How to Mix Music a Comprehensive Step by Step guide with Studio One | Daniel Montenegro | Skillshare

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How to Mix Music a Comprehensive Step by Step guide with Studio One

teacher avatar Daniel Montenegro

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

26 Lessons (1h 53m)
    • 1. Intro

      1:26
    • 2. Session Setup

      2:29
    • 3. Organization

      4:16
    • 4. Signal Flow

      7:40
    • 5. Graphic Signal Flow

      4:02
    • 6. Rough Mix: Quick and easy.

      2:07
    • 7. Balancing

      7:19
    • 8. Balancing: BASS

      0:49
    • 9. Balancing: GTR

      0:56
    • 10. Balancing: Synths

      0:56
    • 11. Balancing: VOX

      2:51
    • 12. Mixing: Mix Bus

      9:30
    • 13. Mixing: Sub Busses: DRUMS

      7:02
    • 14. Mixing: Sub Busses: BASS

      4:25
    • 15. Mix Interest: FX SENDS

      9:26
    • 16. Mix Interest: FX SENDS: VOCALS

      9:13
    • 17. Mixing: Vocals

      8:09
    • 18. Mixing: Backing Vocals

      4:28
    • 19. Automation

      3:49
    • 20. Automating Plugins

      5:20
    • 21. Let's Review before wrapping up.

      1:29
    • 22. EXPORTING: Consider LIMITING

      3:19
    • 23. EXPORTING: For Mastering

      2:31
    • 24. EXPORTING: Song Mixdown Settings

      3:48
    • 25. EXPORTING: Multitracks: Mixing out of house

      4:07
    • 26. FINAL WORDS

      1:40
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About This Class

A  Solid Foundation

An organized foundation and pristine Signal Flow is key to having a session that will allow you to move quickly through the stages of music mixing, as well as allowing you to make changes without compromising the mix in unintended ways.

This class aims to provide you with solid multitrack mixing strategies, techniques and a simplified philosophy to mixing, that will allow you to tackle mixing projects regardless of complexity and number of tracks.

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Clean Organization and Signal Flow

Beginner To Advanced

This class has been designed as a roadmap that dissects every stage of music mixing, from the very technical to the very creative and subjective aspects of mixing. All in a package that is very easy to follow and to the point.*

Beginners may find a step-by-step guide to mixing while more advanced users may strengthen their existing skills, or find better and more efficient practices and techniques for a more professional workflow.

*This class's content is aimed for all levels, however, an understanding of your DAWs basic functions is recommended.

The Software

This class was filmed using Studio One, however most of these concepts can be replicated within most Digital Audio Workstations.

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Class Objective

You'll learn all of the following concepts:

  • Session Setup
  • Workflow and efficiency
    • Track Organization
    • Signal Flow
      • Creation of Busses and FX sends.
    • Quick Rough Mix
  • Song Balancing
    • Drums
    • Bass
    • Guitar
    • Synthesizers
    • Vocals
  • Mixing - Compression And Equalization -
    • Mixing from the Mix Bus - Down
    • Sub Bus Processing
      • Drums
      • Bass
    • Mixing specifics
      • Vocal Equalization and Compression
      • Unmasking Backing Vocal Conflict
  • Creating Song Interest
    • FX Sends/Returns
      • Adding Sonic Personality to guitars, Vox, Synths.
  • Automation
    • Automating Levels
    • Dynamic Interest with plugin Parameter specific Automation
  • Exporting Track

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Automating FX Returns

Final Result

By the end of this class you should have a clear picture, a structure and a better understanding of the tools and techniques that exist in the DAW to tackle your own music mixing projects.

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Simple Eq Yields more natural Results.

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Transcripts

1. Intro : Hi, Welcome to this music mixing class, where I'll show you my process of mixing music in a way that'll give you the sound, the structure, and organization of a pro. For this class, I'm only going to be using a digital audio workstation cults 2D one. But by all means you could be using the software of your choosing, whether that is Pro Tools able to live a full studio logic. These concepts are useful for any dollar you might be using. This class will teach you about the tools and techniques used in most commercial music. And we'll help you get your music sounded the way you want it to, while progressively translating better and better to other sound systems. I've been recording, performing, mixing and mastering mine and other artists is music since 2011, I've worked on every set up a manageable from large consoles, Tiny Homes setups tell you a secret. You don't need expensive equipment to be making music or mixing music. The computer watching this video from is legally capable of performing all the audio tasks that are needed to create a compelling mix. You're going to learn how to properly set up your sessions, how to kickstart your mixing with proper organization signal hole like a pro and a Mason. Quick way to create rough mixes, balancing, top-to-bottom mixing, EQ, compression, automation, you suffer accents and all that good stuff. And finally, how to export your track for distribution or mastering. And also how to export stems also for mastering or for live use. Well, that's quite a long intro. Let's just get started because we got a lot to learn. And without further ado, I'll see you in the class. 2. Session Setup: All right, Before we begin, we need to talk about session setup. So basically, we want to set our session two 24-bit 48 kilohertz. If we know the template to the song, we want to set it right now. If we know the key of the song, we want to set that right now. Because that's going to help us. If we need to move things in or out of a grid that's going to help us at Sun. If we need to work with many, that's going to help us a ton. So I recommend 2448. If your sound card doesn't allow that, it's okay if you work with 44.1 and 16 bits, that's fine too. But you probably don't want to work with anything lower than that. The lowest you want to go is 44.116 bits. And what I recommend is 24, 48. And I honestly don't recommend going any higher than that because sound files tend to go really huge when you go past that. So let's move into the software. So when we begin and we start a new project, here is to the one. We're going to name it. I'm going to name it brighter colors. Mixing session. I'm going to sit it to 48, 24. My time-based two bars, sunblock five minutes. It's not that the actual sun length, but that's as much as the timer is going to give me initially red. And the sun temple is actually 118. That's correct. The key signatures for, for, like most pop songs these days. And key signature, I don't have it with me. But that shouldn't matter because most of the tracks are already recorded. I don't think we have any midi tracks. So that's fine. And then we would just click. Okay, and that's that fourth session setup. 3. Organization: Now we're going to focus on the organization of our session. So we're going to focus on importing the tracks, track positioning, the naming, and the coloring of our tracks. So let's get right into it. So these are the files that you're going to find in the resources section. First of all, I'm going to bring in the drums. So first of all, find the drums in your folders and you can just drag them in. I always like to start in measure number four because that gives me space. If I need to stretch a little bit while I got plenty of space. Now bringing the rest of the tracks, we don't need the drum midi, by the way. Bringing in the rest of the tracks. Well, we got backing vocals, vacuum vocals. I'm going to bring those all the way to the end. And I should have my main Balkans as well. That's it. My fluid percussion loop that should go with the trunks as well. So I'm going to bring it all the way here. And this is my base, my guitar. Now, percussion loop. We should go over there to bass, guitar, flute, main vocal. Ok, so everything should be in place now. As far as rums, I'm going to make those all the same color. I like blue for them. Precautions are they happen to be blue as well? I'm going to make it the same blue for base. I like making my base brown because so that also gives me some instinct distinction between drums and bass. Now I got some brown in that makes like a frontier for iterate guitars. I never know what color to sign them, but I usually go with maybe like a like a greenish blue maybe something like this. Yeah, that seems fine. And then $0.04 keyboards or fluid or some kind of effects. I usually go with purple and white. It makes sense to me. And for vocals will kinda vocals, I just go with yellow. So now we have some color coding rate. So now we got some proper organization when it comes to tracks, tracks, positioning it cc now to pinpoint any percussion. So drums there now blue. All of them may be struct, this brown guitar, this greenish blue. And my fluid is propyl MA, vocals are yellow. So if we need to make any name changes, just to make things easy, we do that now. Main vocal. Thank you. Local one. Local two. I can vocal two, flute. That's pretty clear. You could just name this guitar, bass. It's going to make things simpler. And I think these are clear enough. We got the snare, we got to kick overheads, which are the symbols pretty much hi-hat, floor tom and room mike and my drum loops. Okay. And that should be it for organization. 4. Signal Flow: And now we want to talk about signal flow. What is signal flow? It sounds like a really fancy couple of words, but it really isn't. So signal flow is basically the path that your audio signal is going to take. So it starts at the source. Well, it started way beyond what we have right now, which is in our Dao. It started with an instrument or study with a mike and it'll got recorded through, you know, I recorded in interphase and whatnot. But right now, what matters is what path is or audio signal going to take. I want to have things organized. So you something that's called buses. They allow you to process things as groups. So I could process of my drums as a group. I could process by base if I had many tracks of base as a group or my guitars as a group in. They help you move fast, mainly. So in studio one, you could do the same. In Pro Tools, in logic. They have their own way of doing it. As I said, that I'm going to be using studio one and it's really simple to do it here. First of all, select all your tracks. You get a right-click. And there's an option right here, which says add bursts of horror selected channels. And that means it's going to create a bus and it's going to automatically route, bomb all my selected channels to that bus. So what happens is that now I'm going to have a drum bus, chambers. Alright? Alright. So additional to that ion, I'm also going to create some effects channels. I'm going to create one, I'm going to create two. And I'm going to create three just in case. So I'm gonna call him. I don't know what they're going to be now. These are going to be called drums effects. One. Drums effects to Trump's fx, three, just to keep things clear. And now I'm going to route all of these, all of my Effects and my sum of the drums to another bus. So we're going to select all of those to just the effects and the drum bus, going to right-click it and I'm going to click Add Abbas for selected channel strip. And I'm just going to call this Trump's disease. Gonna give me some control over my drums is just going to be a fader. And I'm going to put it all the way here. An opinion, blue. This kind of blue. And now, if I click solo, all I should get our drums. And if you pay attention to this, I can control the whole I can control all the drums with just one fader. So if you ask me, that's plenty of control and that's one of the advantages of having pristine signal flow. And you actually have control at different stages. I have control of the drums before this faded as well. And you have a control of individual channels as well. So you don't lose any control of your mix. You're always in power making the decisions. So really quickly, I'm gonna do the same for the rest of the channels. Going to do the same for the bass guitars and the fluid and the vocals. I'm going to create effects sense, and I'm going to create a bus for each of my different groups. I'd like to color. My Effects Sends as something I can really pinpoint really quickly. I usually get it green. And for my buses, as I said, I usually go for a blue. And I can now position these all the way to the end because that way I get control without having to mess to all of these. So sorry, I'll do the same for buckles as well. A few facts in now how that she would like to make a difference between backing vocals and main vocals. But they're all going to end up in the same place. Sometimes I do that, sometimes I don't. But I'll create a buzz for my backing vocals right now. And I'll create a buzz for all of it. Google's main vocals. Making vocals. We'll call fixed one. Fixed. Again. This is the instrument bus, which is the vocals. I'm going to bring it to the end. Vocal effects. We're going to make those green backing vocals. This is Abbas as well, so painted blue, even though it's not going to be sitting all the way here with the big guys. Okay? So right now, we should get, we should have pretty good isolation. If I want to listen to Trump's, how I would use Solo Trump's, right? If i just one base, I should just get base when I solo page. And with you, I should have a guitar. If I solo guitar, right, I should have fluid when I scroll flute. Very well, and I should have bifocals when I solo vocals. Can see very well. So our signal flow is now set. It doesn't seem like we're clipping. We are, but we'll see that in the next chapter. So I'll see you in the rough mix. 5. Graphic Signal Flow: To understand signal flow, we must simplify signal flow. So this word, signal fluids, signup flow is simply having a source, which is our basic fader rate. It could be a snare track, could be a guitar track. It doesn't matter where it is. It's just the source. And this source is going somewhere. And there's one source has a destination, which is another fader. What a surprise. It's just going to another fader that we call, we call it the master fader. And to make things simple, master faders are read. In master faders combine multiple sources like this, but we're just going to focus on one to make things simple. This one source, critique, a trip just like this from here to here. But it could also goes through something that's called a bus. In a bus is just under fader. They often in councils, in physical cancels, there are often blue. They combine signals to just as the master fader. And this bus can contain multiple tracks, just like this liquid do this. And eventually it'll feed their master fader. Signal flow is the path that a source takes from the beginning, from its origin, which is just a simple track, and its journey throughout the council, or in this case, a digital audio workstation or DOW. And it'll eventually get to the master fader. We call these buses. Of course simply, the bus is just a straight line so far. But there is someone else. There's something else, though we like to call affects returns. There it is. And what affects returns? R is just another fader and our Avenue. But the difference between a bus in a Effects return is that affects returns usually take copies of source tracks. Initially take copies. Meaning you could basically clone or, or malt multi-cylinder return that is often found in an audio malt. Which just means to multiply a source or propagated or copy it, whatever you want to call it. It just means the source is going to exist in multiple places at the same time. This could also refer to as parallel processing. Parallel processing when we were doing parallel processing, because we're parallelly processing one source track. We're processing here at the bus, or we're processing it here at the source track in, we might be processing here too. And there will be happening like this. As you can see, the processes happening in parallel. Their usual use for facts. The facts, whether that is reverbs, that could be used for any of that. So affects returns simply are a way to effect a sound. And you could have the best of both worlds, your source a completely wrong going through to the master fader, or your source being altered by an affects return by adding reverb or delay, compression or any other process. So I hope that was clear. And I'll see you back in the d'Italia. 6. Rough Mix: Quick and easy.: Okay, So we're back in the mix. So right now it might look like a lot, but withhold the organization that we just did. We can simplify things to just this. If you're instituting one, you can go to the burger I can in you can disable individual tracks at this point. So if I click tracks and I click effects, it's just going to leave me with buses. So that means I could do a greater balance, which is these elements. And you don't have a lot of control at this point. You have control over groups. So in my opinion, you can create rough mixes in this way, in really quickly too. So by simplifying the process and with some practice, you should be able to do this really quickly. The first thing that I'm looking for is setting my drums to be hitting no harder than minus 6. So let's get right into it and start. That's the base. And the guitar. Flute, and vocals. All right, so that should be it for a rough mix local circuit and that making sense because we don't have individual control of them. But I just want to make sure that I hear them right. So you shouldn't struggle anymore for a rough mix. That should be it. And now we're gonna go into balancing. 7. Balancing: Hello and welcome back. We are now going to be talking about balancing. So what is mix balance? Next, balance consists of setting levels, panning, and you should be listening for a few things. You should be listening for clearness at this point, you shouldn't be overpowering elements over the other, even though that might happen. But we're going to try to minimize that when we're balancing. All right, so this is where we left off. All we got is buses and that was all we use for a rough mix. We're going to bring all of the tracks back. So I'm going to bring all the tracks and all me up my effects channels. Remember if that's channels. I painted those green. And my buses are blue and other tracks, or we talked about colors before. So now we're going to talk about and bouncing in when we're balancing. Again, we said we're basically saying levels. We're gonna make sure nothing's overpowering as nails, we've got a few snares, we've got a few kicks. We could move those individually or we could move those as a group. I think we're now we're sounding pretty good as a group. So I'm just going to move those until, until I feel like we've got a good balance between all of the terms. So now I wanna make sure I'm only listening to drums. And let's set levels for the snare. I feel this nurse actually at a good level for this January at least. And now for the kick, I feel that the cake is that a good level 2? Because that's basically what I was listening for when I was sitting my whole numbers. So that's setting us head, right? So now for the overheads, we want to make sure that we get symbols, but we want to make sure that the symbols are not too loud or overpowering. So here comes the hi-hat. The hi-hats probably the first instrument that we're going to append. Actually, I don't know which way to pan it and we should listen to the overheads for that information. So we could clearly hear that the hi-hat in our overheads is sitting to the left. So we should pan the hi-hat to left as well. Nothing too crazy. Something like 30 percent should be fine, 3% to the left. We don't want to go crazy with that, with it. We just want to make sure that it's not overpowering and we take it away. We actually feel that it's going away. As you can see, it's not overpowering, but if I take it away, something's really missing from the mics. Okay. Now we have a Florida, which I think happens only once. So we want to use this floor TSM to create impact. So we want to make sure it's a bit overpowering because it doesn't happen that often, like the high hats or someone else. Similarly, that should be cool and with a compression sock going to jumble up crazy after we do some processing. So the terms, we can append that to the red too. Okay, when we pan it, it definitely jumps out way more. So I'm going to turn it down. I should make a loop. Okay, So there'll be, that should be fine. Now, for this should be my room, this my roommate. And for my room make, which is this one right here. For my room make. It's really easy to use a lot of it because our ears are used to hearing the drums in a room and turning it up makes the sound, may make the whole thing sound more natural, which is a thing that you might want to do. But generally for commercial mixes, It's not something that you find that often. So use it with caution. Going to go to another part. So you hear it, how it sounds way more natural because you hear the whole thing as a unit, not as an individual elements, which is want to use a little bit of it. We don't want to overpower the rest of the thing because rooms are really nice, but they also make things or our mix really muddy and bury 30, something we want to avoid at this point. So again, we just want to have it to a point that it's just filling the blanks, but not really sounding like it's the only source. Definitely when I take it out, we feel like something's missing. Listen. It definitely works like a glue in this case. So for my loops, I have two different sections. We have the, the burst section, which is this one. And I'm just going to use a little bit of it. And we have a different section two, which is this one. And let's see what that's doing. So that's really cool. I like the metallic element to it. And again, we don't want to overpower anything. We just want to make sure that if we take it out, it actually feels like something's missing in. That's enough. 8. Balancing: BASS: So since B's was the only element in the base bus, we shouldn't need to do a lot to obese at this point, which is double-check that it's sitting at array level. And we can do that from here. So Trump's solo bass. And I feel it's sitting at a good level. Even do I feel the urge to disomy queuing because we just have too much high mid-frequency information that we don't actually need my bees actually adequate level. But we're gonna come back to it later and turned down some frequencies. We dequeue. 9. Balancing: GTR: So only one of these sets with my guitars, I get to left. But I'll probably do something else later, which will make them actually stereo, meaning they will appear probably equally in the left and right. Padding to the sites make something really important, which is creating space by sending it to the left. I'm creating space for my vocals in the center. Therefore, I don't need as much level on my guitars anymore because they pretty much have their own space in the left. 10. Balancing: Synths: So for my flute, flutes, really making you buy these in it. So we probably got way too much of it is simply not the main element of the song. And if we turn it down a little bit, we could gain a little bit more space and it'll still make you Bye-bye. So I think that's a good place for it. We can definitely hear it, but if we take it away, we definitely loose a lot of musicality to our mix. 11. Balancing: VOX: So now on tubercles, first of all, I want to mute or bring down my backing vocals, which are these two. And I went to work on my main vocals at this point. So let's go to the first verse and see how we're doing with unmuted. It's pretty quiet. Okay? So we have a problem right now, which, which is sometimes my vocalists really quiet, sometimes it is pretty loud. And we're going to fix that with more compression or with automation. But we'll get to that a little bit later. Let's try to set a level 4 backing vocals. So if you can hear it, my backing vocals are now at Apple audible. But I'm not trying to make them the same level as my main vocals. That's definitely something you want to always keep in mind. Even though you might really like the we, backing vocals sound at the same level as being vocals. We need to hold off doing that because it's not going to contribute to a clean sound in our mix is going to be too hard to distinguish main vocals from backing vocals. I see backing vocals as a sound bed for my main vocals. They're providing support for it, but they don't sit at the same level really. In as far as planning goes, I feel like painting them hard left and right. Hi, If I have a couple of them, turn it down a little bit more. And this should conclude, balancing. As you can see, it's mostly levels. We panned a few elements, but not really anything crazy. So again, wrapping up bouncing while we were doing is setting levels to some panning, listening, making sure that we're not overpowering elements as we are adding them up. And at this point, we're now ready to begin mixing from the top-down. Now that we have a pretty good balance. 12. Mixing: Mix Bus: Okay, welcome back. It's now time to talk about top-to-bottom mixing. What is top to bottom mixing will top-to-bottom mixing is the philosophy more than the technique. I think it's a philosophy of simplifying things by grouping or by processing things in groups. So you start by processing your mix bus and then you work your way down. So remember our structure. We have our main bus. At the top. We have our instrument buses, which are drum, Buzz, Buzz, Buzz, guitar bus, and so on, so on, which are our subgroups. And then we have all four individual elements. So what top-to-bottom mixing is, is working from the mix, then going to your buses. And then if you need to work on your individual tracks, because let me be honest, you don't need to always be paying attention to all the individual elements to have a great mix. Usually when elements need individual attention is because they have some sort of trouble or problem or some things that you need a fix. But oftentimes, if it sounds good, it sounds good, right? So let's just get started with this top to bottom approach. We want to start from the top. And by the way, I'm going to be using the slate butcher rack because you could get a whole month of older plug-ins from the 24 Neyman and you probably already know about it. And if not, it's really not a big commitment. So here we are at the mix bus. So keeping things simple, I'm going to be using a bus compressor and I'm going to be using a any Q. And As you can tell, the CQ only has four bands and a high shelf. What I'm trying to do here is to good my mix a sonic shape. And it's best when we do that with brothers strokes. So equalizers like these that have limited bands are perfect for that. And this red unit right here is going to function as our master compressor in, going to disable my EQ for now. In, Let's start compressing are our main bus. So we want to start with this lowest tech and the fastigial 0s. And the trick here is if we need more control, we can quick and our attack or we can slow down our release and we get our threshold too. And this would be the ratio. And for mixed bus, I like to go for a four to one compression ratio. So let's take a listen. By the way, this right here is the amount of compression that we're doing. So right now the needles are moving. We're not doing any compression. And as it moves back, we're going to start getting compression. So right now we're aiming for maybe one or two dB of compression. Seamless as it does. So when I'm listening for his Santana get the most glue that I can from this compressor. Blades you see on the SAT. So as you can hear with the compression that we're doing, we're actually losing a little bit of level. So we want to make up for it. So we went, probably going to turn it up. One dB. Given a half is enough. Okay? So let's try to see if we can gain anything from E queuing our master bus at this stage. So we want to start for the myths. In what I'm gonna do is I'm going to actually turn my mids. Kinda high is just so I know what I'm enqueuing, right? So it's going to be probably in the lower mids, somewhere in here. And I'm just going to listen for a home key for a honky tone in. When I find it, I'm actually going to cut it. Bringing down in, bringing down in level. Let's not forget to actually turn it on. We're either see a red line. And in fact, I think right here, right around 850 hertz, it's where it gets pretty honky. So I'm going to lower than the first to 0, and I'm going to lower maybe a DB or two just to get some cleanliness. Part of this mix. Red line. So as you can hear in that only sounds cleaner. There's also just way more space for the Vogels. Everything just sounds a little bit more polished below and sounds and deeper. And remember that was a single EQ move in the mix bus, not a thousand individual adjustments. So right now what I'm trying to do is maybe do some boosting. Probably going to sit it to around five kilohertz for my highs, in at around a 100 for my bass frequencies, and then a break. So as you can see, let's summarize. So I cut almost TDB, not even two dB at 850 hertz, and made a boost of almost two, almost three db, 2.5 dB at five kilohertz. Pretty much. Again at 110, I boosted 126 just to make the sound a little bit thicker. And then at our high shelf, I boosted Pretty much TDB just to get that air presence of the song. So let's compare it. What we have against where we used to have seaweed like best. So we definitely gained a lot more clarity. Elements are now playing better together. And most importantly, we didn't make the track louder. Remember that? But what happened with individual elements? Well, it actually sounds like we did something to base. The base sounds more under control. The Trump's sound more musical. In the guitar sounds even sweeter, and we haven't even touched them individually. Rate, that is the power of working from top down and it only gets better. Kids lower we going or mixed priority. We can focus more on being creative, rendered and Sonics. 13. Mixing: Sub Busses: DRUMS: Hello and welcome back. We were doing mix bus processing at the top and the very top. And now we're going to move down to sub-buses processing, meaning we're going to start producing the drums, bass, guitars, flute, and vocals if they need to. So this is where we left off. We were working on our main bus. Remember domain bus is where all of the sounds, all of the instruments combine together. So now we're going to move on to the trump's. And I'm going to keep using the same couple of plug-ins just to make a point that it doesn't matter what plugins you use more than word moves you make hogan. So here it is. My drum bus. And I pretty much use the same effects. I got a compressor in a, get an EQ, I'd like E queuing before my compressor. Because if I'm cutting all those frequencies that, that I didn't want to be, that present are not going to be hitting my compressor. Therefore, it's going to give me less artifact in. So the same principles apply to drum compression. We probably going to go slow with the attack, fast would the release. And we're gonna go slower with the release. If we need here. If we feel like it's sustaining really loudly, we can always increase the release and they'll make it more under control per se. So let's start compressing them. We don't want to do a lot, just create some control on them. In this case, I really liked the slower attack because I don't want my symbols and all the higher information to be always loud all the time. Actually want my attacks to be to hit hard. And I want the rest of the precautions to be there, but I don't want them to overpower my Boal calls her my guitars. I want drums to be like a constant pulse, but I didn't want him to be always there loud all the time. So I think with this lower release, it helps me to not happen always present all the time. I think somewhere in the middle right there is just fine. Let's listen to that and context. And I pretty much have the same philosophy for my E queuing. I'm going to try to cut some meds were the mud is it's going to be lower with the drums prolly. I don't know if that's going to be low enough. So we'll see. And I'm actually going to cut that frequency right there. You hear it. There's lot of stuff that we don't really need. Less than that. The B, that should be good enough. And if we make that, wanna make them a little bit chunkier. Again, you can set it to a 100, you can set it even lower to 60 because that's actually where the kick lips. But I just want to give my whole drums a little bit more meat. Going Maasai as 110, it's actually probably gonna create some conflict with the base. But depending on the gerund that you're working with, that might be a good or a bad thing. In my case, I think it'll be a good thing. And if it becomes too much of a problem, because you can always make it a problem if you go, if you overdo it, only the enabled start thinking about dialing down the frequency or dialing down the actual boost. And boosting around three k, 2700. Just to give more impact to my snare, more presence as you can here. So with em and with it. So that's pretty huge difference. And it's also a pretty huge boost. Let's hear whether we've done to our drums. So this is without any process in contexts. And with the process brighter. Again, we're just creating more definition to our instruments in carving a little bit up the mids to make room for the vocals. 14. Mixing: Sub Busses: BASS: And now we're gonna move on to the base. To the base. I probably don't want to do a lot at this teach other than compressing a little bit and carving a lot of high-end because I feel that's competing a lot with my other instruments, my guitar and my vocals special specifically. And I mean, it's base. You don't need a lot of trouble in base, right? So for base I like using an 11 76 clone, like this one. You could use, I think even study one has a native one. So here it is in you could definitely be using that too. If you have student one, you probably have that as well. That we can add cinema and then upgrade. Seamless. What I just did is I basically took the frequency of 2k, which is where all the picking happens. In a, turn that down substantially by almost seven decibels. 625, almost seven. And I actually turned the high shelf way up, almost 10 dB up, just so we maintain that high and polish. And that's, that's not as distracting as the two key range. And you can hear it if I turn it on enough. Two came basis of frequency that if you leave it alone, it could really, really damage your mix. In cases like what we have right now in you have a piece that's too clunky in the two key range, you can always do when I'm doing in bringing up some of the higher shelf just to not completely suck the life out of it. Okay. So now onto compression with the base, Let's turn it on. Yeah, make the attack a little bit faster. And I think that works better. Seamless. And not too much, not that much. Say. In at this point the release is pretty subjective because if you wanted your sound to be cleaner, you would go with a faster release. If you wanted your sound to be a little bit muddier, you would go slower. Right now. I'm kinda right in the middle. I don't want it to be that clean and I don't want it to be that muddy. And just say, I think for me, that's the sweet spot where it's still pretty new school, but it's also under control. So that'll be my process for the pace. And I honestly don't have anything to do with the guitars, flutes, or vocals at this point. So we're going to keep climbing down. So I'll see you in the next chapter. 15. Mix Interest: FX SENDS: Hello and welcome back to this music mixing class. It is now time to use those effects sense. Yes, things are about to get pretty, pretty sweet. So while we got now remember, we were making all of these effects sense, all the green ones. So it's now time to use them. And right now, you can't say, Oh, you created so many of those. Why aren't you using all those? Because I don't feel like I needed to use them. At least for every instruments, right? For, but one instrument that could really benefit from it right now is the guitar. Because the guitar sounds pretty dry. It's not too exciting and it could be way more exciting. So let's find out how. So. Let's listen to it in context. Well, first of all, we want to route the guitar to the right effects. So it's going to be called guitar effects here in Study 1. So let's look for it. Guitar effects, It's right there. Okay, so now whatever we're sending, this sand is going to be received over here in this guitar effects. So we should have a signal here. We do. Here is to do one. You can choose to keep it centered, or you could choose to send it all the way to the right. And I'm pretty sure you know what I'm about to do. Since, you know, without the sand or guitars pretty much pan to the right, to the left. It's not a 100 percent bad, but it's 50 percent band, meaning our right side is pretty empty. So we probably going to do some planning to I'm going to send it all the way to the right. Was activated. And okay, mission accomplished. We now have sound of the guitar in there, right? But this is what's called a super mono because we have the same thing playing in the left and center, right. So therefore, it's not really a stereo track or a stereo effect is just a super ammonium because the same thing is ringing in left and right. So we don't really want that. That's not a great way to create a stereo image. So I'm gonna give you my personal trick in. You might have to invest a little bit in this, but I tell you it's really worth every penny. And there's is this plugin by sound toys. It's called the a cowboy. And you get plenty of options. And you can go really crazy with this because it's not going to be the main guitar sound is just going to be something that's going to make it richer. So you can honestly go for whatever sound you want, whatever you like, browse to your presets. That's what I'm gonna do right now. Let's try to get some cool sense. Then that could work. Well, that's an option going just basically with a delay. But we could also go for a slap. Slap. See if I can find it. I'm really liking that. What I just did is shortening the echoes. So it's not too distant because it just sounds like it's split wrong. So I don't really want that. I want it to sound just like a double. And there you have it. Now you have a really cool stereo effect without double tracking. And it's not super mono hits actually giving you a different sound on the right as in the left. Making turn your guitar sound folder. To the second use. I'm going to have for my, for my effects sense, I'm actually going to use it for my flutes. And let's see why we can do with that. So let's see what we have. So I would like to have my flutes a little bit more present without actually turning them up. So what can I do with that? First of all, let's use or affect sense. So let's find flute effects, fluid effects. Here we go. Now we have it routed to this as well. And let's find a saturation or it is torsion plugin. I think there's one for studio one called red light. Red light. This torsion In this basically saturation or distortion torsion, native to studio one. So let's saturate a little bit. All right, There we go. I'm going to turn it all the way down and I'm going to just bring in as the levels start looking the same because I don't really want the levels to go up. All right, So right there I think it's sitting really nicely for the Vs. I don't want it to be as present, but we'll get to that when we get into automation. But for now, I think that's good use of my effects send. 16. Mix Interest: FX SENDS: VOCALS: And the last thing that I want to use my effects sense for is probably my main vocals. Brighter. C. All right, so a little bit boring. So I'm going to use the same effect. Make boy. You could also be using different delays. Could use sock stocks to the one just habit only be sent to this. I'll be set to this vocal effect. So again, we're gonna go to our sense in the main vocal. We're going to look for vocal effects. Number one. We'll call effects number 1. Pretty straightforward. And we want to create a sound that's a little bit more compelling, more modern, more fun. For me. It turned out the app, turned up the output. Again. I'm not loving that red line and back. Let's see if that works. Turned the wet level all the way up. So all we have in the book, Flip X is just the delays, not the right track. The right track we already happened off of here. Okay. When it comes to the effects for, for my versus, I may want something different as a course, but we'll see, we'll see. So I'm adding the delay to do per sections. So we just sent right here. We chose the sand of buccal effects one. And here in vocal effects one, I added the echo, the echo boy. So all of a sudden sounds a little bit more interesting, less empty, right? So let's listen before and after. This is with her some things. And this is with it. Okay. So it sounds a little bit more interesting. It sounds less try, right? So let's see what we want to do with the course. Yeah, that's definitely not going to cut it, not for me, at least for my taste. So I'm going to add a different instance of a cowboy in vocal effects number two. And I want to go for a double. So let's see what we got. Or double or a slab. Either of those might work. Let's go for a double first. See if that works. So we need to send that to Buchla effects number two. And let's play that. Can seem AS so I really like that. And oftentimes what I do is I no longer want to use the original sound. So I turn that down. And here in the send effects, and I'm actually going to turn that to pre-fader. So even though my faders down with this vocal, main vocal in the course, it's still sending the information to my vocal, send to my effects. And so what I have now is now the blend that the ACO voicing, which is have dry halfway would be effect. So it sounds like this. So that sounds nice, null, but it feels like it's missing some of the rock vocals. It missing a lot of energy. So we can always just bring back some of the original sound. So I like the effect that the cowboys giving me, but I feel that it's frequency response, it's not great. It's a little bit to honky. So I want a team that down. So I'm going to just call up the stock EQ for us to do one in. I'm probably going to turn down somewhere one K22. K because it's way too clunky. Yeah, You hear that started it all the way down and would contexts consumers. And the effect is not only giving me that way, but it's also making the Boko wide because it's now a stereo. Stereo source. As you can see, if you look at the way, the little meter right here, it has like a website and a right side and they're different from each other. So that means there's, there are difference between the right channel and the left channel. Meaning now you have a proper stereo track can see in us. Okay, So that's a wrap for effects sense. Just remember that you could use any kind of effects. With effects sense. The good thing is that you can use those as parallel. Meaning you have your raw scores in your and your wet effect. And you could use those all the way RA, or you could use. Although we went with the effect, right, doing it this way ensures that you're using just enough of the effect as you feel like you need. 17. Mixing: Vocals: So for my vocal processing, I'm going to be using and Leben 76 flown and the same EQ that we've been using, right? From state C, right for me. And something really common with vocals is thinking your attack kinda bring it to the middle and then making it a little bit slower. They're releasing go as fast as it can go. And then you can go wild with the compression here. Brighter colors, add q to see. But that should be good enough for us to. Let's make sure we're not overpowering the mix. Leaving a, B, C, D, the line and the red line and the red line at home. All right, for me, red wine and a pack. Snow N0 M0, birth, the brain, the brain. The brain. The brain. So the red line. The red line. Just enough compression. So it's more even than we had. Am actually going to divide my main vocals into two sections. One is going to be the birds in, one's going to be the choruses. Like so. And I'm actually going to duplicate this track. Duplicate. And I'm going to do the courses there. And I'm going to bring all the verses down here. Okay, so I'm going to focus on the Vs right now. So for the vocals, I actually like to take three broad strokes. Do something with the LOS, do some work with the low mids. Are on five hundred, four hundred fifty is. And then so for my versus ham cutting some loss at 100 hertz, I'm cutting someone k to get rid of some pumpkin is and make it sit better. Hi, made some living in it as it is. And I'm adding some just a little bit of sheen to the top just to bring up that was pre, pre kinda sound. So let's see where we do differently with the course. So when you get to the chorus, those same EQ moves are not going to cut it. So we reset our EQ. It's not reset. Let's look this section right here. So we find that this section is needs way more base than the burst. Take. One key area. In the presence. We're going to probably have to turn it down. The waste Perry, every part. We're probably going to boost that a little bit too. So for the chorus, Actually, I feel like it impedes actually more wonky range because it feels kinda hollow. So we need to bring some of that back just a little bit we get without going too crazy. So definitely give me a little bit more clarity, a little bit more body that it needed. So I think that should be with the vocal, for the chorus and for the birth. 18. Mixing: Backing Vocals: Okay, So next thing I got for you is mixing the backing vocals. This one, this one's really important because there's one thing that can easily get overlooked here. So let's get right into it. Okay, so backing vocals were right here. This is all of our vocals can see in us. And just the backing vocals would be something like this. Sometimes it's good to have some compression. So both sides, one of them is not overpowering the other, and that's a good thing. But for this instance, I don't think I'm going to compress them. But there's one thing that I feel, it, it's not really needed for this sake. But imagine my, my backing vocals were a little higher. We would have some conflict between my main book calls and backing vocals. And I'll show you how to fix that. So we don't have that problem even when I turn it up. But oftentimes, what you'll have is a conflict in depressants range. And it sounds just like that. If you don't really know what to listen, which source to listen to, because you have so many options in Daryl calling you for your attention. And we don't wanna do that to a listener and we just want to give him the main vocal in Hagel's into that. And you know what? If you really pay attention? There are some backing vocals that you might be interested or drawn upon. But we don't want to have a conflict in frequencies in the presence range between the vocals and the backing vocals. And this is what I just created here. Sometimes boggles as they are recorded, they will have this bump naturally. Without it, nobody putting it there. I just put it there for the sake of this example. And I'll play it again so you can hear the conflict between the two consumers. From an objective point of view, will, there's nothing really wrong with this. If you want it to mix it this way, you could. But from mixing standpoint, you're just giving the listener way too much things to process. You don't wanna do this. Instead of doing this, you want to make a cut. So those frequencies are not fighting for attention rate. And that's how you make your backing vocals sit in the mix and not distract the listener from the main book called DMS. You see is that it's just, it's just three key manipulation. You just turn it down until have that conflict. Pretty much can seem a cell. And that's how you deal with Buchla interference. We're simply vocal conflict. 19. Automation: Okay, so now we're getting into the realm of automation. Automation. Automation is simply a tool that we have as mixing engineers that lets us program movements for faders throughout the song. So that means that maybe our drums are sitting this high. During the intro. Maybe during the verses, there should be lower. And with automation, we can do that without having to mess with the faders in real time lake, like the US you have in the past. So I'll show you how to do that. In this instance. I don't want to mess with the drums actually, but I want to mess with my flute. And I'm actually going to go to my flute subgroup channel. Instituting one. It's really easy to automate things. You just want to right-click the actual fader, right-click it. And then they can edit automation volume, OK. And it's going to open an automation track right here. And now you have control over this fader throughout the whole song and beyond, right? So basically you want to, want to make sure we're as the chorus, so it's right here. So what I got right now is way too much level for the, for the flute at this point. So right there at 47 is the end. So I'm going to make a point. And the beginning of it, it's at 30 and 31. So right there. So if I go above this line, above 0 in the meter, I'm going to make it bigger so you can see clearly, all right, if we go above this gray line, our cursor's going to turn into this like a typing line, but it's horizontal red. If we click from here, any image, we have the two points as we did. It's going to turn it down as a whole. This is really cool, is to be one. So let's start by bringing it down through DB. You can hold Shift at the same time while bringing it down to make more precise moves. So let's do that as a music explain. Remember the flute is a little bit too out right now. So that's simple. We have some automation for the course. And now the fluid is not loud when it doesn't need to. You can also automate your effects sense. And that's going to get really interesting because I want to fill some gaps in between here. See, you can create some really cool effects. So let's, let's get into it. 20. Automating Plugins: Okay, so the following is actually a little bit more complex, and this is going to be automating plugins to make them do wild things. But not throughout the whole song, but in some places. So we want to open the cuboid. So I have huge gaps with empty space. I want to fill those up. So how can I do that? I'm going to use the delay that I'm dial that I already have, which is the vocal. If X1, I'm going, I'm going to change some of these parameters as we go. So how do we do that? So basically you go here. This a cowboy is sitting in vocal if X1. So I wanna go into this knob is Channel Editor. I'm going to click it. And it's gonna give me this panel right here. We want to go into the wrench. And right there we're going to see if we have multiple plugins. They're all going to show up here. So open that up. I'm going to pin it so I can see both. And the parameters that I want to change basically is this feedback I'm thinking. And maybe the echo time. So I'm going to find those two here. So for number one, I want to go feed back. Let's find it. If I click f, okay, feedback for not number one. And for knob number 2, I want echo time. So echo note one when it set to a node value. So here it is. It was set to three. And now we have control. Over the two years. You can see you have feedback and you have echo note, which is ACO time. We also want to have control over the overall level of our effects send, which we can also do. All right, so let's get crazy with it. First of all, what I wanna do is I want to automate the feedback of the delay. So edit automation for the feedback. And I actually want it to be just for experimentation. I want it to be completely off. But just as we get the final phrase, yes. So I want this whole phrase from here. I want this whole phrase to be repeated like crazy. So I'm gonna go pretty crazy with the feedback and this is going to make it actually feed back and it's going to repeat, repeat, repeat, repeat, repeat without an ending. And it would keep repeating forever if we didn't stop it. So we need to turn that down. So before the next line starts, it should trump there. Like so. And let's see what it sounds like now. 21. Let's Review before wrapping up.: So we went through session setup. We went through organization who went through signal flow in the DAW, went through the rough mix with our buses. We went through balancing with individual levels and we started top to bottom maxim. We worked on our master bus, then we worked on our buses, and then we worked on individual channels if they needed to. We reviewed the importance of simplistic EQ. And oftentimes it can, if it cannot be fixed with simply cue. Oftentimes it needs to be rerecorded. We learned about compression, different settings, different times for the attack and the release, the functions and what it does. And we learned about automation, Effects Sends, and how to get creative with our mixes. It is now time to start wrapping up. And I'm going to show you how to export your sessions. We're going to learn about exporting stems, exporting your multi tracks for if somebody else's mixing them outside of your studio, or if you're sending them out for mastering. But before that, I'm going to show you what you should do if you're not going to send it to mastering, do just gonna use it for distribution with your friends on the internet or even to Spotify, you could use this technique to, and you should have a product that is pretty close to a mastered version. 22. EXPORTING: Consider LIMITING: Hello and welcome back. First of all, congratulations if you've made it this far, I'm really proud of you for taking the first step towards learning a new skill. Well, it's now time to get things wrapped up. We are now ready to export our mixed em. If we're not sending it out for mastering. Something, we should really consider is limiting our track. That way when we export, we are not clipping the track, so we don't get weird sounds. If, if, if our track is actually going out of bounds. Like right now as you can see, we're getting really close to clipping. We didn't actually clip, but I'm pretty sure if we just let it ring, the mix is going to clip at some point. So you should get some kinda limiter. Most DAWs have a limiter, so I'm just going to use a studio ones stock limiter. So persona's limiter. Okay, so here we are. We can go ahead and use one of the presets, like three to be limiting. Minus1. Like a rough mix. The brick wall six. We could try different rank, different things. But let's see what this limit is. Actually. What delimiter is going to do is delimiter is going to make sure we don't go past a certain threshold. And we shouldn't be going past 0. As you can see right here. 0 decibels, 0 decibels. We don't want to go past that. We actually don't want even to go past minus 3 or TBS minus 0.1. And I think you should be doing that if you're not considering mastering because that way your tracks not going to be clipping. And it's a more personable way of showing this to your friends, to your band mates, et cetera. So always limit if you're exporting without mastering. That's a good practice too. Because even when you're pushing your limited hard, you're not going to be clipping. And clipping is really bad. 23. EXPORTING: For Mastering: Sending your song for mastering. Sending your song for mastering is a little bit more tricky because you shouldn't use the limiter and will. Not using a limiter is the easy part. But then also your track shouldn't be clipping. And I'm pretty sure if I just let this track play is going to clip at some point or another. It might or it might not, because we're really close to the 0 line. We don't want to be that close to the 0 line. So what we wanna do is turn it down. Turn it down because we shouldn't be sending limited tracks to mastering. They're gonna do that later. So I'm just going to call them mix tool. So I was mixing kinda hot. And just to be safe, you can lower it by three dB. You can lower it by six dB. If end, if you really want it to be saved, you can lower it minus 12 or however much you mean, because if you were clipping the whole time and your mixes like all the way here, you don't want that. You want to turn it low enough. So you are in a safe spot for me. I think I would do minus 6 just to be safe. And that right there would never clip. It's never gonna clip. So I know I'm pretty safe to again, the way song bounce, important mix them, do my export as high as I can. And then name it something else. Brighter colors, name of the artist, and then mix and then ready for mastering. Okay. Again, use real-time and set it to render. And when you should have your mics ready for mastering. How did you like that? Okay. 24. EXPORTING: Song Mixdown Settings: Okay, so now onto exporting your sung in City 1. If you go up here to song and then you click Export makes them, you know, get the option to name your track. The strikes called brighter colors. And you can name the artist too if you wanted to. And this one's by de Mona mono, which happens to be me right away. And you can set the output format, which could be a WAV file, could be an mp3, to be a FLAC file, or GB Orbis if you wanted to. Af AIFF to. I just recommend if it's for you and if you're going to store, if, if this is going to be your master, just stick to the WAV file and at least 16 bit and at least 44.1. This is actually CD format. If you wanted to get a higher-quality mastery, you can save it as 24, 48, which is the bit rate and the sample rate that we're using for this session. Your session is lower than that. You will gain nothing by going 24 or 48 to stick to whatever your session is. In that case, my case, I'm gonna go to 24, 48 were before we actually render the Sun, we need to set a loop. So I'm gonna go back. And I'm going to go to the beginning of my track, which is right here. And this is where my loops can start. I'm just going to drag it, drag it, drag it. And I'm going to find the end of my track. Here for any natural decay. It ends right there, it ends right there. But if it ends all the way here, it might end all the way there. So it ends pretty suddenly right here. We don't want to cut anything. So that should be a good loop. So once we have our loop, now we go to mix them. We name it again. Brighter colors. Mano, a WAV file. They want to set it to SI and say, as I possibly can do to my session settings and pro tip, when you're rendering a master sung, always use real-time. That's a big debate. But for me, I'm pretty convinced that using real-time is we'll give you higher quality than not using real time. So just go real-time, set it to render, get some coffee and enjoy the higher-quality. So I'm going to set it to render. So there you go. You should now have Your some mics ready for distribution. If you're going to put it on SoundCloud, you're going to set it to Spotify if you're wishing not to master it. Because if you're sending to mastery, to mastering, you need to take different steps that I'm going to show you right now. 25. EXPORTING: Multitracks: Mixing out of house: So now let's talk about how to export tracks for mixing somewhere else. You could save the session and send the session to your engineer. And if he or she is using, if they're using the same d WSU, that's going to be no problem. But oftentimes, people don't use the same DAW USU. You might not be using studio one. I used to be one. Some of my friends might be using Reaper or Pro Tools or Logic, which are really common as well, Ableton too. So for those cases, where we wanna do is export multi tracks. So there are different ways we can do that. We can print with all the effects that we've applied to our tracks, all the levels, and all that. Or we could print completely wrong. And if we wanted to print completely wrong, we need to turn off all of the effects. And luckily institute one, you have this button right here to the left. In that one is actually going to disable all of your effects. And from there, all you would need to do is go to export stems, named the prefix for the files, branded colors, multi tracks. And then they're gonna name after wherever they are in, and then select none. Because that way you have more control over what you have. So you have your snare, kick, overheads, overheads, all of those. You're going to use those definitely. And then if you used any effects sense, you could print those two right here. I remember which ones are used. So I didn't use this one right here. I didn't use an effect sent from a bass guitar and Eastern effects and form a guitar. Flute. I haven't effects and for my effects, may vocals, all of my vocals. I'm actually going to send my vocals processed. So I'm going to use this backing vocals. I will need to enable the effects were backing vocals here. If I wanted to do that. And I use vocal effects, yes. So I'm going to enable these and all of these. If somebody else is going to be mixing for me, I could choose to print those or not. So that's going to be up to the engineer. And that's going to be using my tracks, whether they use them or not. In this case, I'm just printing multi tracks because they're gonna do pretty much the maximum for me. And I would just go, again, use real-time processing and print them. And it's going to do real-time, just let it do its thing. And that way, you should now have something like this, just like the tracks I provided for practice. But there are going to be in the same folder. That's the only difference that you'll see. And that's how you export tracks for mixing upside. 26. FINAL WORDS: So we have now reached the end of this mixing course. Yes, unfortunately, we have reached the end. But on the other side, congratulations for making it this far. Congratulations for taking the steps to learning a new skill. We're taking the steps for developing your education and congratulations on your music. If you're working on your own music or your client says, it is a great feeling to be producing music, mixing music, whether it is for a hobby or whether you do this full time. So again, my name is z. I hope you enjoyed this course. I hope you learned a lot from it. And please let me know what you thought. Again. Thank you very much for choosing this course. And I'll see you in one of my other courses. Or if you take this course from the beginning, feel free to watch it until you master it. I'll see you later. Hello.