Problem-solving and Decision-making Strategies | Sorin Dumitrascu | Skillshare

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Problem-solving and Decision-making Strategies

teacher avatar Sorin Dumitrascu, Management trainer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

26 Lessons (3h 31m)
    • 1. Promo

    • 2. Problem-solving fundamentals

    • 3. Problem-solving model

    • 4. Problem-solving techniques

    • 5. Problem-solving mind traps

    • 6. Problem-solving mind traps explained

    • 7. Dealing with problem-solving mind traps

    • 8. Problem-solving process traps

    • 9. Problem-solving competencies

    • 10. Problem-solving skills

    • 11. Decision-making fundamentals

    • 12. Effective decision-making

    • 13. Decision-making process

    • 14. Decision-making steps

    • 15. Decision-making styles

    • 16. Using decision-making styles

    • 17. Adapting your decision-making style

    • 18. Choosing the right decision-making style

    • 19. Steps in adapting your decision-making style

    • 20. Decision-making tools and techniques

    • 21. Dealing with alternatives in decision-making

    • 22. Tools in decision-making processes

    • 23. Nominal Group Technique

    • 24. Return on Investment Technique

    • 25. Devil's Advocate Technique

    • 26. PMI Analysis and Ease-and-effect matrix

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About This Class

This course gives you exactly what you need to improve your problem-solving and decision-making habits. It gives you models and techniques that you can use in real life professional and personal situations. 

It's all about providing a practical framework for improvement and for creating positive habits in problem-solving and decision-making. This is part of a larger skills for life program, and it helped people in very difficult situations or looking to get better at what they do. 

The 4+ hours of video content with a focus on practice will help you learn: 

  1. problem-solving and decision-making models
  2. how to avoid mind and process traps and 
  3. how to use decision-making strategies.

You will learn to use a methodical approach to reach the best decisions by: 

  1. establishing a context for success
  2. framing the issue properly
  3. generating alternatives
  4. evaluating these alternatives and 
  5. choosing the best option.

And, this course gives you the most effective and popular tools for decision-making: 

  1. nominal group technique
  2. return on investment technique
  3. devil's advocate technique
  4. plus-minus-interesting analysis and 
  5. ease-and-effect technique.

The problem-solving model helps you understand what the problem is, identify causes and opportunities, generate solutions, evaluate and choose the best solution, and implement and monitor your actions. 

So, you get 2 conceptual models - one for problem solving and other for decision-making - and 5 techniques. With practice and quiz work you will learn in maximum 7 hours a way to make your life better. 

This course is for everyone, no special requirements. Come with an open mind and focus on developing your problem-solving and decision-making.

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Sorin Dumitrascu

Management trainer


Sorin developed and delivered more than 20 courses on management, project management, computer literacy, human resources, career development, soft skills for employees and even corrections incidents management.

He is a certified Trainer and Project Manager, holding a master degree in International Relations and Policy Making and a bachelor degree in Law and Public Administration.

Sorin coordinated during the last 9 years projects of more than 100 million USD total value in areas of rule of law, regional development and human resources. Consultancy delivered for UNESCO and training for United Nations.

He has more than 10 years of middle/senior managerial experience within the civil service (justice, corrections, internal affairs, training), private sector (project... See full profile

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1. Promo: this course gives you exactly what you need to change your problem solving and decision making. Star gives you motors and techniques you can use in real life, professional and personal situations. It's all about providing a practical framework for women and for creating positive habits and problem solving and decision making. Four last hours of video content with a focus on practice will help you learn on practice, problem solving and decision making. More. There's hell to avoid mining process Trump's and how to use decision making strategies. You learn to use a methodical approach to reach the best decisions by establishing contest for success, framing the issue properly. Generating alternatives. Evaluating these alternatives in choosing the best option on and discourse gives you the most effective couple of tours. Four. Decision Technique Return on investment. There is advocated blast mines Interest analyzes on these ineffective problem solving model helps you to understand what the problems identified. Causes and opportunities. General Solutions. Evaluate and choose the best solution. Implement and monitor your actions discourse. It's for everyone interested in improving no special with an open mind and focus on developing your problem solving and decision making scapes 2. Problem-solving fundamentals: thank you for taking this course. You already took an important decision. You decided to learn and to improve your kids and you already solved the problem. How should you respond to a personal development? This course is about something very common and extremely characteristic. Tow US problem solving and decision making. Problem solving isn't everyday routine that consists off using generic for ad hoc methods in an orderly manner for finding solutions to problems. And most of the problem solving techniques developed and used here are related to the mental problem solving techniques. Study Name psychology Problem solving focuses on creating positive habits and learning effective strategies, and you will find more about the bad habits and defective problem solving strategies that we need to contain decision making. On the other hand, sometimes follows or is connected with problem solving is a cognitive process resulting in selection off a belief or course of action. Among several alternative possibilities. Every decision making process produces a final choice that may or may not prompt action. She's in making for Cassie, Therefore, identifying choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision maker . Two different processes. One it's about finding solutions and the other above choosing the best decisions. But before starting to discuss about problem solving and decision making, some words about the destructive developed and delivered more than 20 courses. Management, project management, computer literacy, human resources, career development and even one correction. Since events manager, I'm a certified trainer on the project manager, holding a masters degree in international relations and problems making and the bachelor degree low Public administration have more than 10 years off middle senior managerial experience within the civil service, private sector and NGOs. The target audience off this course is every person interested in developing or improving problem solving and decision making skills. So no limitations here. No special required Linescores we're going to discuss first problem solved the last two sections. We're going to discuss decision making process. More strategies in cognitive psychology. You have to know the term problem solving refers mental process that people go through to discover, analyze and solve problems. Decent solves all of the steps in the problem process, including the discover the problem decision to tackle the issue. Understanding the problem. We're searching available options on taking actions to achieve your goals before problem solving Kinnock or it is important to forced understand the exact nature of the problem itself. If your understanding of the issues faulty four attempts to resolve it will also be incorrect or for they got on the section is to help you understand how key skills are used in combination with a systematic more than for problems something how come on problem solving traps. In fact, the process. How problems are worse can abort straps. Toward the end of the section, we will have practical exercises and their explanation so you can test your knowledge you can experience with dreams and wanting to mention here. A several research will show that there are many mothers, many strategists and many types, of course, is that you can use and proposing here, one that they find useful and practical for your professional and personal use. The section We're going to bring it to discussion. Fourth office First topic will be the problem solving murder. Second topic will be problem solving mind straps. The third topic will be dealing with these problems. Off traps on the 4th 1 would be problem solving kids of competences. The list of topics is not directly corresponded with the least off lectures used. This section. Some topics are called awarding more than one lecture, but what is the problem we're trying to solve? Problems can be anything that forced into a wide range of difficulties, mishaps and up steps. You can sing off a problem as anything from a mild irritation at the sticky keyboard complete disaster that puts your job or even your life at risk. Problem is a question or situation that causes doubt or that protects it. It's something that needs to be corrected or overcome so you can achieve a desired state problem often requires a unique or creative solution. In other words, you have a problem when you have a goal cards ready to see how to reach it when you have seeing plan and device sort of elections to solve the problem and achieve ago for fun, this problem requires a creative solution, one that is no readily made of readily prepared for barriers to achieving your goals can very widely in kind and importance. Your problem might be a small s speeding coffee on your style right before going toe. An important business meeting, or could be much more seniors say, if the left up your presentation was on, he's got stolen and didn't have a baker. You know just what to do in this monster problem. It's no longer were product. This is because there's no doubt complexity involved for you. The past off action needs to take a bigger goal. Screen problems comes in two basic where varieties the first is an unexpected disruption. In the normal course of things. For example, your suppliers fade to deliver crucial items for your car breaks down your way to a conference who may or may not know what caused the destruction. Second time is a gap between the current state and desire state or gold. If you are unsure how to bridge the gap, you have a problem. For example, you might want to find ways to meet a new customer need before you might want to improve your own efficiency in terms of managing your time, meeting stargates, designing products it's so common that I'm sure you already thought about some examples of how we deal with problem solving is a different issue that's enough for introduction. We now know what is the problem solving and how can we define problem next? Let's see problem solving 3. Problem-solving model: everybody can benefit from having good problem solving skills as we all encounter problems on a daily basis. Some of these problems are obviously more severe or complex than others. Having good strong problem solving skills can make a huge difference to your career as problems are at the center off what many people do at work every day. Whether you are solving a problem for clients internal or external supporting those who are solving problems are discovering new problems To solve the problems you have can be larger , small, simple, complex, easy or difficult. And though it can be solved if you have a working mother in place to guide your response, problem solving mothers are used to address many issues that come up on a daily basis in the workplace. These problems maybe technical issue based by many off you have probably already engaged in solving problems. You have probably used many different approaches in order to achieve a solution. Issues and operational problems in a committee can be solved more easily, for example, and with better results by using a problem solving or the structured systematic approach to solving problems and making improvements. There are several reasons for using a structured system. Nothing approach to problem solving. First, ensure consistency. Everyone needs to know what mattered. Everyone absent using to solve a problem that keeps the process more scientific unless susceptible to individual biases on perceptions to help manage the group process. It's another way, another reason for using a systematic approach. The problem solving more there provide the focus for the group helps setting the agenda. Everybody can work on following more than rather than news the individual approaches all at the same time. Following a matter using that to make decisions makes it easier for whom to reach consensus to solve problems effectively. It's another very important reason. Destroyed and tested steps actually work. Using this model will make solving problems, is here and ultimately heal the better result because you will have tested all ideas and eliminated those that will not work in your particular scenario. To build a convincing case for change. Using a problem solving mother in a verse, a group to consider all possible causes off problem and all possible solutions. Problem solving model news is a serious of logical steps to help a group identify the most important causes. The best solution following the model not only helps the group arrived at a solution, it had the group arrived. Justifiable suspicion. The last not the least reason it's this will help you present a clear and convincing rational for your action processing improvement model is also useful as a methodology for presenting the conclusions process. Improved improvement activities, diagrams and charts used in the process improvement cycle help make the proposal for change more convincing. For example, Irene has problems. She's often exhausted and is battling to meet her deadlines. She keeps trying to focus on solving the problem, but it seems like the more determined she's to fix it, the more she struggles to find a solution. Like most people I read in our example, sees problem solving a single action. You have a problem. You fix it but find long term, viable solutions. Even for problems that seem simple, we need to take a step back and approach the process. Systematic problem solving is the mental process you follow when you have a goal but can't immediately see how to achieve. It's a process that depends on you. How you perceive a problem, what you know about it in the end state you want to reach starring. A problem involves a number of cognitive activities. Forced certain ing what the problem really is. These, then identifying the true causes a problem. Opportunities for reaching your goal for that generating creative solutions to the problem , then evaluating choosing the best solution and, at the end, implementing the solution, then morning during your actions and their results. To ensure that the problem he solved successfully and clearly, problem solving is not once the process. Your success will depend on whether your approach and implement each of the stages effective. The best way to do this is to use a well established, systematic problem solving model Problems will vary widely so to their solutions. Sometimes the problem and its solution are clean, but you don't know how to get from point A to point B. But other times you may find it hard to define what's wrong, how to fix it, regardless off what the problem is, you can use a six step problem solving model to address it s model is highly flexible and can be adapted to suit various types of problems. It also comes with lexical set off doors to use. Each time model is designed to be followed one step at a time, but you may find that some stages don't require as matter as much attention as others. This will depend on your unique situation. Thea Pro Chuan. We're going to use the problem. Solving is a simple and practical six steps modern. Fourth, we will start by defining the problem. Then we'll continue by analyzing the problem. Step three will be identify potential solutions. Step for choose the best solution, then with a plan for action and at the end implements a solution and review process. So there are six things you need to do to solve a problem effectively. First, you define the problem Cleary and analyze it to determine root causes standing, identify potential solutions and choose the best solution from those you have generated. You plan the course of action that you will take and finally implement a solution and reviewed the progress that's made insulting the problem. Remember that this is Justin order, and it's highly adaptable folder. You shouldn't keep any of the six steps you can take over the amount of time you spend on each stage, based on the demands off your unique situation. For example, let's take Frank, a free NAS writer that needs someone to illustrate his Children's book. His problem is clear. He needs a new artist, so it won't take him long to define or analyze the problem. But it will take a while to think of ways to locate candidate and to choose someone who's droving style with match his world. So these steps identifying solutions, choosing the best option and planning actually take long, longer. The six step, problem solving model can benefit you in a number of ways. How do you think this more than I can help you solve a problem more effective stuff the video and take a minute to answer to this question? Now let's see the answers before continuing. This option is incorrect. Actually, it's often useful to get input from us many people as possible when you're solving a problem. Different people mind have unique insights about what the problem released and could contribute the potential solutions. This option is correct. By defining and analyzing a problem, get to its root causes or calls will avoid wasting time resources and addressing only symptoms of the problem Instead, you'll be able to focus on finding a really long term solution. Deception is correct By viewing progress as a chosen solution is implemented, you will be able to ensure that problem really is being solved and make adjustments. Where is necessary? Deception is also correct. Using the six step problem solving order enables you to uncover the best solution to a problem systematically and objecting. There are a number off methodical tools that can simplify it step and make it more objective. This option is incorrect. If you try to solve a problem with the first thing that springs to your mind, you might miss out on more effective solutions. Or worse, you might misinterpret the problem or fail to recognize its really course. Last one is also correct. Option Modern encourages you to dig deeper. Analyze it created with all the information together. By following the steps it includes, you'll find solutions easier to pinpoint and implement the six step problem. Solving other tools it provides is an effective, systematic approach to problem solve By following it. Step consciously, you can ensure that generating solutions is a fact river objective and reliable process which encourages you to dig. The birth of the root cause allows you to get inputs from others to be creative when finding solutions and the morning for your solutions to make sure they are actually working . So by following this modern, you are more likely to come up with good, original, lasting solutions. And these steps are repeatable. Any step in the process, your group or you may decide to go back and repeat on earlier step. For example, you had no single problem. Analyzing a problem can often lead back to redefining that problem. This process is also continues. We need to keep this in mind. Simply implementing a solution does not end the problem solving process. The valuation of the solution may identify new aspects of the problem or new problems that need to be addressed. Leading the group back to step one for the new problem is identified. Although the steps will have distinct names, there is no clear demarcation between there. For example, defining the problem diagnosing the problem are two steps that may frequently over this lecture. Take a minute and ask yourself this question and share your responses with the other participants to discourse. If you think necessary. Think about how your actions fit into the sixth step, Mother. To find the problem, analyze the problem. If 35 potential solutions choose the best solution, plan action, implement solution and review Progress which steps from this model digits keep What were your results? Which steps in the module are particularly important to you When you solve problems, Ask yourself all these questions to conclude the steps in the sequence are arranged in a circle to emphasize the cyclical, continuous nature off the problem solving process. All six steps must be followed in order to show the results you're expecting from step one to step six, we will start from Define the problem and you will end. We analyze the results off your implement for your implemented actions, and each steps must be completed before the group proceeds clockwise to the next. Next lesson. We will discuss problem solving techniques and you will have again the opportunity to play 4. Problem-solving techniques: much of what people do is solve problems and make decisions. Often they're stressed very short off four time. Consequently, when they encounter a new problem or decision, they must make they react with a decision that seemed to work before. It's easy with this approach to get stuck in a circle off, solving the same problem over and over again. Therefore, it's often useful to get used to an organized approach, problem solving and decision making. This lesson we're going to today in the problem solving model and discussed its techniques . Problems vary widely, and so do their solutions. Sometimes a problem and its solution are clear that you don't know how to get from point A to point B. Other times, you may find it hard to define what's wrong or how to fix it. Regardless off what the problem is, you can use a six step problem. Something in order to address in this model is highly flexible and can be adapted to suit various types of problems. It also comes with a flexible set off tours to use at each step. This model is designed to be followed one step at the time, but you may find that some stages don't require as much attention as others. This will depend on your unique and special situation. Now let's see every step and it's recommended techniques. The first thing to do is to define the problem. It's crucial Step involved, digging deeper to identify what it is that needs to be solved. The more clearly a problem is defined easier you're finding to complete subsequent steps. A symptom is a fundamental or circumstance that results from a deeper underlying condition . It's a common mistake, symptoms for problems themselves, themselves and so to waste, a lot of time and effort tackling consequences of problems instead off their causes. The final problem. You can use a tool such as Gap analyzes. This involves comparing your current state to the future state you want to be to identify the gaps between there. For example, Rachel knows that she is currently over tired and missing deadlines and that she wants to feel better rested and meet her deadlines. Space between current and desired states is the gap she needs to bridge by solving her problem. The next step is to analyze the problem. We decide what type of problem with these whether there's a clear barrier or secret circumstance you need to overcome or whether you need to determine how to reach ago. You then dig to the root causes of the problem and detail the nature off the gap between where you are, where you want to be. This will help you see past the distracting symptoms to the realities issues that underlie that. The five. Why Analyzes is a tool that will help you get to the heart of the problem. Ask y a number of times to dig through each layer off. Centers and Soto arrive at the problem's root cause for Rachel. Five y analyze. Begin with a question I keep missing my daylights. Why chancers this? Honestly? Because I always run out of time. Then she subjects this answer toe. Second, why? Which reveals that she's not managing her time properly. Subsequent subsequent wives will lead her closer to the real root cause of the problem. And those the best solution you can get to the router for more complicated problem using cause and effect diagram, which is something that produces an effect, result off consequence or what contributes to the current state of affairs categories. of courses include people, Time and the Environment. In Rachel's case, Calls and defend Diagram reveals that her crowded, noisy office environment, the interruptions from people and unreasonable deadlines are the main factors contributing to her problem for missing deadlines. Next, identify as many potential solutions as you can. In other words, try to think of ways to close the gap. Braced on creatively. Asked lots of questions about who, what, where, when and how off the causes to point to various possibilities. Don't limit yourself by considering practicalities at this stage. Simply record your ideas. Once you've generated as many as the S as you can, you need to evaluate them so you can choose the best solution. Evaluating your idea. More options could present themselves. You could do this by rating each possible solution you came up with in Step three, according to criteria such as how effective it will be, how much time or effort it will take its cost and how likely it is toe satisfy stakeholders . What this bright areas are will depend on the problem at hand. Think about this question. Take a break. Andi, think about this question. If you place if you will place your solutions. Cinematics like this 11 you see here, which one do you think would be the best choice? I would say that solution be is the best, because it's the easiest to implement and also the most effective. Whether you think now, once you decided what the best solution is, you need to map out your plan of action in this way. First, determine what steps must be taken, designating tasks where necessary. Decide deadlines for completing the actions. Estimate the coast off implementing. Create a contingency plan in case off unforeseen circumstances so that if anything goes wrong with your plan, there is always a Plan B in place. Typically the staging balls narrowing down the possible ways to implement a solution. The solution you have chosen based on any constraints that apply. For instance, you have identified training employees in a particular skill as the solution to a problem during plan. Include determine that the available budget only allows for learning and remote training, so these are the types of training you plan to provide. Next, you should grow up Plan action plan that includes the who, what and went off your proposed solution complexity off the plan will depend on the situation, but it should include these basic elements. Has the final step you need to implement social. This is an ongoing process. You need to ensure the required resources remain available on monitor progress in solving the problem. Otherwise, all the work it might be for us. You can use a checklist to track what has been done and not what still needs to happen. Now stop this video and try this practice exercise way. Have one virtual employee. Robert works for a small photocopying business. He's being asked to figure out why the business suspense spend so much money on fixing or replacing damaged equipment and to take steps to improve the situation. Try to sequence the six steps on the problem solving process he should follow. Stop the video as I said for a minute, and try to organize these activities in the correct order. Now let's see how we can order these activities. Use a checklist to monitor. As a final step, Robert needs to implement histories and solution and review implementation on an ongoing basis to ensure that it's working. If not, he'll have to make adjustments or even fall back on a contingency plan. Complete a cause and effect metrics after coming up with as many possible solution as he can. Robert, we need to choose the best of this and analyzes off the proposed solutions can help him narrow down the options based on their like benefits and on the effort and resources they take. Brace talked to generate ideas at the third step. One is the real cause of the problem is clear. Robert needs to brainstorm creatively in order to identify as many solutions. That's possible by thinking outside the box he might find a solution he wouldn't have thought otherwise. Do a gap analyze as the first step Robert needs toe define Why the problem release At the moment, the machines are breaking down more frequently than they should be like toe end up with a situation in which the machines required only routine maintenance drew up the cause and effect. I once Roberti. Sure he knows what the problem is. The second step is to analyze the problem. To determine its root cause or causes the wear and tear off the machines is only a symptom . Perhaps they're off inferior quality or Maybe the armed service, often enough to prevent breakdowns, drew up an action plan as the fifth step. Once he's chosen a solution, Robert needs to plan how best to implement it. This will depend on any constraints. For example, hiring a full time technician may not be feasible, but existing stuff members could undergo maintenance, training, problem solving and decision making are important skills in business life. Problem solving often involves decision making, and decision making is especially important for management and leadership, their processes and techniques to improve decision making and the quality of your decision . Decision making is more natural to certain personality, so these people should focus more on improving the quality of their decisions. People that are less natural decision makers are often able to make quality assessment but then need to be more decisive in acting upon the assessments. Next lesson from discussed problem solving. My traps will be able to understand identified 5. Problem-solving mind traps: our minds set up many traps for us. Unless we're aware of them, three straps can seriously hinder our ability to think rationally. Leading us to bed reasoning and making stupid decisions features four mines that are meant to help us may eventually get us into trouble. In this lesson, we examine a number off well documented mind traps that are particularly likely to undermine Problem solved. In addition to reviewing the causes and manifestation off these traps, you will learn some specific ways you can go against them. It's important here to remember, though, that the best defense is always awareness. So in this video, we're going to discuss about the Mayan traps to problem solving. And when it comes to problem solving, there is really such a thing as a no brainer. All rains are always at work, sometimes unfortunately, in ways that hinder rather than help us every stage of the problem solving process. These perceptions biases, other tricks of the mind can influence the choices we make. Highly complex and important decisions are the most prone to distortion because they tend to involve the most assumptions the most estimating the most imports from most people. The higher the stakes, the higher the risk of being caught in a psychological truck early in the 20th century. Many experts believe that this is just an example that radio waves could not be transmitted over long distances, for example, over notion. They believe that because the earth is a sphere and radio waves travel straight, line the ways with travel out into space rather than to the intended target. However, inventors like Marconi and Tesla refused to be constrained by the thinking off their fears . The revolutionary work in the field off radio transmission proved the experts assumptions wrong and lay the foundations for much of the advanced communication technology being used today. Throughout history, problem solvers in all fields have struggled to break through the barriers that constrain their thinking. In fact, it's part of human nature. Toe have this mental baggage, and often it's only by getting past these that really solutions. Toe problems can be so some barriers to effective problem solving arised from the way people think. Other times, though, it's the process followed to address a problem that has floors. So there are two main types off barriers toe problem, so you can think of these as mind traps and process drops, the mind traps are internal, the result in the mind of the problem solver. The process drops are it's Turner and their problems off or mistakes in the approach used to solve the problem. Albert is renovating his house. Let's take another example. Two months into the work, he worries that the renovations are going to look disastrous. There is still time to alter the plans, but Albert decides to stick with the existing plants, trusting toe the initial vision he had instead of what he says. Now he ends up ruining the look off large sections off his house and in this case, are Bert. Inadequate response to the problem leads to disaster. His response came about because he fell into my mind. Traps can prevent you from understanding what the real problem is. Pinpointing its causes or thinking outside the box toe come up with health would have helpful solutions. Common mind traps that prevent effective problem solving include being influenced by people signature ideas, defending prior choices, selecting supporting information based on bias. People already have making assumptions and like performing the trouble. Finding initial ideas means that starting point if you're thinking about the problem, whether an idea that a point estimate something else usually influences your subsequent thinking about the problem, it's important here to avoid giving too much inference. Toe initial ideas because the roots of a problem are often very deep and the problem is not analysed properly could end up with less effective solutions. The trap of defending prior choices means that when you're faced with a problem, it can be tempting to make a decision that protects your previous decisions. This is particularly true where past decisions involved coast to you or your company. The trap of selecting supporting information. Even when you try to be natural, your mind often has decided on one eternity for another. Even before you begin investigating that as a result, sometimes you tend toe selectively. Seek out information that confirms your bias. The trap off Selecting supporting information is most likely to impede the second force, and six stages off the problem solving process. When problem solvers analyzing the problem, choosing the best solution and reviewing the progress on the solution. Another trap the drop off assumptions. Sometimes this assumptions cause problems over to forego problem analyzes using the recommended process tools. This is especially true where the problems over whole strongly toe the assumptions. Trap of assumptions in first problem solving, particularly in the 1st 2 steps of the problem solving process. Defining the problem and analyzing the problem. Travel. Of course conformity. The last one we will discuss means that the opinions of other can have an influence on us. Even when we know that others hold euronews views. This sometimes leads to ask, conforming to the general consensus rather than critically look for the best solution. This conformity occurs when group members let their desire for agreement override their need to assess all realistic options. Conformity trap can, in fact, every step of the problem solving process. But we likely have particular impact at the fourth and sixth step, when problem solvers choosing solutions and reviewing the progress off the solutions mind drops that commonly compromised the problem solving more. There are consequences off the way people naturally think on behave. However, you can overcome these barriers that being aware off them by selecting and using the appropriate process stores now ask yourself this questions on try to rank the mind traps according to how strongly they are affected by each being influenced by people. Simitian ideas. Defending prior choices. Selecting supporting information based on bias that people already have, making assumptions and conform whether you see which mind drops on they most brought what? How have mind traps affected problems off which steps were most effective? How my they they avoid the straps and future. How is this replying to you to your situation the way you have your problem solving as a process. Now let's see a different type of practice. Read through each mind dropping Find state. When that best match, you can write your answers down and compare them with those off another participants. Or this. Cast the matches in groups. If you have such a group in your study environment, which mind drop matches to one state, take five minutes to try to find the right connections. Now let's discuss the statements and see the correct answers to get Let's take. The 1st 1 prevents the team for from probably initial ideas are difficult to let girls, but they can prevent problem solvers from objectively evaluating either the problem. All the alternative solution. So this is a trap off the initial ideas pressure steam into choosing conformity, effects every step on the problem solving model, but is most likely to compromise steps off choosing the best solution step implementing and evaluating the solution. So this would be a trap performing prejudices in the selection off solutions. This is the tendency to defend prior choices. Most often effects the stepping reach. The best solution to our problem is chosen. After having investing in one decision, it becomes difficult to change even if a new decision sculpt for so this would be the trap of defendant prior choices prevents you from objectively defining the problem. Assumptions about the problem. And it's possible solutions can compromise the 1st 4 steps, finding a problem, analyzing it, identifying potential solutions on choosing the best solution. So this would be the trap off assumptions. Compromise is that that I used to judge selecting supporting information based on initial bias is likely to compromise steps in which your analyze the problem, choose the best solutions and then implement solution and review progress. So this would be the trap of selecting, supporting information and using your virus. That's about mine traps in general for going to see more traps we have reviewed can all work in isolation, but even more dangerous. They can work in concert, amplifying one another the dramatic first impression, like anchor our thinking. And then we might selectively seek out confirming evidence to justify our initial inclination. We make a hasty decision, and then that decision establishes a new statue scope. As our costs mount, we become trapped, unable to find a time to seek out a new and possibly better course for our actions, the psychological cascade, making it harder and harder to choose widely. So this is the disaster we might face freed on. Pay attention to the problems or process in the next lesson, but going to further detail this mind trips. 6. Problem-solving mind traps explained: The problem, says altering psychiatrist Till the Reuben is not that there are problems. The problem is expecting otherwise and thinking that having problems is a problem problem is just a question or situation that presents out perplexity or difficulty. It is an issue that needs to be corrected off overcome in order to achieve a desired state . Problem solving involves goal oriented thinking and action in situations for which no ready made solutions exist. Sometimes we interpret events, situation behavior in ways that lead to poor performance behavior. Called mind traps, they can damage your ability to reach their full potential. However dedicated time and practice to combating this thinking perhaps can promote more productive thoughts and behaviors. Now, going back to our mind traps, let's see them in details popular, saying states that first impressions last when considering a problem. The same can be said off four thoughts. The initial ideas you have when first considering the problem. The starting point off your thinking whether an idea particular fact estimate or something else usually influences your subsequent thinking about the problem. So you make a decision to invest a small sum in the stock market. For example, we discuss this with a friend who says, Perhaps you could try one of those are startup technology companies know, Maybe just do your research carefully and see what the trends are. You go about collecting information about your options. However, the initial idea off using a startup technology companies hard to shake. What color is your thinking as U. S s the possibilities and eventually it's the options. You choose that if your friend haven't mentions the idea passing, it's likely your choice would have been different. The initial idea strap is most likely to affect the 2nd 4 steps off the problem solving model when you analyze the problem and when you choose what happened but appears to be the best solution. Initial ideas about the nature of the problem in the best way to address it can call your thinking at these steps also and prevented from engaging in honest, thorough analyzes problems and solutions. It is important avoid these mind trapped because the roots off a problem are often deep. End of the problem and solutions are not analysed properly. You could end up with less effective solutions. Maybe he never happened to you, but can you think off any case with your initial ideas have prevented you from coming up with the most effective solution to a problem. If so, we will see defending your prior choices. It's yet another monitor. Do you remember Albert, who ruined his house by continuing renovations when she saw that it was going to be a disaster? We discussed about this in the previous lecture. Alberts Mistake is a classic example off defending pro choices. When you're faced with a problem, it can be tempting toe. Make a decision that protect your previous decisions. This is particularly true if your priority choices involved costs to you or your company. If you've already invested in a decision, it's hard to changes, even if doing so would be much less costly in the longer this mind, Trump has a particularly strong impact on the fourth step off the problem solving. When you choose what seems the best alternative from possible solutions. Now say you need to choose and importance and your delivery vehicle for your comfort. You immediately favor particular track mother to find out the pros and cons of the model using contact the manufacturer who produce it, effectively ensuring that What you've, we are told will confirm your original bias in favor of the model is just yet another example for them, said my interest. Even when people try to be neutral mentally, they've often decided on an alternative before they even begin investigating. As a result, it's common to seek out supporting information that confirms an initial bias the trap of selecting supporting information based on an initial bias he's especially likely to affect the second forced six steps off the problem, something mother analyzed. The problem be affected. Your analyzes off a problem band on the information use, but your initial biased about which alternative solution is best kid influence or decisions about where to collect information and about which information is significant. This becomes a cycle because you're selective in choosing that it in terms appears to confirm your regional vice. Choose the best solution. It's also a step very much affected by this biased because initial bias skewed the evidence on which you based your problem analyzes your interpretation off. The solution would also be skewed. Also, you may be more likely to choose an alternative originally favor them to consider seriously other alternative. You will also have affected the last step off your process, likely to be more lenient in judging the success of a solution. If it's one you originally favor, you're legalistic evidence that it's working and may discount evidence that is not now. Consider another sign our clothing store is struggling to compete with a new store in the area. Better store owner assumes that this is because competitors stops more popular clothes. She tries to solve the problem by bringing some new clothes in tow. Her still, unfortunately, the solution face and store continues its downward spiral. But the real problem was no. The popularity of the closing it was the price driver store off lower price, and it's bargains attracted more and more customers. In this case, the store owners ingrained assumptions simplified her view of the problem, causing her to overrule hard evidence, other potential solutions. Even if one assumption appears reasonable or based on common sense by nature, it's believed that hasn't bean very far, especially when assumptions are strongly held. They can need problem solvers, toe overlook or even ignore the fact the 1st 4 steps in the problem solving model that we presented at the beginning of this course are particulary vulnerable to mine. Dropped off assumptions defined. The problem is affecting. The store owner assumed that the problem lay in the merchandise. She was seven. So she failed to identify the real problem which WAAS competition over price. Analyze the problem based on her assumption about the nature of the problem with store owner, analyzed the types of clothing sold in each store. She determined the average age of customers in the area and investigated trends indicating a growing demand for high fashion items, including fashionable sport, were among less for sector of the market. Identify potential solutions. It's also effective affected. The store owner generated potential solutions for the wrong problem. She considered options for answering her buying decisions, for example, to stock more fashionable closing ranges on the introduced new lines, such as sportswear into her store. Lastly, choose the best solution. It's significantly affected because the list of potential solutions was focused purely on type of clothing and not writes, the store owner's choice off solution operated on a force assumption. As a result, the solution ultimately faith another one off the mind drops. It's conforming by nature. Human beings are social creatures. Whether people like like it or not, the actions off others often influence. This leads to another type of mind that is, the conformity we just introduced. Conformity or groupthink can lead problem solvers to accept the consensus off a group instead of being critical in assessing a problem. It's plausible possible solutions. A sales manager, for example, needs to improve communications and his team members. He asked them for ideas, and then all quickly agreed that the convenience off on outlying on life form would suit them well, though he doubts that members will use it consistently, he said, before sure enough, communication on the forum drops off over time. Instead off confronting with the wishes of the group, the manager should have evaluated the forum solution carefully on explored other solutions as well. The conformity trap can impact every step of the problem solving model, but it's likely to find the force and six step mostly no group. Everyone else. Support for particular solution may convince you, or even pressure to support it, and you would be a supporter toe. And when it comes time to evaluate the success of the solution, the group may have a vested interest in reaching a positive conclusion. Again, it's time to practice. It's that moment off our video lecture. Stop the video, take 3 to 5 minutes and try to match right side example with mind traps we just discussed. Welcome back. Let's see, How can we make this match together? First, Suzanne keeps coming back. Example. The truck off initial ideas anchors problem solvers in the preliminary impressions and can prevent them from giving due consideration to other ideas. This would be the mind. Drop off initial ideas. Josie avoids asking her colleagues. The assumption that the colleagues won't be part of the solution will likely prevent Josie from considering useful solutions that require inputs from others. Yussef travelers to show to show during a dangerous store. Protecting private choices even when it's better to discover them and move on with a revised plan may cause problems over to make unwise decisions. Next example. Michael's hesitations. When the majority group opinions influence your perception often issue the mind. Trap of conformity is in effect in the last one. Fruits wants to buy a certain left by asking the friend tell her on Li about the laptops. Good features rules be selectively seeking information that supports her desire to buy one . So these are the matches between examples we gave and the mind jobs we just discussed. Whether consciously or unconsciously, everybody solves problems relating to their personal or work life every day. However, you can greatly improve your problem solving effectiveness by gaining a better understanding of the problem off the problem solving process, essential skills and required competitive house with us weirdness of the mind traps that it forced impair this process. This course takes you through the essentials of problem solving and explores some off its challenges next to learn how to deal with mind traps. 7. Dealing with problem-solving mind traps: you will discover as you follow the course on problem solving that the subject is complex. However well prepared we are for problem solving. There is always an element off unknown, although planning and structuring will help make the problem solving process more likely to be successful. Good judgment and element of good luck with ultimately determine whether problem solving was a success. This is often due to either problems not being recognized or being recognized that no dealt with appropriate measures. Solving a problem involves a certain amount of risk. This risk needs to be weighed up against not solving the problem. The process off problem solving cannot first blush appear relatively simple. The difficulty is defined. Facts and evidence are collected and analyzed. The solution is agreed, however, because in perfect people make decisions, the entire process is fraught with drops that can lead to serious errors in judgment. Problem solving is not to be taken likely. It is a step by step process that will properly sequenced and followed should produce solid results on skin problem solvers will often misinterpret the issues attempting to solve symptoms rather than root causes and makes the situation more confusing. Them it has to be. He's important for individuals to understand that effective problem solving awful consumes more time than most people are willing to invest rather than go about it properly. Many just want to react and deal with the problem quickly. However, the time invested to thoroughly investigate solve a problem more often than not produces a more successful solution and happier employees, customers and colleagues on life Individuals can easily fall into a number of common problem solving traps. The resulting consequences are often 40 decision, based on four different questions. Inadequate analysys and the host of other factors. Rather than solve anything, these traps often complicated problem, making it more difficult to resolve. These being said, let's see how we can prevent problem solving tribes. Mind traps can seriously deranged the problem solving process, but fortunately, there are a variety of strategies you can use to counteract the effects. To counteract the trap off initial ideas, you should explore different sources and perspectives By broadening your horizon's, we are more likely to find the real roots off problem and to generate a wider range of possible solutions. You should follow this guideline whenever you're you solve a problem, but it's especially important during the earlier steps off the problem solving motors to minimize the trap off defending prior choices. You should follow these guidelines first, give her goals priorities focused on achieving a particular goal rather than becoming attached to a particular decision process. Get a neutral opinion. Consult someone who does not have a vested interest in the prior decisions except your mistakes. Remembering that everybody makes mistakes sometimes and that it's better to move on them toe hold onto past decisions. Whether you think how have you dealt with mine drops off initial ideas and defending fried choices in a problem solving contest. What counter strategies have worked for you, and how did you recognize that you were falling into these traps? Did it happen? Toe. How did using a counter strategy get the problem solving process back on track? If this happened now, ready to see if you have the right response in dealing with mind traps, let's try this exercise. You've already formed a preference for a particular solution to a problem. What do you think are ways to avoid the mind trap off selecting information that supports your initial bias? Stop the video and answer to this question. Welcome back. As usual, let's see the correct answers. A deception is correct. Asking yourself and others open questions such as Whether you think of this idea is a good way to get opinions. Balance out your initial bias. Be this option is incorrect. If you focus on gathering information only about the option you already favor, the results will give you a selective vision. Onley off this option. See, this option is also incorrect. Someone who's already chosen a particular alternative isn't likely to contradict your choice off the same alternative. So you're likely just together support for your own initial bias. The last option is correct. Seeking out information that contradicted initial view will help you overcome bias in the data you get. By selecting supporting information, you should ask yourself and others open questions such as What are your thoughts on this solution? Rather than asking leading questions such as, Why should I be keen about the solution? Another good strategies to examine counter arguments information that conflicts with your own views. These are recommended. Recommended responses were free to explore and find more that work better for you. One way to fight the trap of assumptions used to identify what your assumptions are, check their validity. Take the position often outsider and asked basic questions to challenge your own assumptions. Like Why do I think this way? Why don't we do things like this? Another strategy is to focus on data investigated Hard data, rather than relying on mental simplifications, are falling victim to personal bites. You can also change the way you view the problem. We stay. The problem in new terms will break it down into its simplest competence. To protect yourself from the trap of conformity, shield yourself from social influence and persuasion. Remember that the popular opinion is not always correct. You should also be willing to defend well founded viewpoints even if they are unpopular. Practice these strategies and in time you will get better. At the beginning. Off course you need to make it for about three times. This approaches will become habit. Good problem. Something have one more exercise for this lesson. Read to each mind trap and find a guideline that best matches you can write your answers down on. Compare them with those that are going toe that we are going to discuss today. Each mind trapped matches one. Guys, stop the video and find your answers. Documentary. Okay, I know you already have the right answers, but just in case that's give your goals priority. Prioritizing your goals. Getting objective opinions from others. Accepting your mistakes can help you let go of prior decision and move on. Constructive. So this is this response is suitable for defending bright choices. Check the validity of preconceived notions. Checking the validity off your assumptions. Focusing on objective data on experimenting with new perspectives on the problem can all help you avoid relying on assumptions. Shield yourself from social influence, Shielding yourself from social influence and being willing to defend well founded Viewpoints will protect you from conforming with the consensus view in cases where this you isn't the best or most explore different sources. Accessing why the range off information makes it more likely that you will find the real roots off a problem and generate a wider range of possible solutions without being overly influenced by your initial ideas. Ask open questions. Asking open questions and examining contact. Counter arguments can help you overcome by us in the way you select relevant information about the problem, and it's foreseeable solutions. Now you know, problem solving model. We have seen its detailed steps and how to avoid issues with its obligation in your professional and personal life. Something to mention here First. If you discover that you are looking at several related problems, then prioritised which ones you should address first know the difference between important it? Arjun programs. Often, what we consider to be important problems to consider are really just urgent problems. Important problems deserve more attention. For example, if you are continuing the answering urgent phone calls, then probably go the more important problem. That's to design a system that screens and prioritize your phone calls. Second, understand your own. This is the problem you're rolling. The problem can greatly influenced how you perceive the role of others. For example, if you're very stressed out, probably looked like others are two or three. Memories are blaming reprimanded others, or you are feeling very good guilty about your role in the problem, Megan or the accountabilities off others. Next, let's see the other type of problem solving traps process 8. Problem-solving process traps: for designing on a course of action for than managers evaluate the situation confronting. Fortunately, some managers are over cautious. Take costly steps to defend against unlikely help. Others overconfident, underestimating the range of potential outcomes. And still others are highly impressionable, allowing memorable events. The past dictate off you what might be forced from, and in many cases, the process is to blame. Let's see what I mean by this mind traps. I've noticed the only bit forced to watch out for in problem So process traps which flows arrows the way the problem solving model is approached, generals are given due from finding effective solutions. Four Men types off process traps are very calm, failing to involved the right people dressing given problem, failing to involve the right people. Those who no problem best affected by it directly is the commonest can result in your choosing and solution based on insufficient information that isn't available for suitable, for example, at the experts about the highly sophisticated program to improve the efficiency for companies. The counting process. If they did this without consulting stuff in the accounting department, the program may fail to address the company's actual needs for proves to be too complex for staff to use, taking on problems that are too large back general is one another process drop. It can be frustrating day motive. Anything today on a problem that's too big, vaguely defined or general, this type of process trap can cause confusion, loss in a moment, say your last week. Improving productivity. That's one potential example in a large multinational company, unless you focus on more specific goals like improving the productivity particular processes off cardinals each of the steps off the problem solving mother is likely to be overwhelmed by passing proper analyzing off a problem problem solvers often life as the analyzing stage if they are under pressure to produce solutions this can result in superficial cause is being blamed for week and 40 solutions being accepted, say, a critical systems malfunction. This is one potential example to prove this process to someone under pressure may immediately hope to replace the four system rather than isolating and replacing a single 40 companies in the last one failing to plan implementation off choosen solution or evaluations its success sometimes just coming to a solution is so exhausting that problem solvers give up when it comes to planning how to implement the solution, evaluate its performance. This can prevent the potential viable solution from succeeding. For example, to help ease administrative backlog, property and agency decides to give it sales agents new customized, not computers. However, the customization plans takes so long that at the end of planning, no one has considered the most cost effective way. Toe distribute notebooks. Notebooks are handed out on Lee to a few agents and down the line. No one bothers to check. If the static bag look has dropped significantly, we can avoid come on process traps by ensuring use systematic and well defined problem solving model. In the sixth step model. Each of the steps prevents particular fax process traps failings involved. We addressed the trap of failing to vote the right people when you're for defined and analyze the problem and assemble a problem solving team. Assembling a team is not an official part of the six step model. If it is vital for ensuring you get the most relevant information you can about the problem with possible solutions. Taking on problems that are too back step of defining a problem clearly can prevent you from attempting to address problem that too large by defining a problem. Well, making the street Andi Sure, it gently subjected to forgive Bruce for animals, bypassing analyzed the 60 mother steps off analyzing a problem identifying possible solutions. Choosing the best solution. Sure that don't meet the Agnos a problem or simply accept the first physical IVF for addressing. Encourage you to dig Deeper says possible causes and solutions. The critical failing to plan implementation steps off planning action and implementing the solution. Reviewing processes Ensure that you don't fail to plan how to put the solution Interaction evaluated success and to have a backup plan in case this isn't working. Time to practice again. Read the question. Stop the video. Try to find out the correct answers. One customer service agent has tackled a problem, but we've answered this factory results. Develop your own. This is a potential answer to my center. Try to adapt the set of answers to your my scenario. The first option is a correct because the agent was in a hurry. He didn't provide the customer with Contact Person for the weekend in case the customer required for their assistance. The agent therefore had no way to check effectiveness off his solution. Second option is an incorrect option. The problem was clearly defined because the customer specified what information she needed Certain option. My example is correct because the agent waas, under pressure to resolve the cold, he didn't analyze the customer surreal nudes. As a result, he provided in poor that was not the most effective solution for the customers problem. The last option is incorrect. My example. The agent had access to the required information and had the expertise to be a little equity in these calls. In this case, it wasn't necessary for him evil. Others in addressing the problem. Perhaps here we need to stress deserves the most dangerous. Travel is one that lords behind all the other trips, that off complacency. If you're complacent, you fail to be vigilant to the traps. It's unlikely identify problems clearly arrive at the best counter complacency. It's essential that you remain and aware of how various mined and processed wraps compromise effectiveness solving complex. It is also critical to be honest about your weaknesses, encourage others to this when necessary, let's practice again to better understand starts from thes and develop 4 700 for the situation again, stop the video. Tried to practice after course. You will see what effects have mind traps. Process traps have only problem solving process in your Senate. Re the question and read the potential answers again. Stop the video and try to send about away or responding correctly to this question. This is my answer in an example, valid for my center adapt these two years. For me, A is the correct option because Rachel fails to plan implementation off her Children solution. She didn't consider what to do. First prevention for me again. Second solution is incorrect. Rachel's analyzes catch through the symptoms to reveal what we're problem. Waas. A customer didn't have proof of purchase. This is an incorrect option. The 3rd 1 Rachel used selective supporting information in the analyzes stage and the solutions selection stage, not in the definition stage. Last solution is incorrect because Jones favorable opinion graters. Initial sympathy for the customer influenced her thinking from the process. But this is not actually the last directions before potential. The actual last solution is correct. Rachel assumed her manager would sympathize with a customer. This influence have choice situation using the same scenario. What actions showed. Rachel. They devote these traps in future, try to read the potential answers and seeing what could be the right actions for nature to take in the future again. In my scenario, this with the my answers. Try to use the explanations to see if your answers are consistent. Fall into the logic off our problem solving. My first option is incorrect. Rachel Shooting Days. Health decisions on conformity to Popular because the correct decisions with based on their with rather than social acceptance is that she should shield herself from social influence . Second option is the correct my case, considering historical data. Other views We have Rachel Transcend assumptions and personal bias. Answer. My case is correct. Proper planning with Hello, Rachel to put her solution master in effect, values successful failure and shaved backup if needed. Fourth Option East and asking leading questions is likely to result in baked biased information, which wouldn't their effectiveness off the problem. Something process. To conclude this lesson techniques exist. Over come each one problems with problem solved, for instance, seems the way the problem is posed. Can influence house in adult frighteningly framed the question various ways and ask yourself how thinking my change for each rush, even if we can't eradicate with distortions rained way our minds work. We can build this thesis into our decision making process. Booth choices Women next. Nothing about developing problem solving competences. 9. Problem-solving competencies: problem solving is a really handy skill toe have, and there are many reasons why. It's just there are a couple of different ways problem solving some handed tips and tricks you can use, and we discussed. The problem solving can help you with working through issues, overcoming challenges, maintaining relationships, gaining control and avoid feeling down or frustrated about issues even when it isn't specified in the job description, many employers will look at your problem. Solving is case at various different stages off the application process. This could be anything from psych romantic tests, toe group activities or 1 to 1 interviews program solving. It's all about using logic as well as imagination. To make sense off your situation, I come up with an intelligent solution disconnected to a number of other skills. Realism and resilience are important for assessing the situation and reassessing it. If you fail at the first, you will need analytic skills, creativity and logical thinking to reach a solution. If you are in a group, you will also need good team or skills. So let's see some I. D. S about problem solving skills on competitive sees Here is an example off using problem something Anna Maria and don't work for a company that is experiencing some communication problems. Sometimes different employees work on the same tasks simultaneously, while other times does our into down told they've been asked to solve the problem, they make a great steam because each of them has a unique way off approaching and solving problems follow along as they describe the approaches to the problem leads the dialogue and you would see the difference is each team member has a unique approach to problem solving. Anna has a more theoretical approach and she applies systematically. Maria has valuable hands on experience and in depth knowledge of the company, and Tom thinks outside the box to find new ways of doing things is one good approach or system. There are good motors principles to be adapted, your personal and professional needs, and these dialogue proves it. Once again. They're five Important problem solving competitors is on. I will focus following on this one's. These are drive on initiative, using a methodical approach, teamwork, astute problem analyzes and innovative thinking. Driving initiative to solve problems effectively, you need today the initiative, tackling new problems energetically and enthusiastically people we drive on initiative. Feel confident that they can get things done and don't get put off by setbacks. They have clear goals in mind visualized outcomes they want to see. Plus, they're outgoing and able to lead and guide others toward your goals. Political approach People who are good at problem solving are able to adopt methodical, step by step approach and stick to it. They draw on, tried and tested problem solving techniques to help them with solutions like the ones we discussed in our mother. At any point in this process, they know where they are and have a clear understanding off what still needs to be done. Rather than trusting subjective emotional responses, they're committed to use logic and reasoning toe problems, effective problem solvers at good team players, the value different opinions and are able to listen to them with an open mind. They seek out the collaboration off others and are able to manage the structure discussions so that everyone is able to have their say when building a team. They contract the weakness off some weed strengths of others and encourage open communication between everyone involved. Good problem solvers dig deeper to the root causes off problems that reject superficial explanations. They systematically asked probing questions to uncover new information. Do you know, incurious and seek out the new advice or cruise and don't discount these? Even they appear to contradict other assumptions. They are able to sport patterns or may clings to make a situation clear. Finally, they can describe complicated situations and concepts to others. You know. What if thinking last competitive. See, It's a que on key competency off effective problem solvers. They try different techniques to determine which are the best. They see which problem as one of a kind with unique features that require fresh, objective analyzes on mothers. Effective problem solvers also remain open to their own initiative. Intuitive, creative thought process. Now let's practice again. Please read through each competitors. See, find a description that best match it. You can write your answers down on. Compare them with the one represent in a couple of minutes, which competiton see matches to one description. The correct answers are and you the following, and you can't compare this with your results. 1st 1 Medical loved the challenge of finding this innovative thinking involves approach approaching each new problem as unique and not relying on past solutions. Toe apparently similar problems. So this will be on example off. You know what you think Marco is hardly ever satisfied. Effective problem solvers reject superficial explanations. The analyze situation to dig deeper. The core causes problems, so this will be an example of analyzed. Marco likes to hear what everyone involved has to say. Effective problem solving. Offer realized. Demon team players treat the input off other vital information. They seek out opinions of others and make sure everyone has their saying. So this should be an example Off team or Marco is a strategist who, systematically, worse with everybody. Good problem solvers adopted methodical approach to problems, thinking them through logically and carefully. This would be an example off methodical approach. And the last one, Marco, is a confidence enthusiastic leader. People with Dr An initiative don't shy away from the problems. It meet them with energy and confidence. So this will be an example off driving initiative problems. Since we're almost at the end of the section, think about these topics. Can you easily answer to the requirement for each topic? Can you sequence key activities performed in the sixth step problem solving mother. Can you recognize the effects of five types of mind trust? Can you determine how to counteract the effects of problem solving traps? Show in a given scenario on last week in you recognize activities that demonstrate the type of skills best suited to resolve a given type of from them? Or can you match problem solving competences to their descriptions? If not yet you can always go back to the point where you need to refresh your information. Your answer is yes. You can answer all the request. I mean, try to ask yourself what part of this content was the most interesting? Do see opportunities for applying this content in the near future? Yes, you ask yourself wet instead of conclusions to this lesson. Let's face it. Problems can really suck When things are going wrong. It can have a really negative impact on how we feel. Make us feel depressed and frustrated. However, problem solving can help you counter this sort off crappy feelings. That's because when we're willing and able to solve a problem, you look at things from a completely different perspective. They're focused on what you can do instead off on the things that are out of control now. Not every problem is 100% solvable. Sometimes there's very little we can do. But even with more challenging problems, making an attempt on solving them can have a positive impact on your well being state. At the very least, you can always feel satisfied that you've done what you can, no matter your level of success. Problem solving helps you feeling control. That's why we have proven mothers. That's why we have proven towards something needs that we used. That's why we try to understand how this process works. Next lesson would be the last one in his problem solving section, developing problems, so excuse. 10. Problem-solving skills: many structures seen engineering, math and science have students solve problems that are their students solving through problems or just doing exercises? And are you and taking this course if not practicing with your personal riel situations? Solving problems to problem solving is the process off? Apply a metal not known in advance to a problem that is subject a specific set off conditions and that the problem solver has not seen before in order to obtain a satisfactory solution. That's why you learned here a model, not a rule off problem solving, not a metal to a specific type off problem. At the end, it's all about adapting. It's all about going back to who we are actually problem solving. Sometimes we need guidance, but we are problem solvers by nature and how to develop, then problem solving skills to adopt any new situation. Problem solving is a vital skill in daily life, which is why employers are so keen on dealing with real situation will help you gain problem solving skills without even realizing, and you may be able even to use this in your job applications or intelligence, so use them or try different situations. Try situation you meet in real life and are difficult. Try situation. That might happen again. Now let's see the secret skills off problems up. Sorry, not such a big secret, and I'm sure this comes no. Doesn't surprise for intelligence. Solve problems. This is the skill we used to apply the model, which is discussed. There are many other taxonomy Zoff, Human intelligence, but I will use this one. Psychologist Robert Stemberg identified three types off intelligence, which all people use at some time or another. Analytical intelligence involves the use of logic and reason to one over from a to B. Practical intelligence involves finding the best fit between your actions and the demands off the situation, often by applying skills learned to experience on creative intelligence, which involves thinking outside the box, come up with no new ideas. Solving different problems will require different types off intelligence Mother thinks which type off intelligence do you use most often? Can you think off some examples off how you commonly use each type of intelligence when solving problems, and which type of his intelligence do you think you favor and why? That's an important question for you, and this is something that might define. Which are you strongest at? In a problem solving which type of intelligence you use better, which helps you most men problem solving. These are just some questions for you to reflect. You can stop the video for a second toe. Think about this and try to put it on a piece of paper. And later, maybe you can back can come back to that You typically use an analytical approach when a problem is abstract, requires you to analyze information to find a solution on his logical, logical in nature, or when a familiar situation or unexpected course off events is disrupted and you need to identify them obstacles, address them and get back on track. If two off your colleagues or employees having argument might be best to use an analytical approach to solve them. To solve the problem, you gather information from each person to get an accurate picture off the situation and then isolate a solution that satisfies both parties. So this is how you would use analytical intelligence in solving problems. Practical skills are used to solve problems in everyday life, typically involving material things. They aren't easy to learn or control. because they drone the problem solvers, extensive knowledge and experience solving several similar problems. The problems over will most likely find the solution intuitive. Streetwise people and those who have leave the long reach life often demonstrate practical intelligence. For example, a senior manager who smokes over any conflict. Knaus intuitively how to deal with different people, demonstrate practical intelligence. The manager can do this because of the variety of people she or he has met over the years. Practical problem solving doesn't involve the high degree of critical thinking, but it does rely on your ability to set your emotional reactions aside and accept the way things are. If your computer delayed your work for the day, reacting emotionally isn't going to get information back. It's more practical to move on and find ways to make up for lost time. Practical skills can be acquired or sharpened as readily as creative or analytical skills can. So organizations can't encourage people to formally acquired this kind of intelligence, but they should recognize, encourage and reward application of practical problem solving skills. Problems involving unforeseen complications typically require analytical practical problem solving skills to break the problem and overcome but unusual and familiar problems that don't come with a lot of information. Often required lateral creative thinking. In other words, creative intelligence. When you know where do you want to be in the future. But I don't know how to get there. Creative sumption. Maybe just watching to design and you product that meets the customer needs none off your competitors have addressed. For example, you need fresh ideas. Developing improvement girls also typically requires creative phone. It helps to think outside the box to discover waste. Improve your stay in stargate. Lower your budget only prove employees. Maura Creative problem solving starts with being open to the idea that new fresh solutions are possible. People decide your assumptions and suspend judgment off your ideas while you come up with them. One method is to ask yourself lots of questions to free your mind from your usual thinking partners and kick start your imagination. You might ask what would be an unusual way of doing this, or even what with the child? Suggest asking what if as many times as possible can help you escape off your own preconceptions. Some problems require a combination off the different problem solving approaches if you stay open to the possibility of using a variety of skills you have an advantage over. People could tend to fall back on the same way of meeting changes almost there. But before ending this lesson, let's try, as you might be already used to some more practice. So based on their description earlier in the topic in the last lesson, which member off the team, Anna Marie Artal is likely to display analytical intelligence. What do you think? First option is incorrect on a displace practical intelligence that comes from her many years of experience. Second option. This one is correct. Maria is a relational, logical person who lies to apply our minds problems. She displaced analytical intelligence. This is an incorrect option. The last one told this place. Creative intelligence. He thinks outside the box to find fresh solutions in London. One more practice exercise. Harris printer has stopped working, although he has never really thought about how printers operate, he needs to fix the problem so we can print an important document which activities demonstrates the type of skill best with it to solve the problem as usual, stop the video and take 3 to 5 minutes to find an answer. Let's see. The first option would be incorrect. This intuitive, practical approach isn't suitable for this problem, because off Harris lack off experience with fixing printers. The second option would be the correct one of the best approach in this example is for Harry to assume there must be a way of making the printer work and set out to find it using logical analytical thinking to solve the problem. The third option. This is also incorrect. This creative approach isn't appropriate for a technical problem like this one. A logical appraisal of the situation would be the best way to isolate the course in the last option is also incorrect. Ignoring the problem won't make it go away. Harry should tackle the problem head on by using logic and reason to figure out you may be reviewed them a bit more than we discussed it in this section on. We try to respond toe this question again when we have the previous revision. But once again, just to be sure, it's very clear in our minds. The approach we used the problem solving is a simple, practical six steps. Morning. First, redefine the problem they analyze the problem after that identified potential solutions, and we chose the best one from Disruption. Then you plan for action. That's the right way and idea and to implement the solution. A review. Progress. Pretty pretty logical way. Just need practice to make it work. What we did together toe help you alone. Waas to model a useful problem solving method. This is what we did through 12. The section I tried toe teach you within a specific context. We have practical examples many, many questions, very well defined. I tried to help you understand the problem solving process, and we took enough time to do it. We have questions and you have the possibility to make suggestions. Also, we discussed the main errors and misconceptions in problem solving on. We also discussed the mind traps on. This is a pretty useful knowledge, a pretty useful skill if you are able to avoid, that's it for problem solving. Now you can practice at the beginning is an effort off relating back with a modern tryingto traps and using specific tools. But in times you will see that this mother is you efficient problem solving next sections will be about decision 11. Decision-making fundamentals: in its simplest sense, decision making is the act of choosing between two or more courses of action. However, it must always be remembered that there may not always be a correct decision. Among the available choices, There may have been a better choice than had not been considered for the right Information may not have been available at the time. Because of this, it is important to keep a record of all important decisions and the reasons why these decisions were made so that improvements can be made in the future. This is also something that provides justification for any decision taken when something goes wrong. Hindsight might not be able to correct past mistakes, but it will aid improved decision making in the future. We make dance off quick decisions on consciously others. We take consciously but in agri, which is actions and form opinions by mental processes which are influenced biases, reason, emotions and memories. Some question whether really even have free with others believe it is well within our power to make choices that will lead to greater well being. In this section, we go into detail decision making and you will again have the opportunity to practice potential real life decision making situation. The target audience of discourse is anyone who is interested to develop or improved problem solving and decision making skills. The Goal Thes particular section is to help you become a more effective decision maker by learning how to adopt your decision making styles to suit the particular situation. Because decision making can be hard, almost any decision involves some conflicts or dissatisfaction. The difficult part is to be one solution where the positive outcome can outweigh possible loosest. Avoiding decision often seems easier, but it's not always working yet. Making your own decisions and accepting the consequences is the only way to stay in control of your fact. Your success in your life. If you want to learn more on how to make decisions, here are some decision making tips to get you started. This is what you will have in this section in discourse. We will start the first basics off effective decision making decision making styles and adapting your decision making styles through the specific situation. Research suggests that you make up to 50,000 decisions every day. It might sound a lot. Many of these decisions are relatively unimportant. What color tie to wear to work, what kind of sandwich to have for lunch. Others more critical, for example, business decisions to target the new market or fire and unproductive. Working more personal decisions, such as how you reacted and emerges, can have significant consequences. In spite of these, most people are not trained to make sound decisions. Instead, they often try to cope by imitating. But others have done in similar situations or by falling back on what role in the past. Although past approaches may not be valid in new situations to help you make effective decisions, you should follow a clear process and be aware decision making style years. Effective decision making isn't an easy skill to learn that it has many benefits, including Chris Productivity, As stronger workplace relations discourse will keep equip you with the skills you need to achieve these goals. All the decisions can be made using I'll intuition or reasoning combination off both work approaches is often used. Whatever approach is used, it is usually helpful to structure decision making in orderto reduce more complicated decisions down to simple steps. See how any decisions are arrived at planned decision making to meet deadlines. So that's just a short intro to the section Let's get into the basics of decision 12. Effective decision-making: decision making is the study off identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences off the decision maker. Making a decision implies that there are alternative choices to be considered, and in such a case, we want not only to identify as many off these alternatives as possible, but to choose the one that one has the highest probability of success or effectiveness. And two best fits with our goals, desires, lifestyle values. And so the two important ideas here are that first, there must be some genuine alternatives to choose from. Not that do it don't do it does not qualify as a set of alternatives on Lee Do these do something else really qualifies for an alternative second every decision, but must be made in the light off some standard off judgment. This is also something very important to remember decision making Is the process off sufficiently reducing uncertainty and doubt the both alternatives? Tullow a reasonable choice to be made from a longer these definitions stresses the information gathering function off decision making. It should be noted here that certainty is reduced rather than eliminated. Very few decisions are made with absolute certainty because complete knowledge about all the alternatives is seldom possible. Those every decision involves a certain amount of risk. If there is no uncertainty, you don't have a decision. You have an algorithm, a set off steps off recipe that is followed to bring about fixed results. Sometimes decisions are so small you don't even make them consciously. Others require careful thought and deliberation. You make thousands of decisions every day in your personal and professional life. Just a few examples are what to have for breakfast. The best way to get to the office, how to meet your sales target, whether to ask for race and whether your company should merge with another company. So what is involved in decision making? Most people think or feet as the simple act of making a choice. But decision making is more than this is a process that involved identifying alternatives and analyzing them in terms off the consequences and the outcome you want and choosing the alternative you think is best. People make decisions for a lot of different reasons, both good and bad. For example, your motive in making a decision maybe to solve a particular problem or move on organization forward what? Maybe toe close over a mistake. Improve your standing in an organization or feet into a new peer group decision are often needed to solve problems. If a number of alternative remedies are available, you have to choose the best one. For example, if you're constantly missing your war, your work Datelines. Despite your best efforts, you light. Make a decision to talk to your boast about reducing your workload or to develop a better system for managing your time. You might need to decide how to reach a particular working later goal. How to take advantage of the situation to move your organization forward. Often, these decisions are complex and difficult, so it's important you have effective decision making skills. For example, you might need to decide how to gain the upper hand over a competitors or whether a different pricing strategy would improve your profitability. Sometimes people make decisions in order to avoid drawing attention to mistakes. Two mistakes they made in the past. Things can have negative consequences because the decisions are made for the good off other people or an organization. For example, reluctance to share information about previous and successful initiatives increases the chances that others will repeat the same stakes. A desire to improve your standing, gain prestige or impressed. Others are not good reasons to make it to Syria. For example, Manager for implements, a new process just appear efficient or busy rather than because the process will improve. Productivity is doing so for personal gain rather than for the good off the organization. Sometimes people make decisions because they think this will help them feed him or make friends. For example, the new manager may decide to grant all employees requests. This manager may be popular initially, but it's unlikely to gain credibility or respect in the long run. Even the amount and variety of decisions people make every day. It's important to be good decision making. First, it's important for your personal and professional success. People who don't think things through or who consistently make Russia bad decisions, struggle to achieve their goals and find fulfillment Good decision making. It's also necessary for career advancement. Any position of authority or responsibility requires good decision making abilities. For example, manager are typically required to be decisive and able to choose the right course of action in the crisis. Alternatively, they need to know when it's appropriate toe involve others in the decision making process. It's possible to waste a lot of effort and money by pursuing the wrong course of action and then having to fix me stakes. Procrastinating can also waste valuable time as an effective decision making maker. You make more efficient use off your time and resource is. Remember, However, good decision makers make timely decisions, they should not be mistaking for rush or impulsive decisions. Good decisions move teams and organizations forward and help them achieve their goals. For example, the company benefits if it makes good, quick decisions ahead off its competitors. Finally, as an effective decision maker will be more confident about the outcome. Off off your decisions. This is because you will have carefully analyzed the potential consequences off your actions. And if you're offered a new job, for example, you want to carefully consider the pros and cons off. Accepting that way would be happier with your decision and wouldn't come to regret it later . After all these, try to see if you can answer this question. Stop the video maybe for 1 to 3 minutes and ask yourself, Why is effective decision making important. Now let's see. To get the first option is correct. If you are an effective decision maker, you'll find it easier to succeed personally and professionally because it will be easier to achieve your goals. The second option is incorrect. Effective decision making isn't necessarily faster. It involved careful evaluation off alternatives rather than jumping to rash quick decisions . The third option is a correct one. Positions with more responsibility or authority require good decision making skills. So have the skills. It's necessary. Having the skills is necessary for advancing your career. The force option is again incorrect, effective decision making dozen necessary for making all the decisions independently. It may be important to consult others on to ensure that everyone in a group reaches consensus before a final decision is made. The fifth option is again correct. By making good decisions, you make better use of your time and resources. This is because effective decisions prevent mistakes and need to read war. Effective decision making can also prevent you from procrastinating, which waste his time and money. Six. Topping The sixth answer is also correct because effective decisions are infected. The effective decision making allows organizations to move forward and helps them achieve their goals, and the last one is also correct. Good decisions. Good decision making involves thinking through the consequences of the various alternatives or courses affections that are available. Doing these helps ensure you can be confident about the outcomes of decisions you make. Every decision is made with or reading a decision environment, which is defined as the collection off information, alternatives, values and preferences available at the time of the decision. An ideal decision and the dealer ideal decision environment would include all possible information, all of it accurate and every possible alternative. However, both information and alternatives are constrained because the time an effort to gain information or identify alternatives are limited. The time constraints simply means that decision must be made by a certain time. The effort constraint reflects the limits off manpower, money and priorities. You wouldn't want to spend three hours and 1/2 just to try to find the very best parking place. At the moment, his decisions must be made within the constraint environment. We can say that major challenge of decision making is uncertainty and the major goal of decision analyzed east to reduce distance certain we can almost never have all information needed to make a decision with certainty. So most decisions involved undeniable amount of risk. Next lecture is about the decision making process. 13. Decision-making process: many decision makers have a tendency to seek more information than required to make a good decision when too much information thought enough. AIM one or more several problems can arise firstly, a delay in the decision for course because of the time required to obtain and process, he explained. Formation The's delay would impair the effectiveness off the decision or solution. Information overload will occur. This is a second potential problem in the state. So much information is available that decision making ability actually declines because the information and its entirety can no longer be managed or assess. One major problem caused by information overload is forget fullness. Too much information is taken into memory, especially in a short period of time. Some of the information, often that received early on, will be pushed out. You follow certain logical steps when you make a decision. Even if you don't do this consciously, however, it is useful to think off decision making at the conscious and established process so that you don't me so compromised any off the steps. Doing this increases your chances of making effective decisions on basic decision making. Model one we will use includes five steps first we establish a context for your success, then you frame the issue properly. After that, generate alternatives, evaluate these alternatives, and finally, you choose the best until, with this decision making process, we're going toe work in the next two sections off this. For example, consider how this model can be applied in practice. Simone is a departmental, head off national wide company that commissions and distributes college level textbooks for recent drop in sales and profitability means that her team has to decide on the best strategising corrective measures to ensure sales and profit goes. During our next lessons, we're going to use this example the example of Simone and her team to practice the five step decision making process. A common misconception about decision making is that decisions are made in isolation from each other. You gather information, explore alternative and make a choice without regard to anything that has gone before. The fact these decisions are made in a context. Other decisions. The typical metaphor used to explain this is that off the street there is a stream of decisions surrounding given decision. Many decisions made earlier have led up to this decision and made it both possible and limited many other decisions would follow from another way. To describe the situation is to say that most decisions involved a choice from a group of pre selected eternities made available to us from the universe of alternatives. By the previous decisions, we have made previous decisions we have activated or made operable certainty alternatives on the activated or made inoperable others. Next, let's see some details thes decision making process. 14. Decision-making steps: decision making can be difficult because you become too personally invested in how decision will make a feel and look. Can you objectively solve the problem? Yes, least potential causes and foot your emotion and a go on the back for me. But there's no hard and fast rules for decision making. There are, however, a number off interesting tendencies that play into how we decide which we should all be. Well, here's more details on the steps off our decision making. The first step is to establish a context in which the problem can be effectively addressed . TOE Does this involve the right people? Keep the decision group small, encourage their participation, choose diver settings for meetings and avoid focused. You should involve a combination off knowledgeable people with divergent opinions, both opponents and supporters of the idea being debated. You also need someone in a position of authority who can delegate passed on. Resource is, for example, Simone. Steam should include someone from the Finance and Accounting Department who knows sales and profitability trends for each brother climb. She should also invite zonal managers toe the team that will be implementing the chosen course of action, Although you shouldn't leave out anyone with valuable expertise. You should keep the decision group to a manageable size. This is very important, including two larger group is likely to slow down the decision making process. It may also intimidate those who have varied ideas but aren't used to speaking in a crowd. Seymour, for example, it's careful in identifying who should participate in the decision making process. Identifies a group six people, each of whom has skills or knowledge relevant to the problem. Death must be addressed. You should encourage participation by demonstrating that you value minority views and different opinions by ensuring people won't be afraid toe other worries or criticisms. You facilitate healthy debate. Simone, for example, make sure that everyone at the meeting gets a say people who are more creative and more likely to voice their opinions freely when they are in new settings. So although Simone usually needs discussions at the head of the boardroom table, she decides to rearrange the furniture into a circle to defuse the power dynamic step. Usually apply now, although it's important to make room from different opinions, everyone in the group should present balanced arguments for position and be open to constructive criticism. Simone or example again knows that Mark One that we put in her team generally place the devil's advocate. She encourages him to consider the other side toe and to present a balanced argument. She also makes a positive environment for everyone in the team toe offer. Welcome, constructive criticism. Once you've established the context for success, the next step is to frame the issue properly. Your experiences and expectations affect your perceptions. So when a complicated situation arises, you need to frame it properly. To make sure you address the real issue, Simone asked her team members what they think about the situation where Simone believes their advertising strategy is outdated. Richard, another team member, things the book's authors don't have the required level off expertise. Simone of Richard's different frames would generate divergence solutions if they were acting alone to avoid mis framing. Don't simply accept your initial perceptions. Instead, try to pinpoint your biases and those off other people seek out the perspectives others in the decision making team and try to approach the issue from several angers. Our Simone gain some valuable information by not imposing her own framing off the situation on others. If she'd started the meeting by saying, We need to think of ways to improve our advertising strategy, the team's focus would have been very, very different. It's good to be creative at this stage of the decision making process. Try to come up with us many ways off, understanding the situations as you can. C'mon, steam even tries to interpret issue from an outsider's perspective. Everyone asks, and you can do it in your real life problems. Everyone asked themselves what they saying off the textbooks. They were using them at college. How do they? How do the textbook compared to others in terms off value for money? Is it easy for lectures to find out what books are not? For once you have a thorough understanding of the issue, you need to generate alternative. This would be third step process, often more options open to you that your original thing find them by brainstorming and involved in creative people in the decision making you bring still, by criticizing by writing down as many possible alternatives as you can without criticizing or judging the ideas, it's more effective to do this as a team because everyone brings fresh ideas to the table. In Simone's case, she tries to get everyone to contribute. As Lucy, another team member, is a shy person. Simone asked everyone to write down their ideas and passed them to her so she can lease them on a white board. This ensures that everyone contributes when you form a decision making team. You should include people who take tackle problems energetically, and they're likely to have valuable insides and original ideas. Diverse group of people. It's less likely to agree immediately, and this will spark healthy debate. Contract toe counter act, the friction this inevitably causes. Simone lays down some ground yours. Everyone has to listen properly to the others and show respect for their opinions. Everyone is and encouraged to challenge ideas that they don't agree with, but not to make any personal effects. When generating alternatives, it is important to come up with a strong, viable choice is a good alternative. Has these characteristics is unique, broadly constructed, so it's not just a variation off. Another idea takes the organization resources and constraints into account offers a real choice that hasn't just been included to make up the numbers or make another idea seem better than it, really. Through brainstorming and the efforts of the whole team, Simone Steam has come up with the number off ways to country the recent drop in saves. They include developing new lines, attracting new cutting edge both oars, enticing best selling authors from other publishing companies, optimizing quality to decrease costs and investing in new marketing companions. Your least should include as many alternatives. That's possible. But the Children be overwhelmed. Then you need to evaluate these haltern. This involves determining how well reach alt meets your objectives. Often, as in Simone's case, the financial implications implications will be the deciding factor. Her team has to decide on the option that will increase sales and profitability. Most can use a number off tours toe help you evaluate possible underneath this include the prioritization metrics, tradeoff, table. The decision tree and various software. Proselytization metrics means that successfully evaluating alternative solutions might require you toe weigh them against criteria space. Efecto problem. You can do this America using a prioritization metrics detail and give each of the problems criteria very good value, reflecting its priority. You then address were Internet ive solutions assess how well they meet the needs off individual by fear. Then give them and Merrick rating, say, on a scale of 1 10 Quantify. It's up to you. You can decide heroes. He needs the relevant criteria. You then total the product set off each alternative match to each criterion. Probably. In other words, you multiply the values off each criteria and its matching alternative, who then add together the total for each other. The alternative with the highest total is that which is the best suited to meet your objectives. That one you should choose. Tradeoff table another tool in the trade off table, like in a brave prioritization metrics. You compare how well each alternative mates, your objectives, you least objectives, feeling specific data about the alternatives and weigh them against each other. In this example Option Beast. Bigger profits are offset by low product quality and slow implementation. So, of course, we shouldn't choose that the decision three is a graphic representation off. Each alternatives possible outcomes. Outcomes can include success and failure percentage estimates, profitability and other possible events. The complexity of the diagram depends on the complexity of the problem, although it won't tell you reach alternative to choose can help your team assess and compare the possible outcomes off these alternatives can use software programs. Various software problems can assist you when evaluating alternatives and require shifting true lots of data. This range from simple spreadsheets used to other figures to more sophisticated programs. Taylor meant for individual conference Seymour steam on the team's members use of prioritization metrics to evaluate the alternative solutions they consider it. Solution under range off different waited criteria such as Coast is of implementation time . Stakeholder Impact. After summing up the scores, Team discovered that developing new lines tracked new cutting edge authors and investing in a new marketing campaign are the top three potential solutions. Once you've considered the merits of each alternative, you need to choose the best one. An important aspect of this is that you need to know when to end the regulations. If you are too quick to make a decision, you might miss the better. Turner. People failed to think through the pit force off your choice, but if you take too long, he might needs valuable opportunities. So insisting on hearing out every idea and opinion can simply waste time and resources choosing the best decision is not the end of the process. You'll have to turn the decision into action. First, need to communicate your teams finding toe. Everyone who has waas and will be involved show consideration to the people who have given their input by saying well, why their suggestions were not taken to implement your decision. You're probably me too Delicate, said Deadlines and follower. Make sure everyone is aware of their responsibilities and how they may be effective because her team can decide the best alternative. Simone takes responsibility for making the final decision. She decided that introducing new lines is the best way to increase sales and profitability . She lands credibility to her decision by letting everyone know why she discarded some other suggestions and reiterate that everyone simple contributed to the final decision. As a result, her team thinks the process was effective and fair. Simone delegates tasks by asking Richard to notify marketing, commissioning, production and other departments affected by the decision by the end of the day. Then she asks three team members to produce a schedule for the implementation off the decision, and she follows up to make sure everything is going. It's mostly now Let's try to sequence steps in this process in the right order. That's another example. Things time is not c'mon, it's another one on. It's a bit different but has the same purpose. So in this case, um, it is the features editor for Adventure Travel magazine. He has been getting complaints that feature articles in the magazine are too tired in contract. Now he wants to decide on the future for the next issue. Try to Fit Steps, describes described on the right side of the screen to the decision making process. This is how I sequenced steps and why I'm sure you took your time. You had 3 to 5 minutes off time to stop the video, and you tried to give your responses. But this is the answers we will discuss to get Let's take the 1st 1 explains why the choosen article, The fifth step, This is actually the 50 is to choose the best alternative in this case. Akhmed makes his selection final and closes. The meeting ensures that everyone knows why the decision was made and keeps everyone in the loop. He asked for ways to improve. This would be the second step after establishing context for subject success in this case, Low budget adventure locations, is to frame the issue problems. May does thes by getting everyone simple on the problem. In case he has misunderstood the team brain stops. This would be the third step. Mr. Step is to generate alternatives each off, which should be unique and physical. Man steam does this by braced on. You can choose in project in your riel decision making situation a different matter, he asked a few key people. This would be the first time The first step is to establish a context for success. One way that command does this is by assuring the right people participate in the decision making process. This includes people with authority as well as people who will have some creative ideas. The team uses a prioritization. This would be the four steps. This one is to evaluate the alternatives. An example of a tool that can be used in this step is a prioritization mattress, in which alternatives are scold and run based on how well they meet each of a set of criteria. No, consider a business decision you have to make. Did you follow the five step model when deciding what course of action to take. Maybe yes, Maybe not. Just to remind you, you should have five steps. Step bond. Establish a context for success. Step to frame the issue properly. Step three. Generating alternatives. Step for Evaluate the alternatives. Step five. Choose the best now. Simple decisions are fun. You can figure them off your list, your to do list that feel like you've accomplished something along the way. When the stakes increase and you're faced with making a critical business decision. Don't delay because it's difficult. Dedicate decisions require just took off time to work through the problem. Cohn's recent realistic outcomes of your decision to give the second and third order effects off your decision during this session is not that simple. The next lesson we're going to explore with decision making stops 15. Decision-making styles: managers. Leaders on all of us adopt different styles of decision making based on our personality, the situation we face and the culture, our organization, but also on the characteristics off the people we are working with and the nature of the decisions as a leave or whenever we need to take a decision on 14 decision. We're stuck with decision making. It's our job to make decisions that balance our interest with a general interest. This is a big responsibility, and very often people don't appreciate this effort. Thistles the objective from the second or big off this'll s decision making styles. And again, there are many ways one can define decision making stops. One we're going to use its again, the one I find more useful for practical reasons. Approaching Manager has to leave the office to deal with the family emerges. That's an example. In her absence, Sarah and Antone are in charge of assembling a team to deal with the company's biggest sales pitched up today. Sarah fears she has a pretty good idea off everyone strengths and weaknesses. So she has already decided on and Don't, on the other hand, wants to meet with senior staff members discuss roles and responsibilities and to take collective decision on whole being on the thing reflect on the situation. We have just discussed his either persons approach the most appropriate weathers. Well, people can approach decision making, and you know this in different ways. No one approach is necessary. The right one spends very much in the context. Sarah's and Antone's approaches may both be equally effect. However, often the nature off a given situation means that one type of approach is likely to be more appropriate. Each has specific advantages and disadvantages in different situations. Approaches to decision making can be categorized in four stops. The authority of experts style conservative style, traditional majority voting style. And the consensus is that each thing has its unique corrective. Again, I want to stress out that this is the taxonomy we're using for discourse just because I find this to be more years for 40 the authority or expert style traditionally used most in a business environment, you can think of it as I decide Start, for example, a manager simply makes a decision and expect or staff toe by life or especially, Specialist makes an independent decision because others lack the expert knowledge on reach . The decision must be based. The consultant if style involves incorporating input from others in the decision, you ultimately it can be likened toe, I decide, but with your input approach. For instance, on Executive gathers opinions from all floor managers before deciding how best change company's product assembly process Executive considers the floor managers information but retains responsibility for making the final decision the traditional majority or voting style. It's an approaching which the most popular decision is the one taken. This style is used quite often, sometimes just to get an idea off people's feelings on particulate matter. It is a process that can be quick, and it's good for coming to a decision that's based on what the majority of participants feel. Consensus style off decision making is a will decide together approach devolves, including all affected parties in the decision making process and adopting a final decision on Lee. When everyone agrees that it's the best. Consensus style incorporates the different opinions and perspectives all individuals, the amis toe rich decisions that make everyone happy. Although this can be time consuming, think about how you typically approach decisions which style. Do you most often news, Remember that No. One decision making style it is always best. Most appropriate style often depends on the situation you are facing in a crisis that requires an immediate response. For example, it can make the most sense for one person to make a decision and impose it on others. Because this would be the fastest in another case, it may be vital to consider everyone's opinions, and thus for the inputs, so that final decision is perceived. That's fair. The four styles of decision making are sometimes grouped mawr simply to two brothers categories. This are the authoritative style and the Democratic staff. The authoritative style is similar to the authority our experts style. The remaining three styles consultative, traditional majority voting and consensus. More Democrats take Rick, for example, as a human resources manager. He reviews different medical aid plans for the insurance company he works for. He's careful to investigate the real active advantages and disadvantages off each plan. He then decides on one plan and informs in police about his decision. Now take a moment, use the previous example and try to find the correct. So whether think which decision making style. Diedrich use well. The first option. It's obviously incorrect. Rick didn't consult others. That's part of the decision making process. Second option is also weak. Reached the decision independently, rather than asking the group and then going with whichever medical plan from most popular Sir, adoption is the correct. Rick has used the authority or expert staff. He relied on his own expertise to decide medical aid plan. He didn't consult staff member, but instead made a decision and then inform them about it. The fourth option. It's again, obviously, in Korea. Rick reached a decision on his own rather than asking the group working to obtain everyone's agreement of rich wise the best recuses, the authority or expert style. Because it enables him to reach a decision. However, some employees feel there needs haven't been taken into account. For example, employees with families favor a plan with extra coverage for visits to pediatricians. Others prefer a more basic plan with lower premiums. If you use the authority or expert style of decision making, you should discuss the decision you make with those who are affected by you should explain why reached the decision, what effects it will have on introducing your organization as a home. If we don't approach the style properly, you could create a situation in which employees feel alienated, unappreciated. They may feel that did options DS don't count or that your approach is unfair, although advantage of the authority of experts died. Is that a decision? Can we make quickly, quite quickly that these advantages that other individuals aren't involved they don't take part of the decision, didn't and they don't have a say are called on to develop their decision making skills. Also, with this tide, quality of the decision that's made depends totally on knowledge and expertise. Off wanders, we have observed that decision starts different, too, from diamond out ways, how information is used and how options are created within the decision making process. When it comes toe information use. Some people want to move over dreams data before they make any decisions. The management literature such people are called maximum maximize er's can't rest until they're certain they've found the very best answer. Result is well informed decision that may come at the cost in terms of Time officials. Other managers just want to the key facts. They're apt to leave toe hypothesis and then test them as they go here. The literature Boroughs author from Behavior economist Herbert Seymour Simon. They're cold, satisfying status. Fires are ready to act as soon as they have enough information to satisfy their requirement for creating options. Single focus decision makers strongly believing taking one course of action while they're noti focused counterparts generate least off possible options for sue. Multiple courses single focus people with their energy into making things come out. They believe they shoot multi focus people believing, adapting to circumstances. But next video give you even more details on these stairs. 16. Using decision-making styles: psychologists, social adjusting other side. It's continually seek to understand and explain the similarities and differences in people . Many different social, physiological and psychological factors shape our decision making. There are social culture, components, external and uncontrollable and emotional internal forces that fact our perceptions and our decision making. However, many researchers agree that from an early age we begin to see the world through an individualized plans. Though each of us makes up our own combination off ways to think. We also tend to fall into general categories off decision making. Let's go back to our style and see more about the four week uses, the consultative style of decision making to choose a medical aid plan. Remember the example we had in the previous videos? He'll get valuable input from employees. However, he'll have to make it clear that he is responsible for the final decision. Also, it's important that he actually wants and values input from others. It only creates in feeling if he consults other just toe, appease them and then doesn't appear to take their opinions into account. Consultative approach to decision making takes long then the authority or expert style, but generally result in better and more informed decisions being made. It also leads to a greater sense of trust because others feel that they have been part of the decision making process. Next, consider Gate another example. Who is the manager at clothing manufacturing company Theme Cos. Currently considering a proposed merger with multinational tech steels manufacturer Gail organizes a meeting image. Shareholders are asked to use private ballots to indicate whether or not they are in favour off the merger. She'll then slowly up the results to determine a final decision which decision making styles gave using based on what we discussed. What do you think? Is it consensus style? Is it authority for its back expert style? Is it consultative style? Is it traditional or majority or voting style? Yes, you are correct. Answer here is Option D. This is a traditional majority. Both gain is using the style on shareholders voted the decision. What's most popular is the one that will be taken even if Minority disagrees that it's the best. Although the traditional majority reporting style makes it possible to reach a decision quite quickly, it also has disadvantages. This approach creates the winners and losers mentality. Unless the voting process is an anonymous people labelled with the majority regardless of the actual views, so that they appear to support the winning or most popular decision. It also means that those in the minority the losers don't get toe other views, although these may be valid ones. Nobody else has considered in meeting with departmental employees about changing the office floor plan. And another example decides to use the consensus time he wants to change the floor plan to a low form or effective use off office space. He feels it's important to open the discussion upto all individuals who work in the office because it will all effect there directly. Also, by using the consensus style, he'll be able together different ideas about how best to utilize this office based because it is just that it's often the most complicated and time consuming. But it's the best style to use If you're really want, only the video is concerned to be involved, so it's suitable in Andrew situation. Very mine know that because it's a time consuming process, it's critical to ensure you use it on Lee to decide on key issues if you chose the style but find that we're running out of time because it's taking too long. You can switch to a backup style after sufficient discussion. You may, for example, put the decision to a vote. When you use the consensus style, it's not necessarily possible toe that everyone reach complete agreement about the best decision. But once the decision is made, everyone involved must be able to answer yes to two important questions. Am I able toe leave with a decision made? Would I be able to support the decision that's made? If yes, then you have consensus. Living with the decision means that for the consensus to exist, everyone involved must feel able to accept the final decision, even if it isn't necessarily the one they reach independent. So the decision that's chosen can't infringe on anyone's believes or ethics or violate anyone's personal values. Supporting the decision would mean that once a decision has been rich, those who participated should feel that they can support up cold. That decision went, others question them about it, and through their attitudes and conduct, they should not leave the room feeling that they simply went along with the decision others made for them. Just for to be aware of the decision making style, you tend to fail, but also, to our knowledge, the fact that some situation respond better to a different style of decision. No, please read through the items on the left and find the best match or matches from the least on the right. Which scenario and style can only be used once again Presuppose the video until you have all the answers. Now let's see. Let's compare our results So the first would be consultative style, which means that the manager is using consultative approach by consulting others and taking their feedback into account, but retains the responsibility for making a final decision. 2nd 1 will be authority or experts time which corresponds to the second option on the left . This means that team leader uses the authority or expects tied by deciding on criteria independently rather than involved in others from the decision making process. The 3rd 1 the consensus tired, corresponds to the first option in the left to the first, using the consensus style, the board members reaching agreement that they are all happy with they can leave the meeting feeling able to live with the support of decision. The 4th 1 traditional majority voting started actually corresponds to the fourth scenario. Shareholders are using the traditional majority of voting style. They decide who the next chairperson off the board will be passed on. How the majority votes now, before finishing this presentation, please pause again. A lecturer taken Reflect the situations. Have you ever made a decision using the authority or expert style? Ask yourself. Was this the most appropriate side to use for the decision we were making? And how did those affected by your decision? You can also ask yourself, Did your decision have any negative effects on the people in your workplace? Do you think it would have been better to use a different style? And if yes, which one? These are questions for you. You don't need to give an answer right now, but opposed the video thing for 1 to 3 minutes at these questions, and then you can continue viewing election next lesson. We're going to see how toe the decision making style to a particular situation. For now, some deeps for making decisions in a different way. First of all, start small. If you are a maximize er alot of 60 seconds toe Order an entree at the restore your the status fire for use the entire menu before order. It makes the difference the difference. Us people you value for advice. The people close to you See where you're keeping yourself up. For big decisions, set a limited number of options to consider if you are a maximize, er make this number much smaller than your usual choice. Satis fires should make it larger. OK, that's it for now. See you next. 17. Adapting your decision-making style: effective decision makers know that deciding what's best knowing how best to decide do very different skills. Decision makers. Mastery of the difference between these two capabilities has major implications for both the decision maker and those affected by the decisions. Wellness off these barriers can help leaders avoid potential bid force and improve decision making quality. However, cultivating and practicing an effective process for deciding how to decide one that is applicable in real time is the most effective deterrent. This video lesson is about how to adapt personal style for decision making situation. Effective leaders know the value of experience in learning how to make decisions, and they're open to learn from both others. Success on Mistakes Under all, Researchers have observed certain attributes and behaviors in leaders who are constantly associate with high quality and viable decision making flexibility and risk taking honesty and trust, openness to new ideas and feedback, willing less to challenge the status quo and the voice and here at popular truths. Reliance on accurate information consideration off the far ranging consequences of the decision consideration, or those who must accept unimplemented decision with help so that the style to a situation help to change old and ingrained behaviors. People make many different types of decisions using a number of different decision making stars. While one style may work for a particular situation, it may not be appropriate for another. The most effective decision makers don't just take toe one decision making start the adapter styles to suit the situation they face. Several factors can influence your choice off style. These factors include the time that's available. The importance off a decision. Require levels off knowledge, whether there's a need for buying from others and your experience Time if you need to make a decision quickly, is generally most effective to use either the authority or experts time or the traditional majority or voting stock. The styles enable a decision to be reached rapidly. For example, team leader, who has to decide between two alternatives, may have a team vote and then simply go with the decision that's most popular. This is much less time costuming. They're consulting extensively with other soul, attempting to reach consensus in an opposition with importance. Importance off the issue matters Decision may be especially important because it could have a significant impact for because it revolves around the controversial issue. In this case, it's best to use either the consultative style or the consensus style provide the diamonds for this before restructuring the department in an organization, for example, a senior manager make us all various employees in the existing departments. This helps ensure the views of those who will be effective are taking into account may improve perceptions that the final decision taking is a fair one. If a team is very knowledgeable about an issue face to use a consultative approach, this ensures that everybody, everybody's expertise, insides and experience can be pulled to determine the best possible decision. However, the team lacks knowledge about an issue. It's better to use the authority or experts now and then to explain your decision. And it's likely in back. For example, if everyone is familiar with relevant technologies. Pitchers for to involve team in deciding on which technology is best for a particular purpose. If only you are familiar with the technologies consulting others could just waste buying. It's another big name that you can use the doctors time when you need others to support the decision and its implementation. The majority of voting style may may not work, however, it's generally better to use the consensus time. That way, you know that you'll have the support of others going forward, and you're likely to be to be undermined by partly by parties would disagree with the decision. For example, Manager is deciding whether to change his company's office. Productivity software set toe a new one radically different than the one the company already has. Some employees are reluctant, so the manager discussing discusses the matter with and together they reach consensus that he'll implement the new software but provide ample training and time for everyone to adjust . Trust factor that influence your choice off That might be experience. If your team has sufficient experience in making decisions as a group, you should use the consensus time The style acknowledges your team members capabilities have involved in the decision making process. However, if your team is inexperienced, a group decision making blacks relevant knowledge or time short, you should use a difference time, so you need to identify the best of the available technologies for a given for post. It would be useful to use the consensus style with an extra experienced thing that has relevant knowledge about the technology, however, if this is likely to slow things down because team members typically struggle to collaborate. Different approach may be that so. This is some advice on adopting toe decision making situation, and you have toe know that the common phrase herding leadership is that decision making is enough. I'm sure you know this already. The support. They believe that the decision making process is highly personal on intuitive decision making is indeed something people naturally minute by minute. It's influenced by such individual factors logic, motions, culture values. As in the case with mosque years, some people have naturally better decision makers and others tied ivory. Sir, supports the nurture over nature argument in this instance, demonstrating that decision making effectiveness is not correlated with personality preferences or gender. So strong this finding. Supporters believe that all decision makers are so susceptible toe common decision making traps on being able to choose the most appropriate decision making style is a learned capability. Next, we're going to discuss choice making 18. Choosing the right decision-making style: regardless of your actual title. In an organization, your job involves making decisions. New staff members start making decisions. Today. They're hired and beginning with their decision to accept the job, we hope their decision would be good ones. One of the basic principles discourse because they believe that when people practice decision making, we'll make metal decisions. That said, the amount of decision making required long with the negative impact off poor decisions then to increase as people progressed to leadership positions and in order to move from over head as an organization, decisions need to be made. Sometimes organizations get stuff because wanna more managers avoid making important decisions, fearing that choices, Maybe the managers I know who are best of making and implementing decisions are those who have come to terms with the fact that there is almost never one perfect answer toe given business situation. Therefore, instead of trying to make the perfect decision, they simply do the best to make a good decision and move on. To see what happens next is a matter of choosing the right decision. In his decision making situation. You need toe way up different factors and then decide which decision making style best suits to the situation for exactly how much time to have to make the decision. How important is the decision? These and other issues are critical and choosing style that will be the most effective. People often need to make decisions in a business context, and these may involved or effect teams are larger parts, often organization. Choosing the most appropriate decision making style can have an important consequence for you on the organization, where it's often equally important to consider all the factors when it shows how best approach A personal decision for one you need to reach on your one phone. This topic focuses on decision making in a business environment. Take this situation for an advertising agency manager is offered the opportunity to take on promotions campaign for a company that specializes in mobile phone messages. The manager is well acquainted with the relevant industry, but most members of his advertising team have very limited experience in the field is faced with a decision off whether to take the project to totally down. The manager is confident that his team can adapt to the new kind of four. She knows that taking on the campaign could open the door. Other lucrative opportunities. However, it could also involve a variety of risks. Manager needs to make a decision quickly, for he lists off losing the project to a rival agency. Which decision making style is most appropriate decision situation. Pulled a lecture and try to answer to the question. Is it consensus? Is a traditional majority of voting? Is it authority or expert decision? Is it consultant? If decision welcome back now, let's see which one is the correct US option. A thesis one is incorrect. Consensus style would take too long, especially considering the team's lack of knowledge in the relevant field. Option B. It's also incorrect. Putting the decision to a vote is now the best approach, although it could result in a decision being reached quickly. Team members in this case lacks sufficient knowledge on which to base their own choice option. See, this one is the correct option. The authority or expert style is best because it will enable the manager to make a decision quickly while also taking into consideration the team's lack of knowledge in the relevant field. Last option. It's obviously incorrect consultative approach would not be off much benefit because team lacks knowledge about the relevant field. Another example on this one. Also, we're goingto have a question. A software development company relies on three strips off work, each handled by separating over the previous 12 months. Custom Development team has Bean, relatively inactive CEO now needs to decide whether to keep the thing going or to disband it and integrate its members into the conference. Other things so option would be to keep them Early. Indicators suggest that the company may secure a number of lucrative custom development projects in the coming here. Demons disbanded some very talented custom. Team members might opt out to leave the company rather than move onto teams that handle different times before. Without these members, company can to deliver the outstanding work that clients expect it may lose important custom developed clients Now. The other option would be to disband the company's losing money by maintaining a relatively unproductive custom development ing. If the team is disbanded and its members are reassigned, it's more likely to increase the productivity off the remaining teams. Additionally, having the team members work on new tasks would expand their professional abilities. Manager off each of the three existing teams are very knowledgeable about their respective areas so forth. No, the team members very well. It's important that this managers support whichever decisions CEO makes. Identify the to decision making styles that are most appropriate for the situation, busy authority or expert consensus is a traditional majority or voting or visit consultative. On this example, the situation is this option A is incorrect authority or expert style is not appropriate because the CEO needs buying from the manager's. Additionally, because the decision so critical to the organization, the CEO should seek assistance from the manager's from the managers who have relevant knowledge should be is the correct one because the decision is critical to the organization and it's important to secure the buying of managers, the CEO nature's to use the consensus time. The style deserves appropriate because the need for a final decision isn't urgent. There should be enough time for everyone involved to reach a consensus. This option, the third option is incorrect. Traditional majority voting style is not likely to be effective, with only four people CEO and the three managers participating in the vote. Also, the decision is an important run, making it wise to consider opinions and options rather than just voting on alternatives. Section D the last one. That's correct, because the decision is critical to the organization and the CEO has time he could consult with a knowledgeable managers. Studies are advisable because it would have been securing. Vying from the managers who support the CEO requires just to make it clear. Let's see another example. And based on these, another question. The third, a successful law firm comprising both experience that your lawyers has grown to such an extent that it needs to move to bigger premises. Manager sets a dead life off one month to make a decision and evaluates number potential official buildings trying to find the best feet for the for. The decision is important because it will affect all employees, especially with regard to travel in time. Andi from three office. The decision will also have an impact on clan per section. Perceptions off the front and the final question for this lesson. Stop again at the video and think about this question which decision making styles are most appropriate in this situation? Consultative expert, majority voting or insects? My answer. This please compare with yours. My answers are this. Please compare with yours. Option. A thesis is a correct one because the decision is so important and there is time available , it's appropriate for the manager to consult with stuff. This type is also advisable because involving stuff in the decision making process will help ensure their support for the decision that's ultimately made. Even if not all staff members agree, the second option is incorrect. The authority or expert style is not appropriate because the decision is too important and will affect other stakeholders whose opinions and knowledge should be also taken into account. The style maybe be appropriate as a final resort if other approaches fail and time is running out, but it is not advisable as the first choice. The third option is also incorrect. Voting is not the best tired in this situation because the decision is an important one and requires careful consideration. Also, individual stuff. Members are likely to favor that only interest without necessarily considering the best interests of the firm. The last one. This is a correct option because the decision is so important and time is available, the manager can try to get consensus from the stuff. This would ensure that everyone supports the decision or, at the very least, is waiting to live with him. As you think about past decisions and evaluate their bottom line in back at decision style into the mix and see if next time in a similar situation you might choose a difference time . It's also possible to mix and match decisions times next lecture and the last from this section and the adopt your decision style topic. 19. Steps in adapting your decision-making style: decision making effectiveness has been associating with the extent to which managers adapt their cognitive style task requirements. Present course Puris regarding decision making under uncertainty and use of judgment and intuition are reviewed. Integrate. This is what we practiced during this section. So next time when you are faced with Secret, considered such factors that time constraints, three experience and knowledge of those around you, the importance of the decision and the level by required, then use the factors to help you choose the decision making style that is most appropriate to your situation. Now please read this case started careful. Three questions that we follow based on the information about. We can return to this life for reference after each question if it's so required. But now just stop for a second video, read quietly case that you will have three questions. Please pause the lecture to answer to reach. First question. Question is the following One of the company's delivered tracks has broken down. Andan engine part needs to be replaced. There are three plausible replacement parts ranging in price and quality. Mechanic working on the track needs to know which part to use. He needs an answer really the next three days. Yvonne's driver are motor vehicle juicy, and the other employees don't know much about engines. Which decision styles are most appropriate for Yvonne to use. Even being the person that makes that exact take your time, let's analyze them together. First option is obviously incorrect. Traditional majority of voting style is inappropriate because only two people the drivers, have knowledge off the issue at hand. Second option. It's also authority or expert styles inappropriate because evil has very little knowledge off the relevant issue. Sir, adoption is correct. Von has a few days to make a decision, so they're start for her to consult the drivers who have relevant knowledge the force option. It's also called if one has a few days to make a decision. Therefore, she can try to get consensus from the drivers who have knowledge. The second question, during a telephone conversation of Supplier mentions that he's doubling the price will be stopped, even realizes that if she's to retain this, a player should make a lost. This items before we won't as the conversation she needs to decide whether to state breather, supply or seek. So before ending the conversation, which Decision Star is most appropriate in this case shows careful. Let's see this Mourners First option is incorrect. Yvonne doesn't have time to consult with others, and she doesn't need to, because supply relations, it's Vorobyov expertise, thistles. The correct option. The second Yvonne's companies expert in the audio supplier relations. And she's under pressure to make a decision quickly. So that's one. This one is that correct? The third option is incorrect. Yvonne doesn't have time to get. She's the company's expert in the area of supplier relations, so it makes sense for her simply to make a final decision. The last one is also, if one doesn't have time to organize a and she's the company's expert in the area of supplier. In the last question is this one. At the end of a particularly stressful day, the same Yvonne decides to take her stuff out. For, unfortunately, most of the restore Inti, the area booked for banana, and she's left with a choice off only two places to eat. Devoted staff are ready to go, so great decision is important which decision style should we won't use to decide on a store. Brothers that seemed these are My answers can compare this one with yours. Your answers and your 1st 1 is an incorrect corruption even doesn't have enough time to get our senses from all the stuff. The 2nd 1 is that correct. A quick vote will give on that idea Off, which was stolen is the most popular choice having her staff members. Also everyone involved is likely to recognize this as a fair way to settle. To settle on a decision. Sir, Adoption is incorrect. One doesn't have enough time to get each stuff. Members will be last one. This is a new correct. The phone is no more qualified to make a decision than her staff members. And putting the decision to a vote is one way to have sure everyone's happy with the final decision. Descend the section. You learn how to sequence examples of steps in the decision making process. Learned how much each example with the decision making style it best exemplifies. Angela helped to adopt your decision making style to suit the given situation. Ask yourself this question. These questions What part of this content was the most interesting to on? Do you see opportunities for applying this content in the near future. Thistles. Valid valid question for this course, but may be valid for all the courses you will if yes, ask yourself where and when and maybe try toe plan. Other exercises descends, section toe off our course next section, we'll give you the skins off, applying advanced decision making tools and things. 20. Decision-making tools and techniques: rial life business situations. Decisions can often fail because the best alternatives are not clear at the outset, for key factors have not considered as part of the process. To stop this from happening, we need to bring problem solving and decision making strategies together to clarify your understanding, logical and order process can help you to do this by making sure that you addressed all of the critical elements needed for a successful outcome. Like so many things, small decision making can benefit from the additional structure focused and a bit off metaphor while in perfect in their own ways, the kinds off doors that support this mental curling can help tremendously in quieting the caps, surveying the available options and then called. I think in five meetings the information you need to choose the best course of action, whether our wide variety of decision making techniques and tools. Many tend to revolve around the same key principles off figuring out the decision that needs to be made considering and researching the options and reviewing the decision. WAAS It's being made target audience of this course is anyone who wants to develop for improved problem solving and decision making skits. That's why this section is developed. I mean, just destruction. The goal off this section is to use various decision making tools, techniques to generate, evaluate and choose between alternative courses of action. Therefore, the agenda will focus on four main topics. First, it will be dealing with alternatives in decision making. Then we will started one specific tools. Nominal group technique on decision making and then using a Y in decision making and then some other analyzes stores for decision making. Like most people, you've probably made decisions in the past that, in hindsight, you wish had been different. For fun is crucial to make the right decisions before we commit limited resources off time and money to implementing them. But it's not always possible to foresee all the consequences of the decision to decide on the direction that's best. Using your range off decision making tours can simplify the process off reaching decisions . Help you identify the best alternatives rationally and systematic decision making tools can help you generate eternities. You may not otherwise have considered thing this issue that decisions are based on an awareness off all the possible options. Tools can also help you to buy their narratives rationally. Been assessing the relative strengths on shortcomings. They can make it easier to judge an eternity offer. Really benefits. Ultimately, you arrive at a decision by choosing one off the available alternatives. Decision making tools can guide you through the Process Day neighborhood to manage the process of making intelligent, appropriate decisions. Many tools and techniques are available to decision makers. Some come on. The use tools you may find helpful include the nominal group technique. This is something we will practice on return on investment or so known as a wry devil's advocate technique. Blast miners Interesting Technical PM My analyzes on the season Effect magics Very interesting things. Nominal group technique is useful in generating alternatives and selecting preferred alternatives. It helps to prevent the usual drawbacks. Off group based decision making such as groupthink majority influence on polarization by keeping suggestions and evaluations and to return on investment easier is to calculate to compare the financial implications off decision alternatives. This helps you to place numerical financial values from qualitative costs and benefits and therefore select alternatives based on how they will affect your bottom Devil. South Africa techniques helps you to identify interview. An alternative from a range of perspectives provides a structure for political debate and analyzes often alternatives. Weak points on dissociated assumptions appear. My analyzes enables you to weigh the pros and cons, often alternative, and to consider the consequences off chosen for implement is in effect, metrics enables you to compare decision alternatives based on how easy they are to be implemented on how effective they are likely to be in meeting goals. It is a useful tool for comparing large numbers. Often when running a business, making the right decisions can relate to success while making the rooms can result faith. With so much riding on each decision, it's important there thoughtful consideration is put into each one that needs to be made to help them. Many business leaders go through thoughtful, decision making process. Applying formalized decision making doors and things. Next lesson will detail the tools and techniques listed during this 21. Dealing with alternatives in decision-making: many decision making mothers exist nowadays mean that you have to make a decision as to each one of the available options to use. There are racial mothers, created mothers professionally narrative mothers as well as 567 and even nine step decision making mothers. Most, however, moved through each of the basic stages in decision made. Defiant situation generate fraternities, information gathering, selection on action decision making more than describes the metal team will use to make decisions. The most important factor is successful. Decision making is that everything member is clear about how particular decision will be made. Who will be making the decision, how in thing members be involved by when so, knowing the things allowed members to be fully informed, participants in discussions will be giving input to the team leader so he can make the decision, Or will we need to discuss this stopping come toe an agreement during this? Maybe this is an important point to make. This one is the mother we're going to use here this because the decisions you make, you tell me what you can accomplish, how you can accomplish it and at what cost. Often there are manufacturers to take into account. This makes it important to use methodical approach, which can help you reach the best possible decisions. Taurel Decision making mother contains five steps. The first step in rows. Ensuring your in the right context. This may mean you insure your teams sets appropriate ground roast, encourage participation and the liberation, and you have the right people on a team to help you make a decision. The second step requires properly friendly you should, that is, to define understand foot into the context. The issue at this isn't that we're unlikely to make suitable decision. Step 35 involved generating and evaluating alternatives and finally said it from the best option from these alternatives of a right of decision making tours. Genesis two. During these three steps on the stores, we will discuss until the end of this course. It's not this video lecture for a second. And think about your approach to decision making. How do you normally find a solution? And can you think of a time when we were part of a group that had to reach a decision? Your group follow steps based process and take a different approach? The broad was different briefly tried to describe it for yourself. The group conference. We used any decision making tools or techniques? If so, can you remember what kind of those techniques latitudes on? Finally, if your group did not use any source and things, what time thinking or processing its decision? Thank you for taking some time to think about the before. Mentioned questions. Knowing how particular decision will be made can also help a team planned in meeting agendas more effectively and more. Robbery. 15 process. Most importantly, understanding how decisions will be made helps to be support for final decision and active commitment to decisions. Implementations. Because effective teams will toe the fullest participation off each member team often used some version off a consensus decision making, when used, appropriate this mobile off decision making and maximize the quality of teams. Next, we're going to further explore the decision making process with specific tools and bigness . 22. Tools in decision-making processes: when describing our decision making modern, it is necessary to clarify that we're not talking about a specific decision making technique for modern supports multiple techniques that underlies our decision making process. Five steps off the decision more than we're using here, as we discussed in the last lectures. First, establish a context for success. The frame dish properly profitable. Generally, alternatives, when evaluating the alternatives, finally choose the best option. So it is all about the alternatives that are generated. Evaluated finally, troops. If a single choice is presented without alternative options, the only possible decision is whether or not to proceed. More alternatives generate wide of the choices you can. So coming up with multiple solutions is an important step in any decision. Can forces you need several alternatives to make A. Previously, however generated too many tips make it hard to grasp the situation or what is practical or possible in results. Also, you must assess and evaluate feature dammit if you generally these days time and energy, which you shouldn't squander by generating assessing alternatives that you don't need a useful way off generating alternatives expressed in a brainstorming session. Individuals or groups on college too providers men of the Essex possible without evaluating judging them. This allows people to think creatively without self censorship. The least is there with us down to include Onley workable alternatives When brainstorming in a group situation it may have with people generate ideas individual first. This can minimize center censorship through peer pressure after raced off. Yes, it's important to assess how good the alternatives useful alternatives meet the tree minimal requirements they brought their general visible broad means when a range of alternatives created. The goal is to cover all the major possible strategies and courses affection. So alternatives need to cover fairly broad spec spectrum in order to lead to effective decisions. If several potential courses of action are not covered by the alternatives, this ultimate is may not give rise to a quite decisions. For example, the company wishing to augment its marketing strategy should generate alternative that cover various media in tow. Other marketing campaigns. What do you mean by January by these women that each alternative should represent a genuine option? It should not be suggestion merely for the sake of making other potential decisions appear to be well for thousands should also avoid re phasing ideas that have already been rejected . It should be also physical for idea to be worth considering. Needs to be physical, realistic if it can be practically implemented. An alternative should not be considered alternative that are clearly too costly or require too many resources. Give the scope of the problem should be scrapped out. General Better Alternatives. You should take these steps Post invited, Creative and they were a group of people to participate in coming up with alternatives and consider existing solutions other companies have adopted. You don't need to reinvent the wheel. It's already there. Try to view the situation and possible solutions from multiple perspectives that thing creatively and consider whether alternatives can be found combined. Once alternatives have been generated, you need to evaluate things. Process involves assessing each other. Nothing according toe, whether it meets your objectives in terms, off costs, benefits and visibility. Key questions to consider Here are what are the costs and benefits of each alternative and which alternative is most visible. You should dismiss alternative that are invisible by the end off. The alternative generation faced the creation phase. Your subject. The remaining alt more careful inspection to compare the relative costs and benefits off alternative aren't always obvious on can't always be quantified in financial tips, so you need to assess this aspect carefully. Searching out didn't close down benefits in considering a varieties off angles and variables to assess the relative visibility off each alternative, you ask whether the organization has adequate human resources, financial capacity and infrastructure. Perhaps employees need to be trained or new people hired. You may need to overcome internal and external obstacles, including potential resistance from employees. Find workarounds to legal constraints. Variables to consider here whenever meeting the visibility of alternatives depend on the objectives you are pursuing. Come only considered. Variables include financial impact, intangibles, time and other resources. Risk Connectix During the evaluation face, you estimate how well each other negative meets the objectives you establish at the outset . Off the process. Financial impact. You assess the financial impact in terms off course. The benefits pretties. When assessing costs, you need to review the short term and long term expenses. Hidden costs, potential savings, budgetary constraints required. Financial agreed it your laws and the likelihood of additional costs in the future. When assessing benefits, you need to consider short and long term profits deficiency or income generation on the likelihood of actually generating projected turnover. You also need to analyse whether ditch alternative will affect the NPV organization when this effect is likely to be realized. Intangibles. Custom benefits may be significant yet intangible tangibles to consider improved organization's reputation on image, customer satisfaction, employee morale and the quality of products on services, time and other resources. The time it takes to implement an eternity is a serious consideration because it has a direct impact on Coast and on when you're likely to realize benefits. We should take the probability of delays as well as the there potentially back effects into account. We also need to consider resources such as employees, occasions, buildings and equipment. For some of these, you need to carefully assess the risks associated with an alternative. This includes determining the coast off the information need to reduce uncertainties. You also need to assess each alternatives potential impact on profits, competitive advantage, competitors, suppliers, customs. You need to consider also the ethical implications off each other. Additionally, we need to ensure alternatives, comply with the laws governing your organization's particular interest of customers community employees may each be affected Different. A useful benchmark. It is whether outsiders regard your organization's activities as ethical. Once you've evaluated each of the alternatives separately, you should have a good understanding of them. Before you can choose the best alternative, though, you need to compare your findings. Also, members in decision making team may have different views off the course benefits on visibility off, different. Or or they may have unaddressed subjective and qualitative concepts. For these reasons, you may fail to reach consensus on the best of their need to drive now. Most the lecture for a minute reflect on this question. What do you think is involved in the process of choosing the best alternative? Once you have completely an evaluation off each of them to choose the best alternative you need to consolidate analysys and vibrations. This involves comparing and weighing the results for each alternative, integrating the results, generating consensus of voting, making a traditionally rational methods, quantifying or standardizing. This is, for example, who was financial measures. Ran culture also show that subjective and objective considerations have incorporated. Introduced to identify the best alternative you need to consolidate, analyzes all the alternatives and establish to do that way and compared this criteria in a group situation, you aim to generate consensus. Sure. Qualitative subjective reports are included. 14 techniques on financial criteria are also your sport. Make a final decision. Time to practice of here. Please read each activity on the left. Find a step on the right that it matches each step may have more than one. Presuppose the video, confident that you have the right answers. Okay, you are back. Now let's compare So devotees A and F course for me to step through Generating alternatives involve assembling the creative team, proposing a number off a tentative solutions that broad visible general activities BND correspond to step forward. Meeting internal thieves involves analyzing them back, considering the variables that are relevant. Objectives off the decision. Very embarrassment brood at the car implications, resource requirements and the degree of risk involved for each other activity. See and we course want to stay five. To choose the best after nothing you need to consider, they compare the results offer valued all of them in a group situation. You should also aim for consensus on the best decision or here's motive way use this more than as a basis to provide decision making solutions across personal business. Constable Constable decisions. Some of the benefits of building on this motor include, and you have to take this into account that it supports a consistent and simple decision making process. Neighbors use off all parts of previous decisions. Allows use of the most appropriate decision making techniques. Insures capture the most important information needed to determine where a decision goes right or wrong. It also provides a framework for collaboration and communication. Capture. Similar easy access to and reuse of expert knowledge makes decisions in the context off. Other related decisions. Encourages better decision making through a consistent, repeatable frame. And finally, it promotes more effective innovation for better characterization, needs and problems. Next, let's see the nominal group technique off decision making. 23. Nominal Group Technique: nominal group technique is a structured method for group brainstorming that encourages contributions from everyone. Nominal group technique is used when some group members are much more vocal than others. When some group member think better in silence when there's a concern about some members not participating when the group does not easily generate quantities off ideas when old for Sandra members are new to the end when the issue is controversial. Hated conflict over this. Making decisions in group context can be treated. Social dynamics can influence the decision making process and is difficult getting all the people in a group volunteer. Yes, this stay for creativity can lead to poor decisions. Nominal group technique is designed to avoid the speed force by ensuring all them burst off . Contribute fully the decision making process, provided it's rigorously and carefully applied. The nominal group Technique Communion Brody Engine Tea helps a group to generate prioritized alternatives and to chose the best after noted by voting. So this technique is mostly used for steps three and five off the decision making process. The technique isn't used, especially valued. Alternative relies on individual members judgments rather than formal wriggles, analyzes or evaluation It's possible, however, to use the technique to arrive at a small set off favor alternatives, which the group then evaluates more thoroughly before we change our final decision. The group that participate in the nominal group technique is considered only nominally group because the participants generate and vote on idea private rather than by interacting . As a group, this method works best with groups off 8 to 10 members participating, so the group, the Participant generator DS anonymously and vote individually. This prevents them from being pressured or influenced by. As a result, it encourages creativity and first opinions. The nominal group technique also encourages everyone in a group to participate fully in the decision making process. Now post the video for a second and reflect on these questions. Have you? I would be part of the decision making group that used the nominal group technique. Did it work well? Can you think off other types of situation where using these techniques would be beneficial ? Take a moment to answer to this question. Using the nominal group technique involves six steps First represent a group with one or more clear goals, the decision making then together group members to generally, alternatives record the alternatives where all members can access them, and then you consolidate. Next you ask members to rank the internal finally told you the votes for each alternative to find the one that the group has right in step one, you present the girls as the first step right, the girls off. The decision making session on a white board for the whole group to refer to. This helps ensure that the session events focused. You also ensure that everyone understands the goals before moving to the next, instead off right or to use a projector, Future madam all any other means for displaying the goal and ensuring that everyone can see throughout the session you step to generate alternatives. In the second step, which group member brainstorms alternative ideas for meeting the decision, maybe every under this separately, without discussing their ideas with others. This helps ensure that the opinions of others don't influence anyone else. Group members Mary called the alternatives they generate on index cards. You step through, you recall this afternoon. Once the group members have generated alternatives, you gather the alternatives that recalled them in a place that everyone can see on a white board, for example, step for consolidate the alternatives. Working together, the group consolidates similar Turner lives. To eliminate Redundant should explain any option that crew members don't really understand . Although it's important that no group member attempts to sell particular, the group moves on to the next step on Lee once the Children that it is clear toward participants. Mr five Yuan alternatives on each person worse alone. To rank this alternatives, you asked group members to give the least preferable alternative. A score off one in the high score to the alternative they think is best way we can again use index cards for this. Step off the process before beginning. It's important to decide how many alternatives to write. If your rank two largest set off the process of tallying the results becomes unruly. Generally, it's best to limit members to ranking only the tree to fight. Prefer giving their most preferred alternative the highest ranking step six you tally the votes were tallied. The votes for each alternative in front of the room can implement the idea with the most votes. Alternatively, you can use the results as a springboard for foreigners discussion and evaluation off the favor choices, so this is briefly the process. Now let's try to see if you remember the correct order. Take a minute and think about this. Now let's seek together. Presenting the goals for the decision making session is the first step in the process. One of the alternative have been consolidated. Each member off the group ranks the alternatives independent, so this would be a Step five. Once everyone understands the goals of the session, each group member generating alternatives independent, this would be Steptoe. Consolidating the alternatives is the four step. In the process. This means groping similar alternative together and eliminating redundancy. The final step in the process is totally the results off the ranking process for each alternative. The alternative with the higher score, the one the group has decided, is the best. As the first step, individually generated alternatives are gathered in Britain, where all group members can access them, so this be their practice. The nominal group technique improved from simple brainstorming in a number of ways, getting shores all members participation is maximized. While preventing dominant individuals from influencing others, it encourages greater creativity, generates more ideas, it's more satisfying and inclusive to participants. To be effective, facilitator must properly man was the nominal group technique. For example. It's important that when people generate ideas or vote, they don't discuss what they are doing. Without clarifying and consolidating alternatives. Participants shouldn't be drawn into a debate on the merits on the alternatives. Otherwise persuasive individuals may sway the opinions of others, thereby distorting the results. As a facilitator, you need to double check that everybody understands the alternatives before finalizing the least. You also need to tell me the results, carefully ensuring that all results counted in total accurate. If there has been any significant confusion, the group should vote again. Now, let's say this question. Please pose the lecture and try to find out the correct options. And the answer is the following. Once the votes have been told, that group can still choose to discuss. Analyze the prefer alternative in more than this option is incorrect. The second option is correct. Each person should generate alternatives independently and to ensure some good members Arent in France. Havers. This adoption is also calling. You should recall the goals off the session and sure everyone understands them before group members will begin generating alternatives. This helps to keep the session for the first option. Is also calling before participants give the high scores to the alternative. They think best alternative with the highest total score. Once you've told the results becomes the group's favorite option, the Option five is incorrect because after all the alternatives are written down for the group to consider that should because of it you should remove the application and clarify the meaning of feature. The then the last one is called The Safe Time make it easier to totally revolts. Participants should be limited themselves to rank, and only the 3 to 5 most prefer. Now, let's see an exact way will try to have a particular example, and we will try to follow all the steps to and let's try to describe it first. Susan coordinator off New Outdoor Organic Market has decided to use the nominal group technique to come up with ways to meet the goal off increasing sex. She sets up a workshop and invites the seven stakeholders off the market to attend. Follow along. A Susan discusses the first few steps off the nominal group technique. Step one present the gloves to start off our workshop. I wrote the goal to increase sales on the white board, asked participants if this goal was clear enough or if anyone had concerns about. After some discussion, we rewrote the goal of increasing the number of visitors to the market. This raising is clear because it includes ideas for increasing sales that aren't related to the organic market step to generate alternatives. Did I ask everyone to think off how we call the gym or goal? I have to remind some off the participants to work alone, because at this stage I didn't want them to influence each other. Step three recall the alternatives. It was exciting to discover the ideas. Everyone came up, I shuffled the index cards, got participants to read out one and other suggestions without knowing who's this. Kept the process on animals, writing all the alternatives on the board. Waas. Time consuming but very fun. This'll light covers have shoes and fallen Step four and five off the nominal grouping, so step for consolidating alternatives. Consolidating the alternatives was a quick process because most of them were easy to understand. For instance, we combine setting up a website and creating an email east under single alternative use online presence. At this point, almost all the alternatives we're seeing the feeling on increasing the number of people who visit the market seemed like a huge job. Step five ranked Delta s participants to a science course to their favorite for alternatives. They should give four points The best idea. At one point, the least you're off the four Way wrote How out? Four choices on a fresh index card and again we shovel that shuffle them to keep the votes . Onions also used an index card to rank my top four. This life covers house shoes and followed Step six off the nominal group. The last one, I told you the words. I wrote all the votes on the board and told you that once this was done, we took a short break and then had a long discussion about how to move forward. Who decided that Top three options tonic advertising, paper, media advertising on setting up a Children's and the time and area with all priorities that the rest of the ideas could be shelved for nominal group technique helped Susan's group identified food strategies for increasing traffic through the organic. All the participants felt included in the decision making process on a number of years where generated West very substantial. Now stop again your lecture and read this case. We're ready to answer questions related to this. What will you do to relieve the group into the next stop the video wants? If you answered in this way, you were called First Option is incorrect discussing the alternatives in this way the expertise depends Open to peer pressure group should consolidate them at this point. And you should really clarified the alternative. The second option is a core interruption. After you've written the alternatives on the white board, the group should consolidate them to move and duplication and clarified if necessary. Of course, this adoption is incorrect. Before you rank the alternative group Shoot Consolidated. Don't forget it. In the last one results, First the group as a whole shoot Consolidate the tentative, but disagreements should individually right, favorite. Now try this one. Bulls again The video Try to us. My answer is this These compare with yours. So these first option is incorrect. You add the rankings from the last index card to Tony and then add up the score for each other alternative with the highest total score. In this case, last breath is the best of their second. So this is the correct option. You are the rankings from the last index card to totally a total the score for each other with the off producing less bread gets a total off 11 points, which is the high school assumption is incorrect. Served one. This alternative actually received the lowest number of votes. Remember that Will members should be instructed to give the highest court in the alternative. They think best the last. The last one is incorrect. When you add the last index card. Totally, these alternative gets a score off them, which is not the highest order. Next decision making thing needs that you are going to learn is the return on investment. 24. Return on Investment Technique: investment is the benefit to the investor resulting from an investment off some resource high return on investment means the investment gains compared favourably to investment cost . As a performance measure, era Y is used to evaluate the efficiency off investment or to compare the efficiency off a number off different investments. In purely economic terms, it is one way off considering profits in relation to capital invested. Most corporate managers work within a budget. Dusk used to make the money they spend produced the best results possible. They constantly are presented with different ways to spend their allocated money and approach. The analyzes dis opportunities has investments in the success of their department organization. The first thing they want to know is what will be the return on investment or the so called otherwise? Using the projected return on investment manager is able to compare, choose among different opportunities. Even in business, people sometimes forget to view their project and decisions in terms off investments that are expected to generate monetary retorts. Yet financial considerations are a top priority in many decision making contests. For example, decisions to expand globally select products, trade stuff, end upgrade equipment, all have financial impact. The importance thes most obvious when companies need to choose between alternatives that involve significant capital investments in this case is money is the bottom line factor for determining rejection should be taken. Return on investment, commonly known as a wry calculations, are perhaps the most popular financial measure off the merits from decision alternatives. So why is a key decision making tool, especially in business situations? You know, I helps you evaluate and select alternatives based on their costs and benefits, so you use it doing steps four and five of the decision making process costs and benefits are expressed in dollars or other units off currency and then compared for each alternate. It's challenging but possible to estimate the monetary value off qualitative costs and benefits such as stuff, morale, customer satisfaction or reputation for quality products or ETTY collections. The companies may not be able to measure quality variables precisely. They can firmly based their estimates on industry accepted indices. Rules of thumb historic of that or benchmark that, and knobs. Once all costs and benefits are given a monetary value, these common perimeter can be used to measure and compare all the variables considered Pero , I had said to compare wasting invest valuable resource is such as your time, money and effort. This tool takes much off the guesswork out of the decision making People in leadership. Rose can use Airlie to determine how organizations resources should be spent, What goes to move toe toward and what budget standards to create Now post for a minute to reflect to these questions. Do you take financial factors into account when you're making business decisions? Can you think off some situations where a row I calculations would be particularly useful in determining what course of action to take? Take a minute. Don't continue the lecture Right now. You can post the video and another practice. Which statements do thing describes the benefits off using Aero I calculations when making decisions. Father Think, based on what we discussed, was again the video and evaluate quietly all the options. Now let's see together all the potential answers I analyzed for you. First of all, option A is correct. Return on investment quantifies all types of costs and benefits, including qualitative and intangible ones. In terms off monetary. This makes it possible to compare alternatives more easily, using a common numerical Calumet. The second option is obviously incorrect. Ethical considerations can be measured precisely and objectively. Aero analyzes. However, companies can make an informed estimate of their effects. The third option is correct because Aero I converts a multitude off different factors into monetary values. It gives stakeholders a rational and objective basis for comparing alternative before section is also calling. Because returns for each alternative are expressed in terms of monetary values, they are quantifiable and measurable. 50 Option is incorrect using Air White says Alternatives doesn't after the risk or uncertainty associated with their outcome. 61 is again correct. Return on investment makes it possible to compare alternatives in terms off their vote. Online financial benefit. This information can be used to justify the choice of specific in the last one. Whether saying it's correct again, it's easy for people to lose sight off important goals on get caught off in diversions. Ero I have some police stay focused on working toward financially profitable results when implementing the chosen after not using your wife, decision making helps you to quantify information, calculate returns and make rational and objective comparisons between decision alternatives . This tool is useful when you for leadership justified choice off specific alternatives and it can help employees focus on tangible results and rare I bad PP. Curly provides ratio off the net return or savings, often alternative to the cost of the required the required investment. It can be written as a person which total investment ing fruits all the costs and expenditures required to implement the alternative net return is the profit you make over and above the coast off implementing diesel turn to calculate the arrow, you divide the net return by the total investment. Then you multiply your results by 100 just to ensure that this looks that percentage. Of course, most decisions are made before the solution is implement, and before you have precise figures for returns in investments. So typically, the values using Airlie calculation would be anticipated or projected values rather than actual returns will estimate the net return on the investment to the best off your ability based on established trends, benchmarks and other sources off information. So, in this case, the return on investment. It is an estimation. This is an example of how to calculate the return on investment for particular alternative . The first part of the calculation is explained on the slide, and the rest of the calculation is covered on the next life. As a manager at the software company, you've been asked to calculate the the company could expect if it markets a new Internet Bells problem. So this would be the return on investment for the new Internet browser program. The first step we need today is to establish revenue projections follow along as the calculation continues on the next life. Because many 80 products quickly become outmoded, you decide to be cautious. You estimate how much revenue the company can expect to generate from the product over the next five years old. When you calculate expected revenue, this is just an example. You include intangible factors such as increased customer loyalty. In your calculations. After careful analyzes off customer profiles, you determine that this factor alone is worth $5000 per year, including their for all relevant factors. You calculate that every year your company can expect the revenue off 100,000 from that product, which gives a total off 500 thousands over five years. Next to specify or project that costs, which comprise the total investment in the project in this case the major estimated expenditures of the development of the product itself promotional course and additional administrative costs for a total of $400,000. The next step is to estimate net return, which is the bottom line profit you'll have after making all necessary expenditures to develop the new browser. To get this figure, you simply substructure the project that costs off 400 thousands from the anticipated revenue of 500,000 for an estimated net return off 100,000. Now that you have estimated the net return, you can use it to calculate the return on investment. To know this, you simply divide the net return off 100,000 by the projected costs. In other words, by the total investment of 400. South noted that in some business context, total investment may include more than just the ghosts off implementation, but for purpose off this course total cost, saying total investments are considered equal just to simplify our learning process. After that more deployed the result by 100 together person such as we said before, When you do this, you get an error y of 25%. It seems the new Internet browser is well worth investing. Ah, higher so I could be given could be even more appealing me. For instance, you calculated an era y of 35% for another alternative. It should be favored over a project with only 25% return on investment time is a central factor. When calculating error over five years in a row. I of 25% may be very good. But what if the browser becomes absolute? Before five years have passed? Companies have to consider how long it will take foreign investment to pay for itself. This period is known as the payback period. The famous period helps to determine the level off risking balls in an investment before the payment period is reached. The doctor costs. Often, investment exceeds. The daughter returns that it generates. It's only after the payback period ends at the company begins to earn money from its investment to calculate the payback period when the project in the projected income is the same for each year, you divide the total amount off the investment by the annual revenue expected from the investment. In our example, the projected costs off 400,000 and annual revenue is 100,000. It will take four years for the revenue to equal the total investment. In other words, the new browser will pay for itself in four years. For a time frame. Several years are realistic. Return on investment can be calculated for different units off time for Monster for weeks, for instance, provided use the same units consistently throughout the calculation. Procedure doesn't change. Suppose you're comparing three different printing presses to decide which represents the best investment for your company. Decided to base your estimates off coast already that each press will generate on a 10 year period. If you're deciding purely on the basis off payback period and the air ideal, anything with shorter pay back period and the largest right is your best choice. First, you need to calculate the air y for the three printing presses. For each of the three options, you divide the net return over a 10 year period. Totally best. Multiply the result by 100 together air y percent for the color pressed. You see from this example era y It's 11 2011% for the black and white press. It is 25%. And for the newsprint presidents, 100% toe workout the payback period for each printing press. You divide the costs by the annual 11 that it would generate. Every this tells you how many years it would take to cover the cost of each invest. Based on these results, a newspaper printing presses the best. Chose. It has the highest there. Oh, I 100%. The lowest payback period. Five years? No, we're going to pose again. The lecture for practice braised. Read the case study in four and this is some additional information pertaining to each supply. To play a produces inexpensive T shirts with God that appears to have your customers. However, the unattractive design harms your reputation. Supplier be produces good quality, fashionable but expensive teachers. They have a general appear because they are well, Supplier C produces upmarket, reasonably priced fishers with an interesting cattle multi. This tire will only appeal to teenagers. Already mentioned the details. I will not do them again. Just plays with the figures that will help you practice taking this into account, which apply should you select based on the Aero I and the payback period. Perhaps. Take immediate, stop the video and think about this question. These are my results. Compare with your splits. First option is incorrect when you decide the net return off 50,000 by the investment of 100,000 for supply A, you get an error y 50% the payback period, which is calculated by dividing the investment of 100,000 by the monster revenue of 25,000 . He's four months supplied. Be provides Hire an ally in the shorter Stebic period, making it the best supplies. B is the correct option stalking supplier. These T shirts for the summer offers a projected Airlie off 100% with the payback period of three months. So the supply provides the highest return on investment in the shortest payback period, making it the best. This option is incorrect. The service When you divide the net return 30,000 by the investment off 127 get in a row. I 25% The payback period derived by dividing the investment off 120,000 by the monthly revenue off 25 7 is 4.8 months to play. A B provides a higher. Enjoy the shorter pay back period, making it the best supplies again. Now all of the theory of calculating Arrow I. It's fairly straightforward. In practice, there are numerous complexities to taking toe on their various methods of calculating. Pero I to choose from, depending on your needs. Revenues and expenditures may not be entirely predictable. Many situations buys. You apply more complex and sensitive formulas. For example, you may need to calculate the future value of money for which you would use NPV calculations if the projected income and expand the chores the first each year, you won't be able to determine to pay back period by dividing total expenditure by the annual revenue. Instead, we need to sound community anticipated revenue and expenditure. Investment would be paid back when community revenue becomes equal to community expanded. Whatever methodology you choose, it's important that it has these characteristics. It is easy to use and straightforward enough to explain to others. It is comprehensive, clear, meaningful enough to be used by top level decision makers. It accurately accounts for all costs and profits. The neighbors aero I values to be appropriately calculated for the particular business process in question. This is all you need to know. You know, the to use the return on investment. Next, we're going to learn about another decision making instrument. Devil's advocate taking. 25. Devil's Advocate Technique: teams often struggle to make good decisions, dragging down their team's performance. In fact, one of the key predictors, often performers, is the decision making process influenced by that. But many of us don't use any structured approach to solve problems that make decisions, and our teams suffer from the lack of structure. The divers advocacy technique involved a group developing so lead argument for a recommended course of action, then subjecting that recommendation toe in death. Former critic The critic calls into question the assumptions and recommendations presented to The Devil's Advocate and the tents to show why the recommendations should not be adopted through repeated criticism and revision. The approach leads to mutual acceptance. Off recommendation. Many analyzes tools are available to prove the way you make decisions. Three useful examples off these tools are the Devil's Advocate technique class minus interesting or PM I analyzes and the ease and effect metrics. There are many others, but for the purpose of this course, this tree are very rare. In a group situation, individuals desire to conform and reach consensus can damage the decision making process, especially at step 34 and five. Danger arises because off three factors to which groups have success group things majority influenced and polarization with groupthink. The dry for consensus and group cohesion leads everyone to decide on a specific alternative before they viewed sufficiently art. The options available majority in France. The drive for computer conformity can leave agreement or whatever the majority things is right. Participants with other views either don't voice them or swayed by what the majority decides if there is no dissent, can polarize decision use, become more and more extreme because they're no conflicting perspectives to moderate their . If dissent is encouraged in a group setting, it helps to free people from the drive to confirm. It also stimulates the search for information and helps members to tackle an issue from a range of perspectives. In turn, this encourages creative solutions. So even when opposing ideas are wrong or inappropriate, they can improve the decision making process. The devil's advocate technique works on this presence. To use the devil technique you assigned person the role of devil's advocate, this person must challenge group assumptions, question alternatives, bring in ideas previously not considered and provide alternate perspectives or solutions. For these to be truly successful, the person you assigned to the road should be experienced or an expert in the field. Quite often, the Devil's Advocates challenge will prompt decision makers to revise or reject the initial ideas in favor of more effective ones. This technique is most helpful at stage for off the decision making process. As alternatives are being, you have an example of the devil's technique. Scott engaged work for interior decorator involved in the construction off retirement. They are currently discussing issues off safety and issues regarding the project. Follow. Scott plays the role of Devon. Impromptu gave you. Think off alternatives. Practice questions related to the dialogue follows on the next life. Please stop the video to read carefully. Try to answer to this question. Which statement from Gala's court from their conversation represent the use of the devil's advocate as you like to get well. First options is correct. By bringing up issues that are not normally considered designing coffee, Aria Scott reaches the discussion and helps in show all possibilities are carved. The second option is also bringing the problem of potential accidents into the discussion. Scott focuses the discussion off safety as a major. This adoption is incorrect, the statement is defensive rather than challenge. It's not an example of person playing the role off a devil Sanford. The fourth option, he's also called the statement, doesn't challenges gesture and therefore isn't an example of using the never sent 50 option is again for Scotus questioning their alternative that gave the forces these problems Gail , to respond to the new concert off the coffee arias look and feel the last option. This it's called his questioning. The strongly have believed that Kofi area is beneficial. Gail then has to justify that position and thinking to buy intentionally, intentionally questioning or challenging the points that Gail makes. Sculpt encourages deeper thought about the options. Ultimately, this is likely result team making bad decisions. In fact, when ideas have been carefully predated refined to devil's advocacy, decision makers tend to find more except acceptable and satisfying. Devil's advocacy decision making technique is where the group is allowed to become the critic in the proposed decision. This technique helps prevent collapsing and Greece the chance of a high quality decision. Next, in the last lecture, this course is on being my analyzes and is in effect 26. PMI Analysis and Ease-and-effect matrix: PM, I stands for blast miners interesting, and it's just full improvement to the way pros and cons techniques that people have used for centuries. In this lesson, we look at how you can use am I to make better decisions, even see problems and issues in different ways, a tool which can help organizations wanting to translate strategy. Interaction is the ease, in effect, magics toe help prioritize solutions based on comparing two factors. Typically, how easy is the this to implement and how big is the benefit or the impact on the root cause that we will get? The PM analyzes tool bills and improved on the classic pros and cons analyzed. It is useful in evaluating alternatives in step for off the decision making, also because it helps you decide whether an alternative is worth pursuing. Its particularly helpful as a final check once you've identified preferred alternative instead. Five. To perform PM my analyzes, use the table with three columns, labour plus minus an interesting. For example, you might use three columns the way the potential pros and cones off moving your store to a location to a different location across stuff. It's not always necessary to assign each factor, value or weight to represent its impact on the situation. Sometimes just listing the relevant plus minus and interesting factors can make it obvious what you should decide. But weighting the factors can clarify a decision if you do assigned values via where the scoring system you choose is subjective, based simply on how you judge the importance off each factor relative to others under consideration. If you choose a scale of 1 to 10 for instance, you'd give factors with negligible impact, the score off one and those with a very strong impact. The score off them in a way that fear my analyzes your final total score for decision doesn't just indicate a yes or no. It also indicates your level of certainty large, negative or positive suggests you should strongly endorsed or strongly disapprove the relevant course of action. In other words, smaller numbers indicate less confidence in the conclusion. In the example PM I analyzes, you want to know whether the positives off moving your store outweigh the negatives. To find out, you simply add the column totals 10 plus negative +60 equals positive, for in our example, this total tells you that moving the store is a good alternative that doesn't come with a very strong certainty taking this into consideration. Please stop the lecture and drew up appear my analyzes stable on a sheet of paper. Add or positive outcomes off taking the particular course of action to the class school. If you decide to weigh each factor, you should assign in numerical value to each based on its importance. You should then add all the positive possible negative outcomes. Sorry to the negative to the minus color. And in the interesting column, you should add any formal implications whether positive, following their preferred to calculate their final total score. They should have the column total after turning in your master days. That's another thing is that your professor points out that you repeatedly used the wrong referencing former. What do you do? Simple. Correct the former thing for references. We certainly don't rewrite your entire Texas based on new riff references. That alternative is neither easy nor effective. Prioritizing business decisions words much in the same way. You should generally prioritize solutions that are both easy and effective. These an effect metrics is useful for evaluating a number of alternatives. At the same time, based on the effectiveness in achieving the desired result on the res off implementation, it is a suitable toe during step for the decision making more than evaluating alternatives . Suppose you're deciding what to do about the supply for glass stores. Who isn't delivering goods on time. You've generated a number of alternatives. You want to compare that to create an ease and effect. Magics the first rate each alternative on fees and then on effective next to float the alternatives on the Matics. Finally prioritize alternatives based on their positions within the metrics. Great is off each. Alternately. First, it's something you would do. You will break each alternative based on its ease off implementation. It would be easy, moderate or difficulty implement. Ending the relationship with a supplier with delivers late is the easiest solution, so we assign it very easy. Rating. Bartering with a supplier for discounts on late items requires some negotiation, so you're assigning a moderate rating. It requires a great deal of time and work for you to pick up the glass doors from the supplier instead, off waiting for delivered because their bark heavy and fragile. So this potential solution gets a rating of difficult rate effectiveness off each other. The second step you write, features they're not or effectiveness ending the relationship is feasible, but you'd have to find a new supply. It wouldn't effectively solve a problem, so this option gets a rating off ineffective. Picking up this place won't solve the problem because it's just as time consuming it expensive as waiting for delivery. So this idea gets a rating off ineffective. Bartering for discount is a good way of improving your business relationship and saving money. We decided to give it a rating very effect. They're brought alternatives on magics. You clothe the alternatives on the East and effect Matics according to their assigned ratings. Now step, therefore, prioritise this alternatives. While the alternatives are mapped out the magics, it's easy to see which are preferable. Semantics can be divided into three color coded areas off. Three self siege areas are then used to rank the alternatives into three levels off priority. High, medium and low high Priority zone consists of the three cells that contain the optimal alternatives. The option to barter with us applying force into these, the medium priorities off encompasses moderately appearing eternities, including the option of ending your relationship with the supplies. The low priority zone is made up of the three least appealing positions. Picking up the supplies yourself belongs here. Based on these is in effect, Matics Parting for discounts emerges as the best alternative. There's an effect. Metrics doesn't always produce a clear. You may have to decide whether it's important that an alternative be easy to implement or effective in bringing about the desired outcome. Also, it's not always clear how you should write an alternative. If you are unsure how easy or effective it will be, you may want to revise and reassess its pros and cons. You may also find it useful toe ask what could be done to make a particular there nothing easier or more effective. Then we define the alternative. According because of this changeable quality off the season effect metrics. You can actually rewrite that the teams on sticky novels, which you then move around the metrics. No reto the characteristics on the left and find the best decision making tools from the least on the right. Each tool on the right can have more than one stuff the lesson, and we're confident we found the right answers. Let's see the correct answers. Examples. Devil's advocating devil advocate techniques reduces the likelihood off polarization and drops it divorced, assigning someone specifically to challenge. And he s courage debate both alternatives. Be any our example off beer, my analysts here, my analyzes, clarifies the benefits. Drawbacks for alternative pro and con can be assigned waited numerical values giving a total before the altar. Seeing the options are examples for the ease in fact, mattress. These, in effect, Matics bloats the effort required to implement the decision against its overall impact or effectiveness. This is done by placing options, especially in close matches, because again, the lecture to reflect think off the decision making groups or discussions you've bean apart off world Descend may be difficult or Jonas Eruption. Did you use any tools or techniques to reach this decision? WAAS. One person assigned the role of the other side okay, who then used questions, comments to challenge assumptions, questions and critics for alternative bringing in issues previously not considered providing alternate perspective or solutions. You place the consequences of the decision into a three columns listing the benefits off the decision any negative consequences, any long term or extended consequences. Whether this a positive or negative, you give each consequence score to find a total score for the alternative on video, least the alternative in a season effect metrics plotting them according to how easy they are to implement and how effective they are likely to be. Descends the last section off our course. We don't know distinguish between the last three steps in the decision making No to recognize how to perform key steps as the leader off a nominal group technique session. You also know how to use return on investment measures to choose between authorities and to distinguish between three decision making tours. Think about what part of the content was the most interesting through on whether Do you see opportunities for flying this confident in the near future? If yes, ask yourself where and when, and maybe plan for applying this knowledge. If you have comments and suggestions, please don't hesitate to contact be My eyes particularly had helpful in a group, especially when you have a team. Members strongly favor particular idea point of view or plan to encourages everyone to consider other perspectives and it can have the group reach a balanced informed decision or least see an issue from someone else's point of these benefit metrics insures that resource is our director toe Those solutions which have the greatest impact that are easiest to implement. This provides an opportunity for team consensus way for this is the last lesson problem solving and decision making strategies. Thank you for taking this course. I would appreciate a review from you. It's important for me to know what and work to change. I'm also delivering other management courses. See you next time.