Krita: Painting and Coloring | Paul Gieske | Skillshare

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Krita: Painting and Coloring

teacher avatar Paul Gieske, Digital Art Enthusiast

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

15 Lessons (1h 19m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Alpha Inheritence

    • 3. Blending

    • 4. Example: a Basic Sphere

    • 5. Example: Shading and HIghlighting

    • 6. Blend Modes

    • 7. Example: 3 Orbs

    • 8. Example: Gem

    • 9. Special Brushes (Textured, Smudge and Wet)

    • 10. Special Brushes Update

    • 11. Example: Rock Texture

    • 12. Example: Textured Spheres

    • 13. Example: Smudge Flame

    • 14. Appendix A: Picking the Colours

    • 15. Appendix B: Lighting

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About This Class

Welcome to section 3 of my course Essentials of Digital Illustrations with Krita. You can get resources for this course on my website:

Krita is a highly acclaimed digital painting software, and it is completely free and open source. Getting started in digital illustration without splurging on license fees has never been easier.

This section is targeted at students who have a little prior knowledge of Krita. Have a look at Part 1 of this course to get a good grasp of the fundamentals.

This course focuses on teaching the Krita tools which help us with colouring and painting. A number of exercises and examples are included.

We will cover the following topics:

  • Alpha inheritance
  • Blending
  • Blend modes
  • Special brushes (Textured, smudge and wet/mix brushes)

Take a look at the roadmap to get an idea of the contents of the course.


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Paul Gieske

Digital Art Enthusiast


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1. Introduction: Hi, everybody. Welcome in this section we are going to learn all about painting and coloring in Crete. By the end of this section, you will be able to create digital pieces like these. So without further ado, let's get started. First of all the prerequisites in this section, you will need a basic understanding of Crete. You will need to have a basic understanding off brushes, basic shapes like circles and rectangles layers the selection tool. You can find all this information and more. In section one of this course, it's called critter dealing started. You can find it amongst my courses on my profile page. Also coming in handy will be some knowledge of the Transform tour and the busier curve to If you're not too familiar off this, you could probably still Mother Prue section. But if you want to brush up, you can also easily find this information in section two about sketching and inking. In this section, we were learned the following we will start with Alfa Inheritance and next we will move on to blending. This is the creation off a smooth transition from one color to another. Next, we have blend modes not to be confused with blending plant boats, determines have two layers off paint, interact with one another. And finally, we will learn a bit about some special brushes, including texture brushes. It's much brushes and wet and mixed brushes. In addition to this trita theory, I have two small appendices. Appendix A is about picking color schemes. Appendix B is an introduction into lighting. As always, I have included plenty off exercises and examples to help put theory into practice. I hope you enjoy this section, so you soon. 2. Alpha Inheritence: Hi, everybody. How's it going? We are going to start things off today. Learning about Alfa inheritance in the first section, we learned a bit about Alfa Lock. Let's quickly remind ourselves what after lock does when we enable Alfa lock The transparency off the layer gets locked, so if we try to draw on a transparent part of the canvas, nothing happens this way. We don't need to worry about the coloring in off the edge is too much. Alfa Inherit does pretty much the same thing, but instead of locking the transparency of the current layer, it uses the transparency off the layer below. In other words, it inherits the layer, the transparency off the layer below. In order for this to work, the two layers must be in a folder together. So, for example, I have two layers, one named base and one named Shading. I put them in the same group and I click on Alfa inheritance on the shading layer. As you can see as I drove the stroke, Onley appears in the non transparent Spartz below. I can activate and deactivate the Alfa inheritance, showing that the hidden part is not last. It's just hidden. One advantage of using Alfa inheritance over after luck is that this is nondestructive. I can remove the shading at any time, and the original painting below remains. The shading layer does not only inherit Alfa off the layer directly below, as long as the layers are in the same group, it inherits the alfa off all the layers below. For example, if I make another layer below the base layer and drawn it some off, the previously hidden parts appear. If I move the shading layer out of the group, it now inherits the Alfa off the group as well as the background layer. So the whole stroke is shown because layer one is entirely a pig. 3. Blending: Hi, everybody, What's going on today? We are going to learn about blending. Blending basically means that you transform a Southern shift in color into a gradual shift in color. In this video, I will teach the most common form of blending for digital paintings. Let's start with an abrupt shift in color like this. I would take my brush and set the capacity to 50% and draw a thick line down here. As you can see, I now have three colors. The original green on the left, the original orange on the right and an intermediate color in the middle. Let's pick this intermediate color using the color picker and let's draw two lines on the two frontiers. Two more intermediate colors are created. I can repeat this process over and over again, and if I do it often enough, it becomes a gradual transition. I did this with a hard edge brush, just so I could more easily explain the period. But if we do this with soft edged brush, it's much easier. So let's try. A typical brush for this would be the airbrush. When I use the airbrush, it's much easier to make a gradual transition between the two colors. I use the color picker often to pick a color somewhere within the transition zone, but you should be wary off over relying on the airbrush. The airbrush is really smooth, so Onley using the airbrush will make things look a little plastic and synthetic, which is fine if that's the effect you are going for. But adding a little texture can go a long way into making things look a little more natural and changing the mood off your paintings. We will be talking about adding texture later on. In this section, blending is extremely useful to create a transition from one color to the next. 4. Example: a Basic Sphere: Hi, everybody. Welcome to this example. In this example, we are going to use ever inheritance to provide some basic shading and highlighting for this spear. We start with a basic circle. We add a shading. Later, we group the two layers together. Next we pick a shading color and use the airbrush to add some shading as you can see the edges off the circle colored over. So let's quickly activate Alfa inheritance and let's complete the sharing. And also, let's add some highlighting, using a lighter color for a good effect. It's a nice tip to add some backlighting. Backlighting is just a thin line of highlighting at the back of the object. This would be caused by a light source. Behind the object Backlighting is a quick and easy technique used to add some drama to your object and to make the object pop. Finally, I'm just going to change the background color using the field tool. So try out this example yourself and I will see you in the next lesson. Bye bye 5. Example: Shading and HIghlighting: Hi, everybody. How's it going? In this example? We're going to add some shading to this portrait. First of all, let's have a look at the layers. We have the following layers sketch palette, hair in the foreground. And then there's the hair, which is behind the face, the face, which includes the eyes, the lips and a slim Let's start by shedding face. I'm going to use this brush to very roughly mark in the shaded areas. After that, I used the selection toe to mark the edges off the nose. The reason I used the selection tool is because I want a sharp transition off color here. Next, I had an even darker region. Remember, we are only marking the regions in for now. We will blend it out later. After that, I invert the selection and I paint the region's off highlight. It's possible to save the shape of this selection, by the way, just by making a selection mosque. But I will talk more about that in the future lesson. Also on a side note. This whole time, I am not drawing from my imagination. Rather, I am drawing from reference. I use the reference to observe which parts of the face are in light on, we turn shadow. It's possible to do this all from theory and or from imagination, but figuring that out is pretty hard. It's do about. But it takes a lot of practice, and drawing from a reference is in fact a great practice. So if you eventually want to draw from imagination than the first step is to draw from reference anyway, I continue adding regions off shading and highlighting, and when I'm done, I switched to the airbrush. I blend out the colors. I use control to pick the color, and I dab a lot. We've partially with it, partially transparent. Airbrush. I use control quite often to pick intermediate colors. I just continue blending and blending. - Using the average too much, as I mentioned previously, has a tendency to make things look overly smooth. Some people like using the bristles brush to blend, for example, which gives a more painterly effect. Let me show you what I mean with the lips first. That's make some adjustments, and that's at some shading and highlighting. In this case, I will use the bristles brush to blend with a lot off little dabs of the brush. This results in an interesting picture in the lips. I also add a little bit of speculative highlighting. Anyway, I'm going to leave that here for now. As you can see, the portrait is by no means finished. And it still requires a lot of work, for example, on the eyes and the hair. But that's for another day. So that's all from me from now. See you in the next lesson. Bye bye. 6. Blend Modes: critter planned moods. Hi, everybody. How's it going? In today's video, we will be taking a quick look at blend modes. So what are blending modes anyway? Let me just start by saying that blending modes have nothing to do with blending with. Basically, blending modes are the way in which the brush colors affect the underlying color. One blending mode, which we've already seen and use all the time, is normal. Normal just covers up the layer below that simple and straightforward to understand. But I can change the blending mode from normal to something else. I do that by clicking up here. As you can see, there are a huge number of blending modes available. We won't talk about all of them now, but I will just give a brief introduction to the most popular ones. The modes are categorized. For example. The arithmetic category contains blend modes where the result in color is easily calculated using arithmetic. One commonly used arithmetic blending mode is a multiply if you click on the check box next to the moment, the moat gets moved up two favorites. So let's start with multiply. Many of you will know that each color can be defined as a combination off three color components. Digitally speaking, these are red, green and blue. What multiplied does is it takes each color component in the canvas below, and it might fly. Applies it by a factor off less than 100. The brush color determines the factor for each component. If the brush color contains a lot of red, the red in the color below is not diminished. If the brush color contains little red, then the red in the color below is diminished a lot. The same is done for the green component and for the blue component. If you don't quite intuitively grasped that, no worries. The main thing you should learn is that multiply darkens the color, and multiply is often used to pick a shading color. So, for example, if I start with a color like this, I might use multiply with the same color to determine the shading color. Then we have screen screen is similar to multiply, but instead of diminishing each color component, it increases the component. So, in other words, if the brush color contains a lot of red, the red in the color below were increased a lot. If the brush color contains little red, the red in the color below will not increase by much again. Don't worry about the maps behind it. Just remember, screen lightens the underlying color, and it is often used to pick ah, highlighting color. Next, we have overlay. Overlay is a combination off. Multiply and scream if the brush is dark. The moats, which is to multiply if the brush is light, the march switches to scream. Overlay is useful in increasing the contrast of your painting, in other words, making the dark parts doctor and the light parts nighter. Next, we have colored dodge colored dodge, first inverts the brush color and then divides the underlying color by the result. Or, if we put that a little bit more intuitively, it lightens the underlying color, and it mixes in a little bit off the brush color. Carla dot is very useful when it comes to lighting effects like, for example, fire and lamps and so forth. We also have darken and lighten dark and only draws when the underlying color is lighter than the brush color and lighten only draws when the underlying color is darker, dark and can be useful when you're adding details to the highlighted parts of drawing, and you don't want to worry about messing up the shaded parts or, if you want to make the light parts off the drawing a little less light without worrying about the dark parts night and can be used in the same way but vice versa. And then we have the color mode. Color combines lightness off the colors below, which the hue off the brush above. So in other words, the darkness off the picture below is preserved while the color off the brush is used. So this can be super useful if you haven't picked a color scheme yet. In fact, a lot of people like working like this first to draw a dress KR, and when they are finished with the gray scale, they used the color blend mode to calorie in the picture. There are a lot more modes. Personally, I don't really use the others in a pre meditative way. I do use them in an experimental way, sometimes to see if I can get lucky and find a cool effect. It can be fun to experiment with them if you like you can read more about them on the critter website. Just search for Preta blending modes in Google, and you're short to find the manual summarizing all the blending modes. So this seems probably like quite a lot to learn. I wouldn't really recommend learning all of the blending modes burn. Mind, though that HSI hs are HSV and HS. Why are basically all the same principle? The only difference between the blending modes in these categories is the way in which lightness is calculated on a final note. I just want to mention that so far I've been showing blend modes using layers. But you can also set the blend mode off a brush in this way, you don't need to worry about switching between layers. The disadvantage off this is that the original pace layer is lost. But on the other hand, it's quick and easy to do it like that. Well, that's all. For now. Thanks for watching. Blending modes can be a little bit abstract, and it takes some practice. That's why we will focus on some examples in the next lessons. Thanks for watching. See you soon. Bye bye 7. Example: 3 Orbs: either everybody in this lesson, we will get a little practice with my favorite blend modes. We will be drawing these three orbs, so let's get to it. We start with a red circle. Let's create a new layer and set it to multiply. I will use the same red as the base layer and right on the original circle. This results in a darker color. I will use this darker color as a shading color in my palette. After that, let's reset the blending modes to screen. We used a small to grab the highlight color, and let's also add the base color to the palate for good measure. Okay, now we have a basic pellet. Let's put the moat back to normal, and let's activate Alfa Inheritance and let's do some shading and highlighting. Let's also add a small, shiny spot in an even lighter color, and let's add a little backlighting to pretty good results. So far, I'm not dissatisfied, but I want to increase the contrast a bit. First I add another layer and set it to overlay. Remember, overlay multiplies when I use a dark brush and streams when I use a light brush so I pick a light gray and draw gently on the part that I want lighter. And then I pick a dark grey and your draw gently on the part. I want darker. Don't forget the Alfa inheritance, and there we have it. Let's just activate and deactivate the overlay layer to see the difference. It's a pretty big difference. Okay, on to the next orb, we will draw this glowing orb. We start off with a circle, and let's use the multiplayer to add shading and screen layer to add highlighting. And then let's merge the layer. Let's do a little bit of touching up. In fact, let's add another multiply layer to increase the shading. After that, we add an overlay layer and let's use a light yellow to lighten and add a yellow tint to the spear and the dark yellow just lightly on the darker parts. Then we add a color dodge layer. We use a red color to give an inner glow to the sphere, and let's add one more layer to blend things a little. Next, in a new layer below the group, we're going to add some glow. The glow layer must not be in the same group because we don't want it to have any effect on the upper inheritance. We experiment a little with the glow color orange to yellow, light orange to reddish yellow to reddish. I think this last one light orange to reddish works well, so I'm gonna keep it like that and there we have it. Next, we will draw this metallic sphere. First of all, we create the palate in the usual way, and we shade and highlight the sphere in the usual way. Then we add a speculator layer. We had some large speculators spots in a very light color. I also add a dark spot to the lower half of the sphere and a great spot. I decrease the opacity of the dark and grace, but to make them not too obvious. The's spots represent vague reflections from the surroundings. After that, I will use the transformation tour to adjust the speculator spots. Incidentally, you can learn more about reflections and speculator, light and other topics to do with lighting. In the appendix, you can learn more about the transform to in the section about sketching. Next, we will create another reflection layer. Let's draw the reflection of the sky and the ground. Remember that the sphere will a warp the shape of the HRH I horizon. Let's draw in some trees, too, and let's make the layer very transparent. And let's lower the layer below the speculator and other reflection layer but above the saving and let's blend out the edges a little bit. I like experimenting with blend layers here. As you can see, I try a lot of blending modes out. I can see if there are any cool effects after experimenting a bit, however, I wouldn't just gonna stick with good old colored dodge. But it does give me an idea. What if I add a layer and painted blue and choose a cool, blending mode? There are all sorts of options that look pretty neat. It it's a lot of fun playing around with this stuff. So anyway, that's off from me. For now. Have a good one and I'll see you next time. Bye bye 8. Example: Gem: Hi, everybody. How's it going in this exercise? We are going to draw the following gem in Crete, so let's get started. The first thing we do is draw to connected line segments with a busier curve. The section on sketching and Leinart contains a lesson on bed here, but your curves. So if you're curious about better curves, then just follow that lesson. Let's fill it up with great and then color it in. The easiest way to color it in without worrying about the edges is using after lock. I'm going to dark to create a nice palate in the top right hand corner. After that, I want to pick a nice shading color. I will use the multiply blend layer to pick the color and added to the palate, and I would do the same using screen to pick the highlight color. Next, let's add shading and highlighting. Since this object is translucent, I will at the shading in the middle and the highlighting on the sides keep adjusting until I'm satisfied. And let's use color dodge to paint in the editors. The next step is to paint some speculate lighting, see the appendix for some background theory on different kinds of materials and different kinds of lighting. After that, I would just quickly change the background color. When I do that, you see that a lot of smudges appear. Why is that? Well, that's obviously because I forgot to activate the offer. Inheritance on the blend layer I'm not really satisfied with speculum light, so I'm going to try another concept. The speculator lights parts can be pretty hard to get right, and it often takes a lot of trial and error. - Next , I were at a little more yellowish green as a highlight. Actually, I'm going to remove this brand layer entirely. - Okay , anyway, after that, I will add another layer, which will represent the background reflecting off from the gym. I draw a blue blob representing the sky, and I decrease the transparency. Let's pay attention to the curve of the gem. Remember, the horizon is going to end up curved like so, and let's use the eraser to draw in some irregularities in the horizon. Next, let's add a layer below and create some glow. I'm going to make the color glow a little darker than the color of the gem for a little added contrast. Okay, so this is pretty good. Let's say I changed my mind, though, and I don't want the jump to be green. I want a purple Jim. Then I can first move the reflection layer out of the way and used the color bland mode to color it in purple. We also have to rearrange the glow layer. Okay. And in this example, our color the gem in in two shades of purple. I can switch between the two results by activating and deactivating the layer. Finally, I'm still not completely satisfied with the speculator, So I'm going to touch that up again, and I'm going to use the transformation toe, give the sport a little perspective. And there we have the final result. Thanks for watching and see you next time. Bye bye. 9. Special Brushes (Textured, Smudge and Wet): hi, everybody. In this lesson, we would talk about three types of special brushes. Textured brushes, smudge brushes and a wet and mixed brushes. First of all, let's start with textured brushes. One Texas breast that I come in any use is the pen brush. As I draw with the brush, you will see that the stroke is not smooth. Rather, there is a kind of repeating irregular pattern in the stroke. This kind of textured brush can be very useful. For example, in giving a rough surface to an object, there are more texted rushers with different kind off pattern to the brush. For example, we have hatch noisy pencil, noisy break bristles, dry split textured, sponge textured. All of these have interesting textures to the stroke. Next, let's have a look at smudge brushes. Smart brushes have no color of their own, but they smudge the color underneath. We have smudged brushes with different shapes. Note that we also have smudge brush with texture. Smart brushes can be useful for creating wavy and flowing effects. For example, you can easily use the smudge brushed to create wispy cirrus clouds like this. Smudge brushes are also often used as an alternative method for blending the blender blur. Brush, in particular, is often used to blend. Let's talk about wet and mixed brushes next. What and mixed colors. Both have a color of the Rome, but they also make use off the underlying cover color. So what's the difference between wet and mix brushes? Wet brushes pick up the color underneath and mix it with the its own color. The amount of each color makes depends on the pressure. If the pressure is low, the underlying color is mostly used if the pressure is high, the brush color is mostly used anywhere in between, and mixture of the colors is used. Mixed brushes, on the other hand, smudge the color below. This results in a kind of a mixing effect. Again, it's pressure sensitive. If I push down lightly, the brush mostly smuggles on. If I pushed down strongly, the brush mostly paints. Wet and mixed. Brushes are often used to blend and to add a new layer of paint without having to switch between the brushes, you can see that we have different types of brushes which work on this principle. For example, a basic round brush, a soft brush a textured brush, etcetera, etcetera. Here is a quick example in which I'm using a basic mix brush to draw a flame. I pushed down with a lot of pressure to put in the color first red, then yellow, then white in the middle of the flame, you will see that there is already an interesting transition between the colors. This is even before I've even started thinking about blending, and when I've put in the colors, I'm pushed down softly to utilize mostly this much effect. Painting with wet and mixed brushes can be credit rated, and it can take a lot of practice. But it can result in some pretty nice and colorful results, though well, that's all from me. For now. In the next videos, we will be putting the period we have just learned into practice via a couple of examples. So you soon bye bye 10. Special Brushes Update: Hi, everybody. Here is a quick update video to talk about the brand new brushes available in Crete, a version 4.0. First of all, let's talk about textured brushes. A lot of pencils have some interesting textures. Then there is also a group of bristle brushes categorised under the letter G. These also have some interesting textures, and we also have various chalky brushes, which we can find categorised under the letter H. But most interesting pictures are found under the letter. Why and super cool New brushes related to textures are the stem presses. These can be super useful. For example, with the stamp grass brush, I can easily draw in layers of grass. We will be learning more about creating our own stamp prices in the next section. Okay, let's talk about the news. Much brushes. The smudge brushes are now called blender brushes, and you can find them categorised under the letter Kate. And let's talk about the wet and mixed brushes. There's a bunch of wet brushes. Wet brushes can be found categorised under the letter I in Creator 4.0. We no longer make a distinction between wet and May expresses some of these wet brothers are actually mixed brushes, technically speaking. But this brush set on Lee refers to all of them as wet brushes. Well, that was a quick summary of the special brushes available in creative version 4.0. Okay, See you in the next section. Thanks for watching. Bye bye. 11. Example: Rock Texture: Hello there. How's it going in this video? We would draw the following rock formations. We start with a reference image. I downloaded this image from pixels dot com on imported it into a new layer. Incidentally, there's a ducker we can use for finding reference images, but I personally prefer to import the reference images into a new layer. I study the reference image. I take mental notes off the rough shape, the coloring shading and the texture of the rocks. I would just do a rough sketch. It does not need to be exact. So let's say there's a directional light about the rocks pointing in this direction. Then we can sketch in some shading like so. And when I'm done with my sketch, I add a base layer. I'm not really satisfied with this color, so I will change the color using Alfa Lock mixed this easy and then I'm going to use multiply and screen to create a basic palette, and I will shade and highlight the rocks once done with the basic shading and highlighting , I want to add some texture here. I'm playing around with some texture brushes, huh? I'm gonna finally pick this one split texture, too, and I created overlay layer. I use a light color to drawing some texture in the highlighted parts and some dark color to drawing some texture in the shaded parts. Okay, that was adding texture using a textured brush. But for the next to rock formation, I'm going to show you a sneak trick. We are going to use pattern to add texture to the rocks. I haven't thought pattern yet, but it's pretty straightforward, so just follow along. First of all, let's elect a pattern. In this case, I think the best pattern is fractal pattern. But you can try other patterns, too, and I draw direct and go. Make sure that the feel of the rectangle is set a pattern. And then let's transform. The rectangle also is covering the top. The section about sketching gives an overview off the transform tool. By the way, that's also make sure the Alfa lock his own. And then let's draw another rectangle for the side. And let's send set the blending mode to overlay. And let's that the opacity a little lower. We can use the deformation toe move the same in the pattern of it Let's try to push the same downwards so that it can so that it coincides with the crack in the rock. Then after that, we can use the soft a razor to remove some parts of the texture. And there we have it. Another easy way to add texture. Thanks for watching. See you in the next lesson. Bye bye. 12. Example: Textured Spheres: Hello, ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls. In this video, we would cover a simple example. Example. In adding texture to an object. We will be drawing this sphere, which looks a bit like a sphere covered in a fine textile, And we will be drawing this fear, which has a kind off orange peel texture. As usual, pick some shading and highlighting colors, but we don't use a smooth brush as we usually do. Let's just use a hatch. Noisy brush and there we have it. Easiest cake or we did was said and highlight as usual. But instead of using a airbrush, we used a texture brush. Next, let's try something a little bit more sophisticated. I've already created a palette using multiply and screen as usual, and we create a shading and highlighting layer. Now we picked the brush sponge texture, and we don't draw out smooth lines. Rather, we tap onto the canvas. Tap, tap, tap kept up. Let's add another shading layer a little darker than before, and then let's blend it out a little. We pick an intermediate color and set a lower opacity to make the light to dark transition a little smoother for blending. We also don't you strokes, but we tap Dent E. Let's make the very edges off the spear even dark. And now remember to tap Don't draw strokes. After that, I'm going to use a partially transparent airbrush and an overlay layer to increase the contrast. And I want to add some spots to for that I used to split texture brush and gonna add some dark spots as well as some light spots groups. I realized that I've been drawing on the palate layer all this time. Oh, well, I said that transparency very low so that the overall effect is quite subtle. And there we have it joined me in the next video for another example. See you. Bye bye. 13. Example: Smudge Flame: I know everybody. What's up? How's it going in this video? I will show you how to use this much toe to draw a flame like this. Just a fun. I'm going to start with the glowing sphere. First of all, we add another group named flames, and we had a sketch layer that sketch in the basic shape of the flames. He doesn't have to be perfect, just something to work with. Next I add another layer and color to in the flames. I use Marta Poff layers for different claims. - I picked the colors yellow and white and added to the flames. Okay, let's merged layers. And then I picked the smudge soft brush and make repeated waving strokes in the upward direction. I used this much to not on Lee for the top off the flames, but also for the base of the flames. And I also moved this much toe downwards instead of upwards on occasion. Okay, let's move this to a new layer into the same group as the spear. Otherwise, the blend modes won't be off effect, and let's set the blend mode to color dodge. As you can see the blend mode Onley effects the spear, and it does not affect the glow. So I'm just going to move the glow up into the same group. Okay, lets try some more blending modes. Screen looks pretty cool. There are some pretty good options here, but finally, once again, I'm going to stick with color Dodge. Well, that's often out. Thanks for watching. This was the last lesson of this section. I hope you can dissection useful and stay tuned for the next section coming up, which will be about creating custom Russia's My I. 14. Appendix A: Picking the Colours: Hi, everybody. How's it going in this small appendix? I am going to give a very brief introduction to digital color theory. Having a basic understanding of color is super useful when it comes to painting and poster and logo design. First of all, we will talk about red, green and blue versus hue, saturation and lightness. Next, we're talking about how to construct the red, yellow blue color were and how one might use the color were to help you pick a color scheme . And finally, I will cover very briefly some tips in considering mood saturation and a lightness. So let's start with some background period. First of all, red, green and blue or RGB for short. RTB is often used in digital painting because of technical hardware issues. Red, green and blue are primary colors, So what are primary colors? The thing about primary colors is that or other colors can be created by combining these colors. First of all, I will open a new doctor, the specific color selector. We have free color bars red, green and blue. If I set red to 100% and blue and green 20 then I get a pure red color. If I add 100% blue to the 100% red, then I get a mixture off pure blue and pure red. This results in magenta in his way. I can create all the colors. The main advantage off this is that it is more in line with the way the hardware, the monitor and graphics cards creates colors. But of course it's difficult to pick the exact colors you want. So that's why a lot of people, including myself, prefer to work with H S. L. The color Sliders. Docker consists of three bars, you saturation and lightness. The shoot defines the color. The saturation defines the purity of the color. If I lower the saturation, I removed the color and it becomes more gray. If I said the set direction all the way to zero, all the color is taken out and it's entirely great. Next we have lightness. Lightness determines how light or dark something years. If I remove all the lightness, it becomes black, and if I put the lightness to 100% it becomes white. A lot of people say value instead of lightness. Value and a lightness are technically slightly different. But for the sake of this appendix, we are not going to make a distinction between them. For the sake of Dicks. Appendix, let's just say that lightness and is another word for value and vice versa. So using the HSE L Color Court and its system makes it much easier to pick the lightness we want. Let's have a quick look at the advanced color selector. It's basically the same, but the circle determines the hue, and the horizontal position determines the saturation, and the vertical position determines the lightness or the value. Okay, next, let's talk about our why be or red, yellow, blue, red, yellow and blue are also primary colors. But wait, I thought red, green and blue are the primary colors. Yes, that's true, but also red, yellow and blue can also be combined to form all the other colors. So in other words, both RGB and our wybie are valid sets off primary colors in digital computing. We use our GP because of hardware constraints. But to find color, color, harmony, we're going to use our wybie. The first step is to create a color, will you? We start with the three primary colors in this case red, yellow and blue, and we mix them in equal poor proportions to create secondary colors. And then we take each secondary color and makes them in equal proportions with the neighbouring primary color, which creates tertiary colors. And there we have our color wheel based on the primary colors red, yellow and blue. You don't actually have to create this kind of where you can just use this one or look one up on Google, so now we have ah color were we can use it to pick out colors. Here are some examples off commonly used teller schemes. The first example is picking a complementary color. For example, orange and blue. Anybody recognized this logo. Another option is to pick analogous colors. Analogous colors are close to each other on the color will you. For example, This photo, which I downloaded from pixel Start come, shows some interesting yellow orange red autumn. 1/3 example is try attic, where we pick three colors far out on the color wheel. Anybody recognize this symbol? Two other schemes worth mentioning our tech tragic and do a complimentary. This method is very helpful in picking colors. But remember that this is only a helpful tool and by no means a hard and fast rule. As they gain experience, you will get better and better get feeling for the colors to use. There's one question that occurs to me. Why do we use our wybie to create car wheels? Why can't we equally well, create color wheel using RGB instead of R Y B? I wouldn't argue. Be based Carol. We'll get equally good results. How about using the color? Were See why am which is science yellow and magenta? To be honest, I have absolutely no idea. I have a sneaking suspicion that using the RGB based color were would also give good, if not better, results. But I don't know that for sure. And search though I might, I haven't been able to find an answer to this question. Do you know? Please leave me a comment. In addition to picking harmonious fuse, there are also a few other things to take into consideration. For example, mood. What kind of mood are you going for? For example, red, orange and yellow are very warm. Colors were blue and sign a cold colors and of course, bright colors are cheerful, while lots off grey can be pretty depressing. You can also pay attention to the situation you use. For example, if you use a lot off soft colors with relatively low saturation. For example, about 50% the colors are not so bright, and there's not too much color contrasts, which makes things a bit more relaxing. And that's a tiring, our hectic to watch. So, for example, if you're making infographics, it might be a good idea to use a lot of soft colors. If you use a lot of bright colors, it makes things look a little less realistic and a little bit more cartoony and dramatic. And then we have lightness. Lightness is often referred to as value that you can obviously be used to affect mood. Dark scenes are ominous, and summer bright scenes are cheerful. We can also use lightness to call attention to parts of the painting. For example, we could make the background pretty dark and the foreground light to call attention to the objects in the foreground. Well, that's all for now. Thanks for watching. See you later. Bye bye. 15. Appendix B: Lighting: understanding light. Hi, everybody. And welcome to this little appendix in the appendix. We are going to cover the very basics off a lighting. In a nutshell. I hope you find it useful if you want to draw from imagination and you don't only want to draw from reference. It's a very good idea to have a basic understanding off How light works. To understand how light works, we basically have to cover two topics. The light sources and the materials, which reflect the light in a different way. First of all, let's consider three different types of light sources. We have ambient light, distant direction or light and point bite ambient light. Is the light surrounding us? Just imagine a cloudy day. There is not one particular source of light. The light is coming from the sun. That's true, but only indirectly. It's being refracted and reflected by the clouds and the surrounding, and the result is that all the objects in the scene Arlette equally from all the directions by the ambient light. The second type of light is a distant or a directional light. A typical example would be the son. The son is very far away so the result is that the objects get lit up, but only the surfaces that are facing the source. If the surface is facing the source directly, it gets completely lit up. If the surface is at an angle to the source, it only gets partially lit up. If the surface is facing away from the source, it does not get lit up at all. In this example, I have removed all the ambient light and there's only a distant light. One more thing to take into account with directional light that I haven't shown here is that it cast shadows. The point light source emits light in all directions, so a typical example would be a light bulb or a flame. The important thing to remember about point lights is that, unlike the distant directional light, the intensity of the light drops with distance, so objects which are further away will be lit up to a lesser extent, the objects, which are close to the point light. In this example, the light only manages to light up the small part of the sphere. The rest of this fear is too far away to be lit up by this point, light. Next, let's consider materials. When considering materials, we should consider at least two factors. The first thing which would consider is whether the object is shining or not, and the second we should consider is does the object reflect the surroundings if an object is shiny or not, depends on whether the object reflects the light in a diffuse or speculator way. When light hits an object, it bounces off. In the case off met objects, it bounces off, you know, directions. Most of the light we'll bounce into the environment, but a small proportion of it were bounced into your eyes. That means that irrespective of the anger off the surface to your eye, at least a small portion off the lights will reach your I. The dark parts of the sphere do not catch any light in the first place, so no light reaches your right from that part of the spear. Next, we have speculator. Unlike for diffuse speculum, light is reflected not in all directions, but in only one direction. Like a mirror. The light is reflected from the object at the same angle in which it came in. That means that the large portion off the light will either reach your eye or a very little portion off it. Well, this depends on the angle between the light source and the surface and the angle between the surface and your eye. This example, only a small part off the surface is at the right angle, but a large proportion off the light reflecting off of the sphere will reach her I. Hence, it can be quite bright for the remainder of the sphere. It is either not catching light in the first place, or it is respected in a beam somewhere into the surroundings, and hence we see no speculum light coming off those parts. Normally, objects are neither only met north speculum, but they are combination of the two speculator effects are useful in making objects look shiny but also useful in creating a wet look in, for example, eyes and glossy lips. Remember that this example only takes into account one source off a distant light. If ambient light is also taken into account, we should also consider reflections from the surroundings, even object to shining enough. One will be able to see the reflected surroundings on the surface of the objects Usually the reflection is very subtle and vague only for very reflective objects where the reflective objects be clear mirrors, for example, are easy to explain. Because mirrors are uniform flat surfaces, they reflect all the ambient point and distant light in a more or less exact fashion. When the mirror is curved, though, you have to take into account a warping off the image. For example, reflections in eyeballs, gems, crystal balls these are all more or less spheres. This is a piece from EMC Essure, who was my favorite artist when I was a kid. If we look closer, we see that the mayor off the sphere has very little distortion. But further away objects closer to the edge of the sphere. Objects get more and more distorted. But that's way beyond the scope of this appendix. Feel free to study it, though. Anyway. Thanks for watching. I hope this was useful. See you next time. Bye bye.