Mastering Brushstrokes - Invisible Brushstrokes (Part 1 of 6) | Jill Poyerd | Skillshare

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Mastering Brushstrokes - Invisible Brushstrokes (Part 1 of 6)

teacher avatar Jill Poyerd, Professional Fine Artist & Educator

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

26 Lessons (1h 50m)
    • 1. Brushstrokes Trailer

    • 2. Introduction

    • 3. Dilution

    • 4. Brush Load

    • 5. Viscosity

    • 6. Surface Condition

    • 7. Absorption

    • 8. Preparing To Paint

    • 9. Glazing

    • 10. Glazing in Watercolor

    • 11. Glazing in Oil

    • 12. Glazing - Stroke Practice

    • 13. Glazing - Object Painting

    • 14. Blended

    • 15. Blended in Oil

    • 16. Blended - Stroke Practice

    • 17. Blended - Object Painting

    • 18. Gradient

    • 19. Gradient in Oil

    • 20. Gradient - Stroke Practice

    • 21. Gradient - Object Painting

    • 22. Pouring

    • 23. Pouring in Oil

    • 24. Pouring - Stroke Practice (Watercolor)

    • 25. Pouring - Stroke Practice (Oil)

    • 26. Pouring - Object Painting

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About This Class

"One of the best painting courses I’ve taken. And I have subscribed quite a few. This instructor is incredibly knowledgeable. She provides detailed explanations and thoroughly explains the foundations of the concepts." - Kate H.

Brushstrokes are at the core of being an artist, and an individual's brushwork is one of the things that sets them apart from other artists. Using my approachable, easy-to-understand teaching method and lots of hands-on activities, I break down historic and contemporary brushwork into twenty-two unique brushstrokes from traditional to unconventional. 

This six-part course covers twenty-two individual brushstrokes. They are broken down by style of application and include a brief history, examples of how they're used in masterpieces, visual demonstrations, and student practice exercises. By combining technical learning with visual and hands-on examples, students gain a thorough understanding of each brushstroke variation. At the end of the course, students are challenged to create a simplified painting using five-strokes selected from the course material.

Note: Demonstrations are given in both watercolor and oil paint. Acrylic painters simply have to apply the knowledge depending on how they use that medium, whether thick (like oil) or thin (like watercolor).

This course is broken into six parts:

Part One: Invisible Brushstrokes -

Part Two: Directly Painted Brushstrokes -

Part Three: Light & Heavy Brushstrokes -

Part Four: Broken Brushstrokes -

Part Five: Alternative Brushstrokes -

Part Six: Putting It All Together -


This section of the course begins with a discussion on important foundational painting topics such as dilution, brush load, viscosity, and absorption. No matter what paint you work in, understanding these factors will help you better understand your paint and therefore have more success when learning about the various brushstrokes. 


After the foundational information, we explore what I call invisible brushstrokes - those that don’t normally reveal bristle lines or even seam lines between strokes. Brushstrokes where it's hard to determine the outright use of a brush. These strokes include:

  • Glazing
  • Blending
  • Gradients
  • Pouring


Often, these are brushstrokes used for the base of a painting.

Meet Your Teacher

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Jill Poyerd

Professional Fine Artist & Educator


Jill Poyerd, NWS, is a contemporary realist known for her tranquil subject matter and unique painting style. Her award-winning work can be found in private collections both nationally and internationally. She has been featured in national publications, is the author of the portrait painting book Fearless Portraits, and is a signature member of several prestigious art societies, including the National Watercolor Society. Jill works in both watermedia and oil paints and has exhibited extensively throughout the Mid-Atlantic region as well as in national shows.

In addition to her work as an artist, Jill is an active member of the arts community. She has curated many multi-medium group shows, and is the founder of the Fine Art Professionals of Northern Virginia. Additionally... See full profile

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1. Brushstrokes Trailer: I've been a professional artist for over 10 years now, but I've painted all my life, and I know that one of the keys to being an artist is your brushwork. When I was developing the idea for this course, I didn't want to just show students how I paint. I wanted to teach them how to paint, and in this case it meant teaching them all about the various brushstrokes that are available to us as artists. To my astonishment, it seemed no one had taken the time to break down what strokes artists have used throughout history as well as the present day. So this was my task. After almost a year of research and preparing, I'm really excited to offer this course Painters of All Levels convention. If it from the examples that give from masterpieces throughout history, they can learn new techniques or new ways to handle ones they already use. New painters will come away with a tool chest of brushstrokes, ready to apply the knowledge to their works of art. The course is broken into several parts that together cover 22 different brush strokes that can be used in almost any painting medium it builds from a discussion of the topics that influence paint application, just strokes that are used for bass players. Then it covers directly painted strokes, those that use little paint and those that use a lot. The next section deals with the many types of broken strokes, including those often used by the Impressionists and neo Impressionists, as well as more contemporary strokes and methods. Because students learn through informative lectures, demonstrations and hands on activities, I believe they'll walk away from this course with confidence and a host of new ideas. 2. Introduction: welcome to my course called Mastering Brushstrokes. In this course, we discussed 22 different brush strokes used by the Masters in order to give students a full perspective on each stroke, we begin by discussing that particular brush strokes history, followed by examples of how it's been used by some of the masters. And then students watch as I demonstrate at close range how the stroke is executed. A separate lecture covers that stroke as it's done in oil paint. Students then watch as I show them how to practice this stroke at home. And then we finished the brushstroke by painting a simple object painting, using Onley that stroke in order to solidify its influence on forms. The brush strokes are arranged in a specific order, and we begin with the strokes that are often used in creating a base layer in a painting. Next, we move on to directly painted lines. Lines that remain is part of the finished product. From there, we move into strokes that use light amounts of paint, followed by those that use heavy amounts of paint. Then we discuss the various broken strokes and finally, more contemporary application methods. Each lecture demonstrates the actual stroke, first in water color and then in oil paint. Unless specific brushstroke applies more to oil painting. Most other painting mediums usually relate to one or the other. They're either fluid like water color or dense, like oil paint. For example, acrylics can be used either thinly, like watercolor or thickly like oil paint, so the acrylic artist would apply the stroke information to how they use that specific paint. For this reason, a basic working knowledge of your preferred painting medium is necessary, and what I mean by that is you should have a very basic understanding of your materials and how your preferred painting medium is applied to a surface. I recommend that you watch both the watercolor and oil lectures, regardless of what paint you use. The reason is that sometimes understanding how a different medium works can actually help you better understand your own medium. Now, one thing I need to recommend is only use artist grade paints and if you work in watercolor Onley used artist, greed, paper or surface as well. Student grade materials do cost less, but their performance is poor. In fact, there are some basic skills and techniques that simply won't be possible using student grade pain. If you're concerned about the cost, just select a red, yellow and blue paint known as a color triad. If you work in oil or heavy acrylic, you may want a white in a black as well. From these, you can make every supplemental color. And if you work in watercolor, I recommend to paints as opposed to Pan's. There are a few brushstrokes that are going to require a more malleable pain now, as far as your surface artists grade, £140 watercolor paper is what I'd recommend, preferably cold pressed so it has some tooth to it. An inexpensive Candace boards are sufficient for basic stroke practice if you work in oils . If you feel you need more information on supplies for water media paints, you may want to consider taking my course foundations for mastering watercolor painting. At the end of each lecture, students are guided through two assignments, some basic stroke practice and ah, fun application exercise. If you work in water media paints, you may want to pick up a small ring binder of watercolor paper for this second exercise. If you do all of the practice paintings in this format, you'll end the class with a handy reminder of each stroke. Just make sure it's at least £140 paper or thicker in order to avoid too much paperwork. And finally, you may want to watch my three part YouTube video that covers the full history of brush strokes and the Masters that made them famous. But let's begin by discussing some of the topics that affect paint application. 3. Dilution: before we can discuss the various brushstrokes, there are several important topics that we need to discuss that directly. Influence paint application. These topics are paint dilution, brush load viscosity, surface condition and surface absorption. All these can influence how the paint looks when applied to a surface, as well as how successful the brush stroke will be. The first topic is dilution, and when I speak of dilution, I mean the thinning down of pure paint by the addition of a liquid paint consists of pigment and a liquid binder. The pigment is essentially finally ground plant, mineral or synthetic material that gives paint its color. Each minute piece of color is a pigment particle. Now the number of particles per inch of liquid paint will vary by the pigment. Some pigments are more finely ground, so there will be more pigment particles in that inch of paint. Now, to clarify this, imagine that you have 1/4 cup of pure paint and that there are, let's just say, four billion particles of pigment within that measurement. If you add 1/4 cup of another liquid, whether water oil, a medium or some kind of solvent, you will then have 1/2 a cup of pain, but it will still only contain the four billion particles of color. The particles will simply be distributed throughout the full amount of liquid. This means that you're resulting paint. Color will be lighter due to the thinned out pigment. And depending on what material you used to do, the thinning it may produce a thin or coat of paint on the surface is well now. As we said, paint is just pigment and a liquid binder in watercolor. The binder is gum Arabic in oil. It's linseed, walnut or some other kind of artistic oil. And in acrylic it's an acrylic polymer. They're all similar in the sense that they all use the same pigments. But because of the unique binders, there will be a unique way to thin the pain. In watercolor, you simply add extra water in oil. You use a solvent, which breaks down the oil in the paint solvents such as sharp in time or gam sel. You will also want to add a touch of additional oil in order to improve the application. If you use on Lee a solvent, it can result in lines and beads of paint. The additional oil provides a smoother application and gives the thinned paint stability. If you paint acrylic, you can thin with water. But for better performance, and to get the right consistency, you'll likely need to add a medium. A paint can be heavily diluted, moderately diluted, slightly diluted or undiluted, which would be pure paint. Each variation will produce different results. Some brush strokes can work with any level of dilution, but others may be best with a specific level. For example, a glaze would requiring moderate or heavy dilution, whereas in pasta paint would require undiluted paint. So dilution is one factor that you need to consider when painting. 4. Brush Load: another factor that needs to be considered when painting is brush load. Brush load refers to how much paint your brushes holding. If a brush is really loaded, it means it's holding the maximum amount of paint that it can hold. The more paint it holds, the farther this stroke will go, and often the darker the paint layer will be. You can get a moderately loaded brush simply by wiping a little of the paint off on the side of your palate. This will give you a fair amount of paint in your brush, but not as much as one that's fully loaded. A moderate load will result in a thinner layer and a lighter tone. Now a slightly loaded brush means that it's on Lee. Holding a little paint and therefore a stroke won't go is far. It'll lay the paint down a little thinner, and actually, it's the brush load that you would want to use if you were doing dry brushing or perhaps certain stumbling techniques. You may have noticed that I touched my brush to a piece of dry paper towel before applying it to the surface. Paper towel is very absorbent, so just touching it with a loaded brush will remove a fair amount of the paint. The longer you hold it there, the more paint will be removed and the dryer your brush will be. If you work in oils, your brush load will depend on how much paint you pick up. However, if it's very thin, you can still use a towel or a paper towel to absorb some of the excess paint. An interesting note. The Impressionist masters used to let their paint sit on spare rags in order to remove some of the oil and thus result in a dryer form of oil paint. 5. Viscosity: viscosity is a liquids resistance to flow. A simple example of this could be seen when we compare maple syrup toe apple juice. As we drop some of each liquid on a vertical ceramic dinner plate, you can see that the maple syrup on the left is more resistant to flow. It has, ah, higher viscosity. A liquid with high viscosity won't flow is easily is one with low viscosity. When it comes to painting, each binder has a unique viscosity, and therefore each painting medium will as well. Now most artists paint is very thick when it comes out of the tube and will need to be thinned with a solvent in order to flow. Remember that pain is made up of pigment, which gives it its color and a liquid binder, which gives it its form. When you add a solvent, the solvent blends with the paint, dispersing the paint particles and lessening the surface tension, meaning the paint spreads out upon the surface where the solvent evaporates, leaving behind a pigment binder film. Let's look at a really example. While not oil is one of the binders used in oil paint. Let's place a few drops of the oil onto a surface, you can see they remain fairly contained. Now we'll add a few drops of solvent in this case, Gamma Saul, a type of mineral spirit. Notice how the solvent instantly breaks up or disperses the oil. The drop let's flatten out and the mass spreads out on the surface. Let's do it again. But this time we'll slant the board. And now keep in mind that we're not actually adding a lot of mass. Instead, the solvent kind of loosened the oil particles, allowing them to flow more freely, and it'll have the same impact on the actual oil paint. As you can see, the oil on the right that contains some solvent is flowing more freely. Now you're solvent will depend on your medium. If you work with oil, paints your solvent, maybe turpentine or mineral spirits. If you work in watercolors, you're solvent is simply water, and if you work with acrylics, you will likely need a medium. Now. Sometimes you can purchase paints of varying viscosity levels. For example, acrylics are available in heavy, soft or fluid body formats 6. Surface Condition: Another topic we need to cover that will affect our discussions on brushstrokes is surface condition. That is, whether the surface will be wet or dry when applying the paint. There are two terms related to this wet and wet and went on dry. The explanation is actually fairly simple. When painting a brushstroke, the wet paint will either be placed on a wet surface referred to his wet in wet, or the wet paint will be applied to a dry surface known as wet on dry. And this relates toe all mediums, placing wet paint onto a wet surface. Whether it's wet from a layer of paint or other liquid will result in the possibility of spreading, blending or other visual effects depending on the medium. Wet paint placed onto a dry surface will stay contained where you place it with your brush . It won't typically spread in watercolor, in particular. The difference between wet and wet and went on dry application can be dramatic, so in addition, the listing each brushstrokes optimum dilution and brush load. We will also list the surface condition 7. Absorption: There's one more topic we need to discuss that's related to surface condition. This isn't something all list for each brushstroke, but it is something to be aware of. Different painting services have different absorption levels, and that can affect how the paint responds to the stroke. Think about when you eat a piece of pizza. If you place the slice on a paper plate, you can see that the paper surface absorbs some of the oil, whereas if you place it on a glazed ceramic plate, the oil remains on the surface of the plate. It's not absorbed. It's the same with painting surfaces. Some are more absorbent than others, and that will affect the application in the paint. Some surfaces, like canvas and paper, are fairly absorbent, while others, such as primed panels and you bow paper, are not in oil painting. A traditional Jess Oh, which consists partly of rabbit skin glue, will barely absorb any of the paint, while an acrylic Jessa will absorb some of the oil. And this will affect child. The paint Guns on the change in absorption will affect drying time, fluidity and spread. For example, if you want to feature poured thinned oil painting a painting. You may want to select a less absorbent surface in order to encourage flow because more of the oil will remain on the surface. Absorption also effects. How much paint is used on the surface on absorbent surface will take up more paint as opposed to one that is non absorbent. This is all information to keep in the back of your mind as you proceed in this course. 8. Preparing To Paint: Let's take a minute to talk about the assignments that you're gonna be given in this course . At the end of each lecture, you'll be given a chance to practice the specific brushstroke. I'll give you a brief demonstration of what you should do and then for each brushstroke. I encourage you to really push your mind. Try to think of different ways to produce that specific stroke. This is just you and your paints, so allow yourself to experiment a little bit. I recommend using one color for this assignment that will help your mind stay focused on the brushwork. Remember to try varying delusions and brush loads, as well as trying wet and wet when applicable. After getting a little practicing, then I'll challenge you to paint a very simple image using Onley that specific stroke. You can use more than one color for this assignment, but keep it limited to no more than four colors. You don't want to get distracted by color selection. This activity is about applying that specific brush action to an actual form, and doing the same image for each brushstroke will help your mind better understand how they differ from one another. So at this point, go ahead and select an image or an object from your home that will be your subject material . For example, I chose this little set of blueberries. If you're selecting an object from your home, make sure it's simple. Either a single form, such as a piece of fruit or a vase, or a simple grouping, maybe a group of cups. Also try to limit the number of colors that are represented in the object because again, we don't want to get distracted by color. If you're using one of the provided images, you can either print it out or view it on a digital device. So let's get started. Step one select in a major. An object to function is the subject for your object painting, Then move on to the first brushstroke lecture. 9. Glazing: the first Siris of brushstrokes that we're going to discuss our what I call invisible brushstrokes, meaning the individual strokes of the brush or not visible in the finished product. I wanted to discuss this first because typically when you're building a painting, you very often have your first layers laid down as broad areas of color. Because these initial layers are meant to just kind of recede into the background, it's useful to avoid the destruction of individual brushstrokes. The first invisible stroke will discuss is called glazing, and it refers to painting a thin layer of transparent color in order to modify the tone in a painting. This technique of applying paint and glaze is began with the egg temper painters of the middle agents. Egg tempera can Onley be applied in thin layers, and it dries incredibly fast. So glazing was a natural way to build up color tones and developed form. When oil painting became popular during the Renaissance, oil painters picked up the same methods used by the egg tempera painters, including the idea glazing Watercolor is also applied friendly, so artists using that medium would apply the glazing techniques as well, and acrylic, which can be used like a watercolor or in oil adopted glazing after its development in the 19 hundreds, Glazers could be used in multiple layers to build up form, as was done in this amazing landscape oil painting. If we zoom into the foreground, you can see evidence of the multiple layers. The artist used the technique to build up form with a complex color scheme, and when seen at a distance, the layering results in an amazing textural effect. Glazes can also be used in vast areas of a painting. Here, church uses glazes of color to convey the incredibly subtle color changes seen in a sunset . If we look at it in black and white, you can see it didn't involve value. Change it all, strictly glazes of color. Glazing can also be used to change a tone in an area of a painting. For example, if you have painted some warm greens on part of your painting and you decide you want to cool the color down a little bit, you just have to paint a slight blue glaze over the top to tone it down. A glaze can be used broadly to cover the entire surface. of the painting or selectively to cover specific areas and peace. It typically involves painting one transparent color at a time, allowing the paint to dry completely between layers. What results is a complex color scheme that can't be achieved by mixing the same colors on your palate as you can see in this comparison. The example on the left was glazed with a red and a blue paint, and the one on the right. The same two colors were mixed on the palate. Now I purposely varied the paint distribution so that the camera would pick up the colors better. But you can see the difference in how the colors communicate when they're painted using the two different methods. Now there is a point of density where the layer of paint is no longer transparent on the paint has to be transparent to be considered a true glaze. So once you reach that threshold, you really just have a layer of paint, not necessarily a glaze. Glazing can be used in any type of subject matter. In a still life, the multiple thin layers of a transparent glaze can provide a level of realism not otherwise easy to produce glazes could be used in a landscape to imply the subtle color changes created by the atmosphere as objects recede into the distance. In portraiture, using glazes is a wonderful way to get incredible skin tones. Floral painters, in particular, enjoy using glazing because of how intricate and complex flowers can be. Even abstract paintings can incorporate glazing strokes, such as they're seen in this section of an experimental painting by Turner. One of the key features of glazing is its transparency. But what do we mean by that? To explain this, let's look at these sheets of acetate that I've covered with a thin film of water color paint. Now, acetate doesn't really allow for smooth ingredients, but it'll give you the general idea. If we place the first layer on top of the white surface, you can see that it provides some color, but you can still see the white underneath. It just provides a tone, and if we put another layer on top this time blue, you can see the blue. But you can also see some of the pink as well with white surface, and the result is an overall violent turn. Now it's important to note that not every paint is transparent in its make up, depending on the pigment used in the paint and how it was ground. The pain is either transparent translucent, which means partly transparent or opaque. To get an idea of what we're talking about, look at these three cups. You have water on the left that you can see through. That's transparent. Then you have the translucent one in the middle, which light can pass through, but you can't see through it. And then on the right, you have milk, which is opaque. You cannot see through it, and light barely passes through. An opaque paint that's thinned down to a great degree can possibly be translucent, but it won't be transparent, can you? Glee's with a translucent paint you can, but less of the bottom layer will shine through, and in some cases you may want that. But a true glaze uses transparent paint. Before we move into discussing glazing in both watercolor and oil paints, I want to say a quick word about glazing with acrylics in order to thin your acrylic paint . Many students find it beneficial to add some kind of flow enhancing medium to the mix, such as glazing medium or flow improver. But you can get decent results from diluting with water if you remember two things. One. Mix small amounts of water into the paint at a time, and to mix that small amount really good before adding more water into the mix. If you try adding too much water at once, your pain may not blend well and could appear choppy on the surface. It may be difficult to eliminate the lines within the glee's. So now let's move on to the next lecture, where we'll talk about glazing with watercolor paints. 10. Glazing in Watercolor: a glaze is a thin, transparent layer of paint used, as we said. To build up a form, establish a base coat or change a color tone. No matter what media me use, you begin by mixing up a very thinned down paint makes more pink than you think you'll need . You don't wanna run out midway, then fully load your brush, glazing strokes, air solid and connect along the edges to produce one uninterrupted area of paint in watercolor. Flat brushes are common for glazing. Typically, you stroke one or two times in the same direction. A Bron flat brushes. Nice because it covers a wide area with each stroke. But a small, flat brush or other brush can be used as well. For smaller areas, the size of your brush should match the size of the area being painted. And, of course, you can use a round brush. The brush motion, in this case is more of a back and forth, almost a swarming action. If you use watercolor, you can also use a mop brush. Because it holds a ton of water, it can cover large areas with very thin paint to produce a glaze. Your paint dilution is gonna be heavy and your brush load at its maximum start. This condition is usually dry as mentioned. A size of the brush really depends on the size of the area being covered. If you're covering a large painting, you'll want a larger brush. If you're just changing the tone of an object, you may only need a small one. Now we mentioned that typical glazing in watercolor is wet on dry, but there is another method, and that is wedding wet. This is a particular method that some artists find much easier when creating a glaze. Basically, you begin by mixing up a puddle of heavily diluted paint. I mixed up a big puddle of blue here and then all Prewett a section of the paper. I'm wedding it a little ahead of time so that the water has time to soak in a bit, and I'm making sure I don't leave any drive paper. Now. I'll use that mix of blue paint to glaze both on the dry paper and the Prewett paper, and I'm using the same paint mix on the same paint load for each. That way you can see how the results differ notice how the identical paint and paint load dilutes. When I put it in the Prewett surface, the edges blur as well. However, if I had painted a shape with water and then put in the glaze, the edges would be hard. Notice that I'm going back over areas that I've already painted. When you paint what and wet, there's a little more freedom in them. If you're very gentle again, both sides they're using the same paint mix and the same brush load. But since the Prewett side has the water on the surface, it dilutes the paint load. Just enoughto light in the end results something to keep in mind if you use this method. One more thing to note. If you're glazing over a dried layer, paint that initial layer of water will gently reactivate the pigment, which means that you may lift some of the pain when you stroke again with your glazing layer. Now, if your initial layer is a staining paint, this is less of a concern. Wendy Practice. If you work in watercolor, I do recommend that you try this wet and wet technique as well. In the next lecture will discuss glazing with oil paint 11. Glazing in Oil: in this lecture, we're going to discuss glazing with oil paint, typically an oil glazes painted with a sable brush. The soft bristles being preferred for obtaining the smooth, even layer of paint, densely packed bristles or best. Now, in order for the soft bristles to do their job, the pain needs to be thinned. A good deal. Thinning the paint properly is important because your objective is to have a nice thin sheath of color not to be distracted by the lines that stiffer bristles can create. But let's take a step back and start with a discussion on thinning you paint oil paint is very thick and, unlike watercolor, we can't just then it with water. But it will need to be fend in order to paint a transparent layer. To do this, I like to use a mix of solvent and drying oil. The rule of thumb is not to dilute your oil paint with more than 20% solvent or oil. How do you know what 20% looks like? I tend to eyeball it, but when glazing I often exceed that amount. It seems necessary in order to get often enough mix, but because I add the additional oil. I'm adding a little fat, the binder used in oil paint, so I feel that this enables me to get away with a higher percentage. I wouldn't use solvent alone unless it's just a small amount for minor thinning, because I want this to dry quickly. This time I'm gonna use solvent, which in this case is GAM Saul and a walnut oil and out could blend additional. I'll slows drying time, but the addition of an out kid helps speed up the drawing time. So here you can see the oil paint mixed with Onley solvent. Note the consistency. It almost looks sticky. When I had one drop of the oil out, good mix. Look at how it smooths out that will help the paint lay more smoothly on the surface as well. This isn't s been as I normally make my Glaser's. It's actually right on the cusp of being a blended liar. But notice that the white of the surface does brighten the paint color as the light bounces off of it, allowing it to qualify as a glaze. I'm using a sable brush, and you can see that it lays the paint on very smoothly. Unlike watercolor, where you have to watch how many times you go over the same area with oil, you can re stroke as much as you want While it's went notice that I'm using a fairly light touch. Remember, the objective is to produce a very thin layer with an even spread and no visible seen lines . If the layers to dark, you can always use a rag or paper towel to lift off the top layer of paint, leaving behind an even thinner layer. This will light in the value of it. Now I'll show you how a stiff bristle brush does. With this, I'll pick up the same amount of paint and stroke it onto the surface. Notice how differently it applies, much less of a smooth application. It'll take some work to lose those streaks. You can see that it can be done with repeat stroking, but the sable is so much easier in my experience. Still, everybody's different. You have to find what works for you now. If I barely load the brush and spread the pain all around with a fairly dry bristle, you can see that the same paint mix will look a little lighter. Our layer is very, very thin, were almost scrubbing it into the surface. To accomplish this with a drier brush, I need to stroke back and forth and even in opposite directions in order to get an even spread. You can see it's a light is the initial swatch that we wiped with the paper town? So now let's thin the paint mix even more. I'll add a little more solvent in another drop of Al Qaeda oil mix. Our mix is nice, and then the oil is critical when you're pain. Is this diluted? Now look at the transparency. In fact, it's almost streaky. If you're paint does get streaky, just add a drop or two of oil. It just needs fattening up of it. But in this case, I think we're good. You can tell us we spread it around. It's spreading riel nice, and the mix is allowing even more light to bounce off of the surface, making the color paler. This is a truer glaze. The most common way to apply a glaze is to place parallel strokes side by side, making sure to blend the connected edges smoothly. In this example, I'm using a very thick, rounded sable brush. Some people like to use a fan brush. It's not my preferred method, but there are artists who swear by it. You could even put down a thin layer with a hog bristle brush and then sweet theory A with a soft bristle brush to smooth the surface lines. You can also use the kind of crisscross motion. This can leave some lines, but it's really a nice stroke to change a layer of color tune. You can also apply glaze using a piece of cloth. I like to use a circular motion when I use this method. I think I just does a nice job distributing paint and can sometimes given interesting Look , you just have to think about what look you're going for. Ask yourself what your objective is for this liar. In this example, I was preparing it to be the first coat in an abstract background to paint multiple glazes and some of the masters painted up to 20 grazing layers. The first thing have to do is wait until the bottom layer is completely dry. In this case, thanks to the Solvent and Alka, it dried overnight Justus we did with the first layer. I've send a yellow paint with solvent and an oil al could blend. I used a little bit more oil this time to fatten it a bit, but the mix is very thin. Then I pick up a very light amount of the mix with my sable brush and apply over the first plays like acrylic. And unlike watercolor, once the bottom layer is dry, there is no concern about reactivating the bottom layer. This is half in the yellow calories. It's very transparent. I made sure I tested it on scrap paper. First, you can re stroke as much as needed again. I'm a stroke in other directions to help distribute the paint and then finish it off with more horizontal strokes. One last thing. If you'd like to avoid solvents for health purposes, there are here. Options using drawing oils alone isn't preferred for layering because of the slow drawing time, but you can use an oil. I'll could blend for this purpose. You saw me use this medium with my solvent, but you can also use it alone since the Al Kid, which is basically a resin, has a faster drawing time. The point is that you always want your bottom layers to be thin and dry. Now there are also Alcon oil paints, although I've never tried them. In the next video, we'll discuss how you can practice glazing on your own. 12. Glazing - Stroke Practice: When you're ready to practice glazing on your own, the first thing you'll need to do is prepare your paints. Mix up a batch of paint in whatever medium you work in. Remember that the idea is to limit yourself to one color for the stroke practice and just a handful for the object painting. Since this brush stroke is glazing, make sure your mix is nice and thin. Test it as you mix, then select your brushes. If you're working in watercolor or acrylic, I would suggest a larger flat brush and also a larger round. If you're working in oil, try to use the sable brush or a very soft synthetic. You may also want experiment with a fan brush or some of the other techniques I showed you in the oil like here. Then, using a fully loaded brush, begin painting connected strokes. Try the flat brush using repeated strokes in the same direction. The edges should overlap of it, and that's regardless of medium in watercolor. Once you stroke on the paint, try not to go back and re stroke in oil. You can re stroke as much as needed as long as it's wet. Then try working with a round brush using a swab ing motion. Think of swabbing the floor with a month. It's kind of a back and forth motion. My brush wasn't quite loaded enough. Make sure your brushes very loaded if you're working in watercolor. Since rounds are handy for odd shapes, go ahead and practice, creating an unusual shape of glazed color. Now intensify your mix. This will give you a feel for what it's like to creep towards the thickness of a layer, as opposed to a glee's try and extra thin glaze as well. You can also hold your brush upright and see how that affects application and then lay it flat. In this way, you can appreciate the standard slanted grip. Also, try the crisscross method or perhaps experiment with another way to apply the thin paint without leaving brush lines. See what you can come up with once you feel comfortable, will apply this same brush stroke to the image that you selected for the object paintings. Remember to check the helpful attachments as well 13. Glazing - Object Painting: of all the images I could have picked for use in my object paintings. Demo. This is the one I felt most drawn to, and since we're painting it 22 times, that's important. The first thing I'm gonna do is mix up my paints for the painting session, I'm mixing a kind of blueberry booth from Indian three and blue and French ultra Marine and a green from the same mix, plus Windsor Yellow. My painting area consists of my palette, containers of water, a watercolor notebook and the reference image. Before starting, I check my colors on a piece of Scott paper, making sure the mix is thin enough to qualify as a glee's. I'm gonna place the image close to the painting surface so I can reference it. I'm putting down a simple glaze of color. Since the objects connect, my glaze will be spread across the colored section. Now, don't worry so much about likeness. This is just a practice effort. It's okay to veer from the image, try to make a likeness, but don't stress over it. Now you can see that the paint I'm using is very thin. It's a glee's of blue now, for the stem. If the color goes on too strong, just stab it a little bit to remove some of the pain. Remember, too, that the whole exercise should be done in the same brush stroke, if at all possible. So in this case, even the branch is glazed. It's very tempting to actually use more pain, but try to stick to the stroke. Now. We'll go ahead and all. Add a thin glaze of green for the leaves. Now my green is warmer than the one in the image. That's okay, it's practice. If it was a really painting, I could always go back with a second. Glee's a cool collar once the first layer was dry and that would change the tone. Now, if we were trying to accomplish finished painting using Glazers, there would be several Other glaze is applied until we reached a desired value and color tone. This could also serve as a base layer, establishing the shapes. Once dry, I would go in with other strokes to complete the picture. Also, this is done in watercolor. If it was in oil, we'd have to let a day or two passed before adding a second Glee's. Now go ahead and try this on your own with your image. Enjoy the process and make sure your paint mixes air thin enough to be considered a glee's no matter what medium you use. 14. Blended: in this section of the course, we're going to talk about blended brushstrokes. These are side by side strokes with nearly invisible seems, allowing the viewer to see it as one mass of color. The history of blended brushstrokes is essentially the same as for glazing dating all the way back to the egg temper painters prior to the Renaissance. Take a look at this piece by fraud. Angelica The red in the red robe is a great example of how EG temper painters used blended strokes in the 14 hundreds and beyond. But it became a particularly useful stroke when oil painting was developed. Since the new medium enabled artists to use thicker layers of paint. A really good example of blended strokes can be seen in this painting by Bruggere. If you take a close look at the bagpipe in particular, you can see the very smooth transitions, and you can't readily identify any brushstrokes. Blended strokes are very common among figure painters, especially realistic portraiture, because the blended strokes work wonderfully for skin tones and fabrics. Blended strokes are also useful when painting still life. You can see that the cement blocks that the food sits on our nearly a single smooth, solid color. Obviously this color differentiation, but there's a base coat that is just about free of brushstroke lines. And if you take a close look at this red object, he must have painted a blended layer of rend as one of his early coats. Landscape painters can use blended strokes to for features such as skies, distant mountains or maybe water. And, of course, abstract painters will find a multitude of uses for this stroke. A quick note about watercolor in particular. Because of the fluid nature of this medium, it probably always involved blended strokes. Blended strokes are very much like a glaze. It's just that the pain is either thicker or opaque. The look is more solid, like glazing. The brush load should be at its maximum. But unlike glazing, the dilution should be slight. In order to obtain the level pigment density needed to produce an opaque or heavy layer, this surface should be dry, just like in a glee's. The most common way to apply paint for blending purposes is to paint a Siris of parallel strokes with connected edges. Now the edges can overlap one another or just barely meet, but there shouldn't be any dry surface between them. Water is the vehicle for water color paint and water is attracted to itself. So when a stroke is laid down next to another, two bodies of water automatically mesh into one unit. When a stroke is laid down, the clocks turns. The longer you take to get the next stroke down, the more the first stroke will soak into the surface and the higher the risk of having your new stroke Russian to the other one, causing the pigment to shift. Or you might end up with a hard edge if it really suits in. So make sure you've mixed enough pain ahead of time, allowing for a very loaded brush. If you happen to lay down a stroke a little too late and it starts to look a little funny, simply try tilting your service in multiple directions to distribute the new paint load, and then you can continue your process. Your choice of brush for this technique will depend on the area that you want pain, flat brushes, air nice for laying down blended strokes in any of the medium's, but they tend to leave squared off edges. Unless you manipulate the brush, you could also use Ah, large round brush rounds are especially nice for painting blended areas of unusual shapes. Really, you could use almost any brush. You just want to avoid the tiny brushes, as well as those that are very pointed, as mentioned earlier in watercolor, it's important to mix enough paint. If I have a large area to cover. I like to use plastic cups for my mixed pain. It allows for a large and very mobile supply of pain. And remember, it's always better to mix more paint than you need then to not mix enough. In the next video, we'll discuss blended strokes in oil paint. 15. Blended in Oil: as we've mentioned. Blended brushstrokes are strokes that are connected and then smoothed together to form one solid area of color. The blended paint could be single color. Our could be multi colored. The idea is that you cannot easily identify the brush strokes or the separation between the strokes. Blended strokes are very useful for creating base layers in a painting, whether building up an object or as a foundational skin tone. Soft bristle brushes will provide smoother blending and by soft I mean sables or even some synthetics. While stiff bristle brushes like hog hair will provide a slight texture, if that's what you're looking for. When painting a blended layer, you typically want a fairly loaded brush because you want that stroke to lay down paint along the full length of the area being covered. If your brush load doesn't make it the full length, you simply have to pick up more paint and continue the stroke. This applies to all of the medium's as we've seen, oil paint doesn't Russian to a connecting section, as it does with watercolor and sometimes acrylic. Instead, the paint sits where it's placed and simply needs to be diffused along the connecting edge . Using a light touch and one of several brush techniques. You're not trying to actually lift any of the paint. You just want to blend the existing strokes together. The first and best technique involves gently and repeatedly running your brush along the connecting scene. It may take a number of swipes in order to get it to smoothly blend. Or you can crisscross the edges and then swipe them together. Some people like to do that same crisscross motion using a fan brush and then swiping downward. Basically, use your imagination. Your objective is to simply produce a gentle blending along the seam. In addition to parallel strokes, you can also put down your painting a multitude of directions and gently smooth with your brush. Let's look at this example where laying down a base color tone for a figure of face, I'm using a sable brush first of all, and I'm really laying on the paint. I put it right in the middle of the surface that I want to cover, and then I distribute the paint with my brush in various directions. But I continue to go over the area in order to eliminate any brush strokes. So, you know, if I had too much paint, I would probably have to take some off. But it kind of gauge the pain as you put it on and just gently spread it throughout the area. Well, let's go ahead into the next video, where we discuss what you should do when you practice blended strokes at home. 16. Blended - Stroke Practice: Now that we've learned about blended strokes, it's time for you to practice painting them yourself. And here's what I'd like you to do. I'm using a synthetic flat brush because the bristles air softer than hog hair, but not us. Absorbent s able. That said, Sable would work fine as well. And I'm gonna demonstrate in oil because in watercolor it's pretty much the same processes glazing but with a thicker or more opaque paint. This will allow me to show the dynamics of oil while explaining what to do when you practice. The first thing I'd like you to do is load up a flat brush if you have one and paint horizontal lines that connect along the edges, gently blending the seems as you move along. The nice thing about oil is you can repeatedly stroke the spot to get full coverage and blending. You can see that the division lines aren't really visible. You can see bristle Bynes, but not seems. The goal is for it to function as one unit. Remember, a glaze is so thin that you can see the surface or bottom layer. This pain isn't that thing, so we're good. Just practice the application using gentle strokes. If you're using watercolor, it's very much like glazing. As I said, Once you're seems meet, you just need to make sure there's full coverage and then move on to the next stroke. Don't go back over the old ones. Now. I'm gonna wipe off this brush and use the cleaner side toe. Add a second color. This is something I'd like you to try to. I'm placing a solid stroke of yellow next to the blue area and noticed that the seams aren't connecting yet. That's on purpose. And now to blend it, I'm gonna pick up somewhere, paint and go right along the edge where they meet. Now I'll clean the brush and strokes amore directly over the scene. Use a gentle touch when you do this. It's just a very gentle, repetitive stroke. So one of the things I want you to do at home is first, make your section built of horizontal lines and practice blending the connection seem with gentle strokes. I've been using a synthetic. Now I'll try a hog hair brush. Try your different brush materials to get a feel for the difference. How did they lay on paint different. And how easy is it or difficult to blend the seams? Now I can notice how light the blending stroke ISS Look at my hand. I'm almost not putting pressure on it at all. Using any brush, go ahead and try making a different shape. Here are all making oval now. I don't actually want this to be in pasta. I need to watch my load. The idea is to think of a shape, lay down the paint and then blend the strokes together. You can tell when you work with the two different materials that the softer bristles just kind of blend nicely. You could also try combining colors within a shape. So let's say I'm making a blue circle. Maybe I'll add some yellow right in the middle. The task will be to blend them together smoothly, and this could be a slight challenge. You'll see. One tip is to clean off the brush periodically when combining the two colors. Keep the brush clean. Of course, watercolor would be more a matter of letting the two colors naturally blend together when the seams meat. I have a little too much paint on there, so I'll take some off. Well, it did prove to be kind of tricky, especially with a camera in my way. But you get the idea. This circular shape may be easier to blend with around. Let's see, it is better and this kind of problem solving I'd like you to try to do while you're practicing. If something isn't going right, try to think through it. If you still have issues, you can send me a messenger. Post a question. Okay, now we'll practice doing blending with a round brush. We use the same process. You can see that the results are similar, although not quite as angular. It's a little bit of a rougher shape. Now it's your turn. Go ahead in practice, painting blended strokes with your chosen medium, and then we'll apply that knowledge to our objects. 17. Blended - Object Painting: Now that we've practiced painting blended strokes, let's apply what we learned in our object paintings. The blended version is gonna look a lot like the glazing version, except that this paint mix will be heavier. I'm using a medium round brush and have premixed and tested my paints ahead of time, just like in glazing. I'm starting with the Berries, and I'm looking at them as a single complex shape, forgetting about the barriers between them and laying down the paint in one effort so that the paint blends together in a single form. If I was working in oil, I'd carefully blend the paint together like we did in the prior demonstration, laying it down as a single shape of color. The bridge is an easy form and is thin enough not to require official blending, but rather just a single sweet. I'm trying to create each form with just 12 or three swipes. I don't want to overwork it as I paint the leaves. Since we're talking about blended strokes of color, the focus is not on color variation. Now I suppose I could have made that leaf color a little deeper, but you can see that I'm applying this strokes so that they blend together on the surface. Remember, watercolor naturally blends. You just have to have your two strokes side by side and connecting at the scene. I've got a little too much puddling here, so I'll take a damp brush and soak up just a little bit of a liquid. This little leaf isn't in the image, but I feel like adding one. So don't be afraid to take a little artistic license and your painting, and that's a sfar aside. Take this. You can see how this could function as a base layer, just like the glazed version could, and now it's your turn. Go ahead and paint your chosen image with blended strokes, using whatever medium you work in. 18. Gradient: in this section of the course, we're going to discuss Grady INTs, which can also be referred to as tomato. Technically, tomato is a term that refers to the production of ultra smooth value transitions with hazy edges. It's a technique developed by Leonardo da Vinci in the 14 hundreds. Being a scientist, DaVinci studied the human form and then set out to recreate it in the most realistic manner he could think of. His works, most specifically the Mona Lisa, were revolutionary in their reality and produced a look that was referred to as Leonardo Smoke, referring to the smooth, almost smoky appearance. So how did he produced this look? Well, Davinci used many, many layers of Grady int glazing. In fact, scientific analysis shows that he may have used up to 20 layers of glaze in sections. In this lesson, we're gonna focus on creating Grady in layers of paint, and that could be through glazing or simple layering. Now, shadowing on figures is one of the most common uses for a Grady int, but it can be used for a multitude of other purposes, such as in landscapes. In this painting by beer stat gray dance softened the light transition on the mountain, and they provide a realistic value transition in the clouds. Floral painters can use Grady INTs when painting delicate petals. Grady INTs can help define forms and dimension in architectural paintings. And, of course, it can be used in abstracts. You're dilution for this stroke will depend on the thickness of the layer. Is it a glaze or a basic layer? And since it's applied like either a Glaser layer, the brush load will be moderate to maximum, and your surface can be wet or dry, depending on the medium. The actual brushstrokes used are the same as what we learned in the glazing section. The difference is in the paint and the application method. The overall objective is to paint a transition from dark to light or from dark to transparent, using seamless brushstrokes. Let's walk through some demonstrations, beginning with watercolor and then on to oil. Acrylic painters should apply the knowledge based on how they use the medium. The first thing we'll do is demonstrate a basic greeting. Please the stroke used to create a spam Otto effect. First, apply thin paint with a loaded brush using connected horizontal brush blinds After 2 to 3 strokes, I dip my brush in water to lose some of the color. Then I dab it onto a paper towel to give me a more moderately loaded brush. I don't want it fully loaded because it could then rush into the existing paint and create a backwash. Finally, I rinse my brush and apply this same strokes with Onley water. As I connected to the prior paint area. Some of the particles will rush into the new wet area, resulting in a natural radiant. Basically, it fades into the white of the paper. One key to this technique is to resist going back into the painted section. If you want to manipulate the paint dry, using gravity by tilting your surface. If there's serious flaw on you feel you need to fix it While it's wet, I recommend reapplying the whole section before test time dry. Let's apply our knowledge of Grady INTs and tomato to a watercolor portrait painting. This will be one of many layers of paint, and its purpose is to establish some initial values in order to guide the rest of the process. It also sets the initial color town and should be seamless. No brush lines except where it's intentional in watercolor. Because I don't want brush lines in my Grady INTs, it's important to work fairly quickly. I try not to let an edge sit too long without connecting it, unless I want a harder edge. The skin tone is laid down in an area of shadow, and then I use a brush moderately loaded with pure water to blend the skin tone into an area of highlight. I kind of move around the painting, placing more color in other areas of shadow. It's important not to lose the lights as recovering. Them could be difficult in watercolor and never looks quite as fresh as with the oil paints . I usually work directly over the surface in order to gauge drying time and value placement . More replacement of skin tone that's blended into the light areas with a clean, wet brush. It's important to watch how the surface is drawing. Keep an eye on it. The area of the cheek where I first painted is likely beginning to dry, so my available time is slipping away. I can still work on new areas, though my eye is on areas of shadow, and I know this is only the first step. If it ends up to light, it can easily be taken care of in a subsequent layer. You can always take it darker, but you can't always get it cleanly lighter, so it's better to light than too dark. The important thing at this point is to get those edges soft and diffused. Now where the skin tone meets, what will be the clothing I can allow a hard edge. It's tomato involves multiple thin layers with blended edges for me when doing a portrait. My second step is a thin layer of green where the caverns of skin are located, or where the veins air close to the surface. There will be many, many more layers, each with blended edges and each increasing in value. Death slowly. The face will be defined in the next video. We'll discuss Grady INTs as they relate to oil paint 19. Gradient in Oil: Now we'll walk through the same process Using oil paint well makes a batch of red and a batch of the red with white in order to demonstrate a light to dark radiant. We'll also mix up a batch of Oakar to demonstrate ingredient from dark to transparent. You'll notice that I'm adding oil from a dropper. This is a walnut al could blend. Now. I could add a touch of solvent and plain walnut oil, but I'd like to demonstrate that you can perform the same task with oil only and avoid solvents. Of course, by adding oil, even though it fins the pigment spread, we're technically fattening. The paint solvents make it lean. If you choose to avoid the use of a solvent, just remember to allow the bottom layer to dry completely and then increase the percentage of oil a little bit. With each subsequent layer. We begin by painting on a moderate layer of paint where you want the dark's Now where I want the lighter part of the greedy int I'll paint on the white blend. And here comes the important part, unused the same brush to merge the two tones I'm gonna brush from the light right into the dark and then from the dark into the light, using a soft touch and going back and forth slowly down the paint area. Now I'll drive the brush a little by wiping it on a paper towel and stroke the entire section from top to bottom once again using a very light touch. By doing this, we get a nice, soft, radiant. Now let's create ingredient that goes from dark to transparent. Using the Oakar mixture will start the same way by painting an area of moderately thick paint. But instead of blending into a white paint mix, we will increasingly thin the paint or use less paint. The idea is to have less and less pigment on the surface as you move down the section. Now, if the paint isn't as transparent as you wanted it on one end, simply wipe up some of the bottom area with a cloth or paper towel and gently stroke the paint from top to bottom to create a nice blend. Here's a better look at the two swatches. What about applying this knowledge to a pre painted area? Well, you simply proceed the same way. Just make sure the prior layer is thoroughly dry. Also, remember to observe the fat over lean rule, adding additional oil to subsequent layers. In the next video, we'll talk about how to practice greedy INTs at home. 20. Gradient - Stroke Practice: we've taken a look at how great aunts air used in both watercolor and oil pains. Now it's time for you to try it yourself. When you set up to practice greedy INTs, make sure you mix up a fair amount of paint first. You'll want it less diluted because one of the Grady INTs we're going to do goes from paint to transparent, so we'll need to start with less diluted paint. I recommend that you start off with a medium round brush if you have one. A soft bristle brush. If you work in watercolor, load your brush. Ah, that wasn't enough of a load. Load your brush and sweep it back and forth on the surface to create a kind of rectangle. Now I'm demonstrating in watercolor in watercolor. You'll partially rinse your brush and then lay down a few more strokes, starting at the base of the prior stroke. Now repeat this process, but rins the brush of little more. This time I dabbed the brush on a paper towel to keep the paint from rushing into the previous paint so you brings the brush, dab it off, and then you sweep from where you left off the last time will be mostly just water. Practice this a couple times until you feel you've got a nice taper in value and then move on to try a different shape. Still using around. Try creating a Grady in circle, place the darkest tone in the middle and then use the same brush rinsing process that we used earlier. So here we have a brush that's slightly rinsed. We'll go ahead and rinse it again, but this time it's gonna be very rinsed. So this is mostly water Now. Oil painters conduce the same exercises, but instead of rinsing their brush, they should load with either center paint or paint that has more and more white in the mix . Now, if you're not happy with Grady int, just quickly start at the beginning and repeat the process. As long as that area is still wet, you can just go over it again. Another thing you can try is a Grady int from one color to another. In my case, yellow to blue. First I'll lay down my yellow rectangle, then I'll rinse my brush and load up with the blue. Now I'm gonna apply it right below the yellow but not fully touching scene. Not until I've laid at least a stroke of the blue down watercolor naturally blends due to the waters attraction to itself. But if you want to help it along, dry your brush to a damp consistency and then just gently sweep across the scene just one stroke. You can also tilt the surface if you want to encourage a little bit of mixing. Now, instead of a round brush, try switching to a flat and practice the same exercises just like with the round. Each stroke should have a little less pigment in a little more water, and lastly, try painting ingredient that begins with very little dilution, then have it fade too transparent. It's kind of a good challenge to work with the dramatic values. Okay, now try this yourself in your chosen medium. After that, we'll apply ingredients to our object paintings 21. Gradient - Object Painting: Once you feel comfortable painting ingredient tunes, you can now move on to painting your object painting in that brushstroke. Let me show you how I'm gonna apply a stroke to my object. To begin with, I selected a smaller around than I've been using because I feel like I'm gonna need a little more control over the small areas. I'm hoping to grade both the individual Berries and the leaves. I'll start by picking up a very undiluted blue Grady. INTs usually start at the darkest tone. I'll tap my loaded brush on paper towel to bring it down to a moderate load and then apply the paint in the darkest area of the berry. Now I'll rinse my brush almost completely dry a little bit and then fill in the rest of the shape, allowing the color to drift into the new paint area and create a greedy int. I think I can go darker with that. Dark shape is wet, so it'll grade automatically into the wet area. Okay, let's let that dry a bit and work on one that's not connected. I don't want to mess up our Grady int or I can leave a space between the two objects. I'm continuing to add the Berries, starting with the dark and adding the water down paint and notice the Chinese space between the Berries. I went ahead and decided to do that because it would be hard to wait for everything to dry . Well, these two touched, but it's okay. It'll just bleed in a little bit. You can lift paint as well. If it was just applied, just dry off your brush and gently sweep off the spot that you want to live. This dark area is in the middle of the berry, so I'll start there and then surround it with the water paint, letting it blend on the surface. As before. Remember, my brush is not fully loaded. That's why we tap it on the paper towel. So how is this different from our blended version? Well, in this one, I'm being much more careful about the transitions from dark to light in the blended one. It was just getting the strokes to connect. I'm gonna do this stem after this one. I have one more buried, but I want that area to dry a little bit more before I add it Now it's hard to grade a thin line, so I'll just paint it on directly for the leaves. I'm gonna grade them as well. I'll let my darks be the darker, cool greens and then great it into either transparent or a warm green. I'm placing my darks, rinsing the brush and filling in the form, allowing the dark paint to meld into the light area. I'm gonna add a darker tune. I'm taking a little bit of a chance here. The timing is such that I could get a backwash, so I'll dry my brush off and manually grade it. Okay, back to that leaf. I think I'll add some warm green here. It should grade a little bit on its own just by dropping it in and now dark and then watered down paint. Let's do a few more touches, and now I think we can safely go back and add that last very I didn't want it bleed, but the area is drying up now, and if you want, you can add a few little details or leave it as it is. If you do add detail, keep it to a minimum because we want the focus to be on the Grady int brushstroke. And now it's your turn. Go ahead and give this a try with your chosen object. 22. Pouring: in this video we're going to discuss pouring. Pouring is another way to apply paint without visible brushstrokes. In fact, this method doesn't even use a brush. But for the purpose of this course, we will still consider a type of brush. Stroke. Pouring is a kind of paint application in which you thin down the paint to a runny consistency, and then you pour it onto the painting surface, wet and wet or wet on dry. Now, as far as I can tell from my research, artists didn't really begin pouring paint until the 20th century, and Jackson Pollock was the artist who made it famous when he developed his method of dripping household paint onto a canvas. Since that time, artists of all mediums have found ways of incorporating the idea of pouring paint into their work. You can tell when paint has been poured onto the surface because it has seemed less color and value transitions. Another clue is that poured paint often has unusual, unpredictable edges that convey a sense of fluidity. You may also notice the presence of flow lines and in acrylic, a build up of the paint at the base of the flow itself. If working in watercolor, you may notice granule ation as certain pigments will deposit heavy particles as it flows through very wet sections of a painting, resulting in some very interesting textural effects. One of the most basic uses for pouring is in developing a background for a painting. The broad, very, very subtle color and value changes can create a wonderful base layer. Here's an example of a poured background in oil. It can also be used within specific structures and forms, such as in the tree trunk and the branches of this piece. There may be areas of a painting where soft color transitions will be desired or in skies, taking advantage of the specific mediums characteristics. Perhaps the most obvious use for port paint is an abstract ER, since there are fascinating capabilities with this technique, in order to pour your paint, your dilution is gonna have to be heavy. As for brush load, there is no brush, so it doesn't apply. The surface is typically wet, but it can also be dry. Pouring is optimal and watercolor because of the fluidity of the medium and the fact that water's attracted to itself. When you pour onto a wet watercolor surface. The water will encourage the pigment to spread so the pain will flow away from the primary poor. A side note. This piece was intentionally creased, creating cracks in the paper where the pigment particles settled, resulting in the dark lines that you can see. Acrylic can be used like a watercolor, but it's Binder is an acrylic polymer, and it's a paint known for its quick drying time, meaning it'll often need an additional medium, and it won't flow quite as wonderfully. It's water car. That said, there are what are called fluid acrylics, which are designed specifically to enable smooth flow and are excellent reporting with care . Even oil paints can be thinned down to the point where they're able to flow. Now, in discussing how to actually pour your paint, let's begin with wet paint on a dry surface. Any of the painting mediums can be thinned and then poured onto a dry surface. I like to use thes little plastic Dixie cups for mixing my pouring paint. Just don't use a cup for drinking once you've used it for painting, check how the liquid pours out before you use it now when it comes to pouring wet on dry the paint will Onley go where place and will spread out according to how much liquid is placed onto the specific spot. The more paint mass you pour out, the further it'll spread, but how it spreads could be unpredictable. The artist should be aware that they can use gravity to manipulate the direction of the flow. You can also use a brush to push the paint where you want it to go. Now keep in mind. In most cases, paint that's poured onto a dry surface when dry will have hard edges, meaning there will be a defined paint line along the edge of the paint. If you'd like to avoid those hard edges, you'll want to apply your paint wet and wet. Whoring wet pay onto a wet surface has a completely different look, and in this case it'll vary a little bit, according to each of the mediums. So let's take a look at each medium independently. We'll begin with watercolor. Watercolors are thinned with water. Now I could add water from a faucet, but I find that using a spray bottle gives me more precise control over how much water is in the cup. I use the spray bottle all the time, but you can certainly just use a faucet. As I add paint to the water, I test the depth of color on a piece of scrap watercolor paper. I know that only further watered down, since it'll be poured onto a wet surface and some of it will run off the edge. So I make sure it's about two steps darker than what I'm looking for when I feel comfortable with the color value, a use, a mop brush or a wash brush to saturate the entire area where I plan to poor, it's important to make sure you haven't even spread and that you don't leave any dry spots unless there intentional. Check the sheen for evenness and make sure to wipe the edges with paper town. You don't want puddles to roll back onto the painting area. Then you can tilt the surface to distribute the water that sometimes once you haven't even spread, decide how what you want it to be. Sometimes I wait a few extra seconds till let the sheen die down the weather. The surface, the thinner, the color will be, and the more will wash off the edge. But you don't want to wait so long that the edges begin to lose their sheen. When ready, we're on the paint where you place it is up to you. You need to think about what look you're after. If it's an aspect of a landscape, a sky or water, you may want to pour in a horizontal direction. Keep in mind that where you dropped the paint will likely be the darkest area unless you work to produce and even spread, which you can dio after I pour the paint. I like to turn it in every direction, tilting it and wiping off the excess paint as I go again. If I want a horizontal expression, I will spend most of the time slanting the surface from side to side. Manipulating the pigment or the paint will take practice, but always keep an open mind to the unexpected and learn to go with it. It's part of the fun of the technique. As you can see here, you can also pour into specific shapes. The difference is simply that you went a shape with your water rather than the whole service. When you pour in the paint, it will only distribute where you've placed the water. Just make sure you pour it onto the wet part. Like with the whole surface. You gently tilt it in different directions. In order to distribute the pain. You can use a brush or palette knife to extend the edges if you like. Now, there's a good chance that you'll have some excess liquid in the full surface version. You could simply wipe up the excess as it dripped off the sides. But when working with the shape, you'll have to either gently and carefully. Dip a corner of a paper towel into a puddle of paint or lay a damp brush into the spot. Not shouldn't be dry or wet. This will remove enough of the liquid to allow the paint to dry evenly. You don't want to leave actual puddles of pain, so either continue to tilt the surface until the paint absorbs or use one of the methods to soak up the excess waters. Attraction to itself makes watercolor the ideal medium for pouring, but oil paint can also be used to produce a modified version of this 23. Pouring in Oil: asked Mentioned previously. In order to pour with oil paints, the paint will need to be thin down to a great degree. The standard recommendation is that a paint mix should not consist of more than 20% solvent or medium in oil. That won't give you enough of a liquid consistency. So to achieve the flow, you would have to break the rules. Now, do I recommend this? Not officially. The concern is the stability of the paint layer, but there are artists who successfully do it. And I believe that if you're careful to balance the additional solvent with some additional oil, approximately one part oil to two parts solvent, it should be fine. As you mix your paint, you'll likely know when you've gone too far in sending it down. Anyway, take your time and be sure to mix out all the clumps. I'm gonna mix a second paint too poor and will use this as a base layer as well. Our example. We use a Jess owed panel with a smooth surface. It's the best service for good flow. I'm gonna divide the panel into two sections. One side will be dry and the other will have a wet base color using some of the yellow that we pre mixed with. The oil and solvent will keep this layer kind of sin. Now we'll drop on some of the red paint mix while the panel is laying flat, we're going to see how poured oil paint responds to different surface conditions. Now let's live the panel to a more vertical position and watch the flow. As you can see, there's not an enormous difference. The side with the layer of paint does have smoother edges and seems to spread out ever so slightly in comparison to the dry surface. Let's have some more paint, and now we'll till the panel in multiple directions, just as we did with the watercolor surface. Unlike watercolor oil, paint stays relatively contained even on the wet surface. But notice that the paint within the very wet areas so thick paint into thick paint allows for some very interesting mixing. Artists can learn to use gravity, just as we did with the watercolor to manipulate the drips, the flows and the blends. Now has the paint been compromised by thinning it? To this degree? I don't believe so. We added additional oil to help hold it together after mixing well. But once it dries completely, the oil residue will seal the pigment onto the surface. And when it's varnished upon completion, you provide an additional seal. At least this is my perspective now. In the 19 fifties, Helen, Frank and Taylor introduced a twist on the concept of pouring when she poured very thin oil paint onto a raw canvas. Using her method, Oil paint becomes a kind of stain as Theseus super absorbent UNP rhymed canvas sucks up the paint. Jess Oh, actually helps resist absorption, keeping the paint mostly on the surface without the layer of Jess. Oh, between the paint and the cotton canvas, the paint sinks right in and acts as a kind of staining agent. Now this particular type of pouring can also be done using acrylics. Let's end this lecture with some final tips. The thinner you make your paint, the faster it'll flow. Keep the surface level while pouring, unless you want streams of color. You can use more than one color, but use caution when using more than two. Because sometimes if you mix too many wet colors together, it can lead to a kind of muddy tone. Use a palette, knife, brush or gravity to make the pain and be aware of solvent fumes. Make sure you ventilate your work area. Now the discuss how you should practice pouring at home. 24. Pouring - Stroke Practice (Watercolor): we've just learned about pouring paint, both in watercolor and oil paints. Now we're going to review the process as you should do it at home. I'm separating the practice instruction by medium because of the number of differences between the two. This video covers the practice session in watercolor, and we begin by loading a little water into are pouring containers. This time you should mix two colors so that you can see the flowing action involved. With this stroke, you can see that you don't need a ton of water in the cups. It depends on the area being covered. This is fairly small, so I'm loading about 2 to 3 tablespoons of water, then squeeze some fresh tube ain't into the cup. You can load it from your palate if the pain is very malleable. How much pain depends on how dark you want the color engaging. This will just take experimentation. Stir the color into the water fairly. Mix until you don't see clumps of paint anymore. It may take a little while and make sure you test it along the way. That's how you can best gauge the value, knowing it'll lighten when it's added to the wet surface, so just expect it will come out a little bit lighter now. Do the same for your second color. So for pouring, you can do one of two things you can pour onto a dry surface or a wet surface. We'll practice both, leaving half of your surface dry, wet the other half completely with a large brush. Try to spread it evenly as possible. Now pour a little of one of the paints onto the wet area and then tilt the surface about 30 degrees. You can gauge it. You don't wanna go perpendicular, necessarily, at least not right away. Watch the flowing motion, then pour a little of the paint onto the dry side and tilted a little bit. Be careful as once it starts moving. It flows quickly. Lower the surface after it's moved a little bit, and then add a little of your second color to each half, allowing the paints to touch or mingle. Water is attracted to itself, so you'll see that it floods right into the other color. Now gently tilt the surface in different directions and watch the flow lower the surface to a flat position to stop flow and then tilted again to move it, and you can move it in different directions. I'm gonna use a brush to connect the dry pores so that the paint doesn't build up so much in one spot. The pain will then stay mostly contained within the wet areas. Now I'd like to tilt the board pretty dramatically, so I'll need to soak up some of the excess paint on the dry side. I do this by gently dipping dry paper towel into the paint, which will soak up some of the load. Now we should be able to tilt it higher. As the paint dries, the paint spread becomes less broad. If the paint was wetter, the flow would look less defined. But in this case, this could qualify as wet and wet trips. So I'd like you to try this exercise home. Now. You can also use a dropper to drop in the paint. There's a little more control over placement with this method. If you have one, try using the dropper as well. Now we added the dropper paint kind of late. Normally, I wouldn't let it dry this long, but as we're experimenting, it's OK. Noticed this little area where there was no water on the surface. Avoiding areas of your surface when you put the water down is a way to save your whites in a painting. Okay, now it's your turn. Be patient with yourself and enjoy the process. This is actually a very fun exercise. We'll discuss practicing oil in the next video. 25. Pouring - Stroke Practice (Oil): pouring with oil paints is quite different from pouring with watercolor or thin media, which is why I decided to separate the practice videos first. The surface needs to be smooth, so I'm using a Jess aboard rather than canvas. The mixing containers are the same as we used for watercolor, and we'll use two colors like we did before, so we can better observe the flow. But because the binder is oil and in order to thin the paint enough to flow, we need to break the rules of it. Usually, if you mix solvent into your paint, it shouldn't go over 25% of the mix. We need to go a little above that, but will be adding additional oil as well to help maintain paint stability. So here you can see I'm adding about two tablespoons of safflower oil to a cup. My preference is actually walnut oil, but we'll go ahead and use safflower. After I have the oil in the container, I'm gonna add almost an equal amount of solvent gams. All in this case, I'm not getting in a house, so I'll just pour some in. Oops, a little spillage. No big deal I'll just wipe it up Now I'll add the paint straight from the tube. You can see that it's a little less than an inch of paint, let's say, and I'll repeat this process with the second color. Now it's important to mix it until the clumps are completely dissolved. It'll take longer than mixing with watercolor. Initially, I mixed with a palette knife, but then, to really get the clumps, I usually switched to a small brush. Okay, when both are thoroughly mixed, were ready to pour. Now you could wet half of your surface with some of the paint that we've mixed if you want to, as I did in the oil demonstration. But this time I'm just pouring straight onto the dry surface, pouring both colors in approximately the same spot so we can watch the mix, By the way, noticed the fluid consistency. It's pretty remarkable for oil paint. After you do this till your surface in multiple directions, the pain won't spread as quickly as watercolor, which is kind of nice in a way at some point, place the surface down flat again and and some more pain, then tilt and let it blend. It's really quite beautiful. I think it's very fun and I love the slow motion of it. You can certainly supplement, by the way, with a brush. If you want to connect some of the spots or fill areas in and that's it. It will take about a month for this to dry, probably even longer, maybe three months. But the effect is really interesting and a lot of fun to dio. Now try your end on it. Take your time on, make sure you work in a paint safe area and then we'll move on to the object paintings. 26. Pouring - Object Painting: in order to pour to create the object image, I will need to mix up my paints ahead of time so I can apply them relatively quickly. As mentioned previously. I like to use plastic Dixie cups for pouring techniques, and this image is small, so I don't need a lot of hate. I want my paint to be dark or not as diluted, but we don't need a ton of it. It's always a good idea to check your colors on a piece of scrap paper. I don't feel like it's quite dark enough, so I'll add some more fresh paint once it's good, all mix up the other paints that I'll need. And using a medium round brush, I'll wet the berry shapes with water. I'm being pretty liberal with the water. I want all bury shapes to be wet at once, no drawing. So I'm putting a decent amount of water on there Now, using a dropper, I pick up the dark blue paint and squeeze drops of it into the wet shape. This, in effect, is pouring. It's basically dropping liquid paint into a wet area. It's the same idea. If it was a bigger area I'd actually pour from the cups onto the surface. The shapes are a little kooky, so I'll use a damp brush to extend the wet areas as needed. If there are areas of significant puddling, I'll also use the damp brush to absorb some of the liquid. Having lifted off some of paint with the puddling, I'm gonna drop in some denser blue paint, less diluted, just kind of get a little color depth in there, and now we'll repeat the process with leaves. But since the area of witness is even smaller, I'll drop in the paint with its soaked brush. I've mixed up some green, yellow and blue separately. One nice thing about this stroke is how you can allow colors to mix on the paper or the surface. Once it's thoroughly wet, I'll drop in some green and now some of the yellow and finally some of the blue, which is denser and darker so it connect is value contrast. Tilting the surface a little bit helps me move the colors around or distribute any remaining puddles. Now, instead of actually painting this stem while the paints are still wet, I'm simply gonna use a damp brush to draw in effect the stem and allow the various colors to rush into the water. After the colors filling, I'll drop a neutral tone into the stem just to differentiate it a little bit. That's it. Now it's your turn. Go ahead and try pouring in your chosen medium. In the next section of the course, we'll talk about directly painted brush Turks.