Fundamentals of Photo Editing in GIMP | Michael Davies | Skillshare

Fundamentals of Photo Editing in GIMP

Michael Davies, GIMP Photo Editing Tutorials

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14 Lessons (1h 37m)
    • 1. Introduction: What Is GIMP, and Why Use It to Edit Photos?

      2:15
    • 2. Opening an Image in GIMP

      5:28
    • 3. An Introduction to the Image Window

      4:29
    • 4. Scaling and Cropping Your Image

      11:32
    • 5. Adjusting the Shadows and Highlights

      11:33
    • 6. Getting Your Colors Right with the Color Balance Tool

      6:36
    • 7. Adjusting the Levels of Your Image

      12:24
    • 8. Bring Out Color Intensity with the Saturation Tool

      2:33
    • 9. Warm vs. Cool: Adjusting the Color Temperature

      7:55
    • 10. Adding Contrast With the Curves Tool

      6:12
    • 11. Touching Up Photos With the Heal and Airbrush Tools

      9:16
    • 12. Sharpening Your Image (Unsharp Mask vs. High-Pass Filter)

      6:44
    • 13. Frame Your Photo Properly With a Vignette

      6:22
    • 14. Export Your Images in a Variety of Formats

      4:07
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About This Class

Learn all of the important tools you need to know to professionally edit a photo - from start to finish - using the amazingly powerful and FREE photo editor GIMP. Using the latest version of this Photoshop alternative (GIMP 2.10), I'll walk you through each step in the photo editing process while thoroughly explaining each tool, filter, and/or technique to help you understand exactly why certain tools or settings are used from both an artistic and technical perspective.

By the time you are done with this class, you'll know all of the fundamentals necessary for editing your own photos using the proper techniques. You will feel totally familiar with the most important and commonly used photo editing tools in GIMP 2.10. 

This class covers:

  • What is GIMP, and Why Use it to Edit Photos?
  • Opening an Image into GIMP
  • An Introduction to the Image Window
  • Scaling and Cropping Your Image
  • Adjusting the Shadows and Highlights
  • Getting Your Colors Right with the Color Balance Tool
  • Adjusting the Levels of Your Image (Plus Additional Color Correcting)
  • Bringing Out Color Intensity with the Saturation Tool
  • Warm vs. Cool: Adjusting the Color Temperature
  • Adding Contrast with the Curves Tool
  • Touching Up Photos with the Airbrush and Heal Tools
  • Sharpening Your Images (Unsharp Mask vs. High-Pass Filter)
  • Framing Your Photo Properly with a Vignette, and
  • Exporting Your Images in a Variety of Formats

It's time to stop paying for great photo editing software, and to finally have confidence in your ability to edit your photos! Beginners and all skill levels welcome. 

Transcripts

1. Introduction: What Is GIMP, and Why Use It to Edit Photos?: Hello and welcome to the fundamentals of photo editing in GIMP. My name is Michael Davies. I'm a photographer and eight-year GIMP expert and I'll be your instructor for this class. For this lesson, which is the first lesson of this class, I'll dive into what GIMP actually is and why you should use it to edit your photos. For starters, GIMP stands for GNU Image Manipulation Program and is primarily a free photo editing software, however, it is also used for graphic design. Just like Photoshop, GIMP is a raster-based program which I'll get into in a second whereas Adobe Illustrator and Inkscape are vector based programs. Raster-based programs are actually better for photo editing because it allows you to manipulate individual pixels or groups of pixels within an image. So this allows you to do common tasks, such as color balancing, sharpening an image, using something like a heel tool to erase or fix parts of an image, small parts of an image. It also allows you to either edit areas within an individual selection area or to edit, of course, the entire image as a whole. In general, raster-based programs are better for photo editing, where as vector-based programs are better for graphic design. As you'll see throughout this class, GIMP comes standard with some really great photo editing filters, effects, tools and features that rival even the best photo editing programs. Additionally, it allows you to add unlimited layers to compositions for things like effects in image adjustments. You can output to very commonly use file types such as jpegs, pngs, gifs, pdfs, and even psds, which stands for Photoshop Documents and, of course, the native dot XCF GIMP file type. In this class, I'll introduce you to the fundamentals of editing photos using this gray piece of free software, walking you through the most commonly used tools and filters to achieve amazing final photos. I'll provide explanations as to why I'm making certain edits using a particular tool, as well as what I'm looking for in my image while I'm making those edits. I'll go through the entire photo editing process from opening your photo into GIMP to making corrections and adjustments, to finally exporting your photos or compositions out of GIMP. If you're new to photo editing or GIMP, this is the perfect introductory class to get you on your feet and running in a relatively short amount of time. Let's get started. 2. Opening an Image in GIMP: In this lesson, I'll be showing you how to open your images into Gimp. There are a few methods for doing this, and luckily they are all pretty easy. Let's go ahead and dive right in here. To open up your image first off within Gimp, you can just go to the File menu here. Go to File, Open. This will open up your open image dialog box. Right now I have my image already selected right here. But you can navigate through your computer using the locations right here. You can also come over here to the recently used places if you just want to open up something that you've opened up recently, or you can come over here to the Search box here and just type in the name of your file and try to find it that way. But in my case, I'm going to come back here to my F drive and my Union Station folder. Now, I can search through the various files in here. I can also come over here and try to only show the JPEG file types, for example, within this search box here. Here we have all JPEGs and now I can find my photo a little bit more easily. Here's our photo. I'll come over here and just click "Open". This is going to ask me if I want to rotate my image file. It might also ask me if I want to change the color space or convert the color space to the native SRGB color space found in Gimp. That is something I have recommend doing just because your colors are gonna show up a little bit more accurately. If you do get prompted with that message, go ahead and just click "Okay". Now, I'm going to click "Rotate" and that's going to bring in our rotated image. There is the first method. I can also open an image up as layers by going to File, Open as layers. Instead of this opening up my image as a brand new composition or a new document, this is just going to open up my image as a new layer above our existing active layer. Let me just choose the photo below the one I just selected and click "Open". Now, our second image is opened up here as a second layer. This layer is actually a different dimension or a different size than our original photo, that's why this doesn't quite fit on the act of image window we have right now. I'm not going to go into making this fade or resizing it or anything. I'll just come over here and erase this layer. By the way, if you guys aren't familiar with the general Gimp layout or with layers in Gimp, I do recommend checking out one of my other two classes that I have here on Skill share. I have one class on the Gimp basics and it provides a comprehensive overview into Gimp. Then I also have a class on layers and layer modes. Definitely check those classes out if you haven't already. But moving into my next method, I'm going to come over here to File, Open Recently, and this is simply going to open up recently used documents or recently opened documents. If I come over here to Document History, that is going to open up all of our recently opened documents over here in dockable dialog. Now, I can scroll through these and just try to find the image that I want to open. In this case, I'll just double-click on this image, which we already have open here, but this will just open this up as a brand new composition. Click "Rotate". There is our image once again. I'm going to come back over here to our Layers panel, and I'm also going to just delete these two layers. This one we had a layer added to it, that's why is asking if I want to save my changes. I'll Hit "Discard Changes" and I'll get into saving and exporting your compositions that little bit later on in this class. But the next method is that we can now open files up from our computer versus opening them up directly within Gimp. What you need to do, and this is in Windows by the way, but for Mac it's not really much different, if really at all. Well, it's a little bit different, but it's not much different. I'm going to open up my file window here. This happens to be where my file is located or my image is located. Of course, as per usual, I can scroll through and try to find my image or in this case, I know the name of my image, so I can just manually type that in. Now, I can click on my Image file and I can right-click on it and go to Open With and choose GNU Image Manipulation Program, which of course is what Gimp stands for. Click on that. Once again I'll hit Rotate. Now our file is opened up here in Gimp. Let me just close this out one last time. Now, I'm going to come over here back to our file window, and I'm going to now show you the last method for opening up your photos in Gimp. That is to either just click and drag this into the image window. You can see there's a little plus icon on my mouse or I can come over here and drag it to the Wilbur area right here. Wilbur, of course, being the mascot for Gimp, the official mascot. I'm just going to drop that right here. There is our opened photo. The reason that you would want to use this Wilbur icon over here is if you already have a photo open. Because if I come back over here and let me just close out this search right here and just bring in another photo. Let's say hypothetically, I want to bring in this photo, if I just click and drag it to my image window is not going to open this up as a brand new composition. It's just going to drag and drop this as a brand new layer into this existing composition. If that's not what I want to do, let me just close this out. That's not a great image by the way. Let's say I do want to open an image this time, I'll use this one as a brand new composition. If I come over here and drop it over here on this Wilbur icon, instead of that opening up into our existing composition now it'll open it up as a brand new composition. That's how you open an image into Gimp. Next up, I'll provide an introduction into the very important image window. 3. An Introduction to the Image Window: In this lesson, I'll be providing an introduction to the very important image window found in GIMP. This is GIMP 2 point 10 point 8, which at the time of this recording is the latest version of GIMP. Here we have the image we're working on and this entire area is going to be our image window from about where this tab starts right here, which is going to denote the actual composition you're working on. You could have multiple tabs across here as you guys probably noticed in the last lesson, all the way down here to this portion, which is going to be our title and status bar, which I'll get into in a second, and you've got your units right here and your zoom. This is showing you how much you're zoomed in on your actual image. Right now we're at about 12.5 percent of our original image size. Up here you can see the actual dimensions of your image. This image is 3,456 pixels by 5,184 pixels. The image window is one of five main areas found in GIMP. The five main areas are the image window, the toolbox, the tool options which are going to contain the options for whatever tool you select up here in the toolbox, the layers, ''Channels'', Paths'', ''Undo History'' dialogue over here and I do have my ''Document History'' open, which doesn't usually say open by default. I just opened that up in the last lesson, so I'll just close that tab out by hitting this icon right here and then clicking "Close Tab". But usually it is the layers, channels, paths, undo history by default. That's our fourth section. Then our fifth main section is the brushes, patterns and gradients dialogue. All five of these areas are super important for your workflow within GIMP and of course we'll be using these areas in various forms throughout this class. The image window is going to be the one we're focusing on for this particular class. Flanking both sides of the image window are your rulers. You can see here you've got some notches over here and right now the unit of these rulers is set to pixels. This is just measuring what spot on your image you're located at with your mouse pointer and this is useful when you're trying to place objects or maybe you're just trying to measure the precise location of something within your image. There's various uses for this, but you can see down here that the exact coordinates of your mouse pointer are going to display as you move your mouse. You can also change the units of your rulers by coming over here and clicking on this drop-down. I can scroll through the various units that GIMP offers. For example, let me just come over here and change this to inches. Now you can see our image is no longer displayed in pixels on these rulers, it's now displayed in inches. As I move my mouse around the image, you can see the exact X and Y locations of my mouse here. The rulers actually have a cool hidden feature which is the guides. I can drag and drop a guide from here by clicking my mouse on the ruler and then dragging it down. This will create a horizontal guide and you can see the exact placement of my guide down here on what's called the title and the status bar. That is going to display the title of my active layer, that I'm on and the status of any filters that I might be applying to my active image or my composition. I can place a single ruler on my composition, or I can add multiple rulers. Here, I'm just adding multiple horizontal rulers and of course I can come over here and add a vertical ruler as well. As I drag this ruler, you can check out the location here. This is set to around 38, 39 inches right now. I can go ahead and drop that. If I switch over to the ''Move Tool'' by hitting the ''M Key'' on my keyboard, I can always drag and drop these rulers off of my Canvas window here and that is just going to cause these rulers to disappear. Now I come over here and change the unit back to pixels. Next to the unit we have our zoom levels. Right now this is set to 12.5 percent of the total size of my image. I can come over here and set this to 100 percent. This shows the full size of my image here. I can use this feature to adjust the zoom of my image, but I prefer to use a quick shortcut, which is to hold the ''Control Key'' and use my mouse wheel. If I mouse wheel towards me, it's going to zoom out and if I mouse wheel away from myself, it's going to zoom in. That's just a really handy feature. There's also an icon right here. When I click it, it's going to automatically center our Canvas inside of the image windows. That just makes it a little bit easier to frame things up and not be zoomed too far in or out. You can see down here that when we have our image fit inside of our image window, we're at about 15.9 percent zoom. That's the general introduction for the image window. Next, I'll show you guys how to scale and crop your images. 4. Scaling and Cropping Your Image: In this lesson, I'll be going over how to use both the scale and crop features found here in GIMP. For starters up top, I mentioned in an earlier lesson that you can find your image dimensions here. In this case, we're a little bit over 3400 by 5100. Then over here to the left you can see the image precision. This is RGB color 32-bit linear floating point. I'm not really going to go into image precision, but just know that 32-bit linear floating point is going to produce the best final result and the most accurate final result, meaning that when you export this out of GIMP, what you see in GIMP is going to be really what you get outside of GIMP. If you have a slower computer, feel free to use a lower image precision. You can edit the image precision by going to image precision. Then right here you've got 32-bit floating point, which is what [inaudible]. You can go all the way down to 8-bit integer, which will be a far less precise image, but it'll be a lot faster to work with on your computer. Then next to the image precision, you have the color space that you're working in. GIMP's native color space is going to be sRGB. You can see here it says GIMP built-in linear sRGB. GIMP doesn't support CMYK color spaces, so you're not going to be able to use a CMYK color space here in GIMP. You can use some other RGB color spaces but I do recommend going with the sRGB color space whenever you're working with an imaging GIMP. I mentioned in an earlier lesson as well that you might get a pop up when you open up an image into GIMP that does not have the native sRGB color space found in GIMP, asking you if you want to convert that to the native color space. I always recommend hitting that convert button in order to go ahead and work in the correct RGB color space within GIMP. When it comes to scaling your image, you want to use the image scale, image feature and not the scale tool. The scale tool is found over here in the toolbox. This is the scale tool right here. The reason I don't recommend using this one when you're scaling your images is because this is only going to scale the active layer that you're on. It's not going to scale your entire composition. It will actually scale your active layer inside of the composition boundaries. You'll see that when I click on this, the options for the scale tool here, and I can click and drag this in. You'll see that it's not actually scaling my entire composition, it's only scaling the layer within the composition so we end up with this right here. That's not what we want to do when we're trying to scale an image, so let me hit Control Z to undo that. To scale the entire image, you're going to want to go to image, scale image, and this will scale your entire composition. For starters, we have the image size here inside of the scale image window. We have our original width and our original height right here. You can see there's a little chain link icon. If I click on that, you'll see it'll break the chain link. That just means it's not going to maintain the same aspect ratio of the image. If I come over here and change this to 2000 and hit my Tab key, you'll see nothing happens to the height. This is going to basically squish our image in, and that's not really what we want usually, unless you're going for a type of effect. Let me just come over here and click the reset button. That'll reset all our settings. I can always unlink or link the chain link icon here. When the chain link icon is linked, that means that the original aspect ratio will be maintained even if I change the width or the height of my image. For example, if I come over here and type 1084 my width, and then I hit the Tab key, you'll see that the height will automatically update now. If I come over here and change the height to something like 1920 and hit the Tab key, the width will automatically update. We've maintained the original aspect ratio of our image despite changing one of the dimensions of the image. Then, if I come over here, you'll see we have a drop-down for the units so I could change the units that I am adjusting my imaging. For example, I could change this to percent. Now you can see we're changing this to a little over 37 percent of our original image dimensions. I can always come over here and change this to 50 percent and hit the Tab key. Now the width and height will change to 50 percent of the original image dimensions. But I'm going to come back over here and change this to pixels and set this to 1920 and hit the Tab key. Then your X and Y resolution are going to be the number of pixels per inch in your image. In this case, you can of course change, the units are right here. We can click on that and change this to pixels per millimeter or pixels per point. These are all just different units you can use. Pixels per inch in America is going to be the standard units that you're going to use. If you're in another country, you might use something more aligned with the metric system like pixels per millimeter. But a good rule of thumb is going to be 72 pixels per inch when you're using an image for the web, and 300 pixels per inch when you're using an image for print. The more pixels per inch you have, the more detail is going to show up. Just think of this as the number of pixels you have in a square inch area. Obviously, the more pixels you have in a smaller area, the more detail you're going to have. Below the X and Y resolution, you have quality and within that heading you have something called interpolation. Next to interpolation, you have a drop-down here with five different options, ranging from None to LoHalo. These are all five different equations or algorithms that are going to determine how missing pixels are filled in automatically, or how pixels are going to be removed to produce the best outcome or the best performance for your computer when you're using GIMP. If you go with the first option here, which is none, you're going to get a very low-quality final result, but the performance will be very fast, so your scale will happen a lot more quickly. If you're in a time crunch and you don't care about quality, you can go with this option. Then linear and cubic are just going to be slightly better, but the performance is going to be slightly slower on your computer. Then you get into what I call the next generation of interpolation. You have NoHalo and LoHalo. LoHalo actually came first. This is going to be an algorithm that is going to reduce in effect or an artifact called haloing. Whenever you scale an image way up or way down, it can produce something called haloing around objects in your image and the LoHalo algorithm or the LoHalo interpolation is built to basically try to reduce that instance so it's trying to reduce the amount of haloing happening around objects in your image. Then NoHalo is going to be the next generation of the LoHalo. This is basically just a newer and improved version of the LoHalo interpolation option. When it comes to deciding which interpolation option you want to use between LoHalo and NoHalo, LoHalo is going to be best used when you're scaling and image below 50 percent of its original size, or when your image has text or pixel art, as well as when your image has a lot of artifacts or a lot of noise going on. NoHalo, on the other hand, is best used when you're scaling and image down to greater than 50 percent of its original size, when there is no text or pixel art or when you are trying to preserve skin tones. I recommend using NoHalo when you have a model in your photo or a subject in your photo. If you're not really sure which option you use in your particular case, a pretty good rule of thumb is to just go with NoHalo as NoHalo is always going to be a good option. There is really just a minute difference between the NoHalo and LoHalo. In this case, we have a model in the photos and we want to preserve the skin tones, and we don't have any texts or pixel art in here. I'm just going to go with NoHalo. I'm going to be using this for the web. I'm going to set my X and Y resolution to 72 pixels per inch and I'll hit scale. Now our image has been scaled down. You could see our new image dimensions up here at the top of our GIMP window. Next up we have the crop tool, and this is going to allow me to change the dimensions of my image or crop out unwanted items in my image. If I hold Control and Zoom in, here we have our scaled-down image. I can come over here to the crop tool inside of the toolbox. This is going to show all of my crop tool options here. We've got the option to only crop the current layer, which is going to be the active layer we're on. If I have multiple layers in my image, this will only crop that active layer. It will not crop the entire composition. We also have the option to allow growing, which means if I draw my crop outside of my original composition boundary right here, it's going to grow that boundary. This would be our new composition boundary right here. You also have the option to expand from center, which means that as I draw this crop is going to draw it from the center of my mouse-click outward. Then you have an option to set a particular aspect ratio. I had this set to fix right now and I do have this option checked. This is going to draw this at 1920 by 1280 aspect ratio, which is actually the current aspect ratio of my image. I can change this to portrait or landscape. This is portrait here, this is landscape. Because this is a portrait image, I'm just going to change this to portrait. I actually want this to be 1080 by 1920. I'll go ahead and type that in here. I don't need the expand from center, allow growing or current layer only option, so I'll uncheck all of those. Then position just allows you to set the exact position of where your crop is drawn. In this case, we don't really need that, so I'm not going to type anything in there. Then size shows you the overall size of your crop as you're drawing it. Right now it's a little bit larger than our actual image size or the composition boundaries size. We're going to fix that in a second. Highlight just allows you to highlight the crop area that you're drawing. You can see when I uncheck that it's no longer highlighting the crop area. Let me just check that again. Then this allows you to set the guides inside of your crops, so right now this is set to center lines. As you can see, the center lines are being drawn inside of my crop. You could change this to rule of thirds, which is a photography principle, rule of fifths, golden sections or diagonal lines. Those are just some options there. I'm going to change this to center lines because I do want to draw my crops so that my subject is relatively centered inside of my composition. Let me just grab another tool here and hit Control Z because that did apply the crop. I'll come back to my crop tool. All of our settings are the way I want it now and now what I can do is click and drag my crop. That is going to allow me to draw my crop here and because I don't have this set to allow growing, it's not going to allow me to draw my crop outside of my composition boundary. You can see the size of our crop right here is now 1920 by 1080, which is exactly the size I want to set. I can click and move my crop around a little bit and I can center it so that it's directly centered on her face or maybe I wanted to directly centered on some other part of the model's body here. But in this case, I will actually center this right on her face like that. Once I'm ready to crop this image, I just click inside of my crop area. Now that's gone ahead and cropped our image. There are two other options down here which I didn't cover that include the auto shrink option. That is usually useful when you have a distinct object within your image and you want to automatically crop to that object. If you hit auto shrink, that'll crop that down to the object inside your image. In this case, we don't really have a clear object that's distinct from the background. Then the option below, the auto shrink is going to be shrink merged. When that's checked, that's just going to perform that auto shrink action on all of the layers in your composition, not just the active layer that you're on. In this case, we only have one layer in our composition, so this doesn't really apply here. I can uncheck that. I'm just going to grab another tool again and hit Control Z to undo that crop. That's it for using these scale and crop features. Next up, I'll show you how to make adjustments using these shadows and highlights tool. 5. Adjusting the Shadows and Highlights: In this lesson, I'll be showing you guys how to use the Shadows-Highlights tool found in GIMP and this is actually a brand new tool that came with Gimp 2.10, one of the new features that's not in Gimp 2.8. So if you're using an older version of Gimp, below 2.10, this isn't going to show up for you, but to find this tool just come over to Colors, Shadows-Highlights. Here we have our Shadows-Highlights window and this does exactly what it sounds like, it's going to adjust the shadows and the highlights in your image. You have three different sections here. You have the Shadows section, the Highlights, and then the Comment section. I'll go through all three of these sections here within this lesson. But we start with the Shadow slider here. This is going to, as it says, adjust exposure of shadow. So this is going to adjust the exposure of your Shadows making the pixels in the shadows of your image either brighter or darker. When I click on this slider here, the Shadow slider and I drag it to the right, this is going to make these shadows pixels brighter in your image and that's going to make your image brighter overall. But mainly it's going to bring out details in the shadows. If you check out some of the darker parts of the image here, and I can hold "Control" and zoom in using my mouse wheel, you can see that if I decrease the Shadow slider, all of those details in the darker parts of my image disappear. But if I increase it, you could see now there's all this brand new detail in my image. That's essentially what the shadows slider is doing, is it's bringing out detail in those shadow pixels. We don't ever want to overdo these effects because you will see that in the details here, there is also a bit of noise. So if you turn it up too much, you could see all this noise right here in the image. That's not something that you want to bring attention to or bring out in your photo. Typically it's going to be somewhere around 50 or 60 depending on your photo. That's going to be the max. Usually you want to just drag this slider back and forth and you want to bring out the most detail without bringing out too much noise. In this particular case, I think I'm going to actually go around 40 and you don't have to completely recover the details in the shadows using this one tool. There are some other tools we're going to use later in this class that are going to help bring out some of the details in the darker parts of our image, and really just bring out the brightness of the image overall. We're actually going to do some of that within this tool as well. The next slider here is the Shadows color adjustment. This is actually similar to a saturation slider because it allows you to turn up or turn down the saturation in your shadows. Let's say that by bringing out the detail in my shadows, we've now brought out too much color. We can tone down some of the color using this shadows color adjustment. This is going to adjust the saturation of these color saturation, of course, being the intensity of colors. Let me turn up the Shadows all the way just to show you guys an example. Here's with my Shadows turn all the way up and with the Shadows color adjustment turned all the way down, so you can see all these pixels in here now almost look like they're black and white pixels because the saturation has been completely taken out of them. If I turn it all the way up, you can see here's what it looks like after now with that slider turned all the way up. A lot more color, a lot more intense color. You can use this slider just sort of tone down any colors that you think might be a little bit too extreme once you've turned up the Shadow slider. I'm going to bring this Shadow slider back down to around 40. Then I actually will make a little bit of an adjustment here using the Shadows color adjustment. I don't usually make saturation adjustments using this slider, but I think in this case it does bring out a little bit too much gold here in the bench when I bring out some of that detail. So I'll just bring this somewhere around 76 and we'll leave it at that. Next up is the highlight slider, and this is going to adjust the exposure of the highlights in your image. It's the same thing as the shadow slider except instead of working on the dark pixels of your image, now we're working on the brighter pixels of your image. If I come over here to the slider and I crank this up and let me actually move the dialog box out of the way and hold control and use my mouse wheel to zoom out. If you keep an eye on the brighter parts of our image, which is going to be right here where the sunlight is coming in from some of the windows out of frame. You can see that that's going to bring those pixel values up. It's going to make those parts of the image brighter. In this particular photo, there aren't a ton of shadows going on so there's not really going to be a major effect here. Let me just turn this slider all the way down to the left, so that's going to completely tone down those highlight pixels. I don't usually recommend turning the highlight slider all the way down to negative 100 because I think the effect is a bit too intense. Usually I just make a minor adjustment here again, if I'm trying to tone highlights down and get rid of maybe some overblown parts of my image, I'll turn the slider down to negative 40, negative 50 max. Then on the other hand, if I'm trying to bring out details in the brighter parts of my image, I may turn this up to max, again, 40, 50, maybe even 60, as the value here on my slider, depending on the image. But for this particular image, because I don't really want to bring out this part right here. I don't think that contributes to the image at all. I'm just going to keep this at zero for now. The next slider is the same thing as the shadows color adjustment, except it's going to work on the highlights. The Highlights color adjustment is going to allow us to increase or decrease the saturation of the pixels that we're bringing out with this highlight slider. It's going to allow us to increase the saturation of the highlight pixels in our image. This value starts at 50 by default. Let me just turn my highlights all the way up again, and we may not be able to see it with this particular image, but if I turn my highlights color adjustment up, there's not a whole lot of difference in this image. But let me turn those all the way down. You can see there's a little bit of desaturation happening here in the highlights. Again, if I turn it all the way up, some of that color returns. If I turn it all the way down, you'll see that some of that color disappears. This isn't a great image example for this particular part of the tool. I'm just going to set this to 50 and then again set my highlight slider to zero. Basically for this particular image, we don't need to adjust the highlights, at least not right now. Next is the Common section, and there's three pretty important sliders inside of this section. For starters, we have the White point adjustment. This is going to allow us to shift the white point of our image. By shifting the white point, you are determining the range of value of white pixels in the overall image. So if I come over here to my White point adjustment slider and I shift my white point a little bit to the right. This is actually going to increase the number of white pixels in my image. That's going to make my image a little bit brighter overall. Whereas on the other hand, if I shift my white point to the left or make it a negative value here, that is going to make my image darker overall. In this particular image, because it is a pretty dark image, I want to shift my white point to the right. If I hold Control and zoom in, and I'm going to just move over a little bit on my image and move this dialogue out of the way. The same thing occurs here as with the shadow slider, which is that we do want to brighten up some of the darker pixels in our image, but we don't want to overdo it because then we're going to start to get a lot of noise. If I decrease this back to zero, here's what this look like originally. Then if I increase this, you can see there's some noise on her face here and some noise on the bench over here. So we want to keep an eye on that noise when we're adjusting the white point. I typically stay within the 5-6 range as my max. If it's an image that's already pretty bright, I'm not even going to add that much to it, but in this case this is a fairly dark image so I'm actually going to go with 5.0 as my White point adjustment. That brings us to the next slider, which is the Radius slider. You can see as I hover over this, this is going to adjust the spatial extent of our effects here. In other words, you can constrain your effects to smaller pixel areas in your overall image or you can allow them to spread out into larger pixel areas across your image. Let's come over here to the Radius slider. If we turn the radius way up, you'll see that our affects no longer are going to take place in smaller pixel area. So basically our effects are going to spread out. In this particular image, if I hold Control and zoom out a bit, what that means is that really the effects are going to be a little bit less noticeable because they aren't going to be as concentrated in smaller pixel areas within our image. On the other hand, if I turn the radius down, this is going to decrease the spatial extent of our effects, which means that our effects are going to be concentrated into smaller and smaller pixel areas. If I hold "Control" and zoom in and I turn this radius all the way down, you can see that changes the overall look of our composition quite dramatically. The goal of this is to find that happy medium between constraining your effects or allowing your effects to spread out across the image. My advice is to really find the setting that is just going to allow your image to look it's best. In this case, if we turn the radius up, it makes our model look a little bit dark and if we turn it down too much, it makes her look a little bit flat and almost blurry. We want to find that happy medium here. I think a little bit of a lowered radius actually helps to brighten up her face a bit. I'm going to go with a little bit lower of a number here. The next slider here is the Compressed slider. This is actually similar to the radius slider above it, except it's going to allow you to constrain your effects within just the shadows or the highlights of your image in order to preserve the mid tones of your image. So instead of constraining your effects to smaller or larger pixel areas, we are now constraining the effects to the shadows or the highlights of the image with the goal of preserving the mid tones in your image. If I come over here to the Compress slider and turn this up, you can see that by containing the effects within the highlights of the image, this is basically going to not have any effect on the Shadows in our image, and that in turn is going to make our image a lot darker. On the other hand, if I turn this slider down, you can see that that is going to allow our effects to now spread out into the shadows. If I turn it all the way down, it's going to only allow the effects to take place in the shadows, which in this case, this image doesn't have a lot of highlights so we're not going to see a lot of effect here. But what we want to do is again, find a happy medium where we are containing our effects within either the shadows or more so the highlights of the image in order to get the final effect we're looking for. In this case, I think that it looks a little bit better when we compress our effects a little bit more within the shadows rather than the highlights, because that's going to brighten up this image. Here is a before and here is an after. Hold control and zoom out a bit so you guys can see the full image. Again, here's a before, here's an after. Now we have a much brighter image and we have a much better balance between the shadows and the highlights of our image. I can always hit reset if I want to start over, that's going to reset all my settings back to the default. I can also hit the split view option and that's going to allow me to compare on the left side my effects with the original on the right side without my effects. Of course I can save these settings as a preset and that allows me to come back at a later time and use these settings on another image if I have an image with maybe the same setup in the same lighting and I just want to have the same adjustments without having to go back and redo all the adjustments from scratch. Of course you can access all the Presets from this drop down here. This also includes a history of previous settings that I had on here using this tool. But once you are ready to apply the effect, just click "OK" and there you go. That's it for the shadows highlights tool. Next up, I'll show you how to color balance your images in GIMP using the color balance tool. 6. Getting Your Colors Right with the Color Balance Tool: In this lesson, I'll be showing you guys how to use the Color Balanced tool and by definition, the Color Balanced tool modifies the Color Balance of the selection or active layer that you're on. In this case, we only have one layer, and that is going to be our image layer, but when you're using the Color Balance tool it's going to only work on the active selection that you're on or the active layer. To access this tool, I can just go to Colors, Color Balance and that is going to bring up our Color Balanced dialog box here. This tool allows you to adjust the colors on each of the three ranges of your image which include the shadows, mid tones, and highlights of your image. You can see these three ranges right here inside the select arrange to adjust section of Color Balanced dialog window. Right now we're on the mid tones range. You can see down here we have something called adjust color levels. This is of course where you adjust the colors of your image. You'll see here that we have three different sliders, and each slider has a different color on each side of it. So the first slider here has Cyan on the left and Red on the right. This is because we are in an RGB color space and RGB of course stands for red, green, and blue. We have a corresponding slider to each one of those colors here red, green, and blue. The way the Color Balance tool works is that we're either adding our primary color, for example, red or we are taking away from that primary color. Anytime we take away from our primary color, we are adding to its complimentary color. In this case, the complimentary to red is cyan, the complimentary to green is magenta, and the complimentary to blue is yellow. We're either adding red or we're adding cyan, we're adding green, or we are adding magenta, and we're adding blue or we are adding yellow. Anytime we are adding one color, we are removing equal amounts of the complimentary color. Let's do an example here. If I slide my red slider to the right, you can see our images getting more red overall in the mid-tone section here. We're adding 22.3 units of red. That means we are taking away 22.3 units of cyan here. We're always taking away equal amounts from the complimentary color, which is why whenever you drag the slider towards one of these colors. It's going to really bring out that color in the image. I'm just eyeballing this to see what looks best and there is a little bit of red in our image. You could see it when I add a little bit of red, there's a lot of red in our mid tones. What I want to do here is just add a little bit of cyan. You always want to make subtle adjustments with the Color Balance tool. You don't ever want to add a tone of one color or the other, even if there is a bunch of one color in your image. Let's say you have a bunch of green in your image. That doesn't mean you should go into the magenta slider and just crank up the magenta a bunch. You'll notice usually that when you're using the Color Balance tool that you can keep everything pretty subtle and the final image will look pretty good. I'm going to go with about negative 3.4 there. Anytime the number is negative, that means there's going to be more of the complimentary color and not the primary colors. In this case there will be more cyan in the image. Now, we have the green slider and we're either adding green or we are adding magenta. In this case, it's pretty close. I think there might be a touch of magenta in the image already, so maybe add a little bit of green. You can see here I'm not even at one for green, and I'm going to turn that down even more to 0.5. That means we're going to add a little bit of green to the mid tones. Then in this case it's either blue or yellow. I think yellow looks a [inaudible] bit better. You can also just go with zero for any value. That's also okay. You don't always have to add one color or the other. Here's a before, here's an after we tone down some of that red and I think I'm actually going to just keep this value at zero. Now I'm going to move over to the shadows range. This is going to mostly affect the pixel values in our shadows. It will somewhat affect the other surrounding pixels but for the most part, this is going to be all within the shadows part of our image. We're keeping an eye on the darker parts of our image as we make these adjustments. You can see we've added red and then we've tested out cyan. This is what I always do. I go back and forth and see what looks better. In this case, I do like adding a bit of cyan here. I'm just going to tone that down a bit. Then we've got green or magenta. I think adding green of this looks a little bit obnoxious. I'm just going to add a tiny bit of magenta to our shadows. Now we've got blue vs yellow. I think adding a little bit of blue here is going to do the trick. There's a before, there's an after. Now let's move on to the highlights of our image. Again, same thing except now we're affecting the highlight pixels in our image. Just because you add more of one color and one of the ranges of your image, for example, just because I add more magenta in the shadows doesn't mean that I'm going to add more magenta in the highlights. It's going to be different on each range. You want to make your adjustments all based on what you're seeing in front of you and not based on what you did in the last range. So whatever looks best. In this case, I think the yellow looks a little bit better inside of the highlights, but I don't want to add too much yellow here. There's a before, there's an after. That looks pretty natural. We didn't add too much of any one color here. We did add mostly cyan. I think there was a lot of red in this image. To tone that down, we added a little bit more cyan than any other color, but really, we still kept it subtle throughout each range of the image. Down here, we have an option called preserve luminosity. What this is going to do is preserve the original brightness of the image before we made the color corrections. I usually keep this option checked because sometimes we can dim down the brightness of the image a little bit as you saw down here. By clicking this option its going to maintain that brightness as we adjust our colors. We have the usual options of being able to preview this before and after, do a split preview and see left is the after and right is before. We can add this as a preset of course, and come back and use the same setting later. We can choose from a drop down and presets if we've already got some preset saved here, you can see I have one saved here, and then the rest of these are just my history of the last time I used this tool. Click on that to get rid of that. You can always reset the range, which means you're only going to reset the range you're on in this case, the highlights range or you can hit the reset button down here and that'll reset all ranges of your image back to the defaults. I'll click okay to apply those changes. That's it for the Color Balance tool. Up next, I'm going to show you how to adjust the levels of your image. 7. Adjusting the Levels of Your Image: In this lesson, I'll show you how to use the Levels tool found in GIMP. The Levels tool by its most basic definition, allows you to make your image brighter or darker. It also allows you to add contrast or removed contrast from your image while fixing any predominant color found in your image. You can access the Levels tool by coming over here to Colors, Levels, and here we have our levels dialog box. The first thing you'll notice within the Levels tool is something called the histogram. This is basically a graphical representation of the pixels in your image. What you want usually is an evenly distributed histogram. By that, I mean, you want the levels across this to be pretty much the same. In this case, we are skewed a little bit to the left. That usually represents a darker image because the shadows of your image are going to be represented on the left side of the histogram. The midtones are going to be towards the middle, and then the highlights are going to be towards the right. As you can see in this histogram, the highlights are a little bit lower in this histogram, or a little bit lower in this image, and these shadows have a little bit higher value. This is giving us a skewed to the left image or a darker image. If this were skewed to the right, it would probably be a brighter image. If it was skewed towards the center, we would have a lot of mid tones and not a lot of shadows or highlights. Inside the Levels tool, we also have an Auto Input Levels button. If I click on that, that is going to cause the tool to try to automatically make the corrections to your image. I don't recommend doing this as I don't usually like the result that it produces. But if you're struggling with the Levels tool, and you're not really sure how to use it, you can try out the auto input levels, especially, if you're short on time or something, and try to see if you like the final result. But I'm going to come over here and hit the Reset button, and that's going to bring everything back to the original or the default settings. But within the levels tool at the very top, you have something called Channel. This allows you to either adjust the value of your image, which is going to be basically the brightness or the darkness of your image. This is going to be the fully compiled RGB layer of your image, meaning that all of your colors are found on this layer, or you can edit individual color channels. We can go to red, green, or blue. We even have an alpha option and that's when your image contains transparency. That is not something that I commonly use. I'm not going to cover it in this lesson. But let's start with the value channel here, and we're going to go through each of the individual color channels. I already went over the histogram here, but below the histogram, we have three arrows. We have a black arrow, a gray arrow, and we have a white arrow. These represent the three different ranges of our image. We have the shadows, the midtones, and the highlights. Let's start with the black arrow down here. When I move this, that is going to shift what's called the black point of my image. The black point means that every pixel from this imaginary line here to the left is now going to be black. Whenever we shift the black point to the right, that is going to darken our image overall, because it's going to add black pixels to our image. You could see that as I shift this to the right, it's adding more and more black pixels to the image. Especially if we go right here, because there's a lot of pixels right here as denoted by this big bump here in our histogram. All of these pixels are now going to be black, whereas before they were maybe like a really dark gray. That's making our image darker overall. That's not what we want in this case. I'm going to bring this back. Usually, you just want to make a subtle adjustment to this because it will help to add a little bit of contrast by bringing in the black point a little bit or shifting the black point to the right. Now, I'm going to go all the way over to the right side of our histogram, and that's going to be this white triangle here. If I shift the white triangle, which is going to represent our highlights to the left, that is going to brighten up our image overall. That's called shifting the white point. If I shift my white point to the left, that is going to make our image brighter as all of the pixels to the right of this imaginary line are now going to be white. Before these were all a very light gray, and of course, the more towards the center you get, the more gray they become. The more towards the left you go, the more black the pixels become. We're basically taking these light gray pixels and making them white. Of course, that is brightening up our image overall. You don't typically want to shift the white point too much because just like adding too much to the shadows, you're going to get a lot of noise when you do that. You want to find a pretty good middle ground here where you're not adding too much, but you are adding enough to make the image look nice and bright. I'm just going to leave that there for now because we have one other triangle left, and that is the gray triangle, and that one represents the midtone. By shifting this, we are now shifting the midpoint of our image. If I shift this to the left, you'll see our image gets brighter. If I shifted to the right, our image gets darker. This is just changing the midpoint of our image. I'm going to shift the white point a little bit back, and then shift the midpoint. I can hold Control and Zoom in with my mouse to make sure that I'm not adding too much. I'll go with those values right there. Here's a before and here's an after. You could see there's also Eyedropper tools here, and this just allows you to set the black point and the white point by clicking on an Eyedropper, and then clicking on a pixel inside your image. If I click on this cowboy hat, for example, that's telling the levels tool that I want all pixels that are of that value or less to be black. Same thing applies to the white point here. If I click on this, and then say, click on this light gray color up here, that would tell my levels tool that I want all colors that are lighter than that to be pure white. I don't usually recommend doing that unless you have a very specific case for it. I don't typically use these Eyedropper tools, but it's good to know that they are there. Below the Eyedropper tools is the output levels slider. This slider allows you to constrict the tonal range of your image. This is similar to a tone curve found in raw processing software such as Lightroom or Darktable. This feature will usually reduce contrast in your image, but it will also allow you to recover some details in the shadows. If I come over here to my output levels slider and I drag the black triangle here, which of course represents the shadows. You'll see that our contrast in our image gets less and less but it's also allowing the darker parts of our image to get brighter. If you still have some dark parts of your image that you want to bring out, you can increase the value of this black slider here. That is going to just brighten some of those dark parts up. Then on the other hand, we can shift the white point over here. That is going to just darken some of the brighter pixels in our image. But again, you could see that some of our contrast is being reduced in our image. There are pros and cons to using this tool. Below the Output level slider, you have three additional Eyedroppers here. These allow you to select the black, mid, and white points of your image for all channels of your image. This isn't just affecting the value channel, which is the channel we're on right now. This is going to affect the reds, greens, and blues of your image as well. Again, I don't recommend doing this as I feel like it's cutting corners, and you're not typically going to be happy with the final result. But just know that that's there in case you want to use it. Below that, you have the edit these settings as curves option and that'll open up all of your levels adjustments into the curves tool. I haven't gone over the curves tool yet. I will go over that in a later lesson. Of course, you still have the preview in the split view option here, so you can preview the after on the left and the before on the right. I'm going to uncheck that option. That is making adjustments just to the value channel. Let's move on to the color channels here. Now, I'm going to come over here and click on this Drop down and go over to the red channel. This histogram is going to be very similar to the histogram found in the value channel. Except, instead of now having these values represent darker or brighter pixels, they now represent the amount of red in the image. A histogram skewed to the left means that there isn't a ton of red in the highlights, and there is much more red found in the shadows here. We still have the black, gray, and white points of our image. But now, when we bring in the black point, for example, that is going to add more cyan to the shadows of my image, instead of making the image darker overall. You could see that as I'm dragging that slider inward, we're adding more cyan to the darker pixels in our image. I'll hold Control and Zoom out a bit here, so you guys can get a better look at this. Here's before and here's after. There's obviously a lot less red in the image now. I'm just going to turn that up a tiny bit, because I do want to still reduce a little bit of the red going on here. Then, shifting the white point is going to add more red pixels to the highlights. You could see that our image is getting a little bit more red overall, especially in the brighter parts of our image. Then if I shift this to left, you'll see it'll add more red in it. If I shift the gray points to the right, it'll add more cyan. Here's a before, here's an after. Let me actually turn this down a bit. You can also manually adjust these values using these arrows here, or you can type in a value. You'll see we also have an output levels slider here. If I drag in the black point, you can see that is just adding more red pixels. If I drag in the white point, that is just going to add more cyan pixels. This is adding cyan to the highlights. This is adding red to the shadows. That is sort of counteracting what's going on up here. Because by moving this slider to the right, we are adding cyan to the shadows, whereas down here we're adding red to the shadows. Then this slider is going to add red to the highlights, whereas this slider is adding cyan to the highlights. I don't think we necessarily need the output level slider for this color channel. Now, let's move on to the green color channels. This is going to be the same as the red, except when we shift the black point of green, we are now adding magenta to the shadows. You can see that as I move this inwards we're getting more magentas in the darker pixels of my image. Then if I shift the white point, this is going to add green to the highlights. You can see that green starting to show up here in the brighter parts of my image. In this case, I don't really need to add much green to this image, so I'll keep that right there. Then of course, we can shift the gray point or the midpoint. If I shifted to the left, that's adding green, and if I shifted to the right, that's adding magenta. Go with about right there. You guys have probably noticed that the Levels tool is going to act in the same way as the Color Balance tool. Of course, the results are going to be slightly different. But just like in the Color Balance tool, we're either adding more of a primary color, which is going to be red, green, or blue, or we are adding more of the complimentary color, which is going to be cyan, magenta, and yellow. Of course, we still have the output Level Slider here. If I bring in the black point down here, that is going to add green to the shadows. If I bring in the white point, that is going to add magenta to the highlights. I will add a little bit of magenta here to the highlights. Now, I'm going to come over here to our last color channel, which is going to be blue. Here you could see the histogram is skewed to the left again. We have some blue going on in the shadows, not a tone going on in the highlights. Now I'm going to grab my black point here. As I shift this to the right, we're adding yellow to the shadows. If I shift my white point slider here, we're adding blue to the highlights. Then, I can shift my midpoint here or my gray point. If I shifted to the right, that's adding yellow. If I shifted to the left, that is adding blue. I'm just eyeballing this until I like the final look of it. I'll go with right there. Of course, we can adjust the output level, so we can add a bit of blue to the shadows if we want to, or we can add a bit of yellow to the highlights. Here's a before, here is an after. All of the settings look pretty good to me on all of the channels of my image. I'll click Okay to apply them. The Levels tool has allowed us to fix the brightness or darkness of our image while adjusting some of the contrast and also fixing any predominant colors found in our image. That's it for this lesson. Coming up next, I'll show you how to adjust the intensity of the colors in your image using the Saturation tool. 8. Bring Out Color Intensity with the Saturation Tool: In this lesson, I'll show you how to use the saturation tool to increase or decrease the intensity of the colors found in your image. To access this tool, you can go to Colors, Saturation and this particular tool is actually only found in game 2.10 or newer. The legacy version of this tool is actually found in Colors, Hue-saturation. But I'm only going to go over this saturation slider, this particular one for this lesson. As I mentioned, this tool allows you to increase or decrease the intensity of the colors found in your image. So whether or not you increase or decrease the intensity is going to depend on the mood you want to convey in your image. So if you want to make a more dramatic mood or maybe like a more solemn mood, you want to decrease the intensity of your colors, that's just going to basically make your colors a little bit more gray, and have a little bit less vibrancy. On the other hand, if you want to accentuate the colors in your image, maybe you want to make a brighter image overall, something that's a little bit more uplifting or a little bit happier or are you just like the colors in your image, you want to really bring out those colors and make it a little bit more colorful, then you're going to increase the saturation in your image overall. So all you have to do here is drag the slider to the left, and that is going to decrease the saturation or you could drag it to the right, and that will increase the saturation. So here you could see the difference between the two, so less intense or more desaturated and then more intense or more saturated and if I turn this slider all the way down to the left, this is going to make our image black and white, so a fully desaturated image is going to be a black and white image. On the other hand, if I turn this all the way up to the right, this is going to be a fully saturated image, and this is just way too much for this particular image and most images are not ever going to look good with the saturation turned all the way up. So now for this particular image, we need to figure out do we want to bring out some of the colors, or do we want to turn some of them down? I think this could look good either way because I think this is a fairly dramatic composition, and it does look pretty good with some of the colors taken out of it. On the other hand, if we accentuate some of the colors here, it also looks pretty good. So this is just an artistic decision, you know what do you in particular as an individual photographer want your final photo to look like, maybe you have a particular style, maybe you like more intense colors or you like less intense colors. I think in this case, I'm just going to go with a slightly desaturated look. So here's a before, here's an after, and I'll click Okay. So that's it for the saturation tool. Up next, I'll show you how to adjust the color temperature of your image. 9. Warm vs. Cool: Adjusting the Color Temperature: In this lesson, I'll be showing you how to use the color temperature image adjustment tool. This tool allows you by definition, to adjust the color temperature of the light source in an image in Kelvin. It allows you to change the white balance of an image during the image editing process. When you are white balancing your camera for an image, you are setting the color temperature base for white. Essentially what this means is you're taking something white that is in-frame and you are telling your camera that this is going to be pure white. This is going to be the representation of pure white for your image. Then your camera is going to set the color temperature for everything else, for all the other colors in the photo based on that white that you set. You always want to make sure that you properly white balance your camera before you take any photos, before you open up your photos into GIMP. Most cameras are going to have an auto white balance feature, again, using a white car to set the white balance of the photo. But it also helps to know just the general color temperature of the light in the room or the environment where you're taking your photo. For example, light bulbs typically fall into one of three ranges. The first of which is soft white, which falls in the 2700 Kelvin to 3,000 Kelvin range. Next you have bright white or cool white, and that falls within the 3500-4100 Kelvin range. Finally, you have daylight and that is going to fall within the 5,000-6500 Kelvin range. A good rule of thumb for remembering what color a certain color temperature is going to produce is to remember that the lower that number is in kelvin, typically the closer that color is going to be to orange, and then the higher that number is in kelvin, the closer that color is going to be to something like white or blue. Even though daylight light bulbs typically fall within the 5,000 and 6500 Kelvin range, it is important to note that daylight actually has a variety of color temperatures depending on what time of day you are taking your photo if you are actually outside. For instance, the magic hour or the golden hour which typically happens somewhere around sunrise and sunset is going to have a much warmer color and therefore a lower color temperature. That's usually going to fall into the 2800 Kelvin range. Overcast daylight is going to have a slightly higher color temperature as somewhere between 6500-7500 Kelvin, and that is going to produce more of a white color. Finally, a blue sky day or more of a clear day is going to produce the highest color temperature at somewhere between 9,000 and 12,000 Kelvin. This is why a blue sky day or a clear day is going to produce more of a blue color. To sum all that up about daylight, it's going to be warmer when it's closer to sunrise or sunset. It's going to be cooler when it is closer to the middle of the day or is a clear or overcast day. Now let's dive into GIMP and open up this tool and we can access the color temperature tool by going to colors, color temperature. Here is the color temperature dialog box. You'll see that you have two sliders here. One is going to be original temperature and the other will be intended temperature. Both of these are set in temperature based on Kelvin. These are both set by default to 6500 Kelvin and you could see when I hover over here, it says estimated temperature of the light source in Kelvin the image was taken with. Then below that it says corrected estimation of the temperature of the light source in Kelvin. The original temperature is going to be the white balance that you set within the camera when you took the original photo. Then of course, the intended temperature is going to be the temperature that you meant to set your camera to or maybe the temperature that you wanted the image to be. You may have taken your photo in the original temperature of the room, but you actually want the final photo to be a warmer photo or a cooler photo. Maybe you're going for a certain effect or a certain mood in your image. Or maybe you just don't think that the white balance that you said in your camera looks the best for the particular photo that you took. Whatever the reason, you can adjust the color temperature here within GIMP and keep in mind that whenever you turn the intended temperature up, it's going to make the final image appear warmer. You'll see that as I drag my intended temperature up, my image starts to get more of a yellowish orange color. Then on the other hand, if I turn my intended temperature down, so if this number is lower than the original temperature number, that's going to make my photo cooler or more of a bluish color. When it comes to color temperature effects, I always say when you have an image that looks cool. For example, there's snow in the background and your model is wearing winter clothes. It's good to turn down the intended temperature so that the overall image is going to have that cooler look. It's going to be more blue and just give the viewer a feeling that they're cold while they're looking at it. Then on the other hand, if you have an image that looks really warm, let's say it's in the summer, it's outside and the person's wearing shorts and a t-shirt. Maybe you just want the overall image to look warmer, you can go ahead and increase the intended temperature, and that's going to give your overall photo a warmer look. Another example is if somebody is sitting by a fire or something and you want them to just appear warmer or you want the overall composition to have a warmer feel. For this particular photo, we have a mixture of color temperatures and I'm going to go ahead and close out this color temperature dialog box temporarily, and I'm going to come over here and grab my paintbrush tool just to demonstrate. We have some warmer light bulbs here. This is artificial light obviously. Then there's actually some artificial light coming over from this side and you can see it hitting the bench right here. Then if I hit X on my keyboard and switch over to my white color here, there's actually some daylight coming in from this window here. That's going to be more of a white or a bluish white color. This is producing a mixture of color temperatures in my image. When that's the case, it's up to you as the artist or the photo editor as to what you want your final color temperature to be. Do you want it to be warmer? Do you want it to emulate that artificial light in the room or do you want it to be bluer or more of a white color and more so emulate the daylight in the room or just make the image look colder overall. In this case, I'm going to hit control Z to get rid of these markings. I'm going to go to color temperature. I'm going to assume since the daylight coming from the window is fairly wide, that the color was probably somewhere around 5600 Kelvin. That means that when I click on my intended temperature, you will see that this image now looks warmer since this corrected number is much higher than the original. Now I can play around with this slider until I get the look I want. If I come all the way back here to 5600, there is no change. But if I turn it up, it's going to be a little bit warmer. On the other hand, if I turn it below that number, it's going to be a little bit cooler. Now I just need to decide which one I like better, a warmer image or a cooler image. If I'm not getting the exact look I want, I can always play around with the original temperature. For example, I can try to turn this up to about 6,000 Kelvin and then play around with this. The differences here are pretty subtle and I like either setting. Here's a before, here's an after. I do like this image being a little bit warmer. I think it just looks a little bit better that way because there are some of those golden colors in the image. But ultimately it'll be up to you. Of course you could do the split preview option or you could set your preset here. You could save your preset and then come in here and open up your preset at a later date. But here you can see the after on the left and the before on the right. A little bit warmer of an image on the left here, a little bit more yellow's going on, and that gold here is accentuated this gold lighting. I like that look so I'll go ahead and click okay, and that'll apply my color temperature. You'll notice here that I didn't make any real major changes using the color temperature tool. That is a good thing to keep in mind when you're using this tool, which is that you don't want to make any major adjustments. That's the case across the board with the image adjustment tools, you want to keep your adjustments subtle, unless of course you are going for a very dramatic and a very specific effect. That's it for the color temperature tool. Next up I'll show you how to use the curves tool. 10. Adding Contrast With the Curves Tool: In this lesson, I'll be showing you how to use the curves tool. The curves tool is like the levels tool in that you can edit the brightness and the contrast of your image on both the value channel and all three color channels. However, the curves tool is a bit more sophisticated than the levels tool in that the levels tool just allows you to work on these shadows and highlights of an image, whereas your curves tool actually allows you to work on the entire tonal range of the image. In short, the curves tool allows you to adjust both the light and the tone in your image. Let's open up the curves tool and we can do that by coming over here to Colors, Curves. Here we have our curves dialog box and you'll notice a few things right away. First of all, we have a histogram, much like the levels tool, but this time we have a grid over the histogram and then we have a diagonal line going across the grid here. This will be the curve that we're working on. There's also a vertical gradient and a horizontal gradient. You'll see both of these as they move inward towards each other, go from white to black. Just like levels tool, we have our lighter pixels being represented on the right side of our histogram, and on the left side we have our darker pixels. As I mentioned, the curves tool does allow you to either adjust the value channel or you can adjust the red, green, or blue channel, all of which can be accessed here from the channel dropdown. You can also come down here to the curve type and it's set to smooth by default. I can also change this to freehand. Freehand just allows you to freehand-draw a curve. We're going to get into what the curves actually do here in a second. So come down here and hit reset, and I usually recommend just sticking with the smooth unless you really know what you're doing with a free hand curve, I am just going to hit the reset button here to make sure we go back to the default settings. As I mentioned, this is the curve right here, this diagonal line, and at the end of each point of the curve is something called an anchor. So these dots right here are the anchors. We can move the anchors by clicking and dragging them. You can see that as we bring our anchors inward and we make this curve more horizontal, we're going to lose colors in our image and also lose contrast. That's an important concept that's going to play a role as we make our actual curve adjustments to our image. On the other hand, if I drag these anchors and I make this curve more vertical, so that's going to do the exact opposite of making our curve more horizontal. Let me again hit Reset here. Keep in mind when we're on the value channel with the curves tool, we are adjusting the pixel brightness in our image. I'm going to come over here and demonstrate how we use this curves tool. I'm going to start by clicking on here, and that allows me to create an anchor. Now I can create shapes from this curve. I can either create multiple anchor points along this curve. For example, I can click on here and adjust this part up or down, and that's going to adjust this particular tone in my image. It's adjusting the brightness as you can see over here. If I click to create a, another anchor point there and adjust this up or down, there's also changes right there to that part of our image, to more towards the shadowy parts of our image. Let me just hit the Reset button here. I can also do a more basic but a more commonly used technique and that is to create something called an S curve. Let me click in the middle here to create an anchor point again. If I come over here towards the center of this segment of our curve and click to create an anchor point and then drag this down. You'll see that only the left half of our histogram is going to be affected here. This is going to be more of the shadows of my image. Then if I come over here and do the same thing for this side, but I click and drag this up, you'll see that now our curve starts to take on this S-shape. What we're doing here is we're decreasing the brightness over shadows while increasing the brightness of our highlights. Anytime you do that, you're going to create contrast. This S curve shape within our curves tool is going to add contrast to our image, and that's something that is very commonly done with the curves tool within GIMP. Let me come back here. Another thing I can do is I can make this S curve more horizontal by clicking and dragging the bottom anchor up a little bit. That's going to help reduce some of the contrast there. But this is only affecting the shadows right now, if I come over here to the top right, I can do the same thing here to the highlights, that's tapering off our contrast a little bit with our S-curve. Here's a before, here's an after. There's a lot more contrast. The only issue is that right now there's a little bit too much contrast. I can always come back here and click and drag this anchor point up a little bit, and click and drag this anchor point down a little bit. Now we have a much more subtle S curve. Here's a before, here's an after, we've got a little bit more contrast to our image without really overdoing the effect. If I wanted to, I could perform a more advanced technique here within the curves tool, which is to come over into my color channels and go ahead and make adjustments to the curve for each color channel. I can either make something like an S curve where I decrease the shadows and I increase the highlights. There you can see what that does there. I'm just going to click the Reset Channel, or I can just create various anchor points here along my curve. I'm just creating an anchor point at each part of my grid here. Then I can go in here individually and make adjustments to the various portions of my Red Channel. There's a before and there's an after. I'm actually just going to reset this channel though, because I'm not going to get into editing the colors of your image using the curves tool. I think we've sufficiently done that with the color balanced tool and the levels tool, especially with this being a Fundamentals course. Let me come over here and hit the Reset Channel. If I come back to the Value Channel, we still have the S curve here, so we still have that added contrast. Of course, I can always use the Split View option as per usual or I can come up here and I can save this as a preset. But I like the settings that I have here for my image, so I'm going to click Okay and apply those curves. That's it for how to use the curves tool in GIMP. Next up, I'm going to show you how to touch up your photos using the airbrush tool and the heel tool. 11. Touching Up Photos With the Heal and Airbrush Tools: In this lesson, I'll show you how to touch up your photos using the heal tool and the airbrush tool, we're going to start here with the heal tool and you can access this in your toolbox and you can also just hit the ''H key'' on your keyboard. The heal tool is very similar to the clone tool, the clone tool being a tool that allows you to clone a source area from your image and paint it onto a destination area in your image so it's going to create an exact clone of the source area wherever your painting in the destination area. The heal tool is a similar concept except instead of directly copying or directly cloning the source pixels to the destination area, is going to use an algorithm to grab pixels from the surrounding destination area and create a final blended result. She's helping your final result blend a little bit better with the surrounding area where you're painting, you can see over here we have a variety of options and these options usually come standard with any of your brush tools in GIMP. You have opacity, that's how transparent or opaque the area is going to be where you're painting the final destination area. You can also change the size of your brush, you can change the type of your brush you're painting with width the heal tool, the aspect ratio is going to determine whether this is a perfect circle, your brush head, or it's going to be a more oblong shape, I'm just going to set that to zero. Then you can change the angle that you're brushing, the spacing between your brushstrokes and then you have the hardness and the force, that has to do with the application of the source area, those settings I recommend just keeping at their defaults. Then of course you have brush dynamics here if you're using something like a Wacom tablet and you have the alignment, which is going to be how your source and destination areas are basically following one another as you paint, I recommend keeping this set to none, I'm going to hold Control and use my mouse wheel to zoom in a bit here. The main goal of the heal tool is to fix small irregularities in your image and that's exactly what we're going to do here. In this case, we actually have some dead pixels on our subject's face, you can see them, they're in the form of white pixels here. These are not things that we want in our final image, I'm just going to adjust the size of my brush head here using the left and right brackets on my keyboard, you can also come over here and use that size slider that I mentioned, you want this brush head to be about the size of the irregularity or maybe a little bit larger than the irregularity or trying to paint out of the image. Now I hold Control and that's going to allow me to grab a source area, I want to grab a nearby source area because I want the skin complexion colors to match, I'll hold Control and click with my mouse and now this is my source area and the alignment option here is going to determine since this is set to none, it's basically just going to paint exactly the same way as I paint using my mouse, you'll see that as I paint with my mouse, my source area is going to paint in the same way. If I hold Control and zoom out, you'll see now that that regularity has disappeared, I'm going to hold Control and zoom in and do the same thing here. We have another pixel right there that needs to be fixed and I hold Control, we have another one right there. I can just do this throughout my image until the image looks the way I want it to or until most of my irregularities or the noticeable ones have all been healed. As you can see there, I held Control and clicked and I grabbed multiple source areas, sometimes you want to do that just to help that final result blend in a little bit better. We're going to find any other major irregularities here, I'll hold Control and grab that source area and then just paint, hold Control and paint. Come up here, do the same thing, hold Control, click, grab my source area and then paint. For the most part we have gotten rid of our irregularities there once we've used the heal tool to get rid of small irregularities in the image, the next thing we want to do is use our airbrush tool to paint in soft areas of color. In other words, we're going to use the airbrush tool to paint the complexion of our model and try to help her skin look softer and more subtle and also to just even out the overall complexion of the model. To do that, I'll come over here and I'll click on my airbrush tool here in my toolbox, you can also hit the A key on your keyboard, again, we have similar tool options here as we had with the heal tool because this is another brush tool, we can set the opacity, the hardness of the brush and so on. Something that is different in this tool is you have rate and flow, the rate slider allows you to adjust the speed of color application that the airbrush paints. The higher the number you set for this slider, the darker the paintbrush strokes are going to be in a shorter amount of time with your brush tool. The flow, on the other hand, controls the amount of color that the airbrush paints, again, the higher the number here, the darker your strokes are going be. Depending on your project, you might want to play around with these settings until you get the optimal rate and flow for your particular project, I tend to leave these settings on the default just when I start painting and then I can go in and adjust them as I'm painting if I really need to, but what I'll do is I'll hold Control and zoom in on my model's face here and I can adjust the size of my brush using the left and right brackets on my keyboard. I want a fairly large brush here, and I want to make sure my hardness is set pretty low, I'm actually going to change this to a softer brush here of 0-5, you can also manually adjust how software brushes right here using the hardness slider. This was set to 25 right here, I hit the ''Enter key.'' Now I'm going to hold Control and click on my subject's complexion here to grab a color, I can drag my mouse around while I hold the Control key and you can see my color will change over here while I do that. Once I have found a color I like, I can then make some adjustments to my brush here, somebody turned down the opacity and was going to test this out and see how it looks. Hold Control Z, let's see if we could turn the rate down a bit, you'll see the color won't come out quite as intensely there, you're just making adjustments to the settings here until you get something you like. Then once you're ready, you can just start painting on the subject's face and you don't want to paint too much, and you want to constantly grab a new color source and maybe even change the size of your brush depending on the size of the area you're wanting to paint on, you can always hit ''Control Z'' and adjust the opacity here and then continue painting. I'm just grabbing new colors here as I go, I'm constantly grabbing colors because the colors in her complexion are going to vary slightly depending on which part of the face we're painting on. Hold Control and zoom out to see what this looks like, I think that looks pretty good, I hold Control and zoom back in, I think this part right here can use some correcting Control Z, I want to turn down the opacity here. Then I'm going to just do a little bit of light airbrushing up here towards the top. We've added some light airbrushing to our model's face here and the last thing I like to do is just add a little bit of red to the cheeks in order to give the model a little bit of blush, I'll come over here and change my color to more of a reddish color. It doesn't have to be a pure red or anything, but I'm actually going to go with a pretty solid reddish, maybe pinkish red color, you can always test it out right here, it looks pretty good. I'll click ''Okay'' and make sure you have a pretty low opacity set in a fairly large brush. Then you can just paint some of that brush right there on the model's face and you don't want to overdo it, you want to make sure it looks nice and natural, you might need to decrease the opacity a little bit. We can hold Control and zoom out a bit, you can also hold Control and zoom in and if you want you airbrush any other part of the model's body here. Anything where there is skin tone, I can increase my opacity here so that this has a little bit more of an effect. In this case, there isn't anything really that I feel needs airbrushing on the body, but again, you guys can come in here and just help even out the complexion on your model, that looks pretty good right there. There is the final airbrushed product and as per usual, I didn't get too crazy with the effects here, the overall goal is to make the complexion of your model look more even, not to make it look like she's some high-fashion supermodel or something, unless of course that's the look, you're going for. That's it for the airbrush and heal tools. Coming up next I'll show you how to sharpen your image using the unsharp mask tool and the high-pass filter. 12. Sharpening Your Image (Unsharp Mask vs. High-Pass Filter): For this lesson, I'll be showing you how to sharpen your photos in GIMP using a couple of methods. The first method is going to be the high-pass filter, and in order to use this tool, what I have to do first is I have to come over here and duplicate my main image layer and I'm just going to name this layer High Pass and hit the Enter key. What the high-pass filter is going to do, is it's going to separate the edges in my photo, and usually when you're sharpening an image, sharpening entails adding contrast to the edges of objects or details in your image and that is exactly what the high pass filter does, is it separates the edges of objects or of details in your image. That allows you to really make those edges standout and that is what is going to make your image look sharper. Now that I have this high-pass layer, I'm going to come over here to filters, enhance, high-pass. This is a feature that is only going to be found in Gimp 2.10 or newer. Here we have the high-pass dialog box and we have the standard deviation and the contrast. The standard deviation is going to increase the size of the pixel area that the high-pass filter is deeming the edge of something. If I hold Control and Zoom in a bit here, you'll see that if I turn the standard deviation up, the edge of the brim of this hat here is basically becoming a larger area and that's not what we want. We want to make sure that edge is nice and concentrated and that it's really as small as we can get it while still being able to show detail. What I'm going to do is play around with the standard deviation slider until I can still see that edge, but I'm just barely getting some of that edge, and we're not just using the brim of the hat, we also want to look at the details in the face. If I scroll out, we have got details in the image here, like the bench, the lines of the bench, the models leg here, and so on. We are just looking at the entire image as a whole and trying to get the most edges going on here. We don't want to get too much, because if we get too much of an edge, then that's not really going to help us make this image sharper. But I can also play around with the contrast, and that's pretty self-explanatory. The contrast is just adding contrast to those areas that the standard deviation is deeming and edge. We do want some nice contrast going on, but again, we don't want too much, so we're just going to play around with the slider until we get some nice separation here of the edges. I'm going to turn that down to 3.2 and some nice contrast in those edges. I'm going to go about right there. You guys can continue to play around with this until you get the proper look or the look you want. Once I've done that, I'm going to click Okay. The reason there's so much gray going on here outside of the edges is that everything that is not going to be an edge according to the high-pass filter is going to be filled in with gray. Once we've applied the high-pass filter, we can come over here and change the layer mode, and I'm going to come over here to overlay and basically all the layer modes in this section are going to be the layer modes that are going to look best with the high-pass sharpening. Now we've applied that overlay layer mode to the high-pass layer, and it's gotten rid of all the gray and everything. If I hide this and hold Control and Zoom in with my mouse wheel, so there's a before, there is an after, so it's a sharper image. But we can come over here and use my mouse wheel to scroll through these and just see which one of these we like best. Hard light looks pretty good there. Vivid light might be a little bit too much. It's starting to bring out some of the noise there. Linear light is definitely too much there; and hard mix is definitely not going to work. Let's come up here to hard light. I think that one look pretty good, and you can also duplicate this high-pass layer and you can compound the effects here and you can change the mode of the duplicated high-pass layer. That's going to sort of help this blend in a little bit better. There's a before and there's an after. Again, there is some extra noise going on here. We've got a slightly more sharpened image here, but this isn't the only technique we can use to sharpen our image. We can also use something called the sharpen unsharp mask, and this is the most popular because it's a pretty quick and easy way to sharpen your image and it's also pretty effective. I'll come over here and I'm going to duplicate my main image again, and I'm just going to hide the high-pass layer and I'll just name this layer Unsharp mask. Now I'll come over here to filters, enhance, sharpen unsharp mask, and the reason this tool is a little bit easier to use this because there's slightly less steps. We can adjust the radius and the amount. The radius is basically going to be the same as the standard deviation in the high-pass filter. It's just going to change the area of pixels affected by this particular effect, which is going to be the sharpened tool. We have the amount, which of course, will control the amount of the effect. If you turn that up, it's going to increase the intensity of the effect. If you turn it down, of course, it'll decrease that and the threshold is really just going to kind of set a cutoff of this effect. I don't typically use the threshold slider but I'll show you what it does in a second. I'm going to play around with the radius and the amount. You don't want to turn the radius up to much because it will add a bit too much contrast. This is actually using pretty much the same theory as the high-pass filter, which is that you're trying to add contrast to the edges of your image. That's why when you turn this up too much, you're going to get too much contrast and you'll see it directly on here on your image, since this is a gego filter, and gego filters show their previews in real time. I'll play around with this. We want some nice contrast without it being too much contrast, and then I can also play around with the amount so I can turn it up, and you can see that's what it looks like with way too much or I can turn it down, so want to find a good in-between here. There's a before, there's an after. If I turn the threshold up, you'll see that that effect is going to be toned down a little bit. If maybe you need just a little bit of the edge taken off there, you can turn the threshold up a little bit. But I like the way this looks. There's a before, there is an after, and I'll click Okay, and I'll hold Control and Zoom out. This is with the unsharp mask sharpening and if I hide that and come over here and turn on the high pass, that's what it looks like with a high-pass. It really produces similar results. I think the high-pass, you have a little bit more control over because you can put the high-pass on multiple layers and use multiple layer modes. But sometimes the unsharp mask or the sharpen unsharp mask is going to do just fine of a job. It's going to definitely get the job done. Either one is really sufficient and I think it just ultimately comes down to your personal preference. That's it for how to sharpen your images. Coming up next, I'll show you how to properly frame your photos using the Vignette filter. 13. Frame Your Photo Properly With a Vignette: In this lesson, I'll show you how to properly frame your photos using the vignette filter. I'm going to come over here and start by creating a new layer, and I'm going to name this vignette. I'm going to make sure my fill width is set to transparency. That's just going to ensure that my new layer is going to be a transparent layer. I'll click "Okay". I'll click and drag this vignette layer to the very top of my image. This is obviously going to be the layer where I'm going to place my vignette. Now I can come over here to Filters, Light and Shadow, Vignette. This is going to draw a vignette with the vignette filter. This filter only comes with GIMP 2.10 or newer. Definitely upgrade your GIMP if you haven't to gain access to this tool. For starters, we have the vignette shape and this is usually going to be set to circle, but you can also set it to square or diamond and that's just going to produce different effects here. I'm going to set that back to the circle. Below the vignette shape, you have the color options. Again, usually you're going to go with black for this. You can see here that it defaults to black. You can choose the color of your vignette using the eyedropper tool right here. Depending on your image, you might want to change the vignette color to something like white if it's more of a bright image and you want the edges to be white or if you're using a specific color in your photo and you want the vignette to match that color, maybe it's like a light blue or something, you can always go with that. But typically you're going to go with a black color vignette. Below that you have radius so that's just going to basically determine how wide your vignette is. The radius is going to be measured from the middle of your vignette to the outer edge of your vignette. As you increase the radius of this, you'll see your vignette gets wider and wider until it eventually goes off of your image. Usually I set my vignette radius so that the vignette is just along the corners of my image here. However, the size of the radius, of course, is going to depend on multiple factors, including where my subject is in the frame and how large that subject is compared to the rest of the frame, etc. Right now though, I want to frame this so that the vignette isn't too imposing on my subjects. So put it at about right here. The softness slider is going to allow me to determine how hard or soft the edge of this vignette is. You can see that as I turn the softness up the edge of this vignette is going to close in on my subject and overlap my subject. So I want to set a softness toward the edge of my vignette isn't too hard like that and isn't too noticeable, but also doesn't impose too much on my subject. I'm always playing around with the softness slider here until I get the right compromise here on my settings. The Gamma is pretty similar as well. That's just going to further allow you to adjust that edge of the vignette there. You can see it says falloff linearity on here when you hover your mouse over it. It's really just going to be the falloff of the fade between the harder portion of your vignette and the softer portion there. It's another variable related to softness here. It's just allowing you to further determine how soft or hard that falloff is going to be of the vignette as it moves closer into your subject or the middle of your image. The proportion is going to be the overall shape of the vignette relative to the aspect ratio of the image. If you have it set to 1.0, the aspect ratio of your vignette is going to be the same as your image. You can always change that proportion, aspect ratio by dragging the slider here. So you can see the farther out I go, the more different the aspect ratio is to the original image, and of course, as I drag this slider to the right and bring this value upward, it gets closer and closer to the original proportion of the image. I like to keep that at one most of the time. But sometimes there are cases where you want the vignette to maybe be a little bit wider than the original image. If you want the vignette to be squished in a little bit more, you can use the next slider, which is the squeeze slider. I've definitely used this as well when I want the vignette to maybe be a little bit tighter on my subject. But in this case, I don't think it really does the image any justice or doesn't really bring out any parts of the image. It doesn't enhance any parts of the model or anything. In this case I'm just going to keep the squeeze set to zero. Then you can change the center coordinates of your vignette. Of course, when I drag this is going to change where the center of my vignette is. This is going to be on the x-axis and this one will be on the y-axis. In our case, the subject is nice and centered on the image, so we don't need to change the center x or y. But there are plenty of cases where maybe the subject is a little bit off to the right in the frame. Maybe you're using rule of thirds and you need to change the center of your vignette. This is a useful way to do that. I'll change these values back to 0.5. Rotation, of course, is going to allow you to rotate the vignette on its axis. You can see there that we're getting a rotated vignette and this allows you to create things like diagonal vignettes or vignettes that are just facing a specific direction. I'll set the rotation back to 180 degrees and hit "Enter". Then below the rotation you have the option to either use the selection as an input or use the entire layer as an input. Since I don't have a selection area right now, this doesn't matter, but if I did have an active selection area, I wouldn't need to come over here and change this option and make sure that the vignette is drawn based on my layer and not based on my selection area. As per usual, you can use the split preview option and you can preview a before and after here. This vignette is very harsh right now. We're going to fix it in a moment, and I'm actually going to just tweak the radius so it goes outward a little bit more and I'll click "Okay." Now we have our vignette drawn here and something I can do after I've drawn the vignette, since I put it on a new layer, is I can decrease or increase the opacity using the opacity slider here for this layer. I like to basically make this vignette fade out so that it's not so prominent. I like the vignette to just barely be noticeable here on the edges of the screen. I'll even turn it down a bit more. There's a before, there's an after. This just allows the viewer's eye to just draw inward towards the subject and it helps cut off some of these highlights going on in the edges of the image and that just provides a nice frame. That's it for drawing a vignette on your image. Next up, I'll show you how to export your images and your compositions out of GIMP. 14. Export Your Images in a Variety of Formats: In this lesson, I'll show you how to export your final image or your compositions out of GIMP. Before we get into that, I want to show you guys, here is the final image with all of our edits, and here is the original image. The original image was a little bit darker. We didn't have as much light directly on our subject, and we didn't have as much details coming from our subject because of that. Her complexion is also not quite as even. The color temperature in the room doesn't look as good, and we don't have it framed, and we don't have everything sharpened here. If we come back over here to the final image, you could see we fixed a lot of those problems, if not all of those problems. I think we've produced a much better final image. Once we have made our edits to our image and we're ready to export it, there's a few options here. For one, we can export this to the native.XCF file format found in GIMP. This file format allows you to export your compositions with all of the original layers still intact. This is great for when you want to open up your XCF files, and delete existing layers, or add new layers, or make adjustments to existing layers. Once you're ready to save this as an XCF file, just come over here to "File", "Save", if you haven't saved this already, or go to "File", "Save As", if you have saved it. You can rename your file to anything you want up here. Up here, you've got the folder where you are currently saving this file. I've already actually saved this file once, that's why this is already here. Let's say, we weren't already in the folder where we wanted to save this to. I can navigate over here to any folder on my computer, and just find that folder where I want to save this. Here we are back to that folder. We can come down here and click on "Select File Type (By Extension)", and just search through the various file types here. In this case, we just want to go with a GIMP XCF image. I'll click "Save" and this is going to ask me if I want to replace it, since I already saved this once, so I'll hit "Replace". Now we have this saved as a.XCF image, which you can see up here. But what if we want to export our image to a different file type, maybe something more commonly used like a JPEG, if we want to upload this to the web, or a PNG file, if maybe we have a transparent background, or even a TIF file, if we want to use this for prints, or a Photoshop document, if we want to export this to a Photoshop document for somebody using Photoshop. Well, I can come over here to "File", "Export" or "Export As". If we've already exported this once, you can see we can export this again to that same file location, and that'll overwrite that original save. I can go to "Export As", and this will allow me to export this under a new name, or a new file type. Here we have it saved as a JPEG by default, but I can come down here to "Select File Type (By Extension)", and scroll through the various file types that GIMP supports. There are a lot of file types here, there's JPEG. You can always see the full name of the file type. Here is the extension, I can just scroll through here. Here, we've got PNG. We even have the Portable Document Format or a PDF. Here's our TIF file. I'm just going to scroll up and save this as a JPEG for now. I'll hit "Export". Again, I'll hit "Replace" since I already saved this once. Now I can set the quality of my JPEG. For web, I recommend setting this to something like 60 or 75. That will just allow you to save some room, so I'll hit "Export". Now we've exported this as a JPEG. Every file type or every file format is going to come with a different dialogue box with different settings you can choose. I do recommend doing some research on the file type you would like to save your image as in order to get the best out of your export. That's it for this lesson on exporting your images out of GIMP. It's also the final lesson in this class on the Fundamentals of Photo Editing in GIMP. If you have any questions from this lesson or any lesson from the entire class, please do not hesitate to message me directly. If you enjoyed this class, please feel free to leave a review, or enroll in any of my other GIMP classes or courses online. Otherwise, thanks for watching and I'll see you next time.