Non-Toxic Oil Painting In Layers For Beginners: Create a Fantasy Unicorn Painting | Sasha Foksynes | Skillshare

Non-Toxic Oil Painting In Layers For Beginners: Create a Fantasy Unicorn Painting

Sasha Foksynes, Artist

Non-Toxic Oil Painting In Layers For Beginners: Create a Fantasy Unicorn Painting

Sasha Foksynes, Artist

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21 Lessons (1h 30m)
    • 1. Welcome!

    • 2. The Project

    • 3. Oil Paints | How to read labels

    • 4. Painting Surface

    • 5. Palettes, Mediums & Paints

    • 6. Brushes & Palette Knifes

    • 7. Preliminary Work

    • 8. Studio Workspace

    • 9. Imprimatura

    • 10. Studio Cleanup

    • 11. Transferring Your Drawing

    • 12. Unicorn Underpainting

    • 13. Leftovers

    • 14. Mixing Colours | Physical VS Optical

    • 15. Underpainting Background

    • 16. Mixing Paints | The Colour Wheel

    • 17. Colour Passage Background

    • 18. Colour Passage The Unicorn | Oiling Out

    • 19. Finishing Touches | Final Glaze

    • 20. Varnish

    • 21. Thank You!

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About This Class

If you like to paint in oils but still feel overwhelmed with the painting in layers (indirect painting method) or if you like to keep your studio solvent-free, this class is for you! 


I've spent years researching ways to make my painting process more efficient and straightforward.




I will share my painting workflow which is full of tips and tricks spiced up with a bit of theory on oil painting to help you to make an educated decision on what part of it you want to incorporate into your practice.

In this class, you'll learn:

  • how to keep 'fat over lean' principle simple
  • how to choose your oil paints
  • tips and tricks on how to clean your studio and keep it safe
  • how to paint in layers using just oil as your medium
  • how to clean your brushes without solvents
  • how to keep paint mix leftovers fresh for days
  • how to create a monochromatic underpainting 
  • practise mixing new colours from the paint you have
  • add colour pass on top of the underpainting
  • how to protect your painting

And many other tips and tricks, including a demo which will hopefully make your painting process more effortless and fun!





If you are new to oil painting, you will find these techniques easy to use and apply in your practice. 

The more advanced students will find a lot of useful tips and tricks to add to their arsenal, it is always fascinating to look over  the shoulder of another artist!

Therefore you do not require any prior knowledge of oil painting for this class, but experience in drawing is highly appreciated!




We will demystify oil painting and make it simple while painting The Unicorn of The Enchanted Forest!

Check out the project section for the suggested supply list.


Meet Your Teacher

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Sasha Foksynes






I like to draw and paint.

I maintain figures as prime subject matter. I want my paintings to be a portal to a magical, mysterious and gentle world where the viewer can feel safe. My art is inspired by nature and dark fairytales. 

I like to embrace a feeling of freshly applied paint and emotional dynamic inherent to early sketches. I am inspired by my favourite movements in art: Art Nouveau, Pre-Raphaelite and Neoclassicism. It is essential that not only character but the painting itself felt alive and magic.


You can find more behind the scenes content, tips & tricks in my Enchanted&nbs... See full profile

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1. Welcome!: Oil painting can be a reflection of who you are as a person. You can continue to build up oils in days or even years results. For an outsider, oil painting can look intimidating because there's so many choices, how you can approach it, so many ingredients and new terms. Don't worry, I'll walk you through entire painting process, starting from organizing your workspace to the painting itself, and varnishing your finished masterpiece. I will teach you how to build up your painting in layers. How to work with colors and the mix your paints. How to clean up your studio without any solids, and how to choose your materials to keep your studio safe. I believe it is the most forgivable and comfortable technique to start your journey in oils. I want to take some of the mystery out of classical oil painting, so you can feel more confident, make educated decisions, and create impressive paintings. I'm an independent artist based in Amsterdam, known on the Internet as Foxness. A bit more than three years ago, I started my journey in oils, I learned online and through books. I'm still learning and will continue to do so my entire life because it's fun. My Progress gives me confidence that everyone can learn how to paint from the comfort of their home. For our class, we will be painting the unicorn of the enchanted forest. You don't require any experience in painting, although experience in drawing is very appreciated. I use this technique for most of my portrait paintings. Nevertheless, it is perfect for any subject matter. By then through the class, you'll be able to create your first masterpiece in oils. See you in class. 2. The Project: Your class project is to paint the unicorn of the enchanted forest. I like this project because you can get loose and creative with your choices in fantasy portraits. Also, painting a unicorn will be much more beginner-friendly than painting a human portrait, but much more engaging than an apple. Steps we will take to create a painting: planning our painting, transferring the drawing, creating an underpainting, and adding color, adding finishing touches, protecting your painting with varnish. If you feel overwhelmed by creating your own drawing and color choices, I will help you by providing the drawing which you can use to study or transmit to your board. You'll find it in the project and resources section. You will also find a surprise recommendation list, inspirational photos, as well as step-by-step guide so that you have clear goals to achieve on each step. Don't forget to take progress shots of your painting process and share it in the project section and on social media. Let's discuss recommended supplies and the alternatives in the next videos. 3. Oil Paints | How to read labels : Let's start our adventure in the land of oil paints from basics, such as what your tube can tell you about your paints. First principles can be applied as well for other paints, such as watercolor or acrylics. Various combinations of pigments might be used to represent color. Because pigments are actual chemical ingredients, they add great color and names on the tube are more marketing thing. Sometimes it is easier to have premixed colors right from the tube on your pallet. But many of the fanciest one you can create with paint you already have. An example is Caucasian flesh tone, color which is often a mix of titanium white natural ocher, and red cadmium. Tube capacity. I would advise you to buy a big tube of white paint, as it is most used one color. Health hazard warnings. The Art and Creative Materials Institute, ACMI, created seals for easy identification by consumers. If they use these seals on products approved under its certification program, the AP, Approved Product seal identifies art materials that are safe and contain no materials in sufficient quantities to be toxic or injurious to humans. The CL, Cautionary Labeling seal. Products with this seal are hazardous if used incorrectly, it is essential to read the product label info before opening It. Usually, all respectable manufacturers apply with standards and specification and state all known health hazards. You can always ask for the safety data sheet MSDS, or find it on the manufacturer website to know more details. Ingredients, or composition. Ideally, all veins should consist of pigments and drying oil, such as walnut or linseed oil. Some manufacturers may add fillers, thickeners to make their products cheaper or add some other properties to the paint. For example, speeding up drying time. That is why it is better to buy from respected manufacturer artist grade quality paints. Better to buy fewer colors, but better quality than many pre-produced ones. If you know an artist whose work you admire it's worth check their websites to see what materials they use. Pigments are described according to the international system called The Colour Index. This system uses a combination of letters and numbers. Let's take, as an example, titanium white BW6, where BW is pigment white and six titanium dioxide. Using our previous example with Caucasian flesh tone, it will state something that exist in its ingredient list. Titanium white, natural ocher, and red cadmium. Lightfastness. Straightforward quality. Basically how fast your paint will lose its color. In other words, fade. Manufacturers in different countries may use different standards. Here you can see a basic description of the ASTM standard. It would be best if you used pigments that have excellence or highest lightfastness. As an example of different labeling approach, Winsor and Newton use a permanence rating, which measures the feel and chemical stability of the paint. Other producers use pluses, three for the highest degree of lightfastness and one for the lowest one. Transparency. Paint might be transparent, meaning you can see the surface under its thin layer. Or opaque where it may color the way underneath wholly. All other paints between these two may be called semi-opaque or semi-transparent. Now you know much more about your paint and we are ready to discuss other materials for the course. 4. Painting Surface: You cannot paint with oils on regular paper. Oil will penetrate paper fiber and ruin it. But, you can avoid this and actually paint in your sketchbooks and on watercolor paper. You can use an acrylic primer like this one. It will not allow oil to penetrate paper and it's safe to paint on top of it. Thanks to the modern technology, we now have special paper for oils which don't require any preparation. The same paper I'm going to use for our project. One of its disadvantages is that it's very absorbent, but it's still an excellent choice for quick studies. I use it as an example of the most affordable yet providing good result and require minimum effort and preparation paper. The next option is the canvas. Its biggest advantages are price and weight. It would be hard and sometimes even impossible to create a huge painting using other surfaces. There are two options, linen and cotton. Linen is considered to last longer than cotton and have a more pleasant texture. The finest one is potted linen. You can see that this one one already primed. My favorite painting surface is the wood board. It can have varying finishes. For example, Gessobord from Ampersand has an eggshell-like texture. It is excellent for [inaudible]. For more intricate details and small figures, I like to use their artist smooth board. It has no visible texture at all. What surface you choose highly depends on your taste and style. You can even try painting on copper panels. There's no option that suits every painter. 5. Palettes, Mediums & Paints: I recommend you wear gloves while you're painting and cleaning your studio. Buy Buy ones, otherwise, you will end up with powder all over your painting. I want it hard way. You will need a medium to work with oils. If you are new to oil painting, limit yourself to just refined dry oil, such as linseed oil or [inaudible]. In addition, I would recommend trying a gel medium such as Oleogel. Do not use cooking oils for painting. For example, olive oil is not a drying oil. Also, sunflower oil is drying oil. Its cooking version is not refined and not clean enough for painting. It's likely to darken our drawing dramatically. You can use wooden palette or a tear off palette like this one. After you finish a painting, you simply remove the sheet and you have a clean palette once again. If you're on a budget or just searching for something new, try using aluminum foil. One of my all-time favorite options is a glass palette. This one, I made myself by removing glass from a frame and covering the corners with tape to prevent cutting myself accidentally. I will use Raw Umber, Titanium White, Caribbean Blue, and Madder Lake Extra with Gold Ochre in the demonstration videos. If you don't have oil paints, I would recommend you to start with set of paints, as it usually offers a versatile combination of colors for your oil price. If you already own oil paints, you can replace Gold Ochre with any transparent, bright yellow paint like Indian yellow. Instead of Caribbean Blue, you can use Phthalo blue or Phthalo Turquoise, or other transparent blue paint. Instead of Madder Lake, you can use Alizarine Permanent or Quinacridone Magenta, or other red paint. A few words about white paint. I have Flake White replacement here. It is a non-toxic paint that attempts to recreate the feeling of the original Flake White paint. It's up for debate if this attempt was successful or not. But if there is no white replacement, you need to understand that you bought original Flake White paint, which contains Lead. White paint, is perfect in every aspect, except that it's highly toxic if it gets into your body. I decided to avoid it to be safe. The next troublemaker is Zinc White. It is beautiful, semi-transparent, white paint with attaching problems. Don't use it on its own, only in mixed with titanium white and use it only on rigid surfaces like cardboard. I like to use it in tiny amounts for my upper whites in portraits. some people completely avoid Zinc White. Optional, but nice to have, I would recommend getting a Mahl Stick in a store or making it yourself. There are tones of DIY ideas on the Internet for that matter. Grab a lint and dust-free rug or heavy duty paper towels. Wear [inaudible] clothes or an apron while painting to protect yourself. 6. Brushes & Palette Knifes: Let's start with a palette knife. I like to use a regular drop or rhombus-shaped knife. Don't take a small-sized knife for mixing colors like this one. Pick something in the middle. I find it comfortable to work with a knife between four and eight centimeters long. Brushes differ in shapes, softness, and how much pigment they can hold. Natural hair brushes are of excellent quality. But I stopped buying them for ethical reasons. I still have a few left like this one. This is a stiff bristle brush. I have owned it for about four years and it still works great. You can replace it with short hair synthetic brush. Overall, more and more manufacturers create brushes that are increasingly better in simulating natural hair behavior. I will leave my recommendations in the course guide. Let's talk about flat brushes. An interesting fact in Rembrandt's times there were no flat brushes at all. Between these two options, I like an angular shape more because I find it more versatile. Also, you can see that hair wings can be different. If you need to choose just one, pick with long hair wings because it will serve you longer. Ideally, you should try each option to find what suits you the best. The longer you paint the better you will know which brushes work better for your painting style of particular things. Moreover, you can find brushes with long handle and with short one. A brush with long handle will be more versatile. But if you already have brushes with short handles you can use them without any issues. A long handle makes it easier to work while resting your hand on mahl stick and keeping an appropriate distance when working on a painting. One more thing to remember is that you can use any brush, even if they're called brushes for acrylic or brushes for watercolor. I would encourage you to experiment. This was initially a makeup brush. I find it works great for glazes and oiling out. Also, I use makeup sponges to oil out. Of course, none of them are used for makeup anymore. I want to give you quick demonstration. Here I have watercolor paper brand with brake acrylic Gesso I will show you two ways of creating a transition while you're painting. The first option is to premix a transition color on the palette and then paint in between two colors. In this case, you can make your transition as soft or hard as you need it to be. The next option is to mix paint directly on a painting surface with a clean, dry, fluffy brush. Both options are valid. But if you're just starting out, try to use the first option more often. It might not be intuitive at the beginning, but it is essential for learning. Here, you can see the results of my brush tests. Varnish is the only product we are going to use that contains a solvent. I recommend using Gamma gloss varnish. You can use any flat, soft five centimeters brush or a foam brush. We're ready to start painting. 7. Preliminary Work: I also find it very useful to come up with a story behind the scene you paint. Thumbnails are a very rough representations of ideas. The drawing is usually tiny to give a clear overview of the whole picture and avoid desire to render details. Because of its size and roughness, you can test many ideas in a couple of minutes. You can go further with them and experiment with a ton of composition by adding value to the contours and placement of the subject in your loose drawing. Sketches are still rough representation of a painting, but you start to develop the idea further and add more details. Try to find a balance between describing forms and overly obsessive rendering. I want to share a helpful trick I use to find areas for improvement when draw or paint. I take a photo of my drawing or painting with my phone. Because it's small in size, you're back to the thumbnail stage and all of the rendered details do not distract you from the proportions and the overall design. You can also flip it so your brain analyzes it from a fresh perspective. Another way to reverse the image is to look at it over your shoulder using a mirror. If I feel uncertain about how to paint a particular part of the subject, I will make a drawing study of it. Here you can see how I started the unicorn head for another painting, because I had never drawn or painted a goat before, I hesitated to move on with the painting. Color study might be the size of a thumbnail or a small sketch, definitely smaller than your planned painting, which is rough painting which main goal is to find pleasing color combinations and find the paint you want to use for the final painting. Before moving to a traditional color study, I like to make a digital one because it's much faster to test out ideas and figure out the feeling I want my painting to convey. I made a few thumbnails in similar colors by decreasing or increasing proportions of yellow and blue in my green mixes, to get a feeling of what kind of green I want for the background. I also experimented with different color combinations of flowers and I was able to quickly test what I need to do to create white beams. Another benefit of having a color study is that you can try your ideas on it first before committing to the changes in your painting. As you have it in the same medium, in our case it's oil paint, you can expect to get a pretty predictable result. I also find it very useful to come up with a story behind the scene you paint. In my case, the two magical beings in the forest. They cannot communicate in their language, but they definitely care for each other. This leads to decisions like the tail and mane of the unicorn moving toward the moon. You also can see that the moon and the tail mirror each other and the picture itself radiate comfortable silence and calmness. Any of these steps is optional and sometimes I can skip some of them, but I would advise you to apply all of them at least once in your practice before moving onto the painting. As you will see, the painting will go much easier as you have already resolved many of the creative and technical challenges before you even begin to paint. I invite you to have a sneak peek at my studio in the following video. 8. Studio Workspace: Let's talk how you can organize your workspace. Always use the same reference source throughout the sessions, meaning it might be the same printed photo or the same digital device. You can avoid discrepancy in color rendering and contrast between various sources. I use a workstation table easel. It is perfect choice if you have limited space and will not paint anything more significant than A2 size. You can use it for your drawings in watercolor, anything you like, except for canvases with 2D border. If you want to work standing, then classical studio easel is a better option for you. They even foldable options in the market. Watch out for the angle you look at your painting and reference to avoid distortion. On my right side, I have a board. Usually, I just put it on the table and have it in the horizontal position. Some people like it vertical, like right now; it's personal preference. In the middle, I place lint and dust-free rug to clean my brushes and palette knife. I know that some people like to use pieces of old jeans for this purpose. Some nearby I place my paint tubes and mahl stick. I always use a separate container for all brushes and palette knives which is used during the painting session. So I would never forget to clean any of them. I hope this little studio tour was helpful and I will see you in the following video on Imprimatura. Please let me know in comments if you have any questions regarding your studio setup. 9. Imprimatura: Have you noticed that drawing on tone paper is much easier than on white one. This is because all your middle tones are already here and this is here to judge your values. All you need to do is add highlights and shadows to make this object look 3D. Well you can do this in painting as well. Take your umber and big stick brush and we are ready to paint imprimatura. Imprimatura is a term originated from Italian, literally means first paint layer. It is transparent or semi-transparent color applied thinly and equally on the ground of your painting surface. How dark your imprimatura will end up depends on absorbency of the surface you paint on and the pigment you choose to apply. Some people add zones to their paint to make it more translucent during this stage. But I don't mean this, as a vector bend on smooth surfaces. As you can see, you can get quite the light imprimatura on a smooth surface without any solvent. Remember to never add oil to your imprimatura mixes or you will have trouble following the fat [inaudible]. We will talk about it in details in the next videos. I will use raw umber and old filament brush to spread paint on the surface. If you are painting on paper like me, you will also need to use paper tape to secure it on a hard surface on all four sides. You can use drawing panels or hard board for this purpose. In our case, Arches paper is quite an absorbent one and our imprimatura are getting much darker. But I don't mind as I will paint a night scene. The dark tone is welcome here. If I wanted to decrease absorbency, I would avoid few waves of Golden Acrylic Gesso and apply imprimatura on top of it later. I try to spread paint as thinly as possible using the medium to hard pressure on the brush. That's why I would advise you to use wet old brushes for this purpose. Raw umber is one of the most suitable neutral pigment to use, but you can experiment by adding other pigment to make it warmer or cooler or use any other pigment depending on what the final painting should look like. For example, if you want to create a painting that will consist of different shades of blue, it would make more sense to use blue pigment for imprimatura. Some painters try to measure the colors of the imprimatura and failed by putting colored paper under the glass board. Some suggests that use of wooden barrels previously was so popular for so long because it matches well with Classical eras the imprimatura undertone. This definitely helps to judge color better. How light and dark we perceive color depends on its surroundings. Let's look at this optical illusion. In the image you see a gradient in the background. One part is light and another is darker. The colored bar in the middle appears to be a gradient too, right? Now, in reality, horizontal bar in the middle is just one solid color without any variations. Then I will always compensate for color contrast depending on their luminosity of the surrounding area. That will explain why it makes it so tricky to create naturalistic look in highlights using a white palette as we tend to see colors much darker than when we apply them on the painting surface. That is why I like to use a neutral gray colored palette. After you finish to spread the paint, leave your paint and surface to dry to the touch before more into the painting next layer. Try to find a dust free place, putting it on the very top of the bookcase may help as there was dust flying around, or you can put it vertically to reduce the amount of dust taken onto the surface. Please watch the next video to learn how to clean your brushes, palette and clean after your painting session and why you should never leave any [inaudible] which leaves with oil unsupervised. 10. Studio Cleanup: I hate to clean after a session, but with this thing, it is a much more pleasant process. I use sunflower oil to clean my brushes after a session. This is one of the slowest drying one. You can use poppy oil, linseed oil, or any other drying oil. The next important ingredient is soap. You can use a regular one or buy the special in art store. Here I have two different options. Da vinci bar soap, is a very good option. I've used it quite a lot and still have a few bars lying around. This next one is The Masters Brush Cleaner and Preserver. It's a bit pricey, especially if you live outside US. Compared to bar soap, it lasts much longer. I hate to clean after a session, but with this thing, it is a much more pleasant process. It also conditions your brushes and smells like lime. Has N, A, P, C on it. What else do you need? From me, it worth every penny. On my table, I have two containers with tap water. Let's clean our brushes. The first step is to put your brush in oil and wipe it using a paper towel, repeat this process until not much pigment is left on the brush. After you rinse your brush, some pigments stay in a jar with oil. After some time, it settles down at the bottom of the jar. You can see there are many pigments in mine. When large pigment settle down doesn't work for me anymore and oil is too dirty, I recycle the jar at the city waste center. All paints contain pigments and you need to comply with your local regulations when disposing off art materials, whether it's oils or acrylics. Also, this method helps to avoid draining chemicals into a sink. I finished first step with all my brushes and it is time for the second round. I dip my brush in the first water container and swirls the brush in the brush cleaner. I also massage it a bit, so no paint is left in the root of the filament. I rinse the brush in the first container which is used for dirty water, wipe the brush using paper, and then rinse it in the second container with clean water. Repeat the second round until the brush is absolutely clean. After I have cleaned all my brushes, I will let them dry in horizontal position. Because oil drys through oxidation, the materials soaked with it can produce heat leading to spontaneous combustion in rare cases. I use simple tightly sealed glass jar to keep paper towels, soaked with oil to limit oxygen access. I also add a little water to it. There are many special professional containers on the market to keep those rugs and paper towels safe, which is probably an even better and safer solution. The other thing left is to clean the palette. If it was a tear off palette, I would put it in the same jar I used before. I like to keep my palette clean after a session. If I don't plan on saving the paints, I will transfer them with the palette knife to the same paper towel I used for cleaning brushes. If you forget to clean your palette and it has dried paint on it now, you can easily scrape it off using a razor blade like this one. You can find it in any DIY or hardware store. Be careful not to cut yourself and always wear gloves when working with chemicals. After that, I wipe off my palette with another paper towel or a rag until it's clean. Again, in the case of paper towel, I put it in the jar. I like to use a rag in this case because I can just wet and dry on my easel, and then not much paint on it. In this case, it is important not to crumple the rag to let it cool down without an issue. Of course, do not place it near heat sources and open fire. Just use common sense and don't be shy to ask supply manufacturers for the best practices on using, storing, and disposing of their materials. In the next video, we are going to transfer our drawing. 11. Transferring Your Drawing: I decided to use my digital study mate in Procreate as a base for my painting. I outline the most important part of the picture and export it as a new file. You can find this file in the about section of the project. You're welcome to use it as your guide for painting. Some people also make marks where shadows and highlights are. Transferring will help me speed up my painting process and keep my proportions in check. Before I start printing, I always check the following: paper size, paper type, I will use office paper. Printer color mode. I select a monochrome because I don't want to waste inks. I remove the borders and check if the position of my image on the paper is correct. When it is done, I'm ready to print my sketch. If you don't have a printer, you can outline your drawing with the help of white-box or use a window with bright light. Previously I used charcoal or pastel to transfer my drawing. But now I must admit that using transfer paper is much easier and quicker and less messy. I would never come back. I selected the red color of transfer paper because it is the most universal. I can use it on a white base or completely black one. It's still visible, but of course, you're welcome to use any color you like. The first step is to tape your transfer paper on top of your imprimatura. Always make sure that your imprimatura are completely dried. Usually, it takes just one night to dry. Using paper tape, I secure my printed sketch on all four corners. I use mechanical pencil to outline my drawing from the top-left corner and then move to the right side. It helps me to keep track of what lines I have to transfer. Again, it's up to you how detailed your transfer will be. I want to give all the details of unicorn, but not flowers, trees, and small background details. You can also use the grid method to transfer your drawing. Personally, I think it's quite outdated one because we have all the advantages of technology in our studios. But if you like it or don't have access to a printer or scanner, by all means, go ahead and use it. Suppose you base your paints on also the traditionally made drawing, I recommend using the printed copy of your drawing in that case because it allows you to preserve your original drawing unharmed by transferring. It is a very good option if your original drawing differs from the size of your canvas. It is easy to manipulate the size of the image before printing; you can even change the composition. Another option is not to transfer your drawing at all, but rather draw your outlines straight with paint. Before removing all four corners after you finish transferring, I recommend taking away just two of them. Check that you transferred unnecessary ones because sometimes you can miss something during transferring. But keeping at least two corners in place will help you keep drawing at the same position and fix all gaps immediately, if necessary. I check that everything is correct and I'm happy with the results. I remove the transfer paper and my print and, yeah, I'm ready to paint on top of it. I don't need to do anything else. I have all my proportions in place, which makes my life much easier. In the next video, we will paint the under-painting of the unicorn, so get ready with your brushes. 12. Unicorn Underpainting: I will show you how to paint underpainting of the unicorn with just two pigments, raw umber and titanium white. We will need about four brushes for this. I would recommend you to grab some palette knife and mastic if you have one, or you can use something like this or anything which will help you to stabilize your hand while you're painting. Don't forget about lint-free rag pallet and something to protect your clothes, and you're ready to go. I'm adding raw umber and titanium white to my palette. I'm using palette knife to keep my oil painting tubes clean. I will use small synthetic ground brush exclusively for raw umber. The first step is to establish our darkest value and define some darkest contours covered with graphite. I'm taking a little bit of raw umber, and with very light touches, we'll cover graphite line. Remember that you don't have to copy your reference photo, but rather use it as a guide for lighting situation. If the tone of your painting surface is much lighter, as in this photo below, apply the same principle and start from your darkest values. The only difference is that you will have to spread raw umber a bit further than I do to paint those dark values that your imprimatura can't give you. Now, I'm ready to move to my next brush and paint titanium white to establish the lightest light. Again, taking a small amount of paint, I put it where I see highlights, and slowly drag it to my middle tones, creating a gradient effect. The main trick is not to mix wetter umber with titanium white. Use different amount of titanium white to control your values, and you paint exclusively on top of your dried raw umber. If you're afraid to accidentally mix your wetter umber, which you have used previously with titanium white, just wait for it to dry before moving to titanium white part. Remember that in this technique, you always have to use different brushes for your raw umber and for titanium white to avoid mixing paint. When you spread your paint, try to follow his fur direction, because it will help you to create this beautiful 3D effect. I feel myself quite comfortable with this technique, so I may allow to add to raw umber on top of titanium white, but if I do this, I will apply it in very small amount on a small area, and with very very wide touches to not disturb titanium white under umber. It is probably obvious, but I have to remind that you have to make sure that your imprimatura is dry to the touch before start painting. I'm taking a small brush size zero, which I will use for my highlights. With very light touches I apply titanium white to create my brightest highlights. Always make sure that you are in comfortable position while you're painting. You can use mastic or you also can use your pinky to help you stabilize your hand. If you feel like you have too much paint on your brush, just wipe it off with your rack. Tip of old brush is almost perfect to paint fur. One of the small disadvantages of this technique is that a dry brush will eventually ruin your brush tip, so I recommend to not use expensive brushes. If at some point I feel that some of my brushstrokes are too harsh, I will take a clean brush and will smooth out paint. This underpainting took me about 30 or 40 minutes, but please don't feel like you have to keep up with me. You actually can be faster than me. Please take as much time as you need and don't hurry. You always can stop and continue your painting on the next day. I would highly advise you to check out advance section to get additional resources to the course. I will see you in the next video where we will discuss how to save some of your paint which left on the pallet after painting session. 13. Leftovers: You don't always have to throw away your paint after a painting session, you can keep it fresh for the next couple of days using aluminum foil, and I will show you how. All you have to do is take a piece of aluminum foil and place it flat on the table. Now take a clean palette knife. Using it, put a pile of your paint from the pellet to the foil. Please don't put it too close to the ages of the foil. Always clean your palette knife before moving to another pile of paint. Place piles nearby, but not too close to each other on the foil. To get paint fresh, we need to minimize the amount of air it reacts with. That's why you need to remove as much air as possible from the pocket of aluminum foil and secure all open sides airtightly. Now everything is left to place your paint in the secure place and clean up your palette. Your paint will be fresh for at least a few days. I hope this simple trick will help you to save some paint and time. See you in the following video, where we will be mixing some colors for our underpainting. 14. Mixing Colours | Physical VS Optical: There are two ways to mix your paint. An optical and physical mix of pigments. The results might be dramatically different. Most swatches are a mix of titanium white and raw amber. But they look so different. On the left is optical mix, and on the right is physical one. You may recognize by now, that we use the optical method when painting our unicorn. When you place one color on top of another, and the color below is still visible, they create a new one. Third color. The same illusion will occur when you place dots of colors very close to each other. Impressionist adored that phenomenon. Optical mixing of pigments use variety in colors in physical one. In other words, more saturated, pure, than physical mix of the same pigments. That is why Glazers were so popular when the number of available pigments were so limited. Sometimes, it was the only option to get the required color. The glaze is application of transparent color on top of another color to create a third one. Painter could not have bright yellow pigment but just muted medium one like ocher. But thinly glazing it on top of white will produce rich, glowing bright yellow color. At the same time, if you mix it with the same white pigment, it will be white, but not as saturated in color. Painting increase method to complete picture might be a very time consuming process. Also, you have to be able to predict how each layer will affect previous one. But it will produce excellent results in the depths and richness of your color. On the other hand, the physical mixing of paint is very beginner friendly. As you may fix your paint mix immediately on the spot. It is also quite helpful if you want to paint underpainting with many small details first. I'm not even sure I would be able to create such details by using just a dry brush without adding any additional oil. I can't use oil in my base layer to apply with the [inaudible] concept. I don't like to use solvents. So I guess it is my only option to just mix paint straight on the palette. Besides, you are welcome to apply as many glazes as you wish on top of it later. First, we'll mix some paint for our background. We will use titanium white and raw amber. I will use palette knife to mix my paint on the glass palette. I always tend to premix a few colors on my palette before I start the painting session. I think I will need one for my highlights. Which is a bit darker than pure titanium and one for medium tones. Mixes of paint with pure white coat change of the color. We are mixing things of raw amber. Having these two mixes prepared, I can quickly mix any color between those four during a painting session. Ideally, it would be best to use palette knife to mix color. But it is okay to use your brush when you want to mix a small variation of color on your palate. A lot of painters use combination of these techniques. Meaning, use optical and physical mix of paint during the painting process. Today, your practice consists of mixing just two pigments. We are going to use them in the following video to paint the enchanted forest. [MUSIC] 15. Underpainting Background: Finally, it's time to add some small details to our underpainting like flourish and flowers and the moon, of course. Let's begin. I'm taking medium-size and good shader. Basically, you can take any synthetic brush, preferably four at one. I will paint my value map. I will try to create a vignette around my unicorn or primary subject. I will start with my darkest dark as always, a raw umber. Then we'll slowly introduce more and more titanium white to my mix. The best way to create soft transition is by premixing your transition color on the palette. I'm taking my transition color and with short swift motion, apply it on my painting surface, and starting to blend it with my wet raw umber, just to soften up edge between two values. I don't worry the stage for authorizations to be ideal, because I will paint over my leaves and my flowers. Using the same angle shader, I try to recreate grass edge. Now I am taking small shader brush. It's quite old one. Using medium leaves of raw umber and titanium white, we'll start to paint leaves. By slightly rotating angle of my brush, I can easily replicate leaves' shape. You can also use round synthetic brush for this purpose. By adding variety of shapes and values, you will increase realistic effect. Now I'm ready to switch brushes and take zero size round synthetic brush. I will use mixture of raw umber and titanium white, and with short motions, create illusion of grass. Again, try to add variety with your brushstrokes and make each next brushstroke different from previous one. When you press harder on your brush, you will see that paint will mix with the layer below. With lighter touches, you can easily place your paint from the brush on top of paint which were already on painting surface. Using variety of brushes, you can create different effects and paint naturalistic leaves just with one stroke. When you are painting in layers, you need to keep in mind fat over lean concept, or more flexible over less flexible concept. Basically, that means that your upper layer should be more flexible than your lower layer at the same moment of time. As you may remember, oil paint dry through oxidation, meaning it absorbs oxygen from the air and during this process, loses its flexibility and harden. It also stretches or increases in size. The drying time of oil paint depends on different characteristics, which pigments were used to produce oil paint, how thin or thick your layer is, and how much oil is in your mix. You may already notice that mixes of some pigments tend to dry much faster than others. For example, you can see that raw umber is an extremely fast drying pigment if you compare it to titanium white. At the same time, the more oil your paint contains, the longer to will dry or oxidize, and therefore, will stay flexible longer. Paint with proportionally more unoxidized oil called fat, and with lower amount of oil, lean. So it is advised to use fat waves over lean, and never lean over fat. In this case, you lose this duration when the upper layer is completely dried and lost its flexibility, meaning it can't stretch anymore. But oxidation in the lower layer still continues. The lower layer will eventually pull the layer above and it will crack. Thicker layers will dry longer than thin ones. Thick layers can be dry to the touch but still wet underneath, therefore, more flexible one goes in thin layers. That is why we don't start our next painting layer before previous dry to the touch. Paint in single layers to make sure that our next layer, by default, is more flexible. As you continue to build up layers, you need to make sure that they contain the same amount or preferably more oil. Our infill material are very same and contained only raw umber, which is fast drying color. Also, I know that underpainting will be a little bit thicker when I paint leaves and other details. So I don't feel the need to add any oil at this stage. In future videos, we'll eventually introduce a little bit of oil to upper layers to make sure that they stay more flexible longer that our underpainting layers. 16. Mixing Paints | The Colour Wheel: I believe that it is not necessary to study in details color theory to become a painter. But it is definitely an advantage to know some basics and go beyond that. Color is very intuitive and we learn how to manipulate it from childhood. We also know that different things have different color, but why? Light reflects off the surface, but not all of it. Some wave lengths of the visual spectrum are absorbed by the surface, while others reflected and registered by our eyes, and then processed by our brains. When you mix different pigments, more wavelengths become subtracted. Eventually you will get less and less saturated in color. That is why if you mix enough different colors, you will end up with black one. Each time you add a new pigment to your mix, it will absorb some part of the visible spectrum. If you put a simplified presentation of the visible spectrum in the circle, you will get a color wheel. Let's talk about how we can apply this knowledge using the color wheel. The color wheel starts from three primary colors, some shade of yellow, blue, and red. They're called primary because by mixing them, you can complete a color wheel. But it's about mixing those three simultaneously, you will end up with black color. If you have a colored ink printer, then you know that in addition to black, it requires at least cyan, which is a shade of blue, magenta, which is color red and yellow to produce images. Now you know why. Then in magenta, an art classical for painter to have as their primaries. But it is more based on historical aspects than physical qualities. Blue and yellow will give you green. Blue and red, violet and yellow and red, orange. Those new colors called secondaries, with a variety of pigments, proportions, and mixes, you will increase your color spectrum. Various combinations of blue and yellow pigments will give different greens and so on. Colors that are opposite on the color wheel are called complementary colors and by mixing them, you will end up with a natural grayish color. If you want to decrease the color saturation, add a bit of color opposite to it on the color wheel. Another nice thing about complementary colors is that they look great together, whether it be painting, clothing or sign on the door. When you mix paint, you need to worry about the hue and consider value simultaneously. For example, when you want to make your mix color you say to yourself, I need to add blue. True, but you need to add blue of the same value as your initial mix or it will influence your original colors value. It might sound not very easy, but the more you practice, the more it will become your second nature and you will not even think about it while painting. See you in the next lesson, because now you're ready to practice color mixing and add some color to our enchanted forest. 17. Colour Passage Background: We completed our [inaudible] painting. It's completely dry and we're ready to add some color to it. I'm taking Caribbean blue paint from Old Holland. You can use any blue color you like. Phthalo blue would be a great alternative. I would suggest something closer to cyan in hue. But you can use ultramarine blue too. Don't forget to clean your palette knife between each pile of paint. I'm taking Gold ocher from Gamblin. It is very bright yellow ocher comparing to the other manufacturers I've tried. You can use any transparent yellow color you like. For my red color, I will use Madder Lake Extra from Old Holland. This color will not give you a very saturated purple when mixed with Caribbean blue, but you'll end up with lovely oranges when combined with gold ocher. As always, I will add Titanium white and raw amber. Taking my blue and yellow paint, I will mix green for the background. You can immediately see that each paint has different strength in mixes. It is very similar to spices when you cook. Some spices will be more dominant than others. This color strength in the mix is called tinting strength. You can see the Caribbean blue has greater tinting strength than ocher. I need to add more yellow to create a bright green color that is not leaning too much toward blue. You can use a palette knife with a bit of paint to check your color with reference or color study. Don't forget to rotate the palette knife slightly so your item will not influence the perception of paint on the knife. As both of my pigments are transparent, I can lay them on top of the under-painting without adding oil. If you feel like paint [inaudible] you too much or want your glaze to be lighter, you can add a little bit of oil to your mix. The main trick would be to add as little as possible of drying oil to get the desired effect. If your previous layer already contains some oil, you will have to add the same amount or more to comply with the [inaudible]. But this is not our case. Before I completely covered my background with green paint, I decided to glaze yellow color on top of the moon. Now, when it's done, I can continue to cover up my under-painting. I can create color variations by adding one blue or yellow color to my green mix. Despite me giving color mixture recommendations, don't be afraid to experiment and don't get stuck on the mixing proportions I use. Because you can achieve the same color in multiple ways. To paint my whitest part of the background, I will mix blue and white, and decrease value and saturation by mixing a bit of raw amber. It also will make my color greener. I've shifted my hue a bit with each light beam. Now, I take a small angular shader and create a mixture to repaint the brightest leaves. I paint them with the same technique I used in the under painting. But in addition to the value, I increase hue variations by adding more blue or yellow paint to the paint mixture. With the mix of Caribbean blue and Titanium white, I repaint the brightest part of the blue flowers. You can see that I'm not repainting the flowers completely, but only the brightest part which is in the light, increasing perceived depth. I'm starting to paint tiny details and I feel that my brush is too stiff and I can't make precise strokes. It's time for me to add a little bit of oil to the paint. I pour linseed oil into my palette cap. You can use warmed oil or any other drying oil. If you don't have palette cap, you can use a bottle cap. You can also add a little bit of linseed oil to your pallet if you find it more comfortable for you. I put the tip of my brush into linseed oil and wipe away the excess using a rag. I take the smallest amount of linseed oil possible on the tip of my brush and mix it with my paint. With a mix of brighter green color, I will paint the highlights on the leaves. I can't stress enough that the main goal is to add as little oil as possible to the paint to get the desired effect. This tiny amount of oil left on my brush allow the paint to flow smoothly and I can make precise, controlled brushstrokes. Now, I use straight gold ocher to restore the yellow flower hue. Afterwards, I repaint the highlights using a mix of titanium white and gold ocher. With a mixture of Corinthian blue and Madder Lake, I can repaint the violet flowers. If you feel that the paint left on your brush influences the flower mixture to match when you switch between colors, you can deep it in oil and wipe it clean using a rag. I would advise you to do it even you switch between colors like violet and green. For example, if you have your color left on the brush, you may not want to clean it before switching to the green color. Because green mixes with yellow and produces more hue varieties each brush stroke. To add a little bit of warmth to the grass, I'll add madder lake and gold ocher to my green base. Nevertheless, I wipe my brush regularly with the rug to wipe too much paint build-up and because I don't want to paint in thick layers. I'm not happy with the lighting around his head and I'm going to use lighter mixture and even titanium white to paint light beams. But I'm using a tiny amount of paint and lay the paint in swift motions. I take a clean round synthetic brush size 1 and paint dark ross counter to describe the lighting situation better and increase perceived depth. Another mental trick you can use while mixing color is to ask yourself five simple questions. Is my mix white enough? Is it black enough? Is it yellow enough? Is it red enough? Is it blue enough? Now, it would be easy to change it according to the answers. One more thing to mention, when you paint bigger works of art, you end up with bigger piles of paint than I do. In this case, it's better to add a drop or two of oil directly to the paint before mixing colors instead of using brush as I did in this demonstration. Now that we have finished color painting the background, it will be easy to judge unicorn colors. We are ready to paint it in the next video. 18. Colour Passage The Unicorn | Oiling Out: Today we will add color to the unicorn. It is an excellent opportunity to show you another way to add oil to a new area. I will add a thin layer of oil on top of the area I'm going to paint on. This process is called oiling out. In my case, I will oil out the unicorn figure. You also need to make sure that your previous layer is completely dry to the touch. I will use linseed oil from natural pigments. Pour a bit of oil directly on your palette or into palette cup, then take a soft synthetic brush. I will use an angular brush size 1, get a small amount of pure oil onto your brush, and apply it to the area you are going to paint on. As in the previous methods of adding oil to paint, you need to add as little as possible. I will let the oil stay for a couple of minutes and then remove access with a make-up sponge. You can use any absorbent, lint, and dust-free material for this. You can see that as soon as I add a layer of oil on top of dry paint, it changes. Colors becomes most saturated and darker colors become richer. Sometimes these changes might even be more dramatic in contrast. While I continue to oil out our unicorn let's talk about why it is happening. Often when the paint is dry to the touch, colors may become duller and appear lighter than when you apply them fresh. In this case, one can say that color has some sunken in. Different aspects could cause this effect, such as very absorbing painting surface, using solvents, and even the size of pigment particles. Some pigments are known to tend to sink in. Raw umber is one of them, especially for bright scenery. When [inaudible] is too absorbent. What is happening is oil from the layer above, get some sunken in by the [inaudible] all the painting surface. That can explain why one's shiny surface becomes smart and how the effects got its name. I place colors on my palette. I have titanium white, madder lake, green mix from the previous session. Caribbean blue, gold ocher, and raw umber. I mixed a few bios of colors, which I assume will be useful during the session. My advice is to choose 2-3 middle tone colors. If you shadow colors and a few for the highlights. I use a palette knife to compare my mixes with the color study. I also use the photo reference for value structure. As always, I will start from the darkest dark and move towards lighter values. When you mix shadow colors or your darkest dark, try to avoid a bulk paint, especially white, or at least minimize the amount of it. Because light travels longer in transparent or semi-transparent shadows. It gives the illusion that these planes are further from the viewer, especially compared to opaque highlights. That is why it is important to use separate brushes for highlights and shadows, or at least thoroughly clean them before switching between shadow and mixes and other paint. I will use three brushes during the painting session. Round synthetic brush size 1 and two brushes from Rosemary, long Filbert size 2, and Eclipse rigor size 2. One more thing to keep in mind is when your planes change, ideally, you should change the hue or value of your mix to reflect reality. Those slight changes in hues or value might be invisible to you if you have just started to work in color. But eventually, your brain will learn to register them more and more. You will be surprised how differently you perceive color the more you're practicing painting. I will not be original when I say practice makes perfect. Don't forget that when you want to blend two different colors in a painting, try to make the transition color between them on your palette, and not on your canvas for the best results. Another option is to use a clean dry brush to blend two colors directly on the canvas with zigzag motions. In this case, the brush barely touches the paint and makes short motions. While I'm painting. Let's go back to our issue with sunken in colors. When you varnish you're painting with gauze varnish, always adopt areas, will get some shin back. Remember all the satisfying Venus on the Internet, whispering varnish on the painting and it suddenly becomes more saturated and contrasty, this is why. Sunken in areas can become a headache when you try to match colors in the next session. In our case, grass colors have become duller and I will oil out a small part of your grass under the unicorn just a few millimeters. To have a clear idea of his surrounding. You will see that I will repaint this area to leave in a pure oil wear. If you leave a pure oil wear, it can trigger darker in your end yellowing in the future. Don't obsess over not missing every micro area you have oiled out. Just oil out strategically and you will be fine. Art should not bring stress to your life after all. Just remember, if you oil out some area, you should paint on it on the same day. If you have, for example, going to paint under his head today, allow it only this area. It is this simple. Besides helping with some sunken in areas, oiling out helps you blend colors from previous passages with fresh ones very evenly. Because it allows the paint to fall smoothly and softly on top of dried paint. This is very helpful in portraits while you paint on top of an underpainting treated as a sketch, if you feel you need to change something, then take an artist license and do it. In our case, I decided to paint the unicorn in slightly hierarchy, meaning whiter, then underpainting. If for some reason, you are not happy with the painting sessions result, let it dry to the touch. Make a list of things you want to improve. When you come back to the painting, oil out the area you want to improve and paint over. You can repeat this process as many times as you need. Now we have a pretty good base for our painting. All we have to do is add a few finishing touches to make it glow. In the next video, we will develop our painting further and to use a full potential of its magical realm. 19. Finishing Touches | Final Glaze: It's nice to have glaze as a final wear of your painting, because it unifies the colors and gives a similar effect to placing a colored sheet of glass of a picture. I will use my favorite gel medium. Oleogel is a painting medium made with linseed oil and silica. You can use a refined linseed oil instead. I will oil out the whole painting using Oleogel to prepare it for glazing. It helps me avoid inconsistencies in the glass wear, and make it evenly glossy. Don't forget to wipe off the excess as you need just microns of oil to fix the sunken-in issue. I will mix raw umber and medium for the glaze. As always, I have in my palette titanium white, Caribbean blue, madder lake extra, raw umber, and gold ocher. I have also placed some paint mixes left from our previous session and I did three fresh mixes of madder lake, blue and yellow tints for the highlights. There is no rule on how much medium you have to add to the glaze. As I have demonstrated before, you can glaze without any medium by just thinly applying transparent paint. A color study is helpful to test your mix. I want my final glaze to be very transparent, so I will add as little oil as possible until I achieve the desired consistency. I will use a soft synthetic brush so that it doesn't leave any brushstrokes visible. It was initially makeup brush, but I like to use it for painting because it has excellent absorbency. It helps spread glaze evenly and not overdo it. If you place too much paint on your canvas, wipe it off with a rag. I also like to remove the excess with a sponge to help unify the glaze. Then I can glaze a bit of raw umber in places where I feel color needs to be more profound. Be mindful of where you add texture in the painting because a thin glaze over the area will make the texture more pronounced. Now, I want to enhance some highlights. I will start with the unicorn, I will highlight his contours with my fresh mixes of red, yellow, and blue tints. I like how raw umber glaze adds warmth, and a beautiful glow to the scene. I will add a thin layer of madder lake to his nostrils to bring life into him and fix his mouth. Oleogel is a fat medium and consists of about 95 percent of oil. Treat it as you treat per oil when working with it in a fat over lean concept. Remember that you don't have to oil out everywhere. If we don't glaze the whole painting, I will probably oil out just a few sunken inner areas or won't oil out at all. A few wisps of hair here and there will enhance the realism. It's nice to have glaze as a final wear of your painting because it unifies the colors and gives a similar effect to placing a colored sheet of glass over a picture. To paint the moon, I will start from it's contours with mix of gold ocher and white, where ocher is dominant and move to the center while increasing the amount of white until I end up with pure titanium white. I will also add a bit of texture to it to bring it closer to the viewer. Now, it's time to paint over some highlights on flowers and leaves. The viewer's eyes needs to travel across your painting to the main subject, so try to keep the detailed elements and contrasting parts closer to the main characters and avoid supporting details dominance over the main subject. You don't want a flower to be brighter than the moon or the unicorn. To add a bit of sparkle, I will place a yellow dot, soften its edges, and then I add a pure white dot in the center with a smaller brush. To add variety, I will use light blue, pink, and yellow mixes. Remember that you can soften your brushstrokes with a clean brush or your fingers. Also, play with the size and placement of the sparkles to add depth. I'll skip the 2nd step and not put white dots in the center of some of them, for this purpose. I take raw umber with a clean brush and paint generally contours. Then I add volume to it with a saturated mix of white and ocher and with a brighter mix, I add a few highlights to replicate metal. I will use the same technique for painting the rest of the jewelry. Make very light touches. Not to over mix your paint with the red paint below and that's it. I hope you enjoyed the process. Don't forget to check out the guides in the project section for more details and I can't wait to see your versions of this theme. All that is left is waiting till our painting is ready to be varnished. 20. Varnish: There are a few reasons to apply varnish. First, to had a protection layer between the paint and the environment. Second, to enhance its visual appearance. Remove any dust from your painting with a soft, clean, dry brush, then take a foam brush or any soft 5-7 centimeters synthetic brush. Do not pour varnish right on your painting unless you want to make an impressive social media video. A better option is to put it in a cup as it allows you to spread varnish evenly and thinly. Using a brush, spread it across the painting vertically and horizontally. Try to avoid bubbles and watch out for any dust flying around. If you see dust on the painting, carefully remove it with a pin set. Your main goal is to end up with an even gloss finish. The best time to apply varnish is 6-12 months after you have finished the painting. I'm going to pretend that I have waited that long. By the way, I use Gamvar Varnish from Gamblin. It's produced in matte, satin, and gloss finishes, and you can mix them to get a custom finish. Unfortunately, I do not know a varnish which doesn't contain solvents in it, and Gamvar is not exception. It has an odorless mineral spirit, which is better than turpentine, but still, you need to ensure proper ventilation when varnishing. Remember, any varnish is likely to produce fumes a few days after you have applied it so be mindful where you store the painting. A significant property of this varnish is that you can remove it with an odorless mineral spirit like Gamsol. It's beneficial for restoration purposes or when you forget to sign your painting and remember that you can't paint on top of varnish. After you have finished, let the varnish dry in horizontal position. Usually a thin coat to dry take three in 24 hours. It's better to apply two thin layers than one thick one. You can clean your brush with a solvent or use water and salt. If you can't wait six months before displaying your painting, you can use a temporary varnish, go to retouch varnish, which can be applied as soon as the painting is dry to the touch. Then many ready to use solutions, and I recommend trying one from Winsor & Newton, but eventually you will have to apply a permanent varnish so a Gamvar on top or instead of it. As soon as the varnish has dried, your painting is ready for being on display and doesn't need additional protection, such as glass. Now, you can frame your work and show to the world. 21. Thank You!: I hope by now you feel confident and excited to paint your version of the unicorn of The Enchanted Forest. I can't wait to see your creations and interpretations. Take progress shots of your painting process, and share it in the project section. Please don't forget to tag me on social media when you share your progress thereto. There are many ways to approach each painting stage. Don't be afraid to adapt and mix different approaches. Drawing practice is a foundation stone for any realistic painting. If you feel confused by the painting process and feel that it is difficult to create various structure in your painting, you can fix this by practicing your drawing skills. Thankfully, there are a lot of great teachers on Skillshare to help you use it on any level. My personal favorites are trainings from Yasmina, Gabrielle, and Chris. Try to practice one thing at a time, and don't be hard on yourself. You can always start again if your first attempt wasn't successful. I'm always here to help you if you're stuck. Don't be afraid to ask for help, and share your progress. If you like this class, please leave a review, it will help a lot. You can also follow me to not miss any upcoming classes in the future. Experiment, have fun, and find what works best for your art. See you in the next class.