2-Needle Coptic Bindings (Coptic Bindings II). Plus: Hard Cover Attachment | Hilke Kurzke | Skillshare

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2-Needle Coptic Bindings (Coptic Bindings II). Plus: Hard Cover Attachment

teacher avatar Hilke Kurzke, Book Artist, Printmaker, Writer, Bookbinder

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Welcome to 2-Needle Coptic Bindings


    • 2.

      Boards - Cutting and Decorating


    • 3.

      Creating Punching Template and Pre-punching Pages


    • 4.

      Preparing the decorated Covers for sewing


    • 5.

      Cover Attachment (Part I: One Needle)


    • 6.

      Cover Attachment (Part II: Two Needle)


    • 7.

      Sewing Technique (2 Needle Coptic, drop 1 and lock)


    • 8.

      Back cover attachment (Part I: Two Needle Technique)


    • 9.

      Back cover attachment (Part II: One Needle Technique)


    • 10.

      Troubleshooting and Alternative Cover Attachment


    • 11.

      Bye bye! See you next time!


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About This Class

In this Class you will learn how to do a 2-needle Coptic binding. Like all Coptic binding styles this technique is great to make chunky blank journals. Your finished book will open completely flat which makes filling it with writing or drawing so much better.

I will also teach you how to make hard, paper decorated covers for your book.

One of the great features of all the Coptic binding styles is that they are kind of like a mix and match assortment of techniques. You can combine the cover attachment with any Coptic binding style you might already know, and you can combine the 2-needle sewing technique will any cover attachment that you already know.

To make this matching easier, I also show you how to attach the hardcovers to a book you are sewing in a one-needle technique. It is technically the same attachment, but can look different enough with just one needle, that I thought it worth to show separately.

So if you are coming from my Beginner's Class on Coptic bindings, in which I taught a one needle technique with a soft cover, after this class, you'll be able to make 4 different types of books, combining both sewing and cover techniques freely with each other.

Meet Your Teacher

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Hilke Kurzke

Book Artist, Printmaker, Writer, Bookbinder


Hilke Kurzke is a book artist, writer, printmaker and book binder.

If you would like to know more about me and have a look at some of my works, why don't you head over to my website and blog here: http://kurzke.co.uk

See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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1. Welcome to 2-Needle Coptic Bindings: Hello and welcome to my second class on Coptic findings here on skid share. My name is Hickok Otsuka. I've been binding books for well over 10 years for because suggested you and Price. Now I've been finding ever since I was a teenager. And today I want to show you here a Coptic finding Berrien that's called to need a Coptic binding with the hardcover. The book we're going to make or I'm going to make several. But the main thing will look like this. So we have a hardcover here. This is a so called to need of Coptic findings on day. One of the characteristics off Coptic findings in general is that they open completely flat and that makes it really great for journaling and sketching in them. This is an intermediate class, meaning that I'm going to assume some basic knowledge by making books or just working with paper in general, I'm going to assume that you can cut cock board, for example, other than that this course is suitable for everyone who can safely use a knife and a straight edge. It would be suitable for teenagers, but as I said, I would recommend some basic knowledge about working with paper and cardboard. One of the awesome features off Coptic bindings, which makes me a great fan of this technique, is that it's so versatile. I should really say not one Coptic binding technique, but techniques. And you can combine them all in my first class and Coptic bindings, which is a complete beginners course. By the way, There I showed you how to do a one need a Coptic finding with a soft cover? Yeah, I'm going to show you how to make a hard cover. And you can combine that with any knowledge you have off any other Coptic binding technique , including the one either technique. I told you there, and I'm going to show you how to do. The two need a technique which in turn, you can combine with any cover attachments you already know, for example, with the self cover you have seen in the first class, Well, now it's called a to me defining. But most of the time you actually need more than two needles. Let me show you 2. Boards - Cutting and Decorating: I want to start you right away with making the books covers. It's very unlikely that you'll be able to use exactly the materials I'm using. This is why I'm not going to talk about them now in great detail. If you go to the projects and resource is section, you'll there find download link for a list of tools and materials, and they're I compiled a list for you, um, listing all the materials I'm using all too amusing, together with alternatives and where to get them. I hope this will be more helpful than me actually talking you through exactly what I'm using here. So let's get started with making the cover. Please get your page is ready for the book you want to find here. If you don't know how to do this or you don't remember or you just want to refresher, you could go to my Coptic bindings. One. There I talk in great detail about how to form signatures. The one important thing I just can't remember. The sin enough is to keep paper grain in mind and also have this word doesn't say anything to you. Try any of my beginners classes. I always talk about paper grain. Get your board ready to cut. We need the prepared signature, the cardboard cutting mat, steel edged ruler to cut with, or any edge to cut with a knife. Um and ah, you have a pencil to mark our height before we start cutting into our board. Let's take a look at the finished book and how the covers than the book block relating size . As you can see, there's no significant overhang on top, and bottom of the page is that's necessary for books with an UN supported spying because there's flexibility in the binding. And when the book sits on a shelf, the pages sag and if the distance they kind of sagged down, it's too big. They tear at the binding and the cover attachment. So we want to cut the boards the same height as the signature. And again, I prefer to take direct measurements over measuring and marking off. So I just take one signature to mark the height. It should be the same for all, obviously. And, um, yeah, cut across with the steal edge like you always would. I suppose you know how to cut a piece of cardboard try to make shallow cuts repeatedly rather than trying to cut through the whole board and one go. Now, when you cut us done, take a look at the edge. Sometimes the cut can be quite rough, and some material might stand out from the board. You can then use a piece of sandpaper and just smooth in the cut. Um, we can see here that her remarks off the paper grain. Obviously, the grain off the cardboard is always parallel to the book spine, and I like Teoh at the fore edge. You would have some freedom. It doesn't really matter how long it ISS you could cut it into the shape of a rose if you wanted. Teoh. I like Teoh, cut quite close, Teoh the pages. I like to keep the creep on my signature, and then I just trim Teoh so that it doesn't come forward from the boards. But other than that, I try to keep it all quite close to the former. Off my pages again, As you have seen, I took the signature itself to make a direct measurement, and then for the second board, I take the first force to just make the 2nd 1 the same. Exactly the same former. Um, if you do that, if you put the second board on top of the first, nevertheless protect the edge off your board with a steel ruler. Otherwise it can happen that you cut into your own board there. The next step now is to cover the boards. I decided to use this pace paper for the outside and the simple paper on the inside of the pages. That's also cold. A paste down. We need to cut this to size. Make sure you match the paper grain off the covering paper and have a parallel to the grain in your board. Again, I like to take direct measurements. My ruler is 2.5 centimeters orbit more than an inch wide, and I just use this with to make the paper all around Good centimeter, wider and taller than the boards. I thought about showing you also hard to cover a board in fabric and in leather and combine all these, but quickly realized I would have to do a whole course just on decorating and covering boards. If I wanted to do that, because every material you want to use comes with its own set off techniques and possibilities. So for the sake of this lesson, I'm going to stick with paper. But obviously, if you already know how to use, for example, paperback fabrics or whatever, just go ahead and use whatever you like to see for the inside pages for the paste town. Typically, you use a material that's kind of a step down from what you used on the outside and quality and price. If you have a pattern paper on the outside, it's usually a solid colored paste down. If you have fabric on the outside, it might be a patent pattern paper like these Italian machine printed papers. For example, if you got leather on the outside, I'm depending on what quality leather you have. You can go wild. The best probably could do. We would be like a hand marbled paper. But of course, knowing that this is the convention, you could also break with it. What I've seen frequently in contemporary examples is the use of exactly the same material on the in and the outside. Um, well, your choice. It has no structural importance, or you can be as imaginative as you want to be here. The pace down needs to be about a centimeter or Khalfan in shorter and narrower than the board. And again, I'm doing this by direct measuring and using my grit on my cutting mat to push out the board. Just the bit of overhang I want to give it. It's time to start gluing, and I'm going to show you my set up some people for glowing use of roller. I don't really like that brushes more traditional, I suppose, and I much prefer it. But if that's what you want to work with, then we'll go ahead with it with all the things I'm going to show you. If you have a preferred method off working you're familiar with, just stick with what you know. But you definitely want ISS some kind of rag to wipe your fingers or your work surface when you get glue on it on, and I'm also working with wastepaper. Some people just always wipe their surface will need scissors on. I have these nifty to to with I Want to show You These are corner miter tools. You'll see that they have numbers marked on their they relate to the thickness of the board who want to choose one that has the same thickness as the board you want to cut. And then you can cut off the paper at this edge, so the black one is the one for me. I'll show you how to use it in a minute. I use wastepaper to protect my working surface. You have to make sure that the waste paper is all around bigger than you piece you're glowing up and that it doesn't shift while you're glowing. For a glue, I use a 1 to 1 mixture off bookbinding glue, which is just a P V A and paste. It looks a bit lumpy here, but these are not actual lumps, and they will smooth out as you'll see. Start with one of the outer covering sheets. It's important to cover the entire surface area evenly. Putting on too much glue initially is actually OK. You just keep brushing it off the edge until it all looks nice and smooth. When the whole paper is covered in glue, carefully lifted off the paper and immediately cover all open glue spots. I usually just turn around my upper most page. Then you can place the glued a piece back on and with the glue site up off course and place down your board as evenly in the middle as he managed to him. Um, you have to turn this around and smooth it on. I usually just rub it on with, um, the ball of my palm. Make sure when you lift it up toe, wipe your work surface, and the next step now involves removing excess material at the corners. And this is now where this corner miter tool can can come in handy that I showed you before . Theoretically, you can cut directly. I found it doesn't really work that well or not as well s. You think my favorite method is to just lift up the paper at the corner, and then the board leaves a light mark in the glue, and you can just cut with a pair of scissors in a straight line as closely to 45 degrees as you can and slightly out of that mark, and you'll be fine when all four corners are cut. We want to turn in the material. I advise to work in a standard order simply because that's neater. I always start with the two longer side's wrapped the paper up. Remember that the board has six sides, not just to so. Although it's not that I think you have to think of it as, ah, three dimensional parcel. You want to wrap really? So up. Make sure you have no air bubbles there and then turn over the full 180 degrees the same on the opposite side. And then we want to turn in the small side. To do that, you first pinch the corner. You can do that with a bone folder or I'm just using my fingers here. This is the only moment now where you have a little bit of time pressure on your hands. If you look carefully, you can see that the moisture and the paper grain in the outer cover already works, starts to work on the board, and it starts to warp. This will stop once you have the pace down on the other side, which then will counter act this action and it's better to get this down fast that it doesn't bend out of shape too much. So you start just the same on your sheet of waste paper and radiating lines. Push excess glue over the edge. Make sure it's completely smooth with no bubbles and no knots in there. Check that the glue is sitting on the surface evenly. If you're glue is to think it will lose out while pressing. So yeah, well, and obviously this you don't want this to happen and you smooth this down. And once it's sitting neatly and nicely on the surface, we want to press it a little bit too dry. What I'm using here, ISF inboard or what? Board which essentially blotter paper in cardboard form you. But you could use any kind of cardboard and put on some weight and maybe something rigid and then wait and just wait for Well, I'd say a day. I continue the next day. Um, well, obviously you want to do the second cover to see you tomorrow for the next step 3. Creating Punching Template and Pre-punching Pages: Hello and welcome back to your covers. Now, hopefully are completely rested, dry and flat on, um, you need your signatures, and then let's get ready. We first punch holes into the signature where the sowings going to go and then matching holes into the covers to plan and pre punch my sewing stations. I always make myself a punching template out of some waste paper. You just need to folded, and the folded piece needs to be forbid longer than the height of your signature. Um, I'm cutting one end to market as the Tate this way. If you always align it the head, you get the most even result mark the length of your signature, and you can start planning your sewing stations if you're using a method that you're already familiar with. For example, the one needle Coptic style. Just go ahead in a way you normally word for a to need of Coptic, finding that I'm going to show you later. You know, even number off sewing stations, which which have impaired as you'll see in a minute as a rough guide. As to how many sewing stations you need, I would say Measure your the height of your signatures in centimeters. Divide by five. And this is about an estimate about how many sewing stations you need. Um, here I have 16.5, so I get a bit more than three. And I decided to make four because I want the parents owing station. And also three would be It is quite few, especially for a small book. If you're measuring an inch, just divide by two you and get kind of like the same estimate. So I'm having here. Ah, 16.5 centimeter height signature. I took the outermost sewing stations one centimeter apart from head and tail, um, and then just spaced them four centimeters apart. And that's roughly what I would recommend for you. You got your estimate for the number of sewing stations you need. If that's an uneven number, go up to the next even number. Then put the top and bottom tolls one centimeter or half a niche from the head and tail off your foot. Then the next hole four centimeters or two inches in. So that the first and second and the last and one before the last are four centimeters apart. And then if you have to distribute more sewing stations if the pair of ate the same spacing and put this evenly in the middle between the other two pairs orm or if you are making a dry gas, what you see here is a sewing cradle. It's something you can buy or just simply craft yourself like this. It's essentially just a tool to let you hold the signature at a certain angle. I'm usually working with such small books that I find it more convenient to just pinch them together minute with my fingers. But if you find that hard and you find your signature, always pop open or your holes not come out properly on the spine. This might be an option. I just wanted to quickly show you what it is to come back. Teoh the topic off spacing off sewing stations. When you distribute your sewing stations, make sure that never two of them are closer to each other than to centimeter or one. INGE and No. Two are further apart than three inches or a good six centimeters. Once you are satisfied with your punching template, go ahead and keep punch. All holds in all signatures While you're working, make sure you always jock the signature at the head, allying the template at the head and place the signatures down so that the head of the signature is always facing in the same direction so that in the end you have need stations pre punched, once you've done that, will meet again to pre punch holes into our covers. 4. Preparing the decorated Covers for sewing: all right. Now it's getting exciting. Place the boards on the signatures as you want them by, went. This is especially important if your front and back cover look different. So remember where the head of your book is going to be, and then place the next signature to one of your books down onto the cover it. Make sure you adjust the height properly and use Ah geometrical two or a spacer to place it one centimeter, or how often in from the edge off the cover and mark the position of the sewing stations. There are essentially two possibilities now. How to get the holes into your cover. You could use an all or a hole punch. I'm going to show you both. Let's start with an all you can use pretty much anything. It doesn't have to be super slim. I'm going to use them all, and you'll see there's no big difference, really. So you choose one and you hold it in your fist. Sometimes the handlers, attached at somewhat, often angle. You want the all pointing straight down and give it a good push, and then you can see the whole here and it blows out a little bit off naturally, and you just push through from the other side ones. And I'm using the sewing needle I would also use for sewing here and maybe once more from top view, I must admit this is the part where always fret a little bit. It's so easy to make a mistake, and if you get this wrong, you have to start all over with your cover. So be careful to place your all in the correct position. When you're done with the first cover, repeat the same thing with the other cover and the signature next to it. So this is the look you get with peers covers. Let me show you how to use the whole punch because punching the holes precisely in the correct position, it's harder than pierce it at the right spot. I recommend that you work slightly differently, starred like before with planning your sewing stations and start with the punching template . But instead of piercing the signatures first, let's look at the covers first, just like the pier signature. Before now, place the punching template one centimeter ah, hoffan inch from the edge of the board where the spine of the book is going to be and mark the position of the sewing stations on the inside of the cover. Now you need your whole plunge. You can use whatever you have. What I like about this model is that you can punch relatively small holes if you want to use an either make sure at this point obviously that you're using the right size hole. I try to make the whole such that it lies kind of behind the line off dots I just marked, and it's just touching the point at the front. You could also have a touching the point you mocked on the back, trying to center it over the mark. You, mate, might be the most obvious toys, but this is also the hardest to do precisely. You could leave it like that if you wanted to. I, for my covers, decided to put in some islands. You see me here, putting them in right away. It would be smarter to first finish the other cover. Make sure it's all the holes are in the same position, may be used this cover as a template and then put in your eyelids when using islands you have to be aware of the length of the shaft off, the actual Eilat you're using and the thickness of your cardboard. Depending on how these to relate to each other, you might discover that you have quiet shop edges on the inside. You'll have to find out what works for you with the covers ready and prepared. Now update your punching template in places. The actual whole can differ by a millimeter or to you from the plant hole. That's perfectly fine. Just update your punching template and use thes this update, a template to now pre punched your holds in the signatures, and then we're ready to start sewing or rather, ready to attach the first signature to the boards. 5. Cover Attachment (Part I: One Needle): I'm glad you're still on board. We're finally getting closer to finishing our book. With covers prepared and everything pre punched, we're now ready to start the actual sewing, and it's a characteristic off Coptics data bindings that we start with a cover attachment. I like to start with the front cover and end with the back cover, but that's not what's broadly been taught. So figure out what works best for you in the final signature that you attached and then do the board attachment. There. The threat will lay double. So the last signature that you attach will be a little more prone to opening. But here we'll just try it and see what works special for you. The type of cover attachment I'm going to teach you here works with any kind off Coptic style binding. I'm teaching you how to do due to needle Coptic style sewing. But first, I'm going to show you quickly how to do this kind of cover attachment. If you prefer to use Ah, one needle, Coptic binding style. But just to keep the terminology straight, I'm showing you one type of cover attachment here. You just have to adapt this slightly, depending on what kind off coptics I binding you're using. I'm using a four ply, heavily waxed linen thread together with a harness needle for sewing. But please do have a look at the file I compiled for you. Put the cover. You want to stop with onto the tables together with a signature next to it, and start with sewing by entering the signature at head or tail from the inside to the outside and pull the thread through until you have ah, little tae left. It has to reach beyond the next hole because that's where they're not going to sit. Pull the cover forward a little bit so that the holes come clear of the table, and now you can enter with a needle from the outside of the cover to the inside and pull the threat forward towards the edge of the board. On the spine edge of the cover, you now see a spanning thread and the end of the threat coming forward between signature and board. It's important that the threat comes forward forward off the spanning threat. So if you're starting on the left side like I do, it has to come out right of the spending threat. If you're starting on the right side, it has to come out left off it. So in this forward in the sewing direction. So the needle end is now hanging from forward of the spanning threat, and you wrap around ID once now and pull upwards to lock for the lock to sit on the right spot, hold onto the tail of your threats so that you don't pull part of it out again. Then enter your signature through the same hole. Make sure you don't hurt the threat that sitting in the hole there, pull through and exit at the next sewing station. And then we repeat exactly the same thing at every single selling station out from the inside. Signature toward the spine, you know, need to flip the signatures to reach the whole from the outside of the cover, passing the needle to the inside and then making sure the active end of the threat goes to a forward position from the spanning threat. That's really than that thing to do. Once you're at this point refereeing the threat and pull up to look, then re enter the signature. If you want you could not. Your threat ends now, securing the not at the threat that goes out at the second sewing station to kind of Anchorage in place. I prefer to do all my knocked at the very end. And that's really everything at this step. Just repeat this at every single sewing station until you reach the tail off your book and do the same there. Now you finished your cover attachment. Put down the next signature, and so you book in your preferred style. 6. Cover Attachment (Part II: Two Needle): If you want to follow the two needle Coptic binding style than you need for each pair of sewing station, one length off thread and needles are attached to both ends off your threat. I have four sewing stations, so I need to threats with four needles and total. You'll be working at each pair off sewing stations independently. So what we're doing at one pair of sewing station just happens at every pair of sewing stations. Start with one pair off needles and go out from the inside of the signature to the spine at the paired stations. Those typically are side by side next to each other, and I recommend this for a start, but it wouldn't have to be this way. I like to pull them out at the same time, just so that I really get the middle on the inside and the two ends are off equal length. But he could do one after the other. You don't have to do them simultaneously. Pull forward the covers likely so that the holes in the cover come clear off the table. With the's spared stations, you always distinguish between an outside and inside of the pair and you want to go now with your needles from the outside of the cover to the inside such that the needle comes out on the inside off the paired stations. I like to set up a working pattern, working always from left to right every step, all the needles from left to ride. I just did the 1st 2 as a pair here for you to see better where the pair of stations are. It doesn't really matter that much in which order you go through these steps. But try to find a pattern to make sure that you don't forget one or just leave out one of the stations. After adjusting the position of the signature and the cover and pulling all threats tied, we now need to lock this position. Know that on the spine we have for each pair of sewing stations spanning threats at the sewing stations and the active end off the threat on the inside of the pair. And now we want to pass with the needle awry in the spending threat from the outside, off the hair behind the threat to the inside, note that the path off the needless mirror symmetric for the two stations. Over pair. Now, repeat this for every pair of sewing station you have on your book for me, that's just one pair left. That's it. Now you're ready to attach your next signature and proceed with any to needle Coptic binding style that you know. 7. Sewing Technique (2 Needle Coptic, drop 1 and lock): I hope it has become clear how similar the two different methods are. I showed you here there really just one type of cover attachment and not too different cover attachments. And now it's time to learn the actual to needle Coptic sewing. You can combine it with other cover attachments. As long as you have a first signature attached to a cover, you go to go. There are many different Coptic binding techniques out there, and they're not distinguished by name. They usually refers. You buy method, so what I'm going to show you here is a drop one and lock um, others are cold. Drop to drop three dropped four and sometimes with lock or without lock. The advantage off lock is that it gives an overall cleaner and more even appearance, and therefore I would recommend it for a beginner. Let's see how it's done. Stop with the threats hanging down from the first signature attached to the cover and flip on your next signature. Working from either side, pick up the first needle and enter the signature at the sewing station and come out at the paired station. Pull through, but not too tight, and then you pick up the second needle and enter the signature through the whole. You've just passed the first needle through. So be careful not to hurt the threat that's lying there. It helps to keep the first threat under tension and then come out at the paired station, which waas the first so x stations through which you entered just a step ago. Repeat this first step for all your sewing stations. - Now we do our drop in lock. Take the first needle. I'm again working from left to right and pass from the inside of their parents stations, toothy outside behind the spanning. Fred between the cover and the first signature. I know what that you now have a loop, the threat coming out from the second signature and attaching to the needle this salute and you want to come out of this loop so I wind the threat lightly around the needle and then pull straight up. You can think of this as doing a catalyst, Ege. Technically, it's a bit different, but it feels exactly the same inside, in outside, out really easy to remember at the head and tail. It's especially easy. Let the needle come out at the head or tail and just place you're surrounded and pull straight up. No need to be anything different. Here, let me show you the whole process once again. But essentially, this is everything you do for each year of sewing station for each signature, your first threat through the parrot holes. Then drop one luck and pull up. Once you've done all sewing stations or prepared something stations at one signature, you put on the next signature until you run out. And this is exactly the kind of loop you want to watch out for and avoid. What? - Let's see what we got so far on the inside. It looks like this. So we have spending threat between the pair sewing station and there it lies. Doubles. When I turned this to the side, you can see that this finding is too tied. The upper signature is being pulled forward toward the spine. They really should just rest in a relaxed fashion on top of each other, despite with the binding. If you see this in your binding, you have to think about whether you have to redo it. I decided for my book to just do better on the next signatures, but too tight findings and covers that won't close. It's one of the three main faults and mistakes I see on Coptic bindings out there. I'm going to talk in an additional lesson of it about how to avoid the most common mistakes I see in general the procedure is really easy, and I'm going Teoh, fast forward and cut out some of the process here. You just keep going in the same pattern until you reach the last signature. 8. Back cover attachment (Part I: Two Needle Technique): How are you faring so far? I hope you're ready now for your back cover attachment. But I'm first going to show you how to do it for the two knee defining that we just started . And then in the next lesson, to keep things a bit apart, I'm going to show you how to do the cover attachment with a one needle binding. Now, put on the last signature and do the first step as you're used to. By now, I call this threading. So in at the sewing station, your threat is hanging from out at the paired station. And normally you would now do the drop in. Lockwood, wait with that for a moment. Um, we're going to put on the cover first, lock the cover and then 50 the drop and lock like me. What have I done? And tie off inside the signature? I do believe you could kind of do your life a little bit easier if you find this hard attached. The last signature, like you would have all the others and then just attach the cover. But this is how I learned to do it the proper way. So let's see how this system go, so the first step as normal is threading, and then you wait with the second step and instead put on your cover the process of in touching the cover. It's really the same as before. From the outside of the cover to the inside, you pass your needle through the hole and pull the threat forward to the ash, such that the loose ends are hanging inside the paired sewing stations. Once you've done that for all your sewing stations and all your needles have gone through the cover, this is the time to position it on your book block, um, at the spine and make sure that you don't have any loops and kings off threat forming, especially between cover and signatures. But make sure your threat is not too tight. This will keep the cover open. This is how it looks like now and now. I like to turn around the book, look briefly just because I find it easier to wrap my mind around. But you don't have to. Anyway. We lock the threat at the cover, just like we did before by a simple pass behind from the outside of the pair stations to the inside and pull up if you turned it around like I did or pull down if you didn't, it's important to know that this is a different look than the luck we did when we were sewing our book block. It's tempting to pass the needle through a loop here something this is really just a simple wreck around. If you're making and not here, you will get into trouble speaking off locks. We still need to do our drop one and lock from the last signature to attach it to the second last. No magic here. Essentially, you just kind off got the cover attachment in between, and now you d you're from the inside to the outside, slipped through the leap and pull up like it did all the time before. The tricky thing here is that before, if you noticed your threat is to lose at this stage, you just talked at it a little bit. And this is now impossible because the cover attachment got in the way as you'll see at the Let Last sewing station, where my spanning threat is a bit too loose. But as long as it's not a huge thing. It's really not to worry, and the danger of getting your binding too tight is greater than the danger of getting it to lose. You can see how the spelling threat from the penultimate to the ultimate section forms and literally, but it would have been nicer if it had been flash on the spine. But if it looks like this for you, just proceed as normal and it will be fine. Complete the drop and look for all sewing stations. And once this is complete, re enter the last signature. Each needle goes to the inside and you can then drag, take the needle off. I like to enter the signature at the whole from kind of like the outer side of the hole to avoid, um, piercing any thread that's already in the hole. And also it gives the last kind of wraparound and secures the threat in place. All that's left to do now is to secure the ends by a simple double. Not usually when you are making a not you are lying to the two ends off heads on top of each other and pull one end through the loop that's formed right and I'm doing the same thing here. Except that instead off simply passing it through the lube. You want to pass the end of the three threat underneath the spanning threats in the gutter of the signature here. And then just put another simple not on top that not only secures the end, but also keeps them tight in the gusher of the signature. Yes. One more chance for you to see it. So one more time. Usually we were put the thread through this loop here. This would be a simple not and we do essentially exactly the same thing. But we passed the end underneath this spending threat so that the simple not comes to lie underneath these kind off in the then we put another simple not on top. You're finished. You finished your book? Brilliant. Take a critical look. Atyou binding. Now I hope you're happy with what you made. And it worked out for you. I do have a troubleshooting section at the very end and you're always welcome to ask me any questions. If something is unclear why Oh, it turned out the way it did or hi. To make it better, you can see here that the cover we attached last doesn't close as readily. This is partially due to the threat being threefold in the garter In the last signature. Put this underneath the wait for a day and it will be the same as the first cover my books have underneath this. Wait now for a couple of hours. Let's take a look. As you can see, it now closes properly. It has this typical flexibility, but this helps the book to open completely flat on. It's like we wanted it to be. So I'm rather happy with how my book turned out. I hope you're happy with yours. And if you have police teach post your project here in the project section. I'm always so glad to see what people make from and take away from my class. If you're unhappy with your book, I'm very sorry. It's important now that you do a proper troubleshooting to learn from your experience and make the next book better. I do have a troubleshooting lesson at the very end. So do you check that? But I'm always happy to answer your questions If you're unsure or unhappy, how something turned out to be just post the pictures here, asked me a question and I do my best to answer it. So I hope I see some of what you make. 9. Back cover attachment (Part II: One Needle Technique): Yeah, I'm showing you now how to do the cover attachment. If you're sewing with a one needle technique, put on your last signature and first so it to the book blocked like all the other signatures before what I'm going to show you here, as the one need a cover attachment resembles more closely the alternative cover attachment in the appendix than the main version I showed you for the two needle technique. There is in fact, a different way to do this with one needle. What do you use the last signature as some kind of spacer, but it's completely lose and the you Then I touched the cover, and only then so in the last signature, and I find this very awkward with very little benefit to it. So when you're done with sewing, put on the back cover and now, like with a front cover from the outside of the cover to the inside and to the hole in your cover and pull your threat forward toe, watch the edge of the book such that the active end of the threat comes to lie in a forward position. At this point, it can be easier to turn your work around. We want to do exactly the same as for the front cover. And if you turn your work, it looks more like what we did on the front cover. So what we're doing now is the simple lock. Because we came out in a forward position. You kind of fall back past the needle behind the spanning threat there and pull straight up if you turned your work around like I did here. But if you didn't, well, obviously then you were pulled down to love your cover in place. Now that you cover us locked into place, end to the last signature again at the same sewing station and come out at the next sewing station Well, and then just repeat that for all your sewing stations, including the last one. Don't do a cattle and the last hole you can flip your work up and down at each signature A bird. Once you get a hangover, it you probably don't need to. You just doesn't really matter. At the last hole in sewing station, the procedure is exactly the same. And after your lock you re enter the signature to tie off. You're finished with your book all as left to do, you know, as a couple of knots. I like Teoh, use the threat that's coming in and out of the next sewing station as an anchor for some simple double knots at the front, and also at the back or at the back and also at the front cover, where we also are still need to dio not, and that's a finished. 10. Troubleshooting and Alternative Cover Attachment: we've almost reached the end of this class. I made my two books. I show if you high to do it, I hope you feel inspired to make your own book. And once you do, the most important part of self learning is, I think, troubleshooting afterwards. I tend to be very critical of my own work when I did, Um, especially just when I'm finished. If you are the same, it might be worth leaving it for a day and then take a critical look. Have evaluation of your book. Look at what kind of elements you really like about if you book and what you think maybe has not worked perfectly, so that can make at least a mental note and have an idea what you want to work on for the rest of this class. Where I want to show you in this lesson is a bit off troubleshooting mistakes that I see and books I come across That does not mean it necessarily would be a mistake for you if it's honestly how you want to make it and it's working for you. Don't let anyone tell you it's wrong, however, so the first thing is I sometimes come across books that won't close. Unfortunately, I can't show you an example now. Um, but if that happens to you, I'm going to show you a fix for that. In a second. I want to share with E this book here, which I think is very beautiful. It was gifted to me 10 years ago. I said, I think I just looked up, looked it up. But some unfortunate mistakes were made while making this book on. I'm really sad abated because I think it's very beautiful. The first thing is, if you look closely, the covers are attached in a way that they they're not not really locked, have you can see high the book ISS kind of moving here. That and this is really she just forgot the lock. There's there's the leap here. If it slips forward, you can't open it properly anymore. I saw people on Etsy selling books like that, actually selling this as a feature. They photographed it sitting in the cover like that, and as I said, Um, if that's really what you want to do and it looks like you want it to be, then who am I to tell you it's a mistake, But, yeah, the book slips like that. The covers don't know properly anymore. In my view, it's dysfunctional on a mistake, and I showed you how to do the luck at the front to avoid this. So don't forget the knock. If you realize you're covers are moving like that, I would recommend to undo it. The next thing that went wrong here is this. I opened this and this happened. She must have kind of this must have court here at the corner because it happened so often that it just catches on the corner while you're sewing. And that's just too bad. He really I would have to undo it completely. That's really a bad thing. So sad about this book. Let's go back to the bench. I wanted to show you some tricks. Let's start by two tied findings. I think it's the most common thing, and if you're binding for the first time with this method, don't worry about it too much. Just it happens to everyone. When you're just learning, it's You just have to figure out how hard you have to pull its nothing I could really teach you other than looking out for the signs, and you'll have to figure this out for yourself. But if it's not just the first and the second book, if you find yourself binding your book too tightly regularly, you might want t kind of look into tricking yourself into doing better. Maybe that's what admittedly I did when I first learned this method. So look at this. I prepared it. These signatures Teoh show you. So these I recommend usually that you let your signatures rest at least for a couple of hours before you start finding them so that they're properly settled down and you know how think they're going to be. And if you have a little bit of experience, you know how hard you have to pull. However, as I decide, if you consistently pulled too hard, you may have to trick yourself into thinking the signatures are wider than they actually off. So these have not been arrested. And if you're buying these two tied, this means kind of like the gap between two signatures is too narrow, so this would be too narrow and the back would open up and they wouldn't close. However, if you then take your completed book with the too tight binding at the front, but also the too wide signatures you now put them under away for a least today. And chances are your problem is fixed. As I said, I actually did this for, like, the 1st 10 books, or so I might, until I figured that after pressing it became to lose. That was kind of for me the point that I knew I kind of had had it figured out. But yeah, that would be one kind of mind trick. He could play on yourself, use unrest, ID signatures and buying these too tightly, and then you should be fine. Um, another thing to look out for also, if you're stitching, doesn't look as even as you like Teoh, and you're binding too tightly, then, actually, what could be a problem is the threat you're using, I said before, I didn't want to talk about the threat too much. Partly, that's maybe because I'm also dealing and threats, and I don't hunters to look like an advertisement video. Generally speaking, it's worth Teoh. Have a look at the threat you're using and find out whether a different threat could work better for you. Threads from different manufacturers are different, and I wouldn't say better or worse, but some some might work better for you than others. Traditional bookbinding threats usually come unwed ext. The waxing has many, many advantages, but it doesn't work for everyone. I, too, prefer a next red, and then you can add some wax by hand if you need to. But these Coptic bindings can work beautifully without wax, especially since the wax can also draw dirt. And if you transport your books in the backpack with pencils, then they can. The threat can become quite 30 um, and have a look. So this is the book I bound to you with the waxed thread, and I'm actually quite unhappy with how even it came out. This has also to do with me filming it and interrupting myself frequently. But this is how a book looks like that I normally make. It's the same binding technique, and you can see it just looks much more even with the non waxed breath. And the last thing I wanted to show you is if you have difficulty with the back cover attachment. So let me prepare this third book for you until I'm ready to attach my back cover and I show you how to do it. Did it? A simpler. As you can see, the sewing technique for this binding is different from the one I showed you before. But as I explained, this kind of cover attachment can be used for any style of Coptic binding. So I'm just don't worry about this at this moment. So on your last signature, just like the one before, I don't think about them running out. And once you've performed all your things for your last signature, then put on the cover now from the outside of a cover to the inside, past each needle and bring the threat back forwards towards towards the spine edge such that the active ends of the threats are hanging between the paired sewing stations. Repeat this for all your sewing stations. You will notice that the technique we're using here is very much the same as I showed you in the main part of this class. The difference really is that we so on all signatures and not use this kind of spacer section. So, after threading all your needles through this cover, the next step is tightening. Um, the thread. And now I just wanted to show you if you pull this extremely forward just to show you again how you can pull it forwards towards the edge. So if I know, I want to exaggerate it. So I lifted up of it and I pull it a lot, and then you can see that it doesn't close properly. So what you want to do is pull it a bit back and hold your hand on the, um on the front edge of the book like I'm doing here. So you hold it at the far and you hold it down and then you can pull at the front, and then you can turn the book over, if that's easier as before. And you have to do the luck which goes from the outside of the paired sewing stations to the inside and pull up. If you turned around Kable Clark, I'm doing here or if you didn't turn it around, of course you're pulling down. But still, from the outside of the paired sewing stations to the inside wind. Once around this threat to you, lock the cover into place. It does, it doesn't slip. And then all you have to do here is to re enter the last signature and tie off your threats . If you're doing a binding with a lock, you could pass the threat between the last and second last signature and do one more lock. It depends a bit on what you think looks good when reentering the last signature. Just be sure that you don't hurt the threat that's in there, and I like to give it another wine by going kind of from the outside have the outermost threat going in the signature. Here there is Thea argument that the type of cover attachment I'm doing here is less secure than the one I showed you in the main section and intuitively, That's right. If you remember, we introduced the space or section. The last signature was only the thread was only laced through, and we didn't do the link and lock. And then we attached the cover and we did one more link and lock before we entered the last signature here after touching the cover, were directly going into a signature and not linking to the other signatures. That's feels a bit weaker. I am not entirely convinced that if definitely ISS, though. And if you have trouble with the attachment before, this is definitely an inter knitted to try. And now all that's left to do is not the ends just like you did before and you're done. If you cover, it's not closing properly. At this point, this is not necessarily something to worry about. If the cover is going horizontal, whereas the pages are sloping down, you'll probably be fine, especially when the back covers closing. All right, just put it under a weight for a while, and chances are it will be just perfect afterwards. 11. Bye bye! See you next time!: this is it. That's the end of this class. I hope you enjoyed watching me make a book in this style for you. I do hope that if you make your own book and if you do, please post your pictures. These Coptic bindings so have so much potential. You can combine all elements and really make it your own. Find your own creative materials. I'm looking forward more than anything to see what you're going to make. After watching this, I must admit we're currently at the height off the Corona epidemic Here in the UK, I've been because my Children count as clinically vulnerable. I haven't set foot outside the house for nine weeks now, and this is one of the hardest classes I film so far. Were the kids home all the time? It was just practically difficult to you. Find the time to film. You probably saw how my hair was growing and drinking when I cut it. And the fact that it took me several days this time to film this class shows in that I'm wearing different T shirts in the different sections. My fingers, when I will see them almost are by watching them. They're so chapped from washing my hands all the time. I hope you can bear with this and still enjoy the class and take away from it as much as you can. Anything is unclear. Please do ask questions. I always do my best. I usually answer within a day. And if you have any requests, what you would like to learn in future lessons? I'm also happy to take suggestions. I hope I see you then. So if I buy and until then happy book finding a my