Music Theory for a Digital Age, Lesson 2: To the Digital Realm | Michael Hewitt | Skillshare

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Music Theory for a Digital Age, Lesson 2: To the Digital Realm

teacher avatar Michael Hewitt, Music Lecturer

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

6 Lessons (1h 55m)
    • 1. Lecture 1: Music and Technology

    • 2. Lecture 2: Music Production

    • 3. Lecture 3: Mixing

    • 4. Lecture 4: Signal Processing

    • 5. Lecture 5: MIDI Sequencing

    • 6. Lecture 6: Score Writing Software

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About This Class

The second lesson of this course involves the study of music as a part of the digital age. Exploring the role of technology in the process of music production, the use of the DAW (digital audio workstation) as a music production tool, the process of mixing using a DAW, the art of signal processing, MIDI sequencing and the use of score writing software are discussed.


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Michael Hewitt

Music Lecturer


Dr Mike Hewitt is a composer, author and lecturer currently living in North Wales. He earned a bachelor of music degree from the University of London and a master of music degree and doctorate from the University of North Wales, Bangor. He is author of numerous books on music, including the popular series of books for computer musicians. These include Music Theory for Computer Musicians; Composition for Computer Musicians and Harmony for Computer Musicians.

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1. Lecture 1: Music and Technology: Theo. Other welcome to Unit two of this course, which is called to the digital realm. This is the first lecture of the unit, that title, which is music and technology. In the last unit, we undertook a study of sound where we saw that sound has three main properties which are the pitch, intensity and quality. Knowing about these properties on the various parameters of music that make use of them now puts us into a good position to begin exploring the digital realm into which music has now entered. In doing so, we need to realize that a conventional theory of music centered around the idea of music is notes on a page is not completely sufficient to account for the reality of music as we find an experience it as a part of this digital age. This is because the development of digital technologies has radically transformed both what music is on. What is possible for music. As such, we're now dealing with two realms on their ensuing interaction. There is the acoustic Rome, represented by conventional musical instruments transmitted by way of analog signals, and there is the digital Rome, which translating everything into the equivalent of ones and zeros offers us a completely different perspective and straddled between these two. Acting as a bridge between them is a work is the electro acoustic Rome of instruments and devices that use the electrical circuits to produce sound such a synthesizers, samplers and drum machines? To be able to appreciate this new world, Therefore, which is probably first of all, take a trip to the modern recordings. Do do you, where we will see all three of these rums working in perfect harmony together now in Beethoven's Stay, there was no such things. A recording studio. His music was performed live as it still is today by ensembles like the Tokyo String Quartet show once performed. Therefore, Beethoven's music became lost to time, the only residue of it being left in the memories of the audience who had the good fortune to hear this music played live and fresh by experience performers. Today, of course, everything is different. We now have the recording studio in which the performance of musical works could be literally immortalized through the creation of a master recording. So far, studios are concerned. Producing these master recordings represents the whole point of the enterprise, so these can then be used to make copies that can be sold through record companies. The right to do this is called a mechanical or photographic right? And owning that right is how record companies make money as to what the music is copied onto. This is another matter altogether. I remember the days of good old vinyl. Then along came cassette tapes. Then came CDs, DVDs and then, of course, digital copies of music such as MP threes that could be downloaded onto a device that could play them now. Over time, the studio recording process has also significantly changed. One time tape was the preferred medium mile upon mile upon mile of it. Now, however, music could be recorded straight onto a computer using proprietary programs devised for that purpose. One such important program is pro tools, which is probably the industry favor others apples logic as well as more Windows friendly programs such as Q Base. So no or Studio One. Now, to understand how this recording process works, we need to think in terms of signal flow. Music, after all, takes the form of signals which we call audio. These signals, a recorded through a microphone or microphones in one of the live rooms of the studio. These microphones convert audio signals into electrical signals, which is then conveyed by cable to a mixing desk. Located in the studio control room. The mixing desk is equipped with many channels, each channel of which has an input designed to receive signals, and an output that conveys channel signals to the master outputs consisting of both left and right stereo outputs. These signals then convey tone audio interface. The axe is intermediary between the electrical world of the mixer on the digital world off the computer. These signals are then conveyed from the audio interface to the computer, where they can then be recorded using whatever software program is being used in this way. What began life as an actual sound lands up being recorded onto a computer where all of the information needed to render that sound is now being translated into a digital former. Now in the studio, we also find musical instruments which were not around in Beethoven's Day. A brilliant example of this is the synthesizer. The development of synthesizes was kick started by the discovery. The electronic circuits could be used to create a variety of weird and wonderful sounds. Early models developed in the 19 twenties included the Thurman on the on Martin, both of which produce their own distinctive sound that has since featured in many different types of music in classical to pop to film schools. I'm sure you've seen the old horror films, which feature the eerie sound of the pheromone, such as the classic film It Came From Outer Space. - Since then, many different types of electronic musical instruments have been invented, some of which proved more popular than others who has not heard of Moelgg Synths as used, for example, by Wendy Carlos in her famous album, Switched on Bar of 1968. This is classical music being brought directly into the electronic music age to produce one of the most popular albums of classical music that was ever been created. Now, a year later, the Beatles produced the album Abbey Road, which prominently featured the characteristic sound of Moog synth These early since were model phonic, meaning they only produce one note at a time. In the 19 seventies, however, the use of polyphonic synthesizers really began to take off. The example shown is the Yamaha CS, which could play up to eight separate voices. Then along came the workstation. The synthesizer workstation was and still is a wonder to behold. These were not just polyphonic synthesizers. They also included multi track recording capabilities that enabled musicians to lay down, say, the drums on one track, the base on another, the lead on another and soul using such a workstation. Musicians could then create and record the soundtrack to a complete film if they wanted under of any musicians who did. Just that, along with synthesizes samples also developed. Such is the fare light CME I of the late 19 seventies, although in many cases these look very similar to synthesizes samplers offered a different capability. What a synthesizer can produce its own sound samplers reliant upon the use of audio samples . This audio can include anything that a musician wants to use as a part of a project. This might be a snippet of audio from a record or CD, a recording of environmental noise or a series of words spoken by somebody. Each sample can then be assigned to a particular key or keys off the keyboard. When the musician plays that key. It then triggers the sample, which in this case is the sound of birds singing. What an incredible option for a musician to have. A sample can also be assigned to particular zone, which is a range of keys upon which it can be played. This brings with it the added bonus of being able to play back the sample at a higher or lower pitch. So here is the same birdsong, but now it's being played back two octaves, though in pitch plan. No, I don't know. I am a related device that was developed with the drone machine, on example of which is a Roland are a to the 19 eighties, which are 32 note polyphony and came with 100 preset patterns. Now the drum machine is a type of sampler in that it hosts audio samples. However, the name given to this device betrays its purpose. It's used to create a rhythm track, a drummer in a box, so to speak, to facilitate this drum machines tend to be equipped with touch sensitive pads that trigger and audio solvable when they're depressed. A modern equivalent is your Turia beat step. Particular samples could be assigned to these patents so you can have your kick drum sound . Blam one pad your snare upon the other, your vocal here on another and soul. That way you can play the drum machine in real time to create a drum track. A lot of them also allow you to sequence I to record what you were playing that way. Incredibly complex rhythm tracks could be created. One of the most significant developments in music technology of the last few decades is the rise of the humble home studio now formally, if musicians wanted to music recorded for a project, they used to go and visit a professional recording studio. This, however, was really expensive. I'm looking at the equipment these studios were using. Many musicians realize that if they save their pennies, they could purchase at least some of this equipment to use at home. At the same time, the prices of the necessary equipment also began to fall, so that after a time, musicians then began to be able to build their own home studios, small little studios in which they could do wonders. Now they may have been limited, but then finding a way around the limitations was itself all part of the fun thes days. Home studios are much more common, and although it's now for gotten, when you go out and purchase a new PC or Mac, a lot of the multimedia capabilities of your new computer are those which began their life in recording and film studios. Now nearly everybody has access to these capabilities, and as a result, we've witnessed a veritable explosion of creativity, which is truly amazing to behold. Central to it is, of course, the computer. The canal actus host to a D A. W. Significantly, These have also changed D. A. W's used to focus more upon giving you the capability to record what you're playing on your hardware synths, samplers and drum machines on. Although these hardware devices are still really popular with musicians these days, you can obtain either digital emulation ins of famous hardware devices from the past or new devices that are designed to function in a digital environment. Examples of these of the great little es one sin of apples, logic W or the presence sampler that comes with Studio One. Additionally, there the wonderful plug ins, those standalone devices that you can install upon your computer that can then be used with your D A w, Native Instruments reactor or perhaps Spectra. Sonics on this fear to are really popular examples. Then there's the amazing phenomena of the orchestra that comes in a box. What I mean by this is orchestral plug ins like Garrett Ins Instant Orchestra or the Hollywood Orchestra by East West. Perfect for those who like to write music for film and TV, the's give you the resources of a complete orchestra or from the comfort of your own home. How amazing is that? Through use of a suitable D a w on any plug ins that you might want to purchase? You can now compose and produce your heart's content virtually any type of music that you would like to, and by doing so, you can then enjoy some of the best possibilities that music in a digital age now presents us with. So having considered music technology, this now brings me on to your assignment for this particular lecture, take three pages in your workbook title, the first page acoustic, the second electrical on the third page, digital and then under each heading list everything you can think of in the music world that belongs under those three respective heading. Once you've done so, then start thinking about how and in what way these will connect up with one another. This is music on technology. 2. Lecture 2: Music Production: Hello there. Welcome to the second lecture of this unit, where we will be discussing the art of music production. Being an essential part of music in our digital age, every music student should know something about modern musical production methods, and the best way to acquire that knowledge is to begin learning that are, admittedly to become skilled at music. Production contained years of dedicated practice and study. However, this all begins with the first attempt to produce music on one's own account. A vital part of modern musical production methods is, of course, the D A W, the digital audio workstation to use of a D. A. W. You can then produce your own music completely from scratch. First, though, we need to define the meaning of some of the terms used to describe this process. For example, there is composition. Composition is the creation off original musical material. When you create a new melody, a court progression or particular rhythm with which to play a drum, this is ALS, the province of composition. Composition is, of course, an art in its own right. However, today composition is often what all just begin. This is because as well as composed. You can also now produce a musical work, the process of producing as five aspects or phases. First, it's the recording of the music that the work will use examples of this of the recording of a drum track, a baseline piano solo, a vocal, a lead, etcetera. Second is the editing of the music that has been recorded. This is where the music is transformed into a faithful rendition of what you had originally composed. So, for example, if a piano solo has some wrong notes, they can be corrected. If one of the drum hits is just too loud, it's level can be adjusted on. Brought down three is Theoren ging off that material arranging is transforming musical material into a complete work. So if, for example, you have a drum pattern that lasts for C eight bars, arrangement would involve copying and pasting that pattern wherever it will be required. In the work, four is the creation of a mixed down, which is a track. This final product mixing is adjusting the level panning frequency and dynamic range of the music. The aim of this is to produce a final mix down that can then be exported as a stereo trap and then fifth. And finally, there's the mastering off that track in order to optimize its playback across a range of different devices. This last aspect mastering is often delegated to specialize, mastering engineers. This is because mastering requires a considerable amount of knowledge, skill and expertise. However, because of the cost involved in getting music mastered, today's music producers are increasingly learning to master their own music. So all in all, the challenges of modern music production are considerable, involving as they do numerous separate tasks, each of which requires a certain amount of specialized knowledge. Is it any wonder that our music theory now needs to be updated? This then brings us on to the role of the D. A w in all of this, hear the words workstation. Quite this is because whatever D A W do you use it will play a central part in your music production efforts naturally, to be able to use the D A W for the purpose of producing music, a great deal of knowledge and skills required. The knowledge can be acquired through learning. The skill, however, can only be acquired through long hours of practice in the use of a d A. W as a music production tool. As this is also important in this lecture, we're going to be considering one of the main features off this process. This feature is multi track recording integral to the very architecture of the D. A. W. This is a recording of musical material upon multiple tracks, each of which will appear as attract lane in your D A W. Appearing visually as a horizontal colored straight each. Such track will contain a certain amount of musical material. Now to be able to successfully use a D. A W. This process of multi track recording must be thoroughly grasped and understood, admitted. This is also a challenge. This is because the process of multi track recording is a vast range that stretches from the professional recording of orchestras and bands in studios like Abbey Road to producing music in your own compact home studio. Whatever the level or scale, Howard multi track recording is still the same process. A track is basically a recording and playback channel that receives its signals from a particular input. That input might take the form of external audio that you recording on a microphone or microphones, for example, Or it could be coming from an external device such as a synthesizer that you are playing on . Alternatively, it might be coming from a software sound producing device installed upon your computer. I use software drum machine, for example. A track can also function as host to pre recorded material. This usually consists of audio samples and loops that event imported into their own dedicated track. In Studio One, for example, this is done by Dragon, the loop onto a particular tribe. Whatever materials a recorded onto a track, this multi tracking process is a godsend to music producers because it means tracks could be dedicated to any type or source of material. So, upon one track or group of tracks, you can record your rhythm, your percussion, your drums, one another. You can record your base upon yet another your sin and upon another, the vocal and so forth. The great thing is that these tracks could be recorded in isolation from all of the other tracks, and this is why it is called multi tracking. The music is built up from layers and each layer of the music occupies its own track and therefore also its own space in the mix, which is a complete blend of all of the tracks. When hurts sounding together Because there are so many different types of material that you can incorporate into a mix, D. A. W's generally offer the option off three kinds of trucks. These are audio instrument and midi tracks, as the name suggests on audio. Track is used for recording audio signals received from external sources, such as through a microphone, for example. So if you're according somebody singing a vocal, you'd use an audio track for this purpose. Another use of audio tracks is to import audio samples. The's consists of pre recorded audio that usually comes in one of two basic formats. These away files. The word wave being an acronym for Windows Audiophile Former. The other common format is A. I F. F files from the Apple Mac Front. This is again an acronym meeting audio interchange file. Former, however, when audio files have been encoded as MP threes, they're not generally considered suitable for according purposes. This is because to get their file size down, a lot of data has to be compressed which caused them to lose some of their quality. Have you ever heard music producers incorporating samples of speech taken from films? For example, these are all imported into an audio track as audiophile. In this way, you can import any self that you like into a project. One feature that you will encounter when working with audio files is sample rate. In order to convert analog into digital audio, signal must be sampled. The sample rate is how many of these samples taken per second for CD audio quality. The standard sample rate is 44.1 kilohertz, which is over 44,000 times per second. To understand the reasons for this, we need to consider the nature of analog audio, the signals that it generates our continuous like this sine wave shown. However, digital signals are discreet, occurring as a succession off snapshot. Because of this, they can only ever offer an approximation of the analog wave form, which is shown in white superimposing the two. We can now see how approximate this digital emulation of the sine wave truly is. It therefore stands to reason that the higher the sample rate, the more accurate the digital realization off the wave form. Now, as I say, CD standard is 44.1 killer. However, there is an argument for the use of higher sample rates, such as 48 88.2 96 even as high as 192 kilohertz. This them brings us onto bit depth, as you probably know, bitsy units of binary code, either ones or zeros with two bits. There are four possibilities, which is 0001111 with four bits. There are 16 possibilities, eight bits. A digital word gives 256 possibilities on DSO on now. The more bets that he used, the more accurate the representation of the way form. As you can see in this comparison, this is a low bit death. While this is high now, the standard bit depth audio is 16 bed. Although there are arguments for the use of 24 bit, this boils down to dynamic range. 16 bit audio gives a lesser dynamic range than 24 bit audio, and it's for this reason that professional audio producers often tend to prefer 24/16 bit depth the price paid for this is that the audio file consequently be larger, are more, therefore, take up more memory and processing power. Studio one offers both 16 and 24 bit depth. 16 being the default. Many producers also like to use loops of audio that have been pre recorded. These loops can be purchased. You can create them yourself, or in many cases they will come with your P, a W package. Studio One is a good example, even the free entry level of which offers a whole variety of really great loops. As you can see here, there were loops for many different styles of music, all of which are the good quality. Loops are basically dragged into a track, at which point they're ready to play now. In theory, you could build up a whole track from Studio One provided free loops. Yet they'll come a point when you want to start creating more of your own material, at which point your use of loops will then become or judicious. But initially, don't be afraid to go ahead and have fun making music using loops. A second kind of track is an instrument instrument tracks, he used to record software devices that either come with your P A. W. Or they even stalled separately on the computer as a plug in pictured is apple logics. Impressive s too soon, along with a menu of the different types of instruments sounds that it produces, And each of those instruments will offer numerous different patches, a patch being a certain kind of pre program sound. After using the free version of Studio One, you'll see that there are plenty of instrument patches on offer. These make use of the presence saw blur that comes with the free version. Have a look at these as I loaded base match onto its own dedicated track. As you can see, there's a variety of different instrument sounds on offer. Now when you select a certain instrument and a sign of track, too, providing that track is selected. When you play your midi keyboard, you will then hear that instrument being played. You can also draw notes in using a pencil or pink tulle. Provide it for that purpose. To do this, you need to go into the piano roll view off that track, which Studio one refers to as editor. The two kinds of tracks that you're liable to use the most our audio and instrument tracks . However, if you want to use hardware devices as a part of your music production set up, you will also be using Medi Try. A synthesizer is a good example of a hardware device, as also is an electronic drum machine. Now the world of midi can be confusing at first, and it's for this reason that I devote a whole lecture to it in this unit. Many track is used to record MIDI messages transmitted from an external device such as a synthesizer, samba or drum machine. These messages in code vital information about what you're playing on that external device . This includes information about the notes being played, their volume panning on any controller activity such as use of the pitch slider, for example. As such, many tracks record no sound simply midi messages. The's air then relate to a MIDI interface through a midi cable as show when you press play . Therefore, what you're actually hearing is your external device now being controlled by the information recorded onto that midi tracks. This is why, if you press play without having got external device switched on. You will then hear no sound. Having the option of these three kinds of tracks audio instrument or MIDI tracks means that you have plenty of freedom in terms of what you want to record. However, you can't too much without the transport ball, although configured differently for each D. A W transport bars all have the same basic architecture as you can see here, the most important of the transport controls, which you hear outlined in blue. You'll probably be familiar with some of these present, as they are on standard audio devices. These include controls to play and to stop playback to fast forward and rewind, and the most important of all to record, which is often colored red. Also standard is the clock, which tells you the current position of the cursor is you either play or record. A really valuable control is the loop. Kleber. When activated, it will play back between the two points that have been set for to say, for example, you get a nice drumbeat going together with a great baseline. Now you're working on the composition of your lead melody. As you audition various ideas, you can just set it to repeat as a result of which you got play over and over again. So we've seen that with your D A W. You can compose record and then edit your music. You can also mix your music as well. This, however, is also a vast subject on one which I will approach in the next lecture. In the meantime, here are your assignments for this particular lecture. The first assignment is to ensure that you've grasped what audio instrument and midi tracks of. For it's the first earmark a page of your workbook, then divided into three sections, audio instrument and midi. Then make a list of all the types of musical material that you can think of that you could record on these three kinds of tracks. The second part of the assignment is more practical, and it's for those who are new to the process of using a D. A. Doubling. Your task is to explore some of the loops provided for by Studio One, the first open up Studio one and create a new song, Select Loops on Your Browser. Choose a style of music that you would like to create. First, choose a drum bloom and drag it over onto a truck, Then set your temper to match that of the loop. Then go to the loop function of the transport bar and set it to match the length of your drum bloom. Turn the loop function on. Then when you press play, it will simply repeat the loop, allowing you to audition various bass loops to go with your drums, and that is the next part of the process. Go to your browser and select base and choose a loop toe audition, then drag it over onto a track press play to make sure they sound great to go, then have some fun experimenting with different types of loop that could go over those. You will know what the's are because Studio One presents all of its loops under various categories. These categories, in their turn, reflect the needs of the genre that they're classified under one stipulation, though, when using other loops, make sure you match the state of Qi of the loop. So if your base is in D minor, abbreviated his d m select only D minor loops to go with it. Now. If you create something you like saver, so that you can then think about arranging your material to create a longer track. And as you do this, don't be concerned with making mistakes. Making the stakes is a vital part of the learning process. This is because each mistake is an opportunity for learning. Without the mistakes, we wouldn't be able to discover what we do need to learn. So mistakes of brilliant. They are the arrows that then point us towards what we need to do to succeed. This is music production. 3. Lecture 3: Mixing: Hello there. And welcome to lecture three of this unit where I'll be introducing the topic of mixing. Even though this is a vast subject. This lecture will introduce some of the key concepts that you need to know in order to begin learning the art of mixing if I say it begins simply because mixing is an art and a science that can take years toe. But of course we all have to start somewhere, and the best place to stop is with some simple basic. Now, once you've composed, recorded and edited all of the material that you'll need for a musical project, all carefully arranged upon their own tracks. You then became to place more of your focus upon the mixing of the track as a whole. When mixing you be making adjustments to the volume levels, panning, frequency, balance and dynamic range of the music that you've recorded on your D. A. W. The aim is to create a nicely balanced sound in which each tracks it's just right as a part of the mix. This is accomplished through a process of careful monitoring of the music as it is being played back to you. This is where your earlier practice, in attentive listening, will then bear fruit. Any problems with the mics picked up by your ear through the process of monitoring can then be given attention. Your drums. It just not prominent enough in the mix. Your base sounds to booming. The guitar is drowning out the sound of the piano. So you ask yourself why you try to diagnose what the problem is. Eventually find the solution so you make the adjustments that you need to, and so it goes on. In reality, a lot of the mixing will take place as you're producing your music. This is because it's impossible toe work. This sounds that do not inspire you, so you need to get the sound of each individual track just right, as well as the sound of all of the tracks were heard together, who can work with a piano that sounds just too tinny? Who can work with a lead that sounds lifeless and dull? No one can. What we do is to get this sound just right before we continue. Now, when you finally happy with the mix, you will then create your mix down, which is a rendering of the track into a form of audio file. So how do you go about this process of mixing well? A lot of the work of creating successful mix will be accomplished through the mixing console, which, as its name suggests, will appear as a virtual mixer. Although mixing consoles can be configured differently for each software program, mixes tend to work by exactly the same principles. We can appreciate this by comparing the mixes of a few programs. Here is an Apple Logic mixer notice that each track of the music is represented on its own narrow channel strip. Here is one of the mix is that you can use in propeller heads. Reason. Again. We see a familiar channel strip. Former here is Studio ones Mixer, as you can see, whatever that D A W. Each track of the project is represented on its own mix of channel, which appears as a channel strip alongside all of the other channel strips. And this is not surprising because software mixes are modelled upon their hardware counterpart. Bearing this in mind, let's take a quick look at studio ones mixer at the very top of each channel strip. You'll see that it tells you what the input to that channel is. This indicates with signals of that channel coming from I the particular track off your project. The output seam just below it is with the signals off that mix of channels are then being sent to unless otherwise rooted. The default for this is a master outputs that appear in a light gray on the far right, divided into left and right outputs. These produced the sound that will then be heard through your studio. Monitors are your speakers. So the signal of tracks three upon which you recorded your piano is an input into its own mix of channel, which in its turn is them being sent to the main output. Now that we know this, let's consider some of the functions off the mixer. One such function is the control of dynamic levels. The most obvious control for this is the fatal. This allows you to adjust. The level of which attracts sits is a part of the overall mix. If we now zoom in closer, will see that this level is measured using a decibel scale decibels we looked at in the last unit when we studied the intensity of sound. There we saw their represented a great way to measure sound intensity. This is because, in essence, Desa bells are simply a system of measurement. As such, this system could be used in various ways in this context of being used to indicate the levels of each track. The most important thing to know about these is that they have a ceiling, which is the highest level you can record out without clipping or distortion to the sound of curry. This ceiling is set up north decibels. Anything over that then puts you in the danger zone of clipping I. The sound will be heard to distort anything under naught. Decibels, therefore, represents a comparatively safe level by under I'm inexpressible on the negative scale. As you can see, this goes right down to minus 72 decibels now, although north decibels signifies the ceiling when recording were usually aiming for anywhere between minus 12 up to, say, minus six decibels. This is because once a music has been recorded and mixed, it will then need to be mastered. Mastering is a process that prepares your mix down for optimized playback across a range of different devices. The need for this is fairly obvious. On the one hand, your track might be heard playing on a car stereo what, perhaps an iPod or is a part of the soundtrack to a movie, if therefore stands to reason that your track needs to sound at its very best in all of these different context. Now, if the levels some of the tracks it just too high, there will be no room for maneuver on behalf of the mastering engineer. Now, another important part of the mixing process is panning. Panning concerns the position of attracts output in the stereo field. This is calibrating on a scale that goes from left at one extreme to right at the other on studio ones, mixer panning is controlled by thin blue strip towards the top of each mix of channel left . Click enables it to be, then adjusted, moved far left. The sound is then panned to the far left, moved far right. It is then panned far right when left alone. That channel is then panned dead center and any increments between these two extremes as possible on a scale from 100% left to 100% right Panning comes down to the percentage of the channel signal sent to each speaker. When pan far left, 100% of the signal will be routed to the left speaker, so the sound will be heard to be coming from the left speaker and vice a versa. So a track that his plan dead center would actually be a 50 50 balance between the left and the right speakers. You can appreciate this if I represent the left speaker in black, on the right, speaker in white. The proportion of the signal sent to each speaker can then be represented by the diagram that you see now Planning's a vital feature of any creative mix down, and thoughtful panning can create an entire dimension of spatial expression to your music playback. It's also useful for the sake of clarity in the mix. If two instruments using a similar frequency range are not given their own position in the stereo field, it's possible for the frequencies of one instrument to mask or obscure. The frequencies of enough are such neither instruments will be heard at their best, and this is all a part of the art. Another vital part of the mix down process is the use of effects such as equalization, compression and river. Through use of the facts, you can bring an amazing sense of life, warmth and presence to your cell. Dealing in a world of software instruments, you can get your piano to sound like a real piano being played in a concert hall or your guitar to sound like a real guitar being played in a concert. You can give your drums punch and dynamic power, however, as this is such an important process will need to devote the whole of the next lecture to So In the meantime, let's consider an assignment that will give you some initial practice in the art of mixing . Now. The last lecture I asked you to have some fun exploring the loops on Studio One. Beginning with this project, I would now like you to experiment with levels and panning. So, having opened up your project, click upon mix, which will then cause the console toe appear, having set your loop link press play what it is playing experiment with the favors, bringing them up and down on listening to the effect that this has upon the whole mix. Try the favors above the north decibels mark so you can hear what clipping sounds like an experiment with a panning Try panning, attract far left and then tripe and far right, And above all, have fun as you were doing. So this is mixing. 4. Lecture 4: Signal Processing: Hello there. And welcome to the fourth lecture of this unit, which is signal processing. Have you ever spoken into a box and heard the way in which the box modifies the sound of your voice? Alternatively, have you ever called out in a cave and heard your voice echoing back? These are all natural modifications that take place to an audio signal as it passes through a certain environment. When we hear the sound being transformed in this way, an extra dimension of interest is added to it now. Early recording studios soon realized the advantages of being able to use thes natural sound effects on their recording. Their logic, however, was this rather than going to the cave to record. So instead, let's bring the cave to the studio, and this is what they did. The early record of this is a testament to human ingenuity. There was the plate reverb effect obtained by suspending a £600 metal plate from the ceiling. And how about this remarkable reverberation chamber at the Dresden University of Technology ? Then along came the boon of signal processes Elektronik devices specifically devised to create particular sound effects. These included devices that could amplify, modify, distort, reverberate or modulate the sound in all sorts of ingenious ways. Here's a picture of the Roland E 501 which produces a great chorus effect. A thickening and fattening of the sound, which is great when applied to Leeds. The next stage, of course, was bringing these effects units into the realm of the digital. Here, I'm talking about software effects units of the type that you D A W will host naturally, each day, W will sport its own roster of effects, one of my favorite all time software effects unit. His reasons RV 7000 advanced reverb unit and the word advanced is no life. Just look at some of the possibilities that it offers. These include not just regular river patches, but also some really great related effects, like a kickball. Well, how about a robot? And of course, there are some great effects plug ins that can now be bought to compliment whatever effects units your D A W does have on board. How do we use affect units in the digital environment of the D. A. W Well, what we do is to insert the effects unit into the path of audio signal as it passes through the effects unit. That signal then becomes transformed by that effect. Let's try some examples. I'll announce the effect and then I'll say the words music theory for digital age as processed by that effect, whole reverb music theory for a digital age echo delay music theory for a digital age chorus music theory for a digital age. Phasing music theory for digital age. So you get the idea now in potential. There are hundreds of different effects that it's possible to apply to a sound source. Here it is, some of them divided up into six main groups, which are dynamic effects such as compression limiting and gating distortion effects such as overdrive, tape simulation, decimation and war war equalization effects. Such is graphic Parametric para graphic and multi band pitch phase modulation effect. Such is chorus phasing fledging reverberation effects, including room hall, wet plate on dry place and delay effects such as modulation, delay, cross delay sequence delay and multi tap delay. And each one of those effects as a complex array of settings that can all be carefully adjusted. But like I said in the previous lecture, we all need to start somewhere, and this start lies in developing an understanding of what effects units are, how they can be used and then for an assignment, having some fun, trying to apply them to a basic sound. So with this in view, that is, begin our study of effects. The most widely used effect is probably equalization or e que for short. We're all familiar with this effect due to its presence on many of our sound system devices . A graphic equalizer. Divide the audio frequency spectrum up into a series of fixed bands, and a series of sliders are then used that enabled each band to be attenuated or boosted as required, so that we can have some control. Over the degree of this, there is a midline that is calibrated as north decibels when the slider is set to north decibels. This is therefore a neutral setting that indicates no attenuation or boost above. The midline indicates a boost, and the degree of boost is calibrated on a plus decibels scale. Below the midline indicates an attenuation, and the degree of attenuation is calibrated on a miner's decibels. When approaching the understanding of e que it helps if we realize that when we play a note on a musical instrument, The note we hear is simply the fundamental over and above the fundamental of the various partials off that to appreciate these, just think of a number is a spy. Each turn of the spiral corresponds to a doubling of frequency. Now the higher up in the harmonic Siri's we go, the more crowded together, the harmonics become producing a rich, shimmering, ever changing machine of subtle colors. Note in this sense, is a complex series of vibrations, the individual frequencies of which extend right up through the audio frequency spectrum. Although we might not be able to individually here, these frequencies, they do contribute to the herd quality of the South. So imagine what it's like when lots of notes organ played by different musical instruments . The result is literally a swirling ocean of vibration that fills the space around us. Then think about all the noise that accumulates when recording sources of this can include the ancillary sounds of musical instruments. If they're played, I breathing when playing a wind instrument, vocal noises, microphone amplification, noise and room noise. And then there's that annoying hiss that seems to appear from nowhere, and you don't know where it's coming from. In view of this, it stands to reason that having some way off attenuating certain frequencies of sound while at the same time being able to gently boost others is brilliant. And this is what e curing is full. It allows us to dampen down or even eliminate unwanted frequencies that might be causing noise. Bhumi nous box in this hunk muddiness and semblance in the sound while at the same time giving a gentle boost to those frequency ranges that contributes strength, power, fullness, warmth and presence to the sound. Another vital effect is river reverb. Devices typically emulate the reflections of sound waves from the surfaces of the enclosure in which the sound is produced our ears. Detection of the presence of these reflections gives us an amazing sense of this space in which the sounds is being produced. As a result, it's through the natural effect of river that we can immediately tell if a sound is coming from, say, a tiled bathroom, a cathedral or a cave. Reverb effects, a cleverly designed to emulate this natural effect on their discreet on judicial use is an essential feature of every musical production. Here are two examples. The first has no river. This one has river. Can you hear the difference? Reverb could not only impart a sense of realism to the sounds that you're using, but it can also be used to stimulate your listeners imagination. To achieve this sense. The first question that needs to be asked is, What kind of space do you want to put your listener into? This question is answered by looking at the imaginative scene in your mind as you compose your trap. Where are you or you want amount until in a dense jungle under the sea or on a beautiful, exotic beach. All of these different kinds of imaginative environments have strong connotations with regard to the types of reverb. Associate it with them through use of reverb. You can therefore suspend your listener sense of disbelief and transport them in their imagination to that particular place that you have in mind. In this sense, reverb is not just a sound of fact, but a vital music production ingredient. So the knack of using reverb lies in the ability to translate what can often be quite nebulous feelings suggestions on atmospheres into the tangible parameters of the given river device. Probably the most important parameter is the room size reverb effects devices allow you to specify the size of an enclosure to a greater or lesser degree. So what size of space does the music suggest? Where is it all happening? What is the location? A small room, a concert hall, a huge arena, a club, a vast empty cave. Each location would suggest a particular kind of river, coupled with the size of the enclosure of the parameters of pre delay and decay. Cree DeLay sets the time of delay of the reverberations. Naturally, the larger the space, the longer the delay between. In this context, pre delay can also be used to impart a sense of distance. Imagine the sound of somebody calling out on the distant mountain. The pre delay would be a pretty large one. Do que concerns the amount of time it takes for the reverberations to die down. Think of spaces in which the decay is a slow, gradual one. Cathedrals or large underground captains with the sound is no way to escape the type of surface the sound bounces off could also affect the decay. A smooth, wet surface will have a longer decay time to a Dr porous surface. Some revert devices haven't e que on board, which allows you to control the frequency spectrum affected by the river. This is because too much lower frequency reverb configure mixed with boom and muddiness, which is not really necessary for the workings of the effect. Similarly, too much high frequency reverb can cloud the upper registers of your mix. The E Que consequently needs to be adjusted so you can get the benefits of the river without the disadvantages of muddiness and cloudiness in the mix, along with e que on river DeLay is also one of the most widely used effects. DeLay is simply the echo of a sound, which occurs so many Millie seconds after the original. In this sentence is in effect, it is directly related to reverse. DeLay can be used in two main ways. The first is to produce an echo. The second is to produce a sequence of echoes that slowly fade away. Here is a series of courts used without delay, nothing to sit up and take note of here here are the same chords. Process with delay. What a wonderful effect. Have the use off when producing music. Delay is thus related to reverb through the common factor of echo. For this reason, when using delay, you'll probably used less reverb. What least apply much more sparingly when using DeLay devices? The length of delay is measured in milliseconds. I can usually be precisely specified. Delay times that work best tend to be those that work with the beat, although interesting effects can be obtained by using multiples or fractions of the length of the B. For this reason, delay units often enable you to specify the time of the delay using these denominations. Then there was filtering, which, like equalization, is a type of spectral effect. I, it is used to affect the tar ball, balances off a sound when using a filter. Some frequencies were allowed to pass through the filter, while others are attenuated to the point of in order bility. This can have a profound effect upon the perceived tambra and color of the sound being filtered. Ah, high pass filter. Let's in the high frequencies, but not the lower the point with the low frequencies begin to attenuate is called the frequency Cut off point, a low pass filter. Let's in the lower, but not the higher. While a band pass filter lets through frequencies within a certain specified band a notch, filter that through all frequencies bar those specified by the placing of the notch. This is, of course, invaluable when trying to get rid of the pesky noise that might be appearing in a narrow frequency band. Virtually all sound producing devices that you use will have a filter or filters on board as primary shapers off the sound that presents sampler of Studio One is a good example. You can see the filter a top center of the panel. This has those vital controls needed to obtain filter based of facts. The most important of these is the filter cut off, which sets the frequency cut off point. Listen to what happens when the filter cut off is progressively. Raise I I. Another really important effect is compression. Compression is a type of dynamic effect used to affect the levels of a truck. The best way to understand compression it through considering a situation in which compression might be required. Vocal tracks, for example, a nearly always compressed due to the relatively large dynamic range, which can extend from the loudest, passionate screaming down to the quietest possible. Whisper. Compression allows you to even this range out so that the loudest parts are a bit quieter and the softest parts are a bit loud. Drum trucks also tend to be compressed. Certain sounds could be very much about than others. A good example of this is a crash symbol, which, as it peaks, could push the track very close to the point of clipping. Using a compressor, you can set a threshold beyond which these peaks cannot go. When that threshold is reached, the compressor then kicks in to bring that peak down to the required level. This, in turn enables gained to be, then applied to pump up the level of the entire track. So let's listen to this being applied. In this first example, you'll hear a drum loop being played without any compression. Now listen to the same loop. When compression has been applied, the result is very noticeable. The drums now have more punch of their sound is much more Chris. When using effects, we need to distinguish between the two main uses. These are his master effects or inserted facts. Although the same devices tend to be used, the difference lies in their positioning. As a part of the signal chain master effects of those we want to have the option of applying to every channel of the mix. A good example of this is reverb. If we're going to be using a particular type of reverb on most of the tracks of our project , we can then use it as a master effect. This means that we can then route the signal of all of our tracks to it. Should we want to, however, what we want to vary the amount of reverb applying to each track where we can control this through the auxiliary sends of the mixer. The amount of signal that has passed through the effects unit is called wet, while that which bypasses the effects unit is called dry. These amounts could be precisely adjusted in order to achieve the right balance of wet to dry. That way we can adjust exactly how much reverb each track is affected By. Then there were inserted facts. Insert effects tend to be applied to individual channels off the mix. That way, if he wants him, Echo DeLay sounds some chord stabs recorded on Channel three. You can apply that effect to that particular channel, but not any of the other chattel. Now that we understand the difference between master and insert facts, we can see that another important job of music production is the appropriate use off these effect. The producer must know what effects they want to use on particular channels. Inserted facts on also what master effects to use. There was also know how much of the effect to apply either proportion of wet to dry. In order to be able to do this, the producer also needs an extensive knowledge of the effects that are available. What they do, how they modify the sound on how to adjust their individual settings. This makes the producer a very wise and knowledgeable person. There are, after all, hundreds of effects it is possible to use, each of which needs to be clearly understood if we're going to get the best out of them. Suffice to say, contain years to develop a clear understanding of effects on the uses, so this particular lecture is ready done. No more than describes the surface. But what it does do is to introduce you to some of the key ideas and concepts connected with signal processing. So if you are new to all of this, where do you actually begin? When you can do this? Simple assignment for this lecture on Golden involves is having some fun with the facts. So open up Studio One and create a new song, Then go to instruments. Once you've clicked upon these, you get a menu of instruments like So, choose an instrument that you want to play like a synth. Select a patch for that instrument here I've chosen on a lock fifths. Drag the instrument over in order to create track for it, at which point you'll see the presence somber appear. Close it down for the moment, using the Red Cross the top right hand corner, then using the paint to create to bar clip. Then go to your editor. Then you will see the piano roll appear, record a few notes or alternatively draw them in with the paint, too turned looping on on them. Press play as the music is playing, Open up the sampler once more by clicking upon the instrument icon at top left. Once you've access the Saba, you'll see the effect strip at the bottom. Whether three effects modulation, delay and reverb, click upon their tabs to activate, then have some fun playing around with the controls for the effect. As you use them, listen carefully for how they affecting the sound. There was also an effects be tab, which, if you click upon that well, then take you to form or effects, which are gator e que distortion and pan. Try these as well, and don't forget to try the filter while you were there, which is at the top center of the panel. As you do so, don't worry about the precise use of the controls. When I first learned about effects, I spent many hours experimenting with him, both individually and in combination, just to see how they could transform a sound. Once I had experienced them, the technical side of it all began to fall into place. I knew what they were and how to use them, so a first just experiment with the effects on their controls in order to directly experience how they affect the sound that way that you will then begin to learn to recognize what they do by extension, how they might be used in any future projects that you want to do. This is a signal processes. 5. Lecture 5: MIDI Sequencing: Theo there. Welcome to the fifth lecture of this unit, whose title is many sequencing Electra one. We studied various developments in the technology of music. However, I did not fully discuss what is probably one of the most important off these developments here. I am referring to Midi. Mehdi really helped the transition of music into the digital age, and in this lecture we're going to be looking at some of the reasons, how and why. Developed and popularized in the early 19 seventies, Mehdi is an acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Although this sounds complex, it represents a brilliant way for standalone devices such as synthesizers, samplers and drum machines to be connected to a computer. This connection takes place via Amidi USB interface. These come in a variety of forms on at a range of prices. There are basic interfaces for home use is called many USB cables, and then there are the more advanced interfaces that studios tend to use. Such is the cakewalk um three G one set up and installed. The interface enables a two way flow of many messages between the computer and the hardware device. I synthesized this, then enables you to record what you're playing on the synthesizer. Whatever device you're using on the computer, the flow of many messages occurs by way of Midian and midi out ports into which the MIDI cable can be plug. What, however, is a MIDI message? Well, whatever is played on your synthesizer, which includes the use of on board controllers, the river modulation wheel and pitch band gets transmitted in the form of media messages to the computer. These messages are then recorded in the particular sequence in which they occur. Once recorded, when I press play, the computer will relay those messages back to the synthesizer, which will then play the music that I just recorded for this to work both Millie in on many out ports need midi out transmits many messages about what I'm playing, which the MIDI interface then sends to the many import of the computers sound. Once these messages have been recorded on the computer, if I want to play back, what I've just recorded Mehdi in is required. This is so the synthesizer can then receive those MIDI messages that would enable playback to take place. Many also enables multiple devices to be connected as a part of a chain so he can be synchronized with one another. This is referred to as many through So say, for example, that I want to use two different since off of the same project Midi through enables them to be connected up, so they were all then play in perfect synchronisation with one another. If you're going to be using hardware devices such as synthesizers, samplers and drum machines, then to be able to record what is being played upon your computer, you are therefore going to need a MIDI interface with which to dough. Of course, you could always record their output on an audio track, but the disadvantage of this is you then won't be able to edit your material to such a fine degree. Now, once equipped with a suitable MIDI interface, you can then connect your hardware instrument to the computer, and you'll then be good to go. The process of recording many messages is called sequencing, and this takes place on a sequence of that has been devised for this purpose. Many sequencing can take place over total of 16 MIDI channels that are numbered one through to 16. How many synthesizer workstations have their own onboard sequences, upon which you can record up to 16 separate tracks. Using the onboard sequencer you can record in real time I, as you are playing as well as the added boon off step sequencing. Step sequencing is a creation of patterns of musical notes consisting of a certain number of steps of uniformed duration. The most common type of step sequencer is the up educator, which ones programmed will repeat the arpeggio pattern ad infinitum. These patterns can also be recorded upon the sequences because of the advantages that they offer. Dedicated sequences installed upon the computer also became really popular. This is because they display the content of each track in the convenient visual form off a panda roll. It's not only enabled one to see the notes being played back, but also to change and edit thumb when necessary, using various tools devised for this purpose. To appreciate this watch now another brief film off the recording process. What you're seeing here is no data being recorded on then represented on the piano roll. This data includes the pitch of each note, its length or duration and where it occurs in the music track. It also includes the velocity of each note. This is basically a measure of the speed with which you depress a key with loud notes. You depressed the keys faster, and with quieter notes, you depress the more slowly. Now the great thing about the piano roll is that, like a musical score, you can see vital information about the track represented in a visual former. This includes the pitch of the notes, their velocity and so on. And even better is that with your mouse, you can interact with it to create key edits to the music that you have recorded this time brings us on to the subject of MIDI editing. In general, editing is a large subject, and here I can only provide a brief introduction to this process. Yet I will include some of the most common editing operations that you can use on your Mideast sequences. Suppose, for example, that when you were recording your music, you played a wrong note. Well, you could now edit that wrong note by changing its pitch like so what if you missed a key note out of the music? We're using a pencil tool. You can draw the noted. What if you played a note for too short a time? Well, you can extend its length by selecting it and then dragging upon the handles, provided you can also use an arrow tool to select particular groups of notes that are called clips or even hold tracks. You can then copy and paste these into any desired location in your track. Using these tools, you can also write your music from the computer without even having to play the insulin. For this purpose, use a pencil tool. The tool could be set to a particular resolution. This is the length of note that will automatically be drawn in other types of MIDI data, such as volume, panning and Velocity, and also be edited in MIDI. For this purpose, many sequences usually offer on Event editor, which is basically a list of all of the events that the sequence of has recorded in the exact order in which they have occurred. Represented numerically, it's possible to open up the event editor and adjust any required parameter off these events. Once many data has been recorded onto a sequencer, it could then be saved. One option is as a project file exclusive to whatever d aaw you're using. Another, more general option is as a MIDI file. When you save a MIDI project as a MIDI file, there are two basic four months. These are called type zero type one A Type zero MIDI file mergers, all tracks that are on the same Midi channel toe a single truck. The drums, for example, usually assigned Channel 10. Now, if you have three tracks operating on this channel, Type zero MIDI file would simply merge them into one track of your sequences. A Type One Midi file, however, will keep the three tracks separate. Now, if your project consists of 16 tracks each assigned their own MIDI channel, it will not matter which type you save it. As after today's music students, MIDI files could be a great blessing. This is because their sites, from which you can download many files of many very popular pieces of music using those files, you can then initialize playback upon a range of MIDI compatible devices. And as many protocols include Patch Data I. The instrument selected for a given track or tracks means that the drums will then be played back by drum kit, the piano by a piano clarinet by clarinet and so on. Now the great thing about these Midi files is that they contain the vital note data that the original track uses. All that many file creator surmises that the track used. So if, for example, there's a particular piece of music that you like, you can download the MIDI file and then use the MIDI note data to make your own arrangements off that music. You can also use MIDI files to make a close study of the great number of classical works have now been rendered into midi files. An air of fallibility, however, is the creation off the MIDI file. This is often done by MIDI enthusiasts and as a consequence of quality and accuracy of the file can vary. Some are absolutely brilliant in terms of their quality. Others, perhaps lesser. So how can we now turn this into in this time? Well, what I'd like you to do, go to a free MIDI file side, choose a piece of music that you'd like to study, say, for example, you interested in Eric Surtees Jim Nobody Number one. Having found the composer and a list of the works that have MIDI files. Click on the work you want Toe open. If it's the first time you've done this, you be asked which program you want to use to open it as we're using two programs on this course. Studio one and Music School Select Studio one from the list of programs Studio one will then open. Once it has opened, you'll be prompted. Do you want to load General Midi sounds for this file? Click. Yes, and the fire will open up with all the sounds that you need ready loaded. Then it's simply a matter. A pressing play. Uh uh , Once you've played it back, click upon the instrument icon on the right of the instrument name toe Access the presence . Some once open, try adjusting the reverb settings until they're just right for your ear. Omar. There set any other effects you think would work with this piece. If you want to look more closely at the music, click upon the View menu and select editor. Then you'll be able to see the tracks in the piano roll view. Ondas music is being played back. You can then see what is actually being played Great feature about these MIDI files, assuming they are an accurate representation of an original piece of music. Is it using them the work and then be studied? You can analyze the court progression. You can see what key the music is. It you can look at how the melody is constructed on much else. Besides, when we look at how to do all of this later in the course. In the meantime, the main brief of this assignment is to get used to selecting and then opening up midi files of the music that interests this is Mehdi sequencing. 6. Lecture 6: Score Writing Software: they're welcome to left. Six score writing software here will be examining one of the great boons of music in our digital age, which is the availability of music score writing programs. Oh, how much easier it is to produce this corner. No longer is it necessary to write out any parts laboriously by hand. What is more, when you finished after a few adjustments, it's simply a matter of pressing print, and you now have a great looking and easily readable score. Also, you can play this gold back from the score writing program itself. How amazing is that? Suffice to say, I'm a great fan of score writing programs. The question is which we touched upon this In Unit one. There were numerous options available, the most well known being finale and Sibelius. I've used both over the years, and both have their merits as to whether you purchase a score writing program or obtain a freeware programs such as Musical that is up to you. New school won't always do what professional score writing programs do, but it will write to find score for you. Musical will also play your school back. You can listen to the music there then, and it will also help you to learn music theory. This is for the simple reason that the entire body of music theory familiar to us today has evolved from the corpus of written music and has written music. It is all about the score. Now, For the purposes of this course, I'm going to assume that you be using Muse school. This is so that nobody is excluded from the cause because they cannot afford to buy the necessary software for so to help those who are using musical on their way. Let's now take a brief look at muse school when you open up music, or it will take you to the new school wizard. This enables you to set up all of the essential features of your score before you even get started so you can give the working title and, if necessary, a subtype. You can name the composer the lyricist if you're writing songs and, of course, the copyright status of the work. If the work is original and it is all your own work, then of course, copyright that work in your name once you filled in these details the Wizard will then take you to a page where you can decide what kind of score you want to write and the choices you have. A plenty. You can choose your own selection of instruments from a menu, which I will get to presently. Or if you're writing for traditional ensemble, you can choose a score tailor made for that ensemble. For example, you might be wanting to write a coral piece. If so, is it going to be unaccompanied or accompanied choir? If unaccompanied choir, you would choose S a T B. These are the first letters of the four main voice parts of call music, which is soprano, alto, tenor and bass soprano with the upper register female voices. Also the low tenor of the upper register Male voices based the loan if the choir is accompanied. Popular options for this organ and piano, both of which have provided full if you're writing a song for a singer with accompaniment that is also provided for music. Oh even provides options for barbershop quartet on unmediated liturgical music I Gregorian Chant, for example, Musical also provides options for chamber music scores. Chamber music is played by small ensembles four or five individual players, such as a string quartet made up of first and second violin, viola and violin cello. However, wind and brass quartets or quintets consisting of five players are also popular. Also provided for are some useful options for solo players that include both piano and guitar. If you like writing jazz, you also well catered for there are options for jazz. Lead sheets would show you the main melody, along with the series of symbols for the court to require. Also provided for a big band jazz combo schools. There are also options for a popular music songwriters, Taylor, to two particular styles which are rock on bluegrass. But of course, once you've chosen to score template, you can change any aspect or feature of it that you like. This means that you can adjust the template to the needs of whatever genre or style of music. Your songs Aaron. Then there are options what we think of as brass and marching bands. So if you want to write a score for your local brass band, your well catered for finally there is provisioned for Castrol schools. These include the classical orchestra, which is fewer instruments in the modern symphony or film orchestra, the Modern Symphony Orchestra and, of course, the string orchestra composed exclusively of instruments in the violin family. These include violin, viola, violin, cello on the double bass. Once you've chosen what kind of score you want to write, you can then get down to specifics. There is a key signature that tells you what key the music is in. Made up of so many sharp or flat signs, we will cover this topic in unit for you can also specify the tempo and meter of the music , these both being subjects that were also cover later in the course. Once you've chosen your template and settled all of the fine details, your score template will then open, leaving you free to begin writing your skull. Here I have chosen a string orchestra template. If you don't want to use a template, you can specify the instruments that you want to use yourself. Once you select, these musical will lay the one out for you. Those instruments that it does provide for also instruments that can be used playback of your school. On what an impressive range of instruments. There were the woodwinds ranging from the traveling piccolo to the deep base of the bassoon . And there are plenty of Saxes for our jazz aficionados. There's a couple of really popular free reed instruments, such as the harmonica on the accordion. Great for injecting that street music feel into your skull. There are ample brass instruments available for the high plain cornett down to the deep ranging Cuba. Then there were the percussion instrument. These come in two classes pitched on UNP. Itch pitched percussion includes all percussion instruments that produce notes of indefinite pitch. So in theory, a piano is actually a pitched percussion instrument. And if you wonder how a piano could be percussive, just look at the mechanism by which pianos produced their notes. A series of hammers strike a row of talk metal straightens. The piano is not included, the because it has another important place as a keyboard instrument whose category we've not yet got to what are included all of our favorites in the pitched percussion world. These include Tim Party is set of tune based rooms along with glockenspiel zyla for off these last two. Can you remember which one is made of metal bars on which one of wood. And they're a vibraphone marimba, much loved by jazz bands and, of course, the bells. Then there were the on pitch percussion. That's to say, percussion instruments that don't produce notes of a clearly defined pitch. These include all of our favorites, including the drum set, more comedy called Drum Kit, the snare bass drum and Cymbals used by symphony orchestras. And four of our best loved editions, which air the triangle Wood blocks clabes on Tam Marine. Did you know that the tone of the triangle is so piercing that even when every single instrument of the orchestra is playing, it can still be heard ringing out? And as it does so, it provides that lovely touch of silvery metallic color that so enhances the spectrum of colors of a symphony orchestra. On their more thoughtful addition, 40 percussion produced by the human body acting as percussion instrument. These options include collapse finger snaps, slaps and, of course, the stamping of the feet. Vocals are also well catered for there are the four traditional voices S a T B, along with mezzo soprano whose range lies between alto and soprano and baritone, whose range lies between tenor and bass. And of course, no ensemble would be complete without the kazoo, a voice modifier that's the subject of many brilliant YouTube videos. There's a nice range of keyboards, including harpsichord. For those who want to add a touch of that authentic Barac sound to their music, the final category of instrument is strings divided into the plucked on the boat with the plucked string instruments. There's much that you could ask for, including banjo, guitar, ukulele, harp and a great assortment of bass instrument. And finally, there are boats, stringed instruments that are the mainstay of many classical and modern ensembles. What a great variety of instruments coming from a program. The cost, you know more than the effort to download it. This then brings us on to the edit menu. When you load your score, you'll see the template appearing before you. At that point, you'll then be able to access the View menu. The hosts a variety of great features, really important other palettes, of which there are two levels. The regular palette on the more advanced master that pallets are for all of the signs, symbols and marks that you're going to need when writing your school, and they could be access by simply clicking a bomb. Let's take a quick look at the regular palette when he selected a menu appears showing the various palette categories. First on the list is clasps. These are signs placed at the beginning of this stave to indicate the range of notes covered by the state. We will study all of this in detail in unit for the next part of the menu deals in key signatures If you didn't get a chance to load a key signature when you set your score up, or if you want to change the key signature somewhere in your piece of music, this selection is great. Then there with signs you need to indicate the meter of your music. Court time signatures. We will cover these in unit seven. Then there are accidental side Sharps flats and natural whose use we will look at in Unit four. They're they're articulations, which markings that tell the performer how to play will be studying these in Unit eight. Then there are ornaments traditionally used to embellish a melodic line of which the trail is the most Well, no, we look at these in Unit eight as well. It's also important to be able to set the tempo Will speed of the music. This is done through the tempo part of the menu, which offers various options. Dynamics are also essential, these being the markings that tell the performers how loud or soft play would also be studying these in unit eight. So, basically, if there is a market you require for a score, musical probably has on board. And if you can't find the marking you require, don't forget to try the master power that is more extensive. Another neat feature, accessible from the View menu, is the Mexico. This presents each part of your score with its own mix of channel, whose parameters you have some control over. This includes the volume on panning of each track, also amassed again. Slider is available so you can increase the output volume if you require. Also cool is a MIDI Channel designation, essential for when you want to export. Your project is a MIDI file that can then be opened up using other applications. Another great feature is the keyboard visual shown at the bottom of the score, so useful when you learning to read music. This is because, as the score plays, so do the keys on the keyboard corresponding to the notes being played. So having introduced some of the basics, let's start writing our school. Zooming in will help us here. To write notes on the state is really simple. First, you access the right tab on the left just underneath file this, then right enables, allowing you to write notes in with a pencil to time values of the notes, which will cover in Unit five A selected from the horizontal menu bar where this shown with the appropriate symbols. So let me write some notes in then that's listen to them being played back. It is that simple? - This That brings me onto your assignment for this lecture. On the last lecture, you opened a MIDI file in Studio One. Now try opening up a MIDI file using musical, So download the file from the free MIDI file site or, if you like, use one of the many files that's provided with his court. Then open the file up on have fun exploring playback off the fire. This is score writing software. Um, - yeah ,