanishing points. So I immediately gravitate toward this table and these windows, which appear to be sweat off to each other. And here's a parallel line and here's a pair of the line and also, you know, here is a pair of the line. Here's a parallel line. We have the same things in the windows. All we need do is kind of trace those out into the distance to find out where the vanishing point is. I'm gonna put a line here, hit shift and draw that out into the distance. I'm gonna do the same thing here with the table and we'll draw it out this way and we'll draw it up this way. Now, if the table and the windows are roughly on the same grid, that means that these lines should also be hitting that same vanishing point. Now here's what we run into problems with most digital software is that we can't draw outside of the canvas area, and so it's very difficult to discern where the vanishing points are in our image. I have that kind of imagine where this line is heading out and maybe guessed that it's somewhere around here and then guess that it's somewhere around here and decide that's about where our horizon. Linus. That's like my best educated guest. But even at this guess, I'm already getting a sense of where the camera with that forward tilted. The camera is here because we already said that if the horizon line is above the vertical center of his picture plane, then our camera is looking down. So even with his really basic vanishing point extraction, we can already understand one thing about this picture. We're looking down on this scene, even though you know we're up. Maybe at the third or fourth floor of this building. Let's take a look at another example. Now I'm gravitating toward photos that have at least one or two elements that air squared off to each other on a grid. We're gonna talk a little bit more about rotated elements on the grid later. But just for the sake of this exercise, it will help us to just not be confused by other things. Here, it's gonna copy that image. Drop that into a new scene here, and instead of using our pencil to extract a grid, let's let me introduce you to some of clips, studios, perspective tools. Those were found in the ruler section, and all you need to do is open up your sub tool poet and find your perspective ruler. So I've grabbed that, and I've dragged at out onto my command bar for easy access. Now, the way the perspective ruler works is that it expects you to place your left and right vanishing points on the horizon line first, and then any vertical ones can follow after that. So let me just turn this layer off real quick to show you how that works. So I'm on the perspective tool and I just click and drag to establish the first angle of one of my vanishing point, um, lines. And then it waits for me to put a second went down before establishing that as a vanishing point so soon as a click and drag And, you know, basically determined at this at this point arbitrarily, where that vanishing points gonna be at let go and automatically gives me, ah, horizon line with one vanishing point. Then I can continue using the same tool if I'm on the same layer that the perspective ruler was created on. And I'll just start anyone and to it against it already wants to snap to the horizon line. And as soon as I like go now I have a horizon line with two vanishing points, and that means that if I'm on that layer or another, this grid is now enabled. And any lines that I draw is now snapping to those two vanishing points and can always change the location of those vanishing points. Absolutely. That would change my drawing by just using the object tool, and I can just drag this around. I can alter the the pitch of that horizon. Or I can grab these little handles as well, too kind of scoot, that vanishing point way off the page. So each one of these vanishing point grid lines has a couple of controls. The little white one just moves this perspective ruler guide around around this vanishing point. Whereas if I grab the blue handles, it will actually screwed that vanishing point off into space on the horizon line. Uh, the same control a place that the rise in line I can, you know, move this left and right. And already with the principal, these principles we already talked about, we can start getting a sense of whether we're looking up or down the page again, right? So if I'm in the center, I'm looking straight ahead and I'm looking up the page and I'm looking down the page, so we get that same sensation. And of course, each one of these guidelines has the same controls. I congratulate little arrow here to move the whole perspective great around. And I can also disable certain certain lines. For example, if I only want the, um, pencil to respect the left vanishing point, but not the right ones I just click this little diamond and it turns green. And so now what I'm drawing my lines are Onley snapping to that left one, but not the right one. So just a lot. A little controlled for that perspective, Great. But the reason why it's super powerful in this case is because we can see the vanishing points off the canvas, which is gonna be really helpful, as we extract agreed here. Okay, so that was the basics of the grid. Let's go ahead and turn on our image and let's use our perspective tool to extract the grid from this particular scene. So I'm gonna find our parallel common parallel lines in the scene. So here's a clear one. And then here's a clear one to me of the City Bank building in the back. So I'm just gonna click and drag and establish that 1st 1 and let's find another one. We'll click and drag an established that one. It's already even with our first vanishing point. It's already telling us that the horizon line is way underneath the picture plane and that's okay, right? Because at that horizon line can just dip away below. But the important thing is that it's below the vertical center of our picture plane. That means we're looking up at this scene, which is pretty obvious because that's what's happening in these buildings. Now, we don't need the right one at this point to determine where the horizon line is. But let's just go ahead and extract it anyway so we can see how that works. I'm gonna do one there and I'll find another one that's far enough away. I always find it just becomes a little more accurate. And so for it if we needed to draw anything else on the scene Now all of our drawings are gonna match what? You know the perspective of this camera. Of course, we need one more third vanishing point in this. Now that we've established our left and right, let's just go ahead and add it while we're at it here. So here's a vertical there. Actually, I take that back. I'm gonna put one there and just undo it. Didn't quite hit it. All right, there's one there and that. Just go all the way the other side and find a nice, clean vertical here and we can see now that we've added our third vanishing point. We're going to talk about that in another hint in this Siri's. But now if I go ahead and I wanted to, you know, put an additional shape, way of in the sky Here, get a nice small pencil here. We're getting exactly the same perspective from our buildings. And we can just, you know, really start having fun here, start adding elements or making this building taller whatnot. So there we go. The take away from this image is that we're looking up at this scene. Let's check out one more. Okay, I'm just gonna reduce the opacity of this. Give us a layer, use my perspective tool and just find some some pretty consistent or consistent enough parallel lines in the scenes. I'm gonna assume that all of these bricks are on the same plane. So there's one there and let's see, this looks pretty consistent there. Okay, so there's our horizon line and I contest out to see if I've kind of hit that hit the correct for the parallel planes here by just grabbing any one of these guys and then rotating them around in the scene. And so as I rotate them around, I could just test and see. Okay, that was pretty spot on. I'm hitting. You know, all of these parallel edges. And these old buildings were amazingly built and accurate on a on a grid, which is pretty awesome. Okay, so now that we have that, um, we can start making some deductions about the scene. So it looks like our horizon line is pretty close to the center. That means that someone just kind of walked up to this woman, put the camera up at eye level and snapped a picture. If we were to move it one way or another, it's just slightly above the horizon line. So that means they were slightly looking down. Maybe this for Dr Photographer was a little taller than she was. So to get her in the plane, he just put that camera like this. And they just went slightly down. Right is that horizon line is above the vertical center. Now, let's just keep scrolling through that list of photos and see if we can just visually identify looking up or looking down each of these photographs. So keep coming down here. For example, this one here. Well, clearly, we're looking up because we're looking at these buildings, but we can prove that by just, you know, in our mind's eye, tracing these these ah, vanishing points down to their origin. And this is where the horizon line would be. So we're looking up in this particular case, Let's take a look at this one. Well, this one has an actual horizon of the planet Earth. But if we traced out these lines all the way up, they would end out roughly around here because that's how real life works on our planet. So even though we're up in the sky, we're looking down at the city because our horizon line is above the vertical center. All right, here's another one with a pretty clear horizon, but it's just below the center, So that means we're looking slightly up into the sky, looking up course, a lot of these with buildings air pretty straightforward because they have a pretty clear horizons as is. But let's take a look at something like this. All right, if we just tracing our mind's eye, these air coming down, this is coming up. They converge around here. So in this case the camera. The cameraman was maybe crouching in the ground and then tilting that camera up to get this shot. Okay, here's a good one. Here we have a street that's not on the grid, but we do have some items that are parallel somewhat to each other. So if we take these private lines and drive them straight out and drive them straight out, Horizon line is roughly around here. Now that is pretty much in the vertical center of the composition, I would say. So this camera man is just looking straight ahead, you know, to get these two figures right in the center and so close to not looking up or down in this particular composition. So what does that mean in practice? Let's head on over to a blank page here. Well, it means that as soon as we sit down to draw a sketch, that's the first decision we want to make. Imagine, you know, close our eyes in the scene and imagine, by looking up or down at whatever the focal object is now. This also implies that we may need to start adding another element that you likely are not using when you're sitting down to sketch a scene and that's a picture plane. Because if I go here in a Sam sketching up various concepts and I'm doing one here and one here and I'm just brainstorming out ideas Well, how can I possibly go and just start drawing out a scene here and say, OK, well, here's my horizon line. Well, the horizon line has to be made in relation to something else. It's meaningless has to be done in relation to picture plane. So if you haven't been doing so already, start adding picture planes here. Concept sketches. Even if that sketch is going to be a vignette, a t end of the day. Having that picture plane is just gonna allow you to make that first decision. So in my quick access part of extracted clip studios, rectangle tools, I always have it available to me. So let's I'm gonna make a concept here, and I'm gonna make another one here. Another one here and another one here. I'm just roughing out ideas, get myself a new layer here and now I can start making decisions about this scene, so just take a simple scene like a box of cereal on a table on a dining room table. So I'm saying, OK, here's my horizon line straighter raising, laying there. And I want Teoh and I'm imagining in my head. And I'm like, OK, I'm looking down at this table, So all I'm gonna do is drag this horizon line up the page. I'm looking down at the cereal box and give myself a couple of rough, vanishing points there. You know something like this and just kind of start drawing out this cereal box, right? So be something like this and maybe it's on the corner table. You know, I'm not, You know, I'm not during an architectural blueprint of just roughing out a concept here and course, these vanishing points are quite extreme, so we'll talk about what that means in a little bit. But for now, we'll just do something like this. And let's say there's a coffee mug here. Remember, we talked about this idea that cubes are the cages for everything. So even before drying, coffee mug gonna want to, you know, draw that cube and decide of it. That looks more like a rectangle. All right, there's Mike. You there. All right, There's my coffee mug and Aiken, you know, just kind of keep going back and back in space to figure out world that stuff is. And now I'm making another concept, and now we're looking up at this cereal box. So let's get another layer there starting in the centre from looking up right, my horizon lines going down, looking up and let's go ahead and get a couple more vanishing points. And this time will maybe you pulled out just like this a little bit more like this. Okay, And this time we are. And by the way, I'm clicking the numbers on my keyboard. 10% 1 for 10 to 20 etcetera. So now let's look up at this cereal box, and so we just can't do something like this. Pretty rough idea here, up the table. This table is kind of doing that. Put our coffee mug again. Get that cube down that's a little bit taller, can just roughing out ideas. But even at this early stage, we're kind of ableto to happen here and get a realistic sense of what's happening with these shapes. And then we'll refine these later, you know, with a better greeted cleaner grade. But already, you know, I'm working with a client concept here. I want to give him four or five or six or seven different ideas, right so they can make decisions about what the shot's gonna be into. What I'm doing here is exploring camera angles and explained points of view in ways that change the story. You know, in this 1st 1 you know we have a little bit more control and dominance in the scene because we're taller than the subject at hand. Maybe we're looking at the thing. Where is in the 2nd 1? You know, it's maybe a little bit more of an imposing view. Well, that's a topic for a whole other discussion about what camera angles could do for a scene. But the point is that you want to give your client or whoever is directing you that kind of variety in scenes as quickly as you can at the rough concept stage. Are we using a perspective grid? Absolutely. We are, but very loosely like we talked about at the beginning. In our mind's eye. It's not constraining our creativity, Um, you know, in a way that's making things too stiff, actually helping us discover and explore. You know what this scene is doing, So I hope that helped to reinforce. The first point is that the horizon line is not arbitrary. It does not define altitude. It defines looking up or looking down in the scene. 3. VPs help describe the field of view: all right. The second important thing to know about perspective is that are vanishing. Points describe the field of view of an image. Oftentimes a director or a client will tell an artist. Okay, And this shot, I'm looking for a wide angle or a narrow angle of the scene. And there's just Jang question mark in the gaze of the artist say, I have no idea even what that means for how to draw it. So that's what we're gonna talk about. The terms wide angle and narrow angle refer to how much of 180 degrees we can see in our picture plane. So if you stretch out your arms and you look straight ahead in your peripheral vision, you can just get a sense of where your left hand and your right hand is. Even though you can't focus on it, you have a very wide peripheral vision of 180 degrees. Now most pictures are most photographs aren't showing us everything toward left and everything to our right. Some cameras can do that like like a GoPro, and actually care about to have a pretty wide field of view. But most cameras were only capturing a segment of that 180 degrees. You know, maybe it's half of that. So half 100 80 s and 90. So if we kind of bring that into a corner And if we say that this image has a field of view of 90 degrees, that means that everything outside of you know from 0 to 90 and from 2 70 all the wayto 3 60 right is out is outside of the picture frame. We can't see it. Sometimes a camera will have a field of view of 20 degrees. Now we're starting to get into a very narrow field of view. We're talking about wide angle, a lot of the 180 degrees or narrow angle, a little bit of that 180 degrees. Well, that reminds us that are vanishing. Points are describing 90 degrees of a cube. Let's take a look at that in our in our three D perspectives here. So here we have a basic camera and I'll just pull out of the scene. It's just a cube with some lines that represent the parallel edges of each one of the cubes and have a camera just looking straight at it. And with this camera, we can go ahead and pitch up and down. All right, So we already talked about Horizon Line. We're looking down on the scene. We're looking up on the scene. Just reset this to zero again on I could change the heading, you know, looking left and looking right. But as you can see in this scene, both vanishing points are well within our picture plane. So that means that the field of view of this particular camera is greater than 90 Right? Because the vanishing points are describing a 90 degree angle of this cube and they're inside the plane. So adventure to say that if this is 90 than our camera is somewhere around, like 100 degrees or 115 120 Well, let's take a look. Let's select the camera and I'm gonna come here to object. And actually, this one is set at 100 so feel the view horizontal 100 degrees. Now, this has an equivalency in an actual physical camera, as it says here, 35 millimeter equivalent focal length is 15 millimeters. So I know we're diving down a little bit into some photography, but I think it's really important for artists. I understand what relationship does their sketch have with a physical camera? Because that's what most of sketching for production needs to be aware of. Let's go ahead online and take a look at a chart of field of view table chart, so there's tons online. This is when I found here. Nick own Ian's dot org's. And again, every camera has has slightly different values. So these air just in general. But you can see that the first column says lens focal length. And then it says 35 millimeter field of view angles in degrees. So if we're talking about a field of view of 90 degrees, that means the camera were using is 18 millimeters or around there? So if we come here and changes to 90 degrees, let's see what and it seems I hit. Enter watch what happens to these vanishing points. You see how they exactly hit the edges of my picture frame. That's because they now have said the camera so that my field of view is exactly 90 degrees . I'm not saying more than that 90 or lesson at 90 and sure enough, my 35 millimeter equivalent. Focal length is 18 millimeters. Let's go Something towards something that has a wider field of view. Something maybe like a GoPro camera or something like that. So I'm just gonna go traveled down this chart and start up the chart into larger field of use, which is our smaller millimeter focal length. And to this 121 uh, degree field of view, a 10 millimeter camera lens. So just go up. So it's just like 20 right? 21. So now you're now we're seeing in the picture frame. Is that not only releasing the 90 but we're seeing a much more you know, of the 180 degrees, and sure enough, we're at a 10 millimeter camera lens. Now let's go ahead on over to narrow fields of view. That means that we're gonna be seeing less unless of 180 in fact, less and less of the 90 even of the objects in our scene. So going narrow, narrow, narrower, you know, down to maybe like, 20 a 20 degree field of view, and that's equivalent to about 102 millimeter camera. Let's just go ahead and and confirmed that so, Yeah, 20.400 millimeter camera, roughly. But what does that mean in practice? Well, I'm gonna go ahead and make our window a little bit smaller here so we can start seeing what's happening. And I'm gonna have to pull out of my camera in space so we can see now our box and you can see that are vanishing. Points are now way off the picture plane. Right, Because our field of view is super narrow, and I was gonna go try to go small as I can, and there we go. You see, one vanishing point is out here, and the other one is way up out here, you know, symmetrically. But now what this is telling us is, if we take these two points, remember, those two points represent 90 degrees of our 180 degree arc. And if that's 90 right then 180 has to be at least double in the way the degrees and a protractor work. Um, the further you get out to the edges of the degrees, whether it's one degree or 107 90 degree, 79 degrees, um, those distances really start to expand quite a bit. So that means that if we were able to see all 100 80 degrees left and right, the one degree and 1 79 it would be way off, even this screen. But that's the nature of a very narrow angle, because according to what we're seeing here, we're only seeing 20 degrees of that 180 that creates, ah, couple of different effects in our perspective, seen first and foremost, our vanishing points or a parallel lines start to become less aggressive and relationship to each other rates. We can already see that this box and in fact, let me just take the camera down a little bit. We're looking down, a rising lines going up. We can see that the parallel lines are appearing more and more parallel, the narrow where we become in our angle of view. Whereas as soon as we start going to, uh, larger and larger feel, the views or angle of use when we start kind of zooming into the scene are vanishing. Point angles become much more aggressive in relationship to each other. So what do we learn from this? We learned that if we want to start our image with a wide angle of view or wild, wide field of view that that means that are vanishing, points have to be pretty close to the picture plane or sometimes inside that picture plane right wide England view. We're seeing a lot of that of that 90 degrees, if not more. And if we want to have a narrow angle of you that are vanishing, points need to go way off into the distance off the board because we're releasing just a little bit of that 180 degrees, and our perspective becomes much less aggressive on the page. Let's go back to our photos and take a look at what's happening in real life. All right, Here's a good example. To copy this image, head back to clip studio and let's just go ahead and extract our perspective. Great again. So let's take our left lines and we'll do something like like that. Okay, so we're pretty much looking almost straight out, right? It's not so much above the horizon. We're not looking too much up or down right now. We want to get our right one going off in the distance so it's find pretty solid lines here . So it takes something like this pretty stable. And let's take something like this. Go off into the distance there. Okay, so there we go. We're just kind of evaluate this image in relation to its a picture plane because it could be that the photographer took a picture and then re cropped it. So we don't know exactly what focal link this particular camera was because we don't know what the crop was in this particular page. But if we're evaluating this picture solely on this crap, we can see what can we see? Well, if we take a look at our to vanishing points, I remember our to vanishing points represent 90 degrees, and they're pretty close to the edges of our picture plane. So we're seeing our fair share of 90 degrees in this image, which is approximating more of a wide angle shot. So as soon as he's vanishing, points start to get next to the edge of the picture plane. We're seeing a lot of that 90. Those shots can start to be considered in a white angle. If this was a narrow angle shot, then these vanishing points would be in a way off the grid. So if you could just remember those two things if vanishing points are near the closer, the vanishing point to get to our picture of the edges of the picture plane, the wider the angle is. And we can kind of get a sense of that right when we're looking at it. The angles, the parallel lines that make up these cubes are pretty aggressive in relation to one another. And that's the nature of these wide angle shots. We're seeing a lot or a good amount of 180 degrees. Let's take a look at another one. All right, extract again. One. Get something nice and far away to three. And for Okay, so we're clearly looking up in this scene because the horizon is low, are to vanishing. Points are pretty close to the edges of the picture plane. So I would say we're approaching a wide angle shot. We can see that again because the parallel lines of our cube cages are pretty aggressive in relation in relation to each other. Okay, let's take a look at this one. This was gonna be a little trickier, right? because of our angles aren't so aggressive. This is already telling us that we're approaching more of a narrow angle shot. So let's just find Cem. Uh, horizontal is here that we can extract. So there's one and trade this win there, get a little bit of the angle case already. We know we are looking up our cameras looking up in this scene and let's get our other side here se one. And is it pretty nice right there, too? Okay, so now let's see what's happening with our vanishing points. If I go ahead and select our perspective, great. Here. There are much further away from the edge of our picture plane. So now we're getting this sense that this is thes two dots represent 90 degrees and 180 is , you know, another, you know, 2.5 times that, at least in our in our protractor degree measurements. Well, we're only seeing a very tine of the tiny bit of this 180 degrees, so that means we're at a narrow, perching and narrow angle shot. Okay, Now, in this case, um, I can see that my horizon Landis super told it and It's probably because I didn't set this up, you know, I didn't didn't have his line exactly correctly on the on the angle of this building. But now that I adjusted a little bit more, but it just dropped this a little bit. That makes a lot more sense for the horizon line. And sure enough, if we there was no fog in that city, this would probably a little bit more visible in the distance. But again, we can tell a couple of things. We're looking down because the horizon line is up in the page and, um, here, one of our vanishing points is actually inside the picture plane and the other one is out, right? But what we're seeing is that we're looking at, you know, if we were to scoot these over, just go and do that for you to screw these over a little bit, Like we're kind of just moving, rotating our head to the right, we can see that these two vanishing points are creating an image where most of our image is seeing a lot of that 90 degrees. So again, we're around or approaching a wide angle lens for this particular shot. Let's do one more. Let's go ahead and tackle a one point perspective dissection here, coming out here to clip studio, dropping it up. Okay, so the tricky thing with one point perspective is we need to vanishing points. To get a sense of this is a wide angle or a Nair angle, except with one point perspective. We only have the single vanishing point that's gonna go right down the center. Let's go ahead and put that on anyway. So I just reduced capacity. Get our perspective tool, and let's find some nice, stable angles here. So there's one there, and let's do this one here. That's something like that. I think it looks pretty good when I grab my object tool, grab one of these grid lines and kind of just bring it around the scene to see how accurate I am. Yeah, that's matching their and matching their matching these windows here pretty well, All right, I think that's pretty good. Okay, so there is our one point perspective grid now again, like we mentioned, you need to vanishing points. I should say you need to vanishing points, but it's easier to tell if a images a narrow or wide angle with two vanishing points. We only have the one here, so something we should know about wide and narrow angle shots is that narrow angle shots per usually so zoomed into a scene that we see very little of the environment. So because we see so much of the environment here, we can assume that we're approaching a wide angled lands on this particular shot. If it was a narrow angle, we basically see, you know, only a little bit of this perspective. Great. So when we think about it from this perspective, we can see that there's really is only one perspective grid, the width of our angle. Whether it's a wide angle honor angle is just determining how much of that grid were using . So let's go back to our perspective group generator here and the way it's set up right now . What can we tell about the shot where we're looking Straight ahead, we're seeing more than 90 degrees of field of view, so we're definitely at a white angle shot. But as I just scroll, I'm else well, zooming in and out as I zoom in closer and closer and closer to this created. We can imagine these two vanishing points, you know, going off my screen. Um, getting further and further away from the edges of my picture plane. We're now starting to get into a narrow angle grid. And I didn't change anything about the grid. I just zoomed into it. So that's an important concept to kind of think about when you're working in perspective. There really is on Lee one perspective grid. The question is how much and what part of that great are using is gonna dictate how far these vanishing points are away from our scene. So again, if I zoom out never doing a wide angle now it's a very white angle. And the further I go, the more of this 180 degrees we're gonna see in our grid. So wide angle and narrow angle. Let's take a look at that from another perspective here in our three d camera. I'm gonna go ahead here and let's drop this down back to a field of view of like 100 again , something just a little bit less drastic. Make something like that and I'm gonna go ahead and zoom out. Can I get a little bit away from this camera and we'll just kind of reset our view so that we're looking straight ahead again. Now, when I take this box and let's rotate this box in three D space to just see what happens to its vanishing points as they rotate around. So here we see the corner of the box again, clearly left and right, vanishing points. Now, as soon as they start rotating this box, we can see that the vanishing points start moving off our picture plane in either direction . So if it's for straight at that 45 degree angle, you can see here are boxes at 45 even vanishing points on both sides. And now, as soon as I rotate that box, the left one searched offscreen, offscreen, offscreen, And let me just make our picture playing a little bit zoomed out here so we can see. Now we're gonna get to a point where that left Vanishing Point actually turns into a complete parallel line. I'm gonna go right to 90 degrees now, read a one point perspective in our scene Well, that anything really change about our scene or a camera? No, It's just the orientation of the object in relation to us. We can also see that what we think of as a one point perspective, seen Onley applies in a very, very small set of circumstances. It only happens when this cube is directly perpendicular to our line of sight. Because as soon as I rotate this Cuba one degree, either way, we automatically gain a left or right vanishing point. I'm gonna bring this back to 90. We have complete parallel lines for what used to be our left vanishing point. And let's just increase this 10 91 to rotate it more to the left. And you can see as soon as I move one degree to the left. Our horizontal lines are no longer parallel and we've gained a right vanishing point, and that vanishing point will slowly come into our picture plane as we approach 45 degrees . So either way, this is where we're at and you can see as I rotate this box around and around. It's just that these vanishing points are just rotating around our field, our field of view for all intents and purposes. Now, technically, they cease becoming a vanishing point when they're perfectly parallel. But that only happens again when the box is at a clean 90 degrees or zero degrees, for that matter. So zero 91 80. These are all snapping to the nineties. Um, where were that horizontal? Vanishing point ceases to exist for that one little moment. But as soon as we had one more degree, we're getting that vanishing point super important to understand this because here's what we see. Oftentimes artists will do. Just get another drawing here, get a picture plane and horizon line and they're saying, Okay, I'm gonna do a one point per perspective shot here, and my single point perspective is going to be right here. So everything's gonna go off this grid here. So then they go ahead and start drawing, and they start during a box that looks like this. And then they start drawing a box that looks like this, and they're saying was just one point perspective. So my verticals and on my horizontal are perfectly, perfectly vertical and horizontal. Okay. And while this may be true, you know, in theory, because I'm clearly drawing it like this, it's possible to draw isn't really what's happening in real life. Well, we already saw that as soon as a cubes vanishing point leaves dead center on the screen, it has to gain another vanishing point. We're gonna be drawing in any kind of realistic scenario. So actually, this drawing if we're assuming that these horizontal and vertical front faces of this box are completely horizontal, completely vertical would be impossible. In real life, this cube would have to gain a second vanishing point as soon as one of its vanishing points leaves dead center again to reiterate what we're duplicating. Is this right here? Right were saying that that right, vanity, that one point perspective is now off center. But what happened to the other vanishing points? Well, they have to start coming into the scene slowly as soon as that single vanishing point comes off center. So instead of this, what we would be looking for is something that would look like this. We'd have to get another vanishing point out here, So let's just start doing something like this. And again, let's use our higher perspective great here, our perspective to look that she's gonna make things a little easier. So I'm gonna do one two. And then let's just set her 2nd 1 out here and right there. So again, our one point perspective is off center, rotating things to the right or bring in a second vanish second, vanishing point in. And now I can go ahead and use. You know what I thought was at one point perspective, but is really a two point perspective image. Now, if we go to some of our examples that air photographs, we can see that this really is the case with a true one point perspective image. This, I would venture to say, is right in the horizontal center of our composition. So we are getting a sense that you know everything. All of our horizontal and verticals are going to be, you know, straight up and down, because our add vanishing point is right in the center. But if this camera started just rotated a little bit to the left or a little bit to the right, or if we moved our whole city to the credit of the left, this vanishing point would start to veer off to the right, okay, and what would start happening? So let's do that. Let's just take this and we're gonna rotate our camera to, you know, that would be rotating our camera to the left. Rights to this rotates to the right. Um, we would be forced to add a second vanishing point. Be super far away, for sure. Snap that there. Straighten this up again. Something like that. And now, if we can imagine these buildings now, you the whole city rotating to the right or a camera rotating to the left, we would start to get buildings that look like this in space because now we're rotating to the left, and now you know, we would. We wouldn't see the front faces of these anymore. You can see here that I'm having a hard time getting that horizontal angle of like what? This building was tired looking like as it was tipping. And that's because if I'm on Lee just moving this right vanishing 0.1 degree, this left one is far too close to the picture Plane in real life would be way up off to the site. So let's do that again. So let's grab that perspective, ruler. Make that selection and let's just kick that way out into the distance right. So we kind of zoom out, left vanishing points away, way out there I was going and drive it again. So we're during this year. That would be way out there. Now we're starting to see a little more angle on these buildings, right? And these we would see less of those faces. So we see that like this and in this building was start to rotate around, right, Something like that. So now we're just rotating in that scene. So what do we learn from this section? Is that are vanishing. Points, which described 90 degree angles of a box, are also describing a field of view of our image. Is this a narrow field of view where we're seeing even less than those any degrees? Certainly less than 1 80? Or is it a wide field of view where we're seeing a lot of that nine degree even approaching 1 80 or more in our scene? We also discovered that one point perspective has a very small circumstance. And it's on Lee when that one of the vanishing points is in the horizontal center of our picture plane. As soon as that object rotates, our camera turned its head. And that one point perspective veers off to the left or to the right, were forced to add a second vanishing point, which has not come into the scene. And this now leads us to. Our third point is that almost every scene should have a vertical vanishing point. Let's see what that means. 4. (Almost) Every scene should have a vertical VP: Okay. Our third point is that almost every scene should have a vertical vanishing point. Tipping are seeing into three point perspective. Now we say almost every scene because, as we saw with our horizontal lines, they're only ever horizontal, perfectly horizontal in a very narrow circumstance. Right on Lee, when either the left or right vanishing point isn't a dead horizontal center of our picture plane. So just to reiterate what that means is that as soon as we start rotating our box either to the left or to the right are what used to be the horrors of perfectly horizontal lines have not gained a vanishing point, tipping them into angles and tipping us into two point perspective. Well, the same thing applies with our vertical lines there on Lee, ever perfectly vertical. When are horizon Line is vertically in the center of our picture plane. As soon as our horizon line seems our camera angle tips forward or backward, Backward, right, moving our horizon, Lee upper down. We automatically gain 1/3 vanishing point and let's see what that looks like. So I'm just gonna go ahead and tip our camera down. So we're looking down the scene and notice what happens with those green lines. They're only ever perfectly vertical when our horizon is dead center or we're looking straight into the scene. So we're looking down that we gained a vanishing point at the bottom of our screen. We're looking up now. Those parallel parallel lines become a convergent vanishing point The tub of our scene. Let's see, that looks like again perfectly dead center. In effect, I'll just go ahead and just through this out again. Hey, perfectly dead center. If we rotate our box in the scene, we gain additional vanishing points. If we tip our camera down, we gain 1/3 vanishing point. And if we tip our camera servic tipper, come up. We can't 1/3 1 If we tip it down, we get 1/3 1 as well. This is super important because this is what we often see artists do in pictures. So for grabbing our So let's just reset the scene again. I'm gonna do a, uh, give ourselves a picture plane, give ourselves a horizon line, and we're gonna put this Maybe we're saying OK, we're looking down in the scene and I'm doing the right thing by saying, I'm gonna give myself to vanishing points like this here. We'll do it this way. Just make sure we're then they clean horizon line. Thanks to me like that and coming up and saying Okay, well, I'm gonna draw Cube, you know, roughly down here. So let's give ourselves a couple of lines this way. Give ourselves some life this way. And I'm saying, Well, I'm just in two point perspective. Some to do perfectly. Vertical horizontal lines vertiginous are perfect. Perfectly vertical vertical lines like this. Okay, which again is possible because we're drawing it. It's possible to drying, but is this really happening in real life? Will know because our horizon Lee is not in the vertical center of our picture plane. So what would this have to be to be more accurate? Well, because our vertical lines have tipped up in the because our horizon line is not tipped up in the scene. Were forced to add ah, vanishing point down below us. So let's just go ahead and have that. And typically these air Preeti far down the page, we're gonna see what they look like in our three d space. I'm just gonna exaggerated. Just a little bit. Actually, it's making me a little bit less aggressive. So you like that, Like this, right? Eyeballing in here. All right. Now, when I start doing this Cube, we're gonna get a much better sense that this is, you know, in the correct perspective, very subtle. But having that third vanishing point which sees and respects our horizon line being up in the scene now gives us a much more believable cute Let's go back to our three. D Seen real quick just to see the nature of that vanishing point. Um, and I'm gonna tip our box out to the 40 fives again so we can see that even in ah, in a wide angle. Seen right, because we're seeing both of our vanishing points inside the picture frame Read about 100 degrees here. It doesn't necessarily mean that our third vanishing point isn't that close to the picture plane. In fact, typically, that third vanishing point is very, very, very distant. And it only starts really coming in close to the picture plane when we start tipping way down our object. And in fact, that starts to become kind of like the single point perspective, but we're not going to get into that because it's search messing with our brains a little bit. But suffice it to say that typically are vertical. Vanishing Points are very, very far off our picture point into the distance, but they do add a lot to our scene. Let's go back to that one point perspective shot of our city to see how this relates. Now, When I originally drew this, I just went ahead and did straight up verticals for the sake of that section because we had introduced her third vanishing point yet. But even in this one point perspective, seen right what appears to be one point perspective there are is a very slight vertical vanishing point happening because we already know that our horizon line is below the centre were looking up in this scene. So that's really what we did here and just reset discreet here like we had before. I'm gonna find that nice one point angle. They've got her rising land again. Now the way clip studio works is it always waits for a certain order of vanishing points so left, right or right, left and then the 3rd 1 has to be a vertical one because if we just set a vertical one here right now, it's gonna assume that that's either the left or right. And it totally throws off our horizon line and tips into space. So we want to kind of trick the grid into creating a second vanishing point and then making that parallel and then adding, or third vertical vanishing point. Let's just do, you know, it's kind of a fake second vanishing point here. So there's our one point you're here will be two point. And to set this as a complete parallel, all we have to do is hit the shift key. Before we change this angle, we changes angle. Now it's gonna throw off our horizon line was gonna do that again. I'll select our perspective grid. I'm gonna hold down shift, and then I will start rotating this particular guideline and you see, it kind of disconnects it from, um, adjusting the horizon line. She was gonna rotate this until it's completely horizontal. So now we have our one point perspective going down right again because we're in the horizontal center of our picture plane. It's that one little circumstance that allows are parallel lines to be completely parallel . Now we can add 1/3 vertical vanishing point to finish off this grid. So I want to be careful which lines I'm using on the buildings because even though these buildings are square, I want to make sure that I'm I'm following an angle that is a true vertical on the building . You know, we might have a building that has one Cuba's a foundation, and then it slowly kind of built in. So I think I'm just gonna use this wall right here. It's a pretty tall length, and if I hit shift, you can see that's my complete vertical. But if I let go of shift and kind of moved to the right, we do see that what appears to be almost a complete vertical is tipping a little bit toe to the right, which is what we expect. And let's go to the complete opposite end of the picture because that's where angles are gonna have the most variation and then find a similar line that way. And I think this is a pretty good one. This going always the top and already admitting shift. That's gonna be vertical on letting shift ago, and it's to being ever so slightly to the left. And sure enough, those two will converge into a vanishing point way off of our picture plane up in the sky, right? Very, very, very far away, Um, as we'd expect, because that's the nature of vertical vanishing points. And also it's above us because we're looking up in the scene, are rising. Line is below the vertical center, and now we can just go ahead and add some more drawings here, and we'll see that even though it's a very, very slight, our cubes are respecting this very, very subtle vertical point. And in fact, if I can do it aligned this way, you can see that it's subtle. But it's there. So adding that third vanishing point may not be something you do super early on it for adjusting really rough concept sketches. You know, maybe it's not super obvious, but you should always be aware of it. And even if it's a very slight even in your early sketches, um, understanding when it comes into play, which is most of the time very, very few scenarios in camera angles where a director may ask you for a dead center, um, horizon lane both vertically and horizontally. That's the only circumstance. Right? When you're verticals there hope horizontal. They're gonna be perfectly vertical and horizontal. Most camera angles are either going to be rotated to the side, looking to the left, looking up or looking down. In which case you shouldn't be asking yourself. Should I use three point or two point? You're always using three point perspective for all intents and purposes again, and this is going to make your sketches clear, but also execute herbal a little bit closer to something that's gonna be useful for a director shooting a scene are or creating a storyboard that's gonna be usable to the rest of the team. 5. Everything on the grid shares HL and VPs: all right. The fourth thing we're gonna talk about two just demystify the great a little bit. Is this concept that everything on the same grid shares the same are rise online and vanishing point. Now, that may seem obvious, but sometimes people wonder. Well, how do I rotate something on the grid? You know, Do I use the same vanishing points? Um, you know, when I tumble something in space, what happens to perspective? And as soon as somebody tries to create a cube that's off the grid, it seems like everything falls apart. Let's talk about a couple of principles about what happens to objects that are off the main grid. I'm gonna take our cube here, and I'm just gonna, uh, duplicated into a grid. So let's go ahead and can separate these out, right? So now we have three cubes and don't be overwhelmed by the amount of vanishing point lines that we start to generate here. But we see that even though these three cubes don't exist in the same position because they're all parallel perpendicular to each other, we might say they're all sharing that same vanishing point as long as they don't rotate or tumble in space. Nothing will change about the vanishing points of all these objects. I'm gonna go ahead and add, you know, three more this way, and let's just go for it and add three more vertically, right? So as soon as I kind of start moving these around in space, it doesn't matter where they are or how closely out of the camera or how far away we are from the camera effect. In a soon as I start moving the camera in and out, nothing changes about where those vanishing points are located. Why? Because they're all on the same grid. And in fact, if I tip my camera up and down in space, moving our horizon line up and down, nothing changes about those vanishing points. They're all on exactly the same grid. So now what happens to an object that goes off the grid, so to speak? Let's go ahead and remove our cloner effect here, and we'll move our box and kind of duplicated. So now we're you know, we have two boxes here now again to reiterate our second boxes, perpendicular or parallel to the 1st 1 So are vanishing. Points are not changing as we just demonstrated in that grid, no matter how far our costs, how close we go to our camera. However, once we start pitching, uh, this object in space or banking it in space, that object now starts getting its own horizon line. So I'm just gonna go ahead and rotate this and pitch it down. Let's get my controls here. You see that as soon as we start pitching this object off the grid now this particular object has his own set of rules and its own perspective grid apart from our original object . So you see that even its horizon line searched the shift. And if I bank it, event horizon line will start to bankas. Well, now again, Did anything change about our scene? Well, no. These are just two cubes in three D space, but we have to start deciding in her scene, which is the object that's going to kind of have, like the master grid that's commonly referred to as our focal object or a focal point. So we may consider our first cube right to be our focal object, and then everything else needs to kind of play off of that master grid could be that our second cube, which is tipped, is our master object, and our 1st 1 is the one that's off grid. It really is how you want to see it in perspective and you're seeing. But it makes the most sense that the object that has the most consistent horizontal horizon line might be considered our focal object, and everything else has to kind of relate to it off on its own separate grid. But we can continue to observe is that the secondary object that's off the grid of our focal object still behaves in all the same ways we didn't within its own perspective space . So, for example, if I rotate this cube, you can see that it's doing the exact same thing as we've already considered the other lessons. Its own vanishing points are just rotating around on that horizon line, you know, going behind our head for that matter here. Now this is going into its own one point perspective, you know, maybe it's, ah, somewhere like around there, and of course it's off camera, right? So we're automatically getting that second vanishing point. But let's go ahead and move this. You know to the center of our seen here. Yes, C zero. And let's just zero this out there and we go ahead and rotate him. You know, to some kind of one point perspective, which probably something like around there, right, So we can see that when its own object in it's own separate grid system hits that one point perspective. What used to be our horizontal lines, which are now banked? They're all parallel to each other, right? But it's only that one little scenario when this particular object is kind of dead center inside of its own perspective grid. Soon as it starts coming off that dead center, it's getting the right vanishing point Seen is coming off that dead center the other way. It's getting its a left vanishing point. Um, and if this were, you know, kind of dead center vertically, that's when it's verticals would be perfectly parallel to each other in its own space. Of course, remember, were banked here, But you see, those green lines are just about probably prelude to each other. It's only about one little circumstance. As soon as we start tipping it down, it started gaining that third vanishing point vertically above its horizon line and vertically below its horizon line. So let's go back to some of our photos to see what that looks like in real life with some of our buildings here. So let's come to something that looks like here's a great one. Okay, so the first thing we have to do here is pick and object that is going to represent our master grid, because everything. I mean, there's so many buildings here. Um, I would say most of the buildings here have their own perspective. Great. So this will be quite a complex village to dry in perspective. So let's go ahead and grab our perspective, toe. Let's just go with this square little tower here in the foreground. So I'm gonna hit one there. I don't have much to go off here, so let's just do something like that. Maybe, and we'll do the same thing here. This one, this one has a little bit more of ah, drastic angle that I confined and there we go. That's actually not bad. So we can see that we're looking down on the scene, right? Our horizon line is is above center, and I think, Probably I'm going to the one that was most problematic with this one. So I'm just going to just that suits slightly straighter. Something like that that works. And I can always come to this one as well, and just, uh, drop this down in the scene. Doesn't seem like it's so tipped. Just had so little angles to go off of here that the margin for error is a little bit a little bit greater. Okay, let's discover if there's anything else in this scene that is on the grid of this particular tower. So, Senate, grab these lines now that are vanishing. Points are set and just kind of discover. You know, if anything, if any part of this city was built on this grid. Okay, well, its own building. For one thing, we can see that the footprint of this building matches the great of this of this tower. Is all of those air matching pretty well there? Um, anything else? Clearly not these buildings back here. Um, possibly this tall building in the back, just slightly, slightly off, but close to the grid. And that looks like a big, probably shift building back there. May be some of these buildings back here, you know, are on that grid. So if we looked at this as an aerial right, we would see all these buildings basically having the same orientation is this as this tower. But now let's take something that's clearly not up on that grid and see what it's grid look like. Looks like now we can assume that none of these buildings are pitched in space, right? They may be at different elevations, but because they're Onley rotated, only they're heading has changed. We should expect that as we extract other perspectives from these buildings. The horizon line should be the same because nothing is tipping in space forward or backward , and nothing is banking left and right. But everything is on the same horizon line, even though it has different vanishing points. So let's see what that looks like. I'm gonna leave that one up and just create another perspective guide here so soon as I make another line should give us another layer has one. Actually, no, it is waiting for 1/3 vanishing point. Let's go ahead and had that since we're talking about it. So let's do something like this and so, like this, and sure enough, um, right are vanishing. Point is down here, weigh you down there. And if we look at this red, a very narrow angle are vanishing. Points were way off the picture. Planes were applying all these principles that we talked about here, which makes even more sense that are vertical vanishing Point would be So, you know, so low in the screen. But it's a very subtle tip down. All right, I'm gonna turn that off and let's get a new one. I think if I make a new in your Yeah, Look, give me anyone there. Okay? So let's extract these again. I have very, very small angle stork with here, so likely have to just make some small adjustments to that horizon line, but it should. Should be in the same general area. Okay. And I'm tipping that up. All right, so we extracted that one. And let's compare the two. Okay. Pretty close again. Our margin for error is really slim here, so let's go ahead and just adjust our 2nd 1 Just see what this does here a little bit. In fact, if I took this and just dropped this a little bit. Okay, I'm getting confused. All right, let's take this first, let's straighten it out. Just straightening that out a little bit. And so that pretty much did it. We were able to kind of see both of those grids at once, but we see that this grid and this great are both sharing the same horizon line because these buildings have tipped in space. The only thing that changed is their vanishing points scooted over in the scene. So this is our original tower and is our rotated building, and that's behaving very much like our Cube does, right? So we have a certain set of vanishing points that are pretty close to the center that as soon as it rotates around and as soon as one of those vanishing points approaches that iconic that one point perspective, the other one shoots off away into the distance like we saw here. So the next question is as an artist are am I expected to start drawing all of these perspective guides? How do I know how far off in the distance something shoots out? Well, the answer is it's very difficult, mathematically calculated, and there are ways to take a protractor and measure the angles and rotate something in three D space. But it's not very realistic to imagine that I that anyone really be doing this on a daily basis unless you're some one. He's brilliant YouTube guys, which I am not. So the answer is that Ah, a lot of it just comes from a gut feeling and I know personally, the more I extract these grids and I have to say the more extractive in clips studio because it really lets me see where these vanishing points are. The more extract grades from actual photos, the more my brain starts to record what happens in real life, you know, with these different shapes. So that's my best recommendation is take photos and extract as many grids as you can from real photos and just start seeing what happens in real life. And little by little, you'll brain will start to intuitively get a sense for how objects will rotate off the grid when building something. And when you see these really talented concept artists creating villas like this and three D spaces a sketch, well, it's because they've been doing it so often and have enough observation ALS experience that just intuitively, they're trying to rotate tumble bank these shapes off the grid in ways that are believable . Of course, at the end of the day, we're doing a simple sketch, and likely we're not going to be creating blueprints for any kind of architecture. But we will be getting very close to something that's usable if it's a sketch that has to go into production. So again, what we learned in this section, everything on the same grid shares the same horizon line and Vanishing Point. Once something changes heading, which means it just rotates left and right. It gets new vanishing points, but not a new horizon line went something, pitches or banks. It gets a new horizon line, even though it's vanishing. Points and relationship with that horizon line don't change right, because it hasn't rotated at all. Just tipping up and down and, of course, is something. If something is banking, pitching or changing heading, it's getting a new horizon line. It's getting a new horizon angle, and it's getting new vanishing points that is sliding around that rise only 6. Recap: alright guys, I hope that was helpful. I hope that these four things help demystify the perspective. Great, a little bit in a way that helps you understand what's happening in real life real photos and also in a way that helps you just take control of your scenes so that your sketches can be clear and productive. To recap, the Horizon line is not arbitrary. Vanishing Points described the field of view of an image, whether it's a wide angle or a narrow angle, and a sub point to that is our vanishing points. Describe 90 degrees of a cube, so as long as you keep that in mind, you'll remember that whole concept of a field of view. The 3rd 1 is that almost every scene should have a vertical vanishing point, right. This circumstances, where are horizontal? Vertical lines are perfectly horizontal and vertical are very narrow. Soon as we tip outside of a of ah, perfect center, vertically or horizontally, either gain vanishing points. If we were in one point, perspective will regain 1/3 vanishing point above or below, and the fourth thing is that everything on the same grid shares the same horizon line and Vanishing Point. And when we change heading are vanishing points, new vanishing points. We pitch our bank, we get a fresh horizon line. 7. Exercises: okay, That was a lot of information to digest if we're new to perspective, but don't be overwhelmed. The good news is that perspective isn't subjective, but either is or it isn't right, and we can use all the tools at our disposal to correct any drawing that we make. So let's go through three simple exercises to apply the four principles that we just talked about and we're just gonna start with something simple, like a bed. It's a simple shape. It's based on a cube, and it's when we understand well. The first method we're gonna do is to take a perspective grid and just use it to explore within our picture frame and just start drying some shapes. So let's head on over to my website at Rubin laura dot com slash perspective grid. And you can use any perspective grid that you have at hand. But this is an easy one, and it's free. So all I'm gonna do is click the little camera icon, and that will generate J peg image right click copy image, and we can bring that into our document, and you could do this in Photoshopped as well Hit Command V. and paste it right in there. Now, just a little tip in clips. Studio is I'm going to, right. Click this and say Convert layer and we're gonna convert this into an image material layer and just call this grid and this just turns it into a layer that could be resized up and down without losing resolution. Kind of like photo shops, smart objects. The next thing to do is put this inside of a folder. So we'll say create folder and insert layer and give ourselves a new layer here for a picture plane and we're ready to go. So we're just gonna be doing some quick thumbnails here, so I'm not gonna be doing eating anything Super final or or high Resolution will just get two or three on the page. Next, I'm gonna grab my grid, and now I can resize it using the object tool so we'll go ahead and just start sizing this down. Okay? So to apply one of the early principles that we talked about is that if our to vanishing points are close to the edge of the picture plane, then we're at ads are approaching a wide angle shot right cause we're seeing a lot of those of that 90 degrees or that 180 degrees, for that matter. So let's not make it too wide, and we'll just put this right here at the edge is now, uh, we also remember another thing about a vertical vanishing point is that if it's at the top , right, it means that we're looking up. It means our horizon line is below the center of the picture plane. So let's just go ahead and set that that way for this one. All right, let's make a new They're here for our bed. Take this and just lower this a little bit. And I could just explore and see what's happening with this particular grid. So start doing something like that. Now, this vanishing point is quite extreme. I think for this particular grid, I'm gonna go back to my perspective grid and raise at Vanishing Point much further in the vertical position to get something a little bit more realistic. So gonna come here, come to the perspective grid and I need to do is drag this purple dot up and you'll see it'll just start going higher and higher up into the, uh, you know, above our grid. So grab another one there, right click and we'll say, Copy, image. Let's just reset that here. Delete that layer, paste it, convert that into a an image material air. And now I can resize it without worrying about loss of resolution. Okay, so let's go ahead. Do that again, and we'll do something about right there. Clear that layer and let's see what this looks like. So you can see that finding the right grid sometimes is a little bit of a trial and error when you're starting with a grid. And that's one of the challenges with just drop. Ingrid's right onto your document is your kind of subject to whatever, you know, whatever angle that greed started with. So this makes a little bit more sense to me and again, we're just doing some rough drawings here. Rotate my canvas so I could get some nice, easy straight lines. Here, drop that pencil line just a little bit. Okay, all right. And I can always use my shift key, right to kind of find that straight line. And if my vanishing point is clearly visible to me, I can use it the other way, and then just go ahead and you race. You know what's out here? Okay? Something like that. All right, that's good. And means they're headboard is gonna be something up here. Something that looks like this may be our room is gonna be doing something. It looks like this toward the back. Now we can start understanding a couple things about this particular wide angle grid. Is that if we want our bed tohave, it's somewhat, you know, undistorted proportions. It means we have to use a smaller portion of that grid. If we make the bed any larger in the scene, let's see what happens. So we wanted this larger. Okay, now we're dealing with something that looks like they're going to go. Just go down to 10%. Here, go back up to 90. You see, the larger the element we have in a white angle, uh, grid, the more distortion we're going to be getting as objects approach, you know, our approach, the camera angle. So something to note. And if his bed was floating in the air, we have something that looks like this, right, cause this bed would be above the horizon line. Okay, so it's kind of the nature of that wide angle grid. Let's try this again, but with a different angle. So I'm just gonna duplicate this duplicate layer like it was a secondary one. Pop this over here and we'll turn our previous great off. Delete that. Go to my object to and experiment with this again. Now. This time, let's go ahead and in open the screwed up quite a bit. I'm just hitting the option or old key Teoh. Scale it around the center, and we'll just make sure that these vanishing points are wow beyond our picture plane. And in this case, let's go ahead and look down on the scene, which means we need to flip are Vanishing Point. It was going to say that it transform foot vertical, and our vanishing point is below it. Strikes are horizon line is above the center, so we'll do something like that and let's see what happens here that down just a little bit more. Now we're getting into a much narrower variances in our angles, right? They're not as aggressive in relation to each other. Sketch this out before we commit good popping up to 90 again, and then we can can adjust, you know, establish the main shapes of the bank of this, uh, this bed shape. Good. So there we go. So we cannot start seeing the differences between that wide angle on the left, which created a lot of those more distorted cubic shapes versus the narrow angle on the right, which is now giving a shapes that are less distorted and a little bit closer to what we might see in real life. Let's do one more of these duplicate that I've said that to command J as my shortcut will turn off our previous great for the 2nd 1 Pull this down here and let's go ahead. And, like, really look down on this On this bed here is to take my object. And again we're looking down, right? So are rising lines going way up in the scene and you can already see with our little good shapes, how we're already starting to get a sense of of what the tops of those cubic faces would be . All right, come in here. And let's, uh, come down to the low capacity just so we can sketch out our or initial shapes here. So when I do something like this and just kind of, you know, given it my best guest here, best guess. But the the guidelines are definitely helping me that it's like this coming down. So our bed shapes kind of going off Thea off the picture plane here and it's okay, I can move my bed down. I can either do that in in the grid by redrawing it. Or I could just grab both my drawing and the grid. Certainly moving is down to the picture plane as well, and that's totally valid. Just so we know that when we move our image in the picture plane, we're retaining that same angle on the bed versus redrawing at lower in the grid. And let's see what that looks like. So just govern blue here. So if I dropped lower in the grid to get it in, we're actually gonna be looking, tipping more on top of it, maybe something like that. And then I'll just go and grab my black. Just restate that Good. So you know it's very subtle by redrawing it on. The grid were actually moving in three D space, so we're actually seeing a little more of that top and a little less of this front face, and you can even kind of get a sense of that. When the bed was up here, you can see that this is not tipping into space. We're seeing less of that. So this is probably a nice little, you know, angle from the ceiling looking down. And the good thing about all of these drawings now is we have a basis for any other story that we want to tell in the scene using our grid. So if we wanted Teoh, you know, draw somebody here listening to music They've come from home from school. But I would probably do is just draw myself out another little cube just so I can get a good sense of, um, you know where where this person is in three D. Space is I'm drawing them. And now this is really gonna let me come in here and, you know, draw these shapes out was a pretty huge bed here, right? So something a little bigger, small, small at backward. You can see that now, as I'm as I'm kind of roughing out these and anatomical shapes. I'm able to kind of use the intention of this greater use the grid to inform all the rest of my shapes. Even drawing this small little blue box here is helping me. You get a sense of, you know, whatever we wanted to do with this character again. I'm just drawing simple, primitive shapes. You know, cylinders. Some headphones on his person can just super rough idea, right? But the basic primitive shapes in perspective are what we're focusing on here. So that's a method one for exploring a scene. Okay, the second method for roughing out or concept in a scene is to start with another photo, and it doesn't have to be a photo that is exactly related to the subject that you're talking about. Let's see an example of that, and we'll head on over to our browser, and I just went to Google and type buildings again. We'll just keep using building because they're square. But let's stick with this same bed concept, but we just have to use our imagination a little bit. Just because we're looking at buildings doesn't mean that that's what we're gonna drop. We're just going to extract the perspective from this. This might be really helpful when you know you're not quite sure how to imagine or envision these different perspective. Drastic perspective angles yet. But you can clearly see, for example, on something like this, right? Imagine that we were, ah, little mouse looking up at the bed. Well, we can use this to extract perspective, for for our concept work. Let's do something. Let's do that. Really? You know, fun. Low angle here. Okay, this is a good one. Let's go and copy this. Come over to clip studio paint. Remove the grid from the 1st 1 that we did. Just so we don't get confused by the different grids. Let's go ahead and make ourselves another picture. Plane paced. Our image clip studio always paste on the top left case that you're zoomed in and you don't know where it is. I would do something like that. Drop this a little bit and let's use our perspective tool to extract Agreed from this. Now, for someone to grab these two and just group them Okay, Perspective, tool and remember, we want to set, are left or right and then are vertical so we'll grab something like this and something like this. They strong lines here one and two. So that gave us our horizon line. So we're looking up. The horizon line is below the vertical center, and now we can go ahead and extract her verticals this way. Okay, so the vanishing points are pretty close to the edges of our picture plane. So this is a wide angle view, and it looks like it. We're getting a lot of that distortion, but this might be the white angle of view that analyses at the foot of the bed if they're looking up and it appears to be a giant building, So let's go out and drag this right into our folder. And now we can get ourselves a new layer and start to drop right on the script again. We don't even have to use this corner of the building as the corner of the bed. We've already extracted our grid and that we could just play around with where we are in this scene. So let's just imagine now that you know, the edge of the bed is like this and we've gone all the way back here. There's the headboard that pulls all the way back. If we wanted to know where that headboard, you know, landed on the other side, that's obscured to us. We're just gonna draw pretty lightly here, good at 10%. But they can turn off my picture now. Draw that back and we'll draw this all the way back. So there's a basic cube for the for. The actual bed will extend this up and they'll extend our headboard back. So that's basically the wood of the headboard going all the way back. And we wanted to drop person on this sitting down, right? The little mouse is looking up at the person just so we can see them a little more. Let's just assuming they're on this side of the bed here. She was gonna go in and draw out that cube of what? I think you know how much space I think that person is occupying in the bed. So let's just do something like that. Maybe this and Blue just so we can kind of differentiated here to 40% there. Okay, so let's say I'm gonna say this person has just taken up that much of the bed, so there's there their space. And I'm just drawing straight cubes. Um, I'm not saying that there nothing there. Perfect squares, but there rectangular shapes, Right, So that's gonna be basically where they're gonna be sitting at. And now I construct drawing this person in. If I keep drawing, I'm gonna be snapping to this grid so I can just select this middle icon here. Same thing is doing a command or control to that flips that on enough again. It's the same thing as saying snapped a special ruler. Someone had command or control, too. And I can draw a straight up in there. And so here I would just again use this perspective to draw out our person. Now I'm rotating these shapes in space now, right? So this this cube of the head is not following the grid. It's getting its own vanishing point. But I'm just doing it based on gut feeling. All right, so there's are, you know, extreme destroyed angle based on a photograph that wasn't you never bed. But it's something that we were able to extract and, most importantly, is something that we can visualize. So it's really easy to now go down. You know a list of photographs online, especially buildings, and just have this huge variety of angles that we're gonna play anything. I mean, this could be ah, bookshelf, right? We could be looking down at a dining room table here. So the important thing is not to be confused by the scale of the images that you're saying we're looking to do is extract that perspective and our mind's eye and use it as a basis for whatever. So, even though this is an aerial view of the city, it could be a bunch of penguins in the snow. So the two methods so far are starting with a perspective grid, starting with a photo to extract that perspective and the last one it just to go straight up right into the drawing, guessing at the perspective and then making corrections as we go along. So let's try that next. Come back in the clip studio, go ahead and turn off her perspective grid for this one. Give ourselves a new layer and let's just go ahead and do a couple different drawings here , and this is more likely the method you'll be using as you get better and better at perspective for sure. There are times when a client may give you a photograph and say, you know, this is exactly the angle I want. Well, now you have all the tools you need to go ahead and extract that. But more than likely, as you get more and more comfortable with how perspective works, you'll be able to just have got feelings about what these angles are making mistakes as you rough it out. But then correcting them with the tools. So let's see what that looks like. I'm gonna go ahead and give ourselves another layer. Put these in a folder. It's always good just a state as organized as you can, and I'm gonna go ahead and actually, let's go ahead and to ourselves a little bit more space, and I'm gonna duplicate that and so we can do for a once here. Okay, so this will be our our last method of just roughing something out. I like this method because it's not so constraining. It's a little more fluid. Um, so I'm gonna go start here and say, Okay, I had this idea of, you know, this this bed is kind of like this something like this, and I say, OK, that bed is to square How babies King size bed. Now let's change it. Something like that. I mean, maybe imagine the person kind of sitting in this little spot here, But in my mind, I'm remembering some general rules, right, These air heading off into a vanishing point, these air heading off into a pro finishing point, verticals air heading off into a roughing finishing point in here. And the more you study cinematography, I know I certainly have a lot to learn about it, but you'll start to get a sense of how these different angles create different moods, right? So in angle coming from the top down is more of, ah, Amish interview are dominating the scene for just looking up where it's more of a submissive rule. There's a lot to stop. There's lots of stuff online and talk about that. So make sure that while you're learning perspective, you get a good sense of of of what, of how these angles are affecting everything. Write something, something like this. And even though that is off the picture frame, right, I'm still getting this feeling right. My verticals were going up because my to vanishing points are not below there below the horizon line is not below the center of the picture frame. So something like that and maybe I'm gonna go super extreme here and do something like this , right? And sometimes I'll just go right off the edge here just so I can get a sense of what's in frame camera. And now this is definitely going to be, you know, we're gonna canopy looking at the person telling this and often times I'll just go ahead. And if I get stuck with with, you know, the angle of somebody, give herself a box in there often have that box. That Cube is really going to just help you get a sense of what's happening in space. Right? Case, That's another one. And let's go ahead and do top down someone's You know, this is a very could be like a little ominous angle here, looking right down Now, I don't know if these are all converging at the bottom. I'm just exploring and having fun. At this point, I will do corrections on these, you know, if an idea needs to needs to be polished in some way. Another good example of just kind of laying down that footprint. How much of this bed I want this person to to occupy? And it's just a reminder to me of how you know, shapes that start coming at me need to spread out in space. So you're there looking down this way. Big pillow here or something. Reading a book. I don't know what that is yet. Okay, something I got. All right, that's to, ah, to another one here. That's totally different. Maybe it's have you were way up in the corner here. All right, this is approaching a one point perspective, but it's not in the center. So right when has to come into play. So that's our other one coming this way and clearly are points air here and way off here. So our horizon line is up, up in the page. We're looking down. That means there are verticals need to go down and it's at a Dutch angle. So, like something's off about, you know, the perspectives, correct. But I'm talking about the tone like something crazy is about to happen. If we don't want that, we can easily just take this and, you know, kind of straighten this out again. Our horizon line will be tilting to the right, but it is creating a little more stability and their hopes. I actually do this right on top of my a picture frame. So never mind about that. Just keep going with this. Um, And again, uh, you know, our bed shape is this. You know, we were implying it's the same size bed here, but now I'm I'm drawing myself another cube here so that I can get a sense of how much for shortening there might be, You know, with my figure, should have done that in blue. Like you have a bunch of colors up here, my clips to do a palette just to kind of, you know, set different guideline colors for myself sketching through. Yeah, something like that. Um, it's an hour. I have a better idea of even even how these shoulders. You know how the torso is going to recede in space. It's a reminder to me that it's it's doing that looking at their phone. I don't even know what this character's yet That's its tilt ahead a little bit, but you see the little cages air helping me just kind of rotate these forms and three D space just based on gut feeling super rough. But how helpful are these four to a client or a director, even to myself to say, I don't know. There's something about the first of the third of the 4th 1 Another tip I always like to do with my clients. It's just a number stuff, right? If you're gonna be working in a in a collaborative environment that we can easily throw this to somebody and say All right, you know, let's talk about these and now we have something concrete to say in number three. It feels this way or Number two. It feels this way now. What we can do is take this and then use our perspective tools, whether that's a grid or using, are snapping tools to then refined that sketching into into a polished image. So, for example, let's say you know, the client comes back and says, Well, I really like I really like number two. Great. So we're going to take this now. We're taking this on to the next stage. Bring it into a new document like a bigger and never kind of back at where we were, you know, with our photographs were imagining it. This sketch that we drew is like our photographic basis. We know how to extract agreed from. This is a really good exercise, too, because it helps me keep refining. You know, my rough stages into better and better perspective. Now, I'm sure gonna find some mistakes in here. But that's good. That's what get, you know, get using our tools or perspective tools or four. So I'm gonna do my left and right Vanishing points one to, and now we'll go up and up, do something like that. Okay, let's get on a new layer here, and we'll make sure to get our picture plane again. Oh, that's interesting to one thing I didn't mention about clip studio is that the Marquis tools and the rectangle tools respect the perspective grid. So you see that it's actually asking me to pick a, you know, a plane here, do a plane this way, we'll actually make that rectangle in that space, which is pretty cool. I don't want that was gonna hit command, too, or control, too. To not snap to the grid. Oh, it looks like even that doesn't work. Something new for me. It's going to turn that off. There we go. Turn that back on again and go back to my rough pencil. Now, I can start working out. You know, my final image here. So it come into again to snap back, and now I can So look how off I was on the top of that bed frame if I had chosen. If you know, if I basically was going by the front of this bed as my vanishing point, then you know, my my, uh, back rest was way off. Do something like that, Like the imaginary plane of the bed there. And likely what I would probably do here is just kind of trace out this whole, um Let's go back to blue here, cage again, where my person was sitting and just even correct that as much as I could. Okay, so now that I make that box, I'm thinking like, Okay, the person, It's about a good space for that for that box, something like that. And I might go into here to start adding secondary elements like a night stand. So let's say our night stand was, you know, kind of took up about this much space and next to the bed. And now I can start, um, kind of drying out where those cubes are again. That's the back of the wall, right? Gets the edge of the bed. Was assuming it's up against the wall to come back up. That's the depth of that cabinet that comes like this. There might be some drawers here. Um, let's make a space for this. Maybe for a lamp. So I'm just going to use some of my you know what? I know about perspective to find a center line. So I'm gonna hit Let's hit 30% there. So by Xing out one of the planes, I can hit dead center on that. So now I can find a center line for the middle of that of that, uh, this bed set bed table. And I could just, you know, really go on for days and just kind of start finding cubic shapes that are gonna be the basis for a bunch of other things in my scene. Even if this is going to be around Lamp, I still want toe just be ableto find what those spaces are that's going to give me all the information I need to start drawing out these other shapes. Let's say there's a picture on the wall back there and I write this the edge of May my bet . Arrest. That's my bed. So maybe there's another lamp right here. Let's make a cube. Here is will be like a floor lamp, center left center, right there. Basic ideas. Maybe there's a door back here, so this is kind of follow out. This his bed, uh, can remember the name of back rest, I guess. Follow that all the way back. Let's assume that's no 45 feet tall. Then the door frame might be. You know, somewhere out here toward the bedroom in the ceiling, just say it's something like that. And maybe there's something else out here. Okay, I'm gonna turn my perspective great off and actually turned this whole thing into a blue layer. Turn off my rough sketch. And now I have something that I can go by and just really freeform draw this illustration without the perspective. Great. So I'm that super constrained by you know all that perfection. So Let's go ahead and do that, - Okay ? It looks good to me. All right, guys, that is it for today. And I really want to encourage you to do this bed exercise I just demonstrated. And to recap, it's three phases. Try doing two or three scenes in each one of them. First, it was using a perspective grid right, re sizing it and exploring different aspects of it to find either a wide angle or a narrow angle. Second way was to use a photograph that you like and extracted grid from it and don't be thrown off by the contents or a scale of that photo. Use your imagination. It's a great way to explore what happens in real life, then using that to your advantage when you're made concepts and then the third and final way is to rough out of scene. Just using your intuition, your best guess of the perspective grid and then using tools to correct, and we find that most importantly, don't be afraid of perspective. On the contrary. Once you gain control of it, you're gonna find you have much more confidence and fun and everything that you draw. Alright guys, I hope that was helpful as always. Have fun and we'll see when the next one