Blender Unleashed: Mastering Subdivision Surface Modeling | Brandon Hix | Skillshare

Blender Unleashed: Mastering Subdivision Surface Modeling

Brandon Hix, 3d Generalist

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34 Lessons (2h 42m)
    • 1. Introduction

    • 2. Welcome and setup

    • 3. Subdivision surface modeling overview

    • 4. Lesson 1.1 - Creating the base mesh for the journal pages

    • 5. Lesson 1.2 - Bending the page with deform modifiers

    • 6. Lesson 1.3 - Smoothing out the pages

    • 7. Lesson 1.4 - Duplicating the pages

    • 8. Lesson 1.5 - Positioning the spine

    • 9. Lesson 1.6 - Curving the spine and cleanup

    • 10. Lesson 1.7 - Creating the cover base mesh

    • 11. Lesson 1.8 - Refining the cover details

    • 12. Lesson 1.9 - Adding final details to the cover

    • 13. Lesson 1.10 - Adding cover pages

    • 14. Lesson 1.11 - Adding a bookmark and cleanup

    • 15. Lesson 2.1 - Creating the base mesh for the maps

    • 16. Lesson 2.2 - Using empty objects and vertex groups

    • 17. Lesson 2.3 - A basic overview of weight painting

    • 18. Lesson 2.4 - Adding a basic curl to the map

    • 19. Lesson 2.5 - Adding a second curled corner

    • 20. Lesson 2.6 - Duplicating and positioning multiple maps

    • 21. Lesson 2.7 - Creating the base mesh for the fossil

    • 22. Lesson 2.8 - Using the cell fracture add-on to split the fossil into multiple pieces

    • 23. 2.9 - Adding some cracks to the fossil

    • 24. 3.1 - Setting Up the Model Sheet

    • 25. 3.2 - Modeling the Pen Body

    • 26. 3.3 - Modeling the Nib Base

    • 27. 3.4 - Modeling the Nib - Part 1

    • 28. 3.5 - Modeling the Nib - Part 2

    • 29. 3.6 - Modeling the Feed

    • 30. 3.7 - Modeling the Cap - Part 1

    • 31. 3.8 - Modeling the Cap - Part 2

    • 32. 3.9 - Modeling the Cap - Part 3

    • 33. 3.10 - Modeling the Cap - Part 4

    • 34. Conclusion


About This Class

By the end of this course you will have learned the ins and outs of using Blender's subdivision surface modifier to create highly detailed 3d models. You'll also gain the confidence necessary to procedurally generate 3d geometry inside Blender using the modifier stack.

  • Great for people looking to improve their modeling skills in Blender
  • Learn about proper topology and subdivision modeling best practices
  • Immediately practical to you and your projects
  • Each project is built from scratch right in front of you so you can follow along



1. Introduction: Hello and welcome to this course. My name is Brandon Hicks. Many stock, and I want to thank you for checking out blender and lynched mastering subdivision surface modelling. This course will be focusing on bringing your modeling skills up to the next level. So if you haven't had any familiarity with blunder before just getting into the software, what I would recommend doing is taking my first port, which is blender image, mastering through the fundamentals quickly. That's gonna get you up to speed and what you need to know in blender before you get to this point. So at this point, if you're ready to start improving your modeling skills, let's talk about what you're gonna learn in this force. This course is gonna focus on two primary things to improve your modeling stills Inside Wonder. And the first thing you're gonna focus on is the blender subdivision surface modifier that's gonna allow you to start building your models out using hard surface and organic techniques in the subdivision service modeling workflow. You're gonna be able to create some really high, detailed, higher as models that are really stunning. So the next thing I want to focus on is Boehner's modifier stack as a unit, and so that's going to allow you to do is get your mind around focusing on building things out procedurally as your model. So what? That means that in a point time, if you change your mind on a certain tweak about how your models to for me to come back to the modifier stack and make some tweaks and make some adjustments after the fact, so you're not gonna have to make any permanent changes to your model based on the modifier deformations, you're gonna be able to constantly make changes as Ugo. It's a really flexible, creative way of working inside Bolander, and I think you're gonna learn a lot as you get into using this work. This course is gonna be a project based course. So each lecture that you see throughout the course is gonna have its own blend file suits, you know, with lecture. So at any point in time, as you walk through the projects, you're gonna be able to pick up the one filed on the point you can skip over sections, come back to other sections, so totally up to you, you have the freedom to do that at any point in time and get the most out of this course the way you want to learn. You'll also be able to enjoy the course as a living course. So what that means is you'll be able to come inside, leave comments, leave suggestions to be able to ask questions, started discussion. And what I'll do is I'll come back and frequently make updates to the course. I'll add new lectures. I'll have new projects and will continue to feed off each other's energy as we start to build models together and plunder. So that's gonna be really fun. I can't wait to get started and show you how to use under subdivision service modelling techniques. Let's get started. 2. Welcome and setup: Hello and welcome to this course. My name is Brandon Hicks with any stock, and I want to welcome you to you. Blender unleashed, mastering subdivision surface modelling. So before we get started with course, I want to talk a little bit about the version of Blender. Amusing. And then some of the add ons were gonna be enabling for this course. So you can see I'm using Blender 2.76 Here's a splash screen with all the specifics right up here. You want to know the exact version of music I want to mention right up front? This is not really relevant to the course. So if you have this version or a later version at some point in the future, if you're taking this course, then you are going to be fine. It's not a problem. Everything that I'm covering in this course has been in Blender for quite a few versions now. So don't worry if you do not have the exact same version, because you're gonna be fun. So moving on, I have changed the default layout a little bit here and just to kind of get rid of all the clutter. So if hit the timeline, gotten rid of the default stuff. That's usually in a three D view port, so we can start with a clean slate. And what I want to talk about now is the add ons that I'm gonna be using starting this course off now, I'm gonna be using some built in add ons, and then later on, we're gonna be using some add ons that will have to install. So I'll walk you through those when we get to them. But right now, just kind of want to walk through the basic sections and tell you what we're gonna be using for what I have turned on for this course that is relevant to you guys. So the first thing I want to talk about is in the three D view dynamic space bar menu. So if you jump down to the three d view section, it's gonna be right here. I enable this pretty much all the time whenever I install blender, because it's going to save us a lot of time jumping around menus and it puts everything in the three d view port and it's accessible. So that's a good thing to turn on jumping down to the add mesh at on are the admission on section down here. You can see that I've enabled bolt factory and extra objects. Extra objects is the one who really want to enable because it's going to allow us to access some things were gonna be using later in the course and then moving down to mesh almost everything in this section I've enabled. Now I don't know if we'll be using be surfaces, but or custom, normal tools. But everything else, especially fto inset loopholes. Relax. All of that stuff is gonna be used. And so I wanna make sure to mention that for you guys, if you haven't used stuff in the past, that's fine. But for this course, um, I want to get into a kind of exploring that with you guys and showing you how I use that stuff. So other than that, um, let's see, we're gonna use the action at on At some point in the last few projects, sell, fracture is gonna be used. And other than that, I think we are good to go. So let's get into the rest of the course. Thank you for purchasing this. It's gonna be a fun ride and I can't wait to show you guys. How do you start using subdivision surface modelling? So let's get started. 3. Subdivision surface modeling overview: in this first lecture, I want to kind of give you a break down of the subdivision service modeling workflow. And so if you never been introduced to it before, this lecture is going to kind of give you an idea of how it works and how to get started and plunder with this process. So right now I've got a cube. I've got wire frame turned on so that you can see it on top of the shading right here. The three d view port. Let me just gonna show you what happens when we apply subdivisions. Service modifier to you are cube. So if you've never done this before, basically, just gotta get the ad modifier tab right here, click this Go down to you the subdivision surface section. Click this to apply the modifier right here. And then that's going to Transformer Cube into a subdivision surface right here. And so basically, what it's doing is it's not Onley subdividing the cube. The more we apply, it's also smoothing it out if you're using the cattle Clark algorithm right here. And so you got two options you got simple, which basically does nothing but subdivided the capital Clark which sub divides it and smooth that at the same time. And so that's basically how it works. You've got your view right here, which is your preview of how this looks in the three d view port. You go from 1 to 6, and that's going to increase the subdivisions. And then you've got the render option down here, which is the exact same thing is the view, Except this controls how maney subdivisions there are when you try to render this through a camera. So when we get into rendering, this is gonna be important. Not so much for this course, but for the next course. Um and so view is what you're gonna use most often, and I usually like to keep this somewhere between one and 31 If it's a really complex mesh , it's really gonna bog down the video memory for a view port. But three, if I'm trying to get a really good estimation of what this is gonna look like when I render so a couple of other options we're gonna go over is some divide U V s, which is important when you try to export a UV map for your object. It's going Teoh, apply the sub surf to the U. V s, given the same amount of distortion and also information of where the subdivided shapes appear in the UV map. So that's important to have checks if you're gonna use a UV map. Also optimal display. If you're using a really heavy matchless, is cranked all the way up to six. It's going to take out all of the wire frames that usually show up on your mesh. Hide those and just show you the most important parts of how this is deforming on top of your model and so optimal display is something I use quite a lot. And, ah, a couple more of the options before we get into you. How this works is if you're not familiar with the modifiers, a lots and you know it uses a lot in Blender applies going to make this live so that if I wanted to edit mood, it's all going to be actually applied to the model. So if I undo this and then jumping at it, mood, you can see we're going to get a preview of our original shape, which is this cube and then the subdivided shape inside of that. And so, if you want to show how this looks in edit mode, just like you would an object mode, you can check off this button here, which will show you the preview in that it moved. Um, this button will turn off all previews in that it mood and just show you the base mesh and sew. These buttons are important when you're trying to figure out how this is gonna preview, and also you can turn on and off your sub surf modifier in the stack and so you can turn off the preview there, and this is gonna turn it on and off for rendering. So if you want to keep your sub served modifier live and then render within on, make sure you have this button checked and that's gonna be important. So that's pretty much all the options. And now let's talk a little bit about how this works, how the workflow is gonna happen for this course and why this powerful and important. So jumping into you are cube, as we can see here, I turn this back down to zero, so that's basically off. We basically have a cube, which isn't that exciting. So let me start adding some geometry and I'm gonna talk a little bit more about how this works and slow it down as we get into you projects. But if I add some edges like this and then turn my preview back up, it's going Teoh kind of do some interesting things with our modifier applied after we Madison geometry. And so once I've created some or edges along these right here towards thes corners, we're going to get creases for right here. And so this is important because it's gonna be the very essence of how we model using a subdivision service workflow. And so the mawr edges that are bunched up close to one another, the tighter the edges, they're gonna be defined in our underlying mesh. And so when we have a base mash that has these edges bunched up together and that's subdivided if I zoom in close, you can see all of the little subdivisions this create a uh, it's basically replicating this behavior on a really small scale when I subdivide and smooth. And so the more edges we have much up close together. The tighter are edges are gonna be the more we have them spread out, the looser they're gonna be. So if I move this up, you can see what's happening to the model. As I move this up and down, it's creating and more loosely defined shape because there aren't any edges down here holding that position into place. And so if you want to create a crease on your model, you need a bunch some edges up closer know one another, and them or edges. You add the closer you're going to get back to you that original model. And so if I add enough edges and I bunch them up close enough together, we're basically gonna end up with a Q begin. And so you can see it's not exactly the same as the cube we had before. But if I turn off this wire frame, you can see that we have a que basically, and the difference is that the edges air a little more smoothed out. And that's really what we want when we're using subdivision service modeling as we want to create objects where we have control over smoothness, control over tightness for these edges, and that's gonna give us a lot of control over how we create these especially hard service models as we get into these. So that's a basic overview of how to use the sub served modifier with modelling techniques to create some subsurface shapes. And it's really powerful. If I get in here and I start adding in all sorts of stuff, you can see that with the subsurface applied, you can get all sorts of crazy, interesting shapes. And so just by using basic modeling techniques, I can create some pretty complex shapes right off the bat. And then, of course, as you get in here and you start using something a little bit more complicated than just that cube, you can create some really interesting organic and man made hard service details into your models with this workflow. So that's gonna be how we're basically gonna model in this course. And in the next lecture, we're going to get into the first projects, and I'm gonna start talking about how to use multiple modifiers. So with the subsurface workflow, and it's gonna be really fun. So let's get into it 4. Lesson 1.1 - Creating the base mesh for the journal pages: Before we get into each of these projects, I want to emphasize again the importance of planning out your models planning at your shots and what they're gonna be used for. So up in front of you is a piece of concept art that I worked up for this course and the next course. And basically the reason for this is because it gives me an idea of the camera angle where the objects are going to be placed in the scene the overall composition, the lighting and ultimately, the materials and how they interact with one another. Because it's really important to have an idea of the final use for all of the objects you're gonna be creating, because context is vital. So what I mean is, if I was going to be working on, um, you know, a visual effects shot where these are gonna be handled by a digital characters or they're gonna be moving through the scene, I'm gonna spend more time. Focusing on things is their applicability to the animation section. And so the details maybe mawr intricate, and they may be more necessary depending on how they're seen on screen. If it's for still shot like this. I know that I'm gonna be seeing the front of this object and never the back of it. And so the same goes for all the obvious on the scene. And I'm not gonna really worry about the underside of this plate. You know, the underside of these maps as much. Or you know, all the other stuff on this desk because the only thing that's really important is what is in this shot, and nothing's ever gonna be turned over. So I just wanted to mention that before we get started, context is key. And so before you start creating your own scenes and building your own models, jump in the photo shop. Whatever program you want to use, sketch out something quick, it doesn't have to be really pretty. It just needs to be something that allows you to plan and get an idea for what you're seeing is gonna end up looking like, and that way you can kind of save time up front and just get an idea of what's gonna happen . Eso now that we have that out of the way And I've kind of explained that let's jump into the first projects and the first thing we're gonna do You start working on this journal that you see here in front of you, and so we're gonna build out the pages and we're gonna build out the binding, and then we're gonna get in some other objects. So let's jump in a blender and get started. All right? Now that we're in Blender, let's get started on our first projects. And before we get started, I just want to mention that because this is a beginner to an intermediate level course, I'm going to be using keyboard shortcuts along the way. And those will be displayed in the upper right hand corner right here in this box. So is a navigator in my three deport. You can see those popping up right there, and that will be a nice reference if you need to come back and find something in case I forget to mention it. Also, I'm going to be using default wonder units under the scene settings right here. So we're not gonna be using metric or imperial, but each blender unit along the grid right here is gonna be equal to one inch in terms of real world scale. So we're gonna be using that for all of our models and all of our projects in this course. And so, with out of the way, let's go ahead and jump into the first model and get started. So I'm gonna go in and out of plane. Teoh are three. Deport right here and let me go ahead and tap on Edit Moon. And what I wanted you to start off with is kind of get this reposition. So it's easier to move and scale and see where I'm at in terms of where this is on the grid . So let's move this over one blunder unit and up one Wonder unit in the Y direction. And so it's still in the grid right there. But it's now got the origin in the bottom left hand corner of the plane. And so let's jump in its hop. You, I wouldn't want to do is I have a two by two inch plane right here, but I want to make an eight by 10 page, and so let's go ahead and move. These two Vergis is over, and the X axis six more inches. That's gonna give us eight inches total across. And let's move this up eight more inches in the Y direction to give us an eight by 10 page . And also, I want to add a little bit more geometry on the back side of each page because it's gonna have to be attached to the cover of our journal. So let's go and extrude east two points out a couple inches this way to give us a little bit more geometry to work with. And the last thing I want to do before we get back an object mode is I want to add some vertical divisions to our page, which is gonna help us been this evenly in our next lecture. So to do this, I'm gonna use a tool called Luke Cut. And so you're not familiar with this tool. You go into the tools palette down under subdivide right here, toe loop, cut and click this over over an edge, and I want to insert three of these. So I'm gonna scroll up in my mouse wheel a couple of times to give me three cuts right there and then when I left click, it's gonna put me on the edge slide mood let's just right collect to cancel the slide. And now those are evenly cutting my page across three times to give me four divisions in the page. Now, the reason I'm starting off this way is because the subdivision modifier we're gonna be focusing on this course is gonna do a lot of the heavy lifting for us in terms of the details. So I don't want to go crazy subdividing a lot of stuff into the base mesh. So you'll see this a little bit later on and let's go ahead tab back out into object mood and get started by adding some thickness to our page. So let's get the ad modifier right here, down to solidify. And if you never use solidify before it's pretty cool. All it does is basically extremes. The faces in a mesh by this thickness value right here. And so as I scrubbed this, you can see what it's doing. And what I want to do is give myself just a tiny bit of thickness for this page. So something like point of three right there is gonna be a good value for us to start off with. And that will be a little bit of thickness. What I want to do is prepped this for bending this in the next lecture. So what we need to do is turn this vertically because of the type of modified we're gonna be using coming up. So I don't want this laying on the ground. I want this pointed straight up in the air. So before we do that, let's go ahead and talk back in the edit moon unless reposition our origin so that the pivot is right in the middle of the page right here. So let's right. Click this for attacks, right? Click this other Vertex to select both of these. And I want to reposition my three d cursor. So it's right in the middle of these two points, which will put it right in the middle of the page for us. So to do that, let's hit shift us to bring up our snap menu, and I'm gonna select cursor to selected, and that's gonna switch the three D cursor to the average position between these two vortex points that we have selected and then under the tools palette over here. If I get on the set origin, I can goround three d cursor. And now, instead of being right here, it will be in the middle of our page, right? We're in one in. You also noticed that once you do this, it's going to reposition the page 500 units up in the Y direction because that's where the origin is. So the recent of this page on the middle of our three D report, we're going to zero this back out, and that's gonna put our page right in the middle. Here it shifts. See, recent are cursor in our view. And now let's go ahead and rotate this page so that it's sitting up vertically on the floor . So I'm gonna jump into the front view here are for rotate a nominal control. Teoh incrementally snapped this until it's all the way up nine degrees like this. And there we have it. Now our page is in place. Are beige measures ready? And we're going to start bidding this in the next lecture. So I will see you there 5. Lesson 1.2 - Bending the page with deform modifiers: in this lecture, we're gonna work on adding a little bit of a bend to our page. So to do this, I want to use another modifier. So let me go ahead and collapse this one down so that we have a little bit more room to work with. We'll go to the ad modifier right here, down through the curve modifier, and that is going to add a curve deform modifier to our stack. Now the first thing you'll notice is that it's gonna turn red on us, and that is because we do not have a curve defining how it's going to deform. So it's missing this piece of information, and any time you see that, that is why something is turning red is because it's looking for something that isn't there , and so to change this and make it work, let's jump on the top. You once add a curve object, so I'm gonna add a busy a curve, and you'll notice that when we add this, it's going toe. Have a bit of a curve by default thrown in for us, and I want to get rid of that. So let's tap into edit mood and right off the bat, you'll notice that you have two points on the curve defined for us. And if you haven't used curves before and blender basically you're always gonna be given a point on the curve and surrounding each point will be two other points on opposite sides of the curve. And any time you select the point, you can rotate scale or move the point just like you wouldn't mesh. And then you can also select either of these points on the handles right here and then move those around to modify the curve to So it's going to by default, give us a 45 degree angle bend in this curve, and I want to get this year that out. So I'm gonna select this middle point here on our first point, and I want to rotate this 45 degrees. It's gonna zero that out for us, and I want to select both points so that we have our whole curve selected right here. And then let me go ahead and move this over one blunder unit, snapping it to our grid so that this first point is right in the middle of our origin. Okay, So now let's right click on our second points in the middle here, and I want to go ahead and move that over so that it's sitting on the end of our grid right here on the X axis. I'm just gonna snap this in the place, and that's gonna basically go the full length of where our pages going to sit in the end. And what I want to do now is that a little bit of a vertical bend to our page to kind of give us an idea of how that's going to bend down as it lays in our book. So to do this, I need another point in the middle here. And to do that, I can right click to select both of these points at the same time. And if I jump over our tools palette under the curve tools which will become active once you have a curve that you're modifying, I could jump down to these subdivide menu right here. Click the button subdivide, and we're at a point for us. Or if I undo that, if I hit W in the three TV port to bring up the specials menu, it will throw the subdivide button right up top for me so I could get that and it will do the same thing. And so let's go and right click this point that she's been adding jumping in the front view . And let's work on adding a bend to you this curve that will help us determine other page bends. So let's move this up in the Z axis a little bit. Let's go up about one blunder unit and then you'll see that we're gonna have a curve that bends nicely in the middle but then flattens back out on both ends. What I want is a nice even arc from the beginning to the end of the curve. So get in front of you. I want to drag the handles on both the front and endpoints up a little bit so that we're left with a nice smooth arc from the front, the back, just like that. And so scale the middle point out a little bit more and there we go. Now I've got a nice even arc from front to back, and we're gonna use this and are curved deform Teoh change the way that this is Ben Day. So let me go ahead and jump down to the busy occur we just created. And it's always a good idea to rename your curves to something that you're gonna recognize later on in casing the use multiple curve in the seen so much change the name of this to Bend. And then let's select our page and make sure that's the same curve. And it is. And so what's happening right now is that it's trying to deform, but it doesn't know how to do it properly because it's picking the X axis by default. So it was moved the page along the X axis. You can see it's following the curve, but it's not really deforming the way we want it to. You change this. We need to cycle through the D formation axes, and so we find the one that works for us, and this case is gonna be the negative Z axis. Now, if we were to move this page along the Z axis, it's going to slide along that curve and deform properly. But you have to admit moving in an object mode along the Z axis is kind of a weird thing to do because we're moving it up and down to get it to go across. So to fix this, what I'm gonna do is tab into edit mode. You'll see that my default it's going to show us the original position of our page because the curve deform is not being applied without this button turned on, which shows how it looks and edit moon. So if we turn this button on for a modifier, it's didn't gonna show us the preview for what that looks like on a curve. And what I want to do is select all the points for our base mash on our page. And then if we start sliding these down the Z axis, you can see how it's gonna reposition where it needs to be. Now, what I wanted to do is put it right about here so that we have a little bit of overhang on this side for are binding, and then we have the rest of page bent properly along the length of this curve. So I want to move this down. Six units in the Z axis type in negative six and an object moon. You're going to see that we have are been now added to the page, and it's a little bit low resolution because we haven't added any smoothness yet. But now we basically have the bend where it needs to be in our page. So in the next lecture, we're gonna work on continuing to modify our page so that it is shaped properly and the bend is a little bit more natural. And so I will see you there. 6. Lesson 1.3 - Smoothing out the pages: in this lecture. I'm gonna work on smoothing this page out quite a bit more, and I'm also going to alter the curvature so that it fits into our journal as we get to modeling it in the next few lectures a little bit better. So let me start off by introducing you to the subdivision surface modifier. And so let's collapse the curve modifier to give us a little bit more room at our subdivision service modifier down here. And that's immediately going to increase. The subdivision counts in our model, and as we turn up the view number right here, it's going to dramatically increase our geometry. Now remember, this is all happening on the fly. So because of these modifiers were changing the base mesh into this. At any point in time, I can come along and turn these modifiers on her off, allowing us to go right back to the base mesh. So these air being applied in order from top to bottom, starting with solidify. So if we turn this on its first adding that thickness to that edge, that it's curving it, and then it's finally subdividing it with our subdivision service modifier and So it's important to know that these are applied from top to bottom, going down the stack. And so if you change the order of these, it will update the model to reflect those changes. So let me show you how to do that, which is to use these arrows right here to modify the position of thes modifiers in the stack. And so this is the order that I want to have this end for this particular lecture. I wanna have my solidify happening first. Then I want to subdivide, and then finally, I want to curve it after we've subdivided that way. The curvature is taking advantage of those subdivisions and creating a much smoother transition from front to back. So now that we have that in the place, let's go ahead and add a little bit mawr geometry to our page so that these corners air held in the place. So once we're back in edit mode, let's go ahead and add some more vertical subdivisions. And so the first thing I'm gonna do is put one right down the middle, using our Luke cut school and then right click to cancel a slide. Keep it in the middle, and that's going to ensure that any loops that we add using Army miracle inputs on the left or right side of this page is going to be exactly the same distance from the center. And then we can get rid of this in the middle. So let me show you how this is gonna work. Go ahead and add another subdivision over here, and this time I'm going to type in 0.98 to get it really close to this edge. So buys human here. You can see how close that it's the edge and you'll notice, too, that if I slide this back and forth, it's affecting the opposite side of the page. So it's over here that's being affected because of the orientation of this and the bend that's happening with our modifiers. So let me go ahead, do the same thing on this side. 0.98 this time will type in negative before we hit enter, and now that's keeping that creased on this side. And then I want to add another division on the top and the bottoms. So that's our pages, air creased on the front back here. Let's add one here, 10.95 This time we'll go negative. That's affecting right here. And then we'll go 0.95 down. Here it is. And that's affecting the front of our page, as you can see, and that's all there is to it. So now let's get rid of this middle subdivision because we're not gonna need it. So if I right click and hold Ault at the same time, it's going to allow me to you select this entire loop right here. And so now that selected, I want to go ahead and X to delete it. And if I jump down toe Edgell oops, it's gonna delete the edge loop instead of just the Vergis ease. And so now we have modified are matched to hold the corners. And if we go back an object mode, you can see that our pages pretty much the same. Except that the corners air now tight and defined. So even though our smoothing has turned up, we now have those corners kept in place because we've added geometry toe, hold them into place. Okay, so now let's start working on the bend of our page to get it into the proper position. So what I wanna do is go ahead and select the curve now and I'm gonna go ahead and jump in the Edit moon. And now let's start working on these points. Teoh kind of get our page in a better position. Now what I want is basically tohave the binding standing up vertically again right here in the middle. And then I want this to curb over and then kind of flatten back out so that it's sitting on the top of the next page. And so let me go ahead and rotate this a little bit. You'll notice, too, that we're all the way over here on the edge of the grid and because we've now curved this page, the excesses going down far enough on this side that it's pulling the page backwards and it's not actually touching the ground. And so we'll work on that. But right now, let's go ahead and jump to you the binding part of this and I want to rotate this a little bit and you can see even if we rotate all the way, it's not gonna be enough. Teoh. Correct this vertically. And so what I wanted to you is subdivide this again so we'll add another point in here and the closer. Remove this to the center, the Mauritz going to curve the front end of this down. And so now if I select this point and start rotating, you can see that if I kind of finesse this into place, it's gonna let me rotate this down so that it's vertical again. And so because this is not touching the ground on this side, what I actually wanted to you is John back into edit mode here, select all my points. And now I just want to kind of move this down in the Z direction until the tip of this page touches the ground again. So let's just move this down until that is happening. So if we zoom in here and I'm just moving all this points up in the Z direction, I just want to get that to go down to the tip of that curve. So now let's go back into the curve, pull this down all the way to the ground, rotate that back a little bit into place, and now I want to do is just kind of get the overall position a little more refined so that it feels a little bit more natural. So at this point, you can see that we still have a little bit of an artifact when we rotate around the three d View port in terms of the shading on the surface of this page. And so let's just go ahead and enable smooth shading over here. So you get rid of the surface normals being shown as edges. And now that that smoothed out, we're gonna get a little better view of the bend of our page switching back in the front view. Let's make sure we're happy with the way this is sitting with our curvature. And so a lot of this is just gonna be personal preference, trying to figure out how we want to position this into place, and I think that is gonna be a pretty good position for us. Bear in mind, we're always going to be able as long as our modifiers air active on our object, to come back at any point in time and modify the curvature of this. And that's really the strength of the way that you're building this model procedurally because you're gonna be able to modify any of this at any point in time. So now that we've got this bend into place, I think we are ready to start duplicating our pages. And that's what we will tackle in our next lecture. I'll see you there. 7. Lesson 1.4 - Duplicating the pages: in this lecture, I'm gonna show you how to you duplicate this page to create the rest of the pages to fill up our journal is that I do this. What I'm gonna do is use another modifier continuing along with our procedure on modelling techniques. And we're gonna use the ready modifier here. And what this allows you to do is basically create duplicate number of objects based on this count right here. And there's a lot of options in here. I'm not gonna cover every single one of them because they're not gonna be applicable to this project. But basically, you can do a constant offset which will allow you to do an equal distance away from the object that you have on and it will never change. And then you have a relative offset which allows you to basically step offset based on the position of each object that is duplicated. That's what we're gonna use here. And as you can see, we have a few copies we're gonna add right now. And let's go ahead and zero this back out, and then we'll start getting in here and playing with this. So let me go to the front view, and I basically want to try to duplicate down into the right so that we can get this in a position. And so let's go ahead and just drag a little bit over so that we can get an idea where this is gonna give. It looks like negative 0.1 is gonna pull these down, and so I want to try to pull these down. Let's try a negative 0.1 And that's not quite enough. So let's get a point. Negativo 15 be a little bit more. Let's try negative point out to you a lot of experimentation here to get these values and properly. So vertically speaking, that is a pretty good number to start with. And then we want to move this over by a specified value to so it looks like we're gonna go negative 101 a little bit much Native Point over five, and it's looking a little better, so that is really all it takes to start duplicating these pages out, and you can get these as loose or is tightly bound as you want by changing those offsets. But that's all it takes. So what I would recommend doing is starting with a fixed number for each side of the journal. So let's start with something like 25 and even that is is pretty dense considering how far apart really space. So let's do something like 15 instead. And what you want to do is try to do in here and eliminate as much air between these as possible without having them intersect. So let's go ahead and pull these end a little more. Go back up. This is gonna be a vertical value is the horizontal value. Let's go a little tighter like this. That's about as much as I'm gonna be able to get out of packing these in here. And now let's go ahead and reduce this value. Now I have room here, but I don't have room here. And so another way, Teoh, modify the way these air spaced out is by changing your curve, which is another good reason to not apply all of these and model these by hand. But to use the modifier stack because now I can go back, pick my curve out in this giant mess of polygons. So right now I'm seeing all of this wire frame. It's a giant mess. What I can do is to jump into the sub served modifier, turn on optimal display, and that will hide the majority of those subdivisions. So now I can select my curve. It's turned smooth, shooting back on him, jumping the edit moon. And now if I move this around, you can see that it's gonna update live all of our, um, our pages. So let's see. You know, I need to move this over, rotate this of this up. Maybe at another subdivision going undo. That could just be that that is too high up. So let's go ahead and pull that over something like that, and it's a little better. It's not perfect, but it will be enough to help us out a little bit. And so same thing here. If I pull this back, it's going Teoh kind of change the way this updates for the compact nous of those pages. And so now that I've got that kind of employees, let's go back out to our object here and let's go ahead and start modifying these numbers little more. So let's try. Let's try 12. Okay, that's probably about as good as we're gonna get this packing those own and that's pretty good. Okay, So as you can see, just by getting those in place and then modifying our curve, we've got a nice optimized of you right here. And what I'm gonna actually do now is let's go and turn the grid off because it's kind of getting in the way. So under display here, let's unchecked grid floor that I'm also gonna uncheck exit. Why? So we basically just have a great view and then our model right here. So now what we want to do is we can optimize some of these settings as we g o. But I now I basically have 1/2 of my journal with these pages, and I can change the count as I want. It's not going to affect anything. So what I can do now is duplicate this over to the other side by using one more modifier, which is the mirror modifier. Let me add one more and we'll drive down the mirror. And this is gonna be important. And it's also based on your origin of your object. So right now it's trying to Merrill on the X axis, and what I want to do is mirror along the Z axis instead. And what's important when you're working on this object is to consider the fact that since it smearing along the origin of the three D view port, you're gonna want to position your pages a little bit off the center so that they're not gonna collide in the middle. And this is where it's really important to get your curve into a position where it's not going to be crossing that center guide. So as you can see, because I've been this, I can bend it away a little bit to straighten these out, pull it back towards the middle and again, When I do that, you can see there intersecting. So I just need to street in this back out. Okay, that's pretty good. So now if you look down from the top, it kind of looks like it. What if they were bound together and that's an easy way to get two sides of the journal created. Now, I I don't like the fact that this is symmetrical, so there is exactly the same amount of pages on this side as there are in this side. And so what you can do is actually duplicate the object and then change the, uh, the amount of pages after you delete 1/2. And so what I can do now is I'm gonna go ahead and hit shifty to duplicate this. I'm gonna hit, escape, Teoh, go ahead and prevent this from movie. And I have two copies sitting on top of each other, and what I'm gonna do is let's just move this copy over to the second layer. And so if I select this copy right here and I collapsed this open up the mirror modifier, let's turn off the mirror modifier right here that we just have 1/2 on the first layer and on the second layer will do the same thing. But we're going to first change the amount of pages. And so this is gonna be another side of our journal. And, Joe, I want mawr less pages. Um, so let's just say I want fewer. So let's go down to something like 12 and it just has to be a little bit off to make a difference, and that would I want to do is go ahead and um, get rid of this modifier. So now we have two versions, different number of pages on each. And so now what I can do is go ahead. And if I jump back to the first layer me, go ahead and duplicate this curve move. That's a layer to you. And I want to rename this Teoh, then alternate. And so if we jump to the curve, select bend alternate. Now what I can do is select both of these objects because they're affecting each other and the curve has to go with Thea. This side and I want to rotate around the three d cursor, which is in the middle. The View port, What's rotated? 180 degrees. So it is positioned on the other side. Now, Now, if I turn on layer two and layer one, I have two sides of the journal, except now I can choose how many pages per side. And so this is gonna be a little easier to work with, because it's going to allow us to pick how we want to show this off so I can go pretty thin or thicker on one side versus the other. And, um, let's go ahead and just get rid of smaller fire to you. We're not gonna need to mirror it now. And so now we have a lot of options at our disposal, and I think I like that a little better. So let's work with that. And that's basically it. Forgetting our pages duplicated and into place, and the next lecture we're going to start working on are binding, and so I will see you there. 8. Lesson 1.5 - Positioning the spine: in this lecture, we're gonna wrap up some fine tuning on our pages here, and then we're gonna move into you getting the spine shaped and in place in the next couple of lectures. So to start off, I want to mention that in this lecture, I'm just gonna work on 1/2 of the journal because of the same process is going to be known for both sides using the following process. So what I want to do first is create a backup of my progress so far. So I'm going to select everything in this layer hit shifty. And then let's move it to you later. 20 down here. And so now I've got a backup in case I do anything stupid. Um, so to move on, let's go ahead and assess where we're at and see if we're happy with our progress. So if I zoom in, I'm looking for details, things that might be at a place I might want to fix before everyone, because up next, we're gonna apply all of our modifiers and kind of take this the next level. So the only thing I noticed as I was looking around waas that in this bend right here for both sides of our pages. We're kind of losing. Some detail are Resolution's dropping off and we're getting some jagged edges. And so to fix this, we need to change the subdivision levels or the placement of our loops right here in the base mesh. So if we're in the base mash and I have this loop right here selected and I move this around, you can see what's happening on that spine. And so depending on where we positioned this, one might be able to get a little bit of a better result. We want less stretching and more subdivisions. And so let's go and add a new right here and now I'm gonna slide this down towards this other loot, and you can see now that we've done that would get a little bit better bend right here. And so it's kind of subtle. It's not a huge jump in results, but definitely changes the way things look. And so now that we've got that in a place, everything in between these two loops that we've added are going to be subdivided, and they're gonna b'more geometry right there. And so that's gonna help us out a little bit. So now that I'm happy with where we're at on the details for our pages, let's go ahead and start applying our modifiers and move on to the spine. So to do this, basically want to start from the top and then work your way down. And the reason for this is that if you start applying them out of order, you're gonna get an error, and usually it ends up giving you some weird results. So top down is the way you want. Tokyo. We'll start with solidify modifier, and all you basically want to do is make sure that you're happy with your settings because you're not going to tweet them after the step. And so if you're happy hit, apply, and that will make it live, and we're just gonna step down to the rest of these and make sure we apply those I want to turn down my subdivisions a little bit so that we're saving some of these faces up here in terms of the face count. So I think two is acceptable. And then I know I'm gonna be happy, but the rest of these so I'm just gonna go and apply those. So now, if we're not it mood, you can see definitely more subdivisions. Where we just out of this and everything is now live so permanent are modified, your gone. And now we've got finalized model right here. And so let's go ahead and start figuring out how we're gonna move on getting our spine in a place before we start bending it. So I'm in front of you now going to edit Moon and let's check out our geometry right here. Now what I want to do, basically, is I want to move the spine up so that it's closer to this region because it's way too long right now. And so to give myself a little bit of a visual guide for where this is supposed to be sitting, I'm gonna go ahead and add a plane that is going to represent where are book cover? Our journal cover would be in relation to the pages, so basically want to pick the side that has the most pages because that's gonna be the lower side, and I'm gonna drop this plan right underneath it. And that's just gonna tell me when we get some modeling our cover where that's gonna be sitting. And so now I need to basically drop these pages so that they're arresting on top of this plane so that they're even on both sides. So they're way I'm gonna do this because you already applied are curved modifier is I'm going to select the Vergis ease at the very end of our pages right here. And I'm gonna hold control and left, click and drag to last of selectees. And now that these air selected, what I can do is turn on proportional editing down here at the bottom. And once I enable this, it's going toe. Let me move my geometry using ah, smooth fall off to you Move all of these points at the same time So let me turn off my three d cursor as the pivot point. Turn this back to median point here. So it is based on my selection and now when I start moving, you can see that I'm not just moving, the points have selected. I'm also moving the points around those points based on this circular influence area that you have in front of you. And so the way you adjust. This is I'm basically just hitting g to start moving. And then I'm using my scroll wheel of my mouse. Teoh control the size of this area of influence, and so you can also jump down here and control the way this falls off. And so typically it's gonna be set to smooth. And you also have all of these options you can use, which will get until later. But although basically want to do is drop this page down so that all of these air kind of resting on this cover. And so let me get ahead and just move these nine a little bit, possibly pulleys over, so they're not so stretched. And then if we wanted to you will you come in here and kind of dropped the rest of these so that we have a much easier fall off for our pages. And so once I have these in position, I can then just move my, uh, my middle mouse button to adjust the fall off, and that's going to give me a little bit better, smoother transition into you the rest of those pages. And so now those air in place, let's go ahead and look at our spine and see what we need to do you to You get this in a place now, I basically want to pull this up. So where it's sitting on this ground point that we just added. So what I need to do is get rid of some of these subdivisions because they're just gonna get in the way as we try to move this up. And so I'm gonna go into a wire frame view, and I'm gonna hold control and do our last of selecting in. And what I have those selected. If I had X and then she was agile. Oops, get rid of those. You'll see it did something interesting there. Once I got rid of those edge loop is selected, the edge loops on the top and the bottom on either side. And so I basically want to keep going down and getting rid of the rest of these. So what I need to do is diesel like these top edge loops and I want to do is hold control and shift Teoh last So de select those. And now that I've got my next set of edge loops to remove, I just remove those and the same thing's gonna happen. And I just do this all the way down until I'm out of things to delete. And I want to leave the last two rows just about and that will be enough to hold our geometry and let's do one more. And there we go. So now I'm basically just left with the tips of our pages down here, and I can grab all of those and then just pull those up. Now I want to turn off my proportional editing right here, and then I can just pull these up and there we go. So that's basically it for positioning our spine. And in the next lecture, we're gonna take a look at how we can start shaping it and getting it into place, So I will see their 9. Lesson 1.6 - Curving the spine and cleanup: this lecture. I'm going to show you how to add the curvature to the spine as well as how do you clean up the pages a little bit and add some finishing touches. So let's go ahead and get into this. First thing we do is clean this up a little bit. I don't need this curve anymore, so let's get rid of that. I also don't know this ground plane. Somebody ordered that and let's now jump into front you and start looking at our spine. So I'm gonna do this with another modifier, So I'm gonna have this selected. And what I want to add is a lattice modifier. So you'll see this is gonna turn red, indicating that we're missing a piece of information. And in this case, we're missing a lot of to plug in right here. And so let me go ahead and add one using our object menu right here. Jump down to you lattice. Add that, and if you never use the last before, they are interesting. Basically, what they do is they wrap around a piece of geometry and they allow you to deform it. Kind of like a cage. So what I'm gonna do is basically just get this in a position to scale it so that it's surrounding the spine where I want you create this bend. And then let's go ahead and start manipulating the lattice to get it into position so you can see it's basically represented by a Cuba right now by rotate around. And if I jump over to this new option that we have here for the lattice, you can see that we have lattice options allowing us to change the dimensions of the lattice as well as from divisions. And so, basically, you have three different U V W measurements right here depicting the different dimensions of the lattice. And so I wanted to be flat. So I'm gonna turn this down, the one for the V. And then I want to pull this back out so that it's in front of our spines that we can see it and then let me go ahead and manipulate these other two values. So I want to have some sections in here to split this lattice up so that I have multiple points to edit. So we'll go ahead and increase this to right about there and then I'll go ahead and turn this up to three so that we have a vertical split right there and that's all we need to do to get started. So let's go ahead and jump back to our pages back to the modifiers time, and then let's go ahead and pick our lattice object we just created. And the last thing we need to do is create a Vertex group indicating which Vergis is. We want to add a using the lattice and deform. So if I jump into the edit mode for the pages here, what I want to do is select just these vortices down here at the bottom. So let's go ahead and do that. And these are the only ones I want to effect with lattice so jumping over to our data for object right here we go down to Vertex groups and hit the plus icon out of her text group. What I want to do is a sign the Virgin sees I have selected to the group and I want to sign them with 100% value, which is weighted from 0 to 1 right here and says zero being not affected at all by the Vertex group one being affected completely by the Vertex Group. So let's turn this all the way up to one and it's a sign right here and then if I d select everything, I can check this by selecting the Vertex Group that I have active. I hit select it should re select everything that I'd just assigned to the group. And so that's how you create a vortex group. It's drawn back over to our modifier and then we'll select the Vertex group we just created . Okay, now are set up is complete for a lot of STI form. And so if I jump back over to the lattice, let me show you how this works. So if you move this around in object mode, nothing is gonna happen. So if you jump in Edit Moon, it's now going to start deforming based on this election that you give it. So now what I can do is basically deform this simple lattice cage into a position that will curve this for us. So I'm gonna do this using our proportional editing, so enable this again turn this to a spherical fall off instead of a smooth fall off and I'm gonna start up top. Remember, we've dropped our spine on suit, that ground plane, so I don't want to move this part of it. I just want to move the rest of it to bend this into place. Let's start dropping this low and I'll take my influence down quite a bit. Just want Tokyo somewhere around there bearing in mind. I'm always looking over here to make sure this doesn't move because it doesn't need Teoh go off access. And basically all have to do is manipulate this a little bit to get it in the place. And so we get our curvature where we want it and said I'm gonna turn up personal editing now, the hockey for that is Oh, in case you were wondering, So by just moving some of these cage points around, it's pretty easy to get this looking the way we want it. And so there you. Now we have our curvature for our spine, and we get out of this a little more to give it a little bit of a cleaner rounded off edge . So something like that and I want to go ahead and make this live. So I'm gonna hit, apply, and I can delete the lattice and we go back into edit mode. Now you can see these air nice and curved all the way down. So there's the curvature. Okay, So before we wrap this lecture of what I want to do now is give you a little bit of some advice for how to you take this a little bit further at some details, correct some things and also how to save yourself some geometry. So getting in here, the first thing I can do is if I go in Edit Moon. I can select these pages at random and then can offset them so they're not lined up perfectly. Because as this is supposed to be a hand bound journal and not something like a modern book , it's not gonna be perfectly bound in the first place. So what I wanted to you is I'm gonna hit l to Cage select entire meshes for these pages, and I want to do this pretty randomly, so I'm just gonna move my mouse down while I hit l at certain distances to get a varying number of pages. And then if I just move them on the Y axis like this. I can offset them a tiny bit to get myself some random variation there. And then I'm just gonna go down and do this a couple more times. Selecting is I go and it doesn't take much. You just want to offset these a tiny bit. So I did this a couple of times, and now when Ugo into object mode and you look at the edge of this, you can see that it's adding a little bit of variation. But it's just enough to give you a sense that you got a bit of a ragged edge and it had some nice variation to you, our book. So that's the first thing I would do. The second thing you can do is go in here and kind of offsets the perfect layout of some of these pages. So we used our curve operator to get this nice and laid down onto the table. And what I want to do because I'm gonna be putting things on top of the journal for the shot is I know how this model's gonna be used, and I want to bunch up this first page so that it's not perfectly sitting on top of the rest. And to do that, you can do it several ways. But what I like to do is basically a hit. L. So you select the top page, and then what you can do is if you jump into your Selectmen, you down here, you can choose, select in verse or hit control. I that's gonna give you all the rest of your pages and age to hide those. And now you can just manipulate this another way to do it. Let me on high this by hitting option age or Ault. Age is if you want to select a part of where you want to manipulate your pages, bearing in mind, these are all part of one object. What you can do is turn on your proportional editing, but go to the connected option instead of enable. And if you have the connected option, what it's gonna allow you to do is when you switch back to smooth, it's gonna allow you to manipulates just the Vergis sees that are actually connected to this mesh so you can see I can manipulate this page without affecting the pages below because they're not connected in terms of the geometry. And so it doesn't take much. But what I want to do is kind of offset this a little bit. So let me just kind of get in here and start manipulating this around, rotate this a little bit off access, and then it might be nice, because I know I'm gonna put an object somewhere in here on the page, maybe create a little bit of a bubble. And so let's go ahead and pick. Ah, a couple of urgency is right here. We pull these up a little bit and you can spend as little or as much time as you want on, uh, this this type of editing for your models that more time you spend getting in here and kind of getting a little bit of variation in all of your details, the better it's going to look on your models. So turn that off. Pulled us up little bits, and I'm just gonna continue to edit this until I kind of get this into a position where I like it, and then I'll show you how to optimize your geometry. Okay, so now that we have our at its made to our page getting those in the place where we want them. The last thing I do is kind of show you optimize your geometry. So bearing in mind, we know how we want to use our our models for this course. And so I'm gonna make some final tweaks here before we move on. Basically, what I wanted to you is get rid of all of the stuff in the middle of the book that we're not gonna end up seeing. And so, if you know you're gonna end up using this journal and an animation, maybe you're going to try to animate the pages opening, closing not for this course, but for your own purposes. Then you might not want to do this, but because I'm going to basically be using this journal and it's still shot, I'm only gonna be seeing what is visible right now. It's to the naked eye. I can get rid of a lot of this and save myself some polygons and hopefully some render time . So what I wanted to use basically, let's get an edit moon, and I want to isolate what I want to keep and then get rid of the rest of it. So we know we're gonna need the top page. We're probably gonna need this page, and then we're gonna need the bottom page in case we get down in there. And I'm gonna be overly protective of my selections just so that I don't actually get rid of something that we end up meeting a leader on. And so I basically want to select everything on the top of the bottom that we're gonna end up seeing and then everything on the sides that we could possibly see. Okay, So if I wrote hit around my selection now you should see that there's no blank spots where I've missed anything, and basically, we know that everything on the outside is now selected, but there's a lot in the middle that isn't selected. So what we can do now is invert this with control I and all of this stuff we could get rid off. So if that x and to leave these vergis ease, we tied back into object moon, you should now see that it looks exactly the same. And we haven't actually gotten rid of anything that's important. Eso every little bit counts. And that's one way to go in and save yourself quite a few polygons, especially when you add up both sides of optimization. So that's about it for getting the pages in the place. And in the next lecture, we're gonna work on getting the cover started and start getting that finished and then finish our journal. 10. Lesson 1.7 - Creating the cover base mesh: so you can see that we have completed both sides of our journal. Now, I went through and basically did all the same modifications to decide as we did on this side and the previous lecture. So what I want to do now is start blocking in B cover that is going to get on our journal. And so I'm gonna do a soft, leather bound journal cover with, um, sort of a thicker material than our pages. But it's gonna be not real rigid, like a hardbound book would be. So let's go ahead and tab into edit moon scale this up a little bit. So that is running the length of our journal right here. Subdivided it right down the middle, and I'm gonna get rid of half of this. Let's go ahead and through a mirror modifier on and it will automatically pull this over to the X axis. We've got to get start or just working on one side of this. I'm gonna add a solidify again and pull it up negative in the thickness. Right here. It's you join up where the bottom of this should be. Now what I want to first is pull this entire side over here, over and under our pages on the side to see where it's sitting. So now I'm going to select all of it. And I was gonna pull this down until again. It's right under our pages somewhere around there. And now we know we have a good starting point for all of our other points as they're added . So I'm just gonna start adding an edge. Loops. He's in control. Our edge slide with G tapped twice to pull these down, and it slides really good. If you're not using it a lot, it's something you should add to your arsenal. Basically, is that it? Moving along the X axis? If I just tapped G, Doesn't matter what access I'm on. It's gonna keep those points on the surface and slide this around, and so it's really handy. I use that quite a lot. And what I wanted to you now is kind of get a bend right here into the back of this to match the bend of our pages. And so I'm going to add in several points here, and I want to leave a little bit of room because I'm going to be adding in a ribbon where these pages will be bound. Typically, for journal like this, you might have, ah, thread running through these pages, binding them together, and then for added stability, you might have a ribbon that is connected to the spine where they're glued down to that as well. So, uh, that's what I'm gonna be throwing in as one of our final details on this model. So I want to add a little bit of room under here just in case I want to throw that in, and then I'm gonna continue to add in are some divisions right here so I can start getting the rest of this in a place. And so once I've got these two points selected right here, I can just go ahead and extrude these around, and I want to basically create sort of a curvature dip right there and add in two points here, delete those and then I want a bridge, the two points that I have here and the two points over here. And so if you get f just to make a face between those that should create a quad for you, and you should be good to go again. And we need to have two points of contact for our journal to get this to make it feel like it's actually sitting on a table. So we want the spine to actually be touching here because that's where the majority of the weight would be distributed along this right in here. So we want the spine to be touching, and then we want the ends of the book to be touching on both sides. So if we were to throw in another plane, put it under our our book cover right here and then just scale this up to represent service of a desk or something like that, we should be able to pull these down and make sure that they're touching and contacting in a few places just to make sure we have some stability there. Okay, so once again, thank you. We need to pull the style, make sure there's leveled out like that, and then I won't add a little bit of a bend right here, because again, we're not using a hardback cover for this. So let's go ahead and thrilling more subdivisions, and I'm gonna add two or three some on the length of this to get some bend in it. And then down here, I'm gonna need out of shame or so that we can start bringing this back down towards the table. I definitely don't want it going through our pages, so I'll slide this down to here. Probably one more point in there and pull that down where it's right underneath and touching. Okay, so let's see where we're at now. Pretty good. Start for this. I need this plan anymore. Get rid of that. Okay. So to get a preview for what this is gonna look like with a subdivision modifier, let's going through that on there. A lot of subdivision surface. You can pick how you want to do this. You can either add it before the solidify or after the solidifies. Well, if I collapsed these down, if we move the subsurface above the solidify that we're gonna hold our edges automatically because the extrusion in the solidifies gonna happen after we subdivide. So that's an option to preview. That's the other option is Teoh. Keep this observed down below. And when you're in edit mode, go ahead and start adding an edge. Loops the holder geometry in a place. So if I go ahead and subdivide this down the middle, what I'm actually new first is let's get rid of these top courtesies, so I don't have to do everything twice. They sure everything zeroed out right here. So, yeah, let's hear this out. And then in our mirror modifier, let's apply it on. The y axis is well, so now we're getting a double mirror over to the left and back to the other side of our journal. Okay, so now that we have that, if we go through now and start adding another absolute pull this out to the front of our journal, we're going to start getting that edge back with our subsurface below the solidify. So if I move this back and forth, you can see how the edges being affected because we have more subdivisions right here. So something like that's probably good. Then I want to tweak this bend a little bit, going a little, uh, a little off tightens up, okay, Something more like that. And then we're still getting some flat shading because we haven't applied a smooth to the normal. So let's go ahead and make sure we have our cover selected. Turn on smooth, shady. And then if we turn up our subdivisions from wanted to really going to start getting a feel for how this looks. So at two and three, you're really going to start getting a sense of how those, uh, those pages are being affected by the extra subdivision that we added. The more I slide this down, the tighter that's gonna be so something right in there is probably a good value bearing in mind. This is affecting the top and the bottom of our cover because it's actually being solidified and then the subsurface being employed. So you'll see that when we apply all of our modifiers in the stack. For now, let's pull this back down at one, and I wouldn't want to do Is adding another actually over here to get the same effect on the end of our book. So we pull that down to the edge, we're gonna get that nice, sharp corner, and I want to go ahead and extrude this part of the book out. So that's I'm getting a little bit of a bend and ah ah hook on the edge of our cover. So if I add in another loop and then pull this up, start getting a little bit of that been right there So it's a nice little edge detail that would be there in case the leather was starting to wrap around the edge of our pages. So actually want to make this a little more pronounced. Pull this over more mostly going toe. Want this to happen over the edge of our journal because if you were using this quite a lot , it would get that weathering sort of effect. So what's through in another loop right about there? And actually the the length of this cover is going a little too far over the edge. So I'm just gonna pull this back somewhere around there. No, just pull this up, something like that. So it gives us a nice little tapered corner for all of the edges of our book, and that's pretty much it for getting the base mash in the place. So come back in here and tweak the shape of this little more before we add in our ribbon. But basically, that is all for adding in the base mash into the next lecture. We're going to take a look at refining this and getting are covered. Finished up 11. Lesson 1.8 - Refining the cover details: in this lecture. I'm going to work on wrapping up the cover for a journal. And so I want to finish out all these details for the edges and then add in our ribbon that joins are binding together right here. So what's jumping at it, moon and start tweaking some of these vergis ease. You get them into their final positions, and I want to make the binding and decrease right here in the actually a little bit less severe. So I'm just playing these around until a little bit lower to the ground. Spread this out a little bit. I want to make sure I'm maintaining this gap right here. So all those Donald. But now one of the other things I want to make sure that I do is you look at the top down view of the journal. Which, by the way, is the view that we're gonna be using on seeing this from in our final render in the next course. According to our concept art really only in we seeing the details from this sort of you. And so I want to make sure it looks really good from this angle, and I want to pull out the edges of our cover so that they're peeking out a little bit more from under those pages because we're not really seeing a separation right now. So I'm just gonna pull these out a little bit more like this so that those are a little bit more pronounced. I wonder the same thing in the Y direction on this side, switching to the side view here. And I just want to pull this out a little more, adding another edge loop. Smooth this out a little bit and I want to take with us off a little bit because I like how it is matching this side now on the front and back. But I do not want this happening all the way down to our spine. And so what I want to do is jump into the top view. I want to start pulling this back like this. I want taper this off much as I can, so we just kind of hand position these get them in a place until we're happy was the results. It doesn't take much. That's pretty good right there. And I think we're getting to a point where we're ready to start looking at applying our modifiers. Now, once again, when we worked on our pages, I got rid of the subsurface before we applied the rest of modifiers because I wanted to keep my poly count lows. Right now we're still less than 30,000. And I like that we have the option to you. Always Addis absurd. But we don't have to make it permanent. So what I wanted to do is use it to preview how this is gonna look, but I don't necessarily want apply it. So the rest of this, let's go ahead and apply, will apply the mirror. We'll apply the solidify and the subsurface. I'm just gonna turn off this point, but I'm gonna leave it on there so that we might be able to use it a little bit later. Let's take a look at fixing the rest of the spine center. Point of the spine is still somewhere over here, so I just want to start kind of massaging things in the place. So I'll move this over out of division right there, taper that off a little bit and then want to reinsert the gap on this side. So that we're still hanging off a little bit. Add in another division, these Aiken rooted around a little bit. Realign them. And again, this is not gonna be perfect, but it actually has a lot of character. It everything is not perfectly symmetrical. So it's gonna end up working in our favor for this sort of handmade leather journal feel, and so that's pretty good. I think in the end, what I want to do is start Teoh, increase the gap a little bit more. We have some room to work with. Okay? So once again, if we turn this back on, yes, he had that smoothing things out. And I'm just gonna leave that on for right now. Ah, and let's move on to you working on art ribbon. So to start this off, the easiest way to you maintain this, Ben and then start building another piece of geometry is just the borrow from this mesh. So what I want to do is zoom in here and find a road to pick from. I'll just pick from this out of right here, and I want to get all the way over to this other side following along this road. Once I have this for a text selected, you hold control and go down to you. Another Vertex. It's going to connect all the vergis ease in between and find the path of least resistance . Teoh, get all of the selected. So now that we have that, what we're going to you is go ahead and duplicate this moving up a little bit, Separate this out. And now we can just work on this mesh. So I'm gonna employed you solidified modifier again. But to use it, we're gonna need to have some faces to work with. Let's extreme this back into you. Uh, the Y direction. We also noticed that my normal zehr flipped. So if I solo this, you can see that half of them are inside out. You can check this by going down to you your normal section in your properties window right here. And you could activate face normals. You can see that they are indeed half flipped inside, half flipped outside. You want them all facing the same direction. In this case, I want them all facing down because we're going to add our solidify up. So let's go ahead. And with all of these selected, you can come over to you the shading and you ve stab and then re calculate the normals that will automatically do this for you. Or if I undo that, I can hit control in on my keyboard, which will make the normals consistent and recalculate those. So now they're all pointing the same direction. Let's turn this option back off, and then let's go ahead and add a solidified modifier. So pull this out like this on solo. This using our former slash that's gonna get our basis for our ribbon in place. So I want to scale this in a little bit. If I put my 30 cursor right there, I could change my pivot to the three D cursor and then scaled towards it. And I don't necessarily want the ribbon going through the spine or the cover of our journal right there. But I do want it pretty close to touching, so I'm gonna turn off the pivot for the three D cursor back to the median point. But you're amusing Box select instead of just right clicking because we have a row right here to select. And I think we're getting pretty close to good, so I'm gonna have to tweak this a little bit, but that is basically what we wanted. Dio pull the threshold of a little more, might select all of these and pull them out right about there. And then let's go ahead and let's put the solidify above the subsurface supply the solidify , and it's gonna give us an air saying I can't do this in edit mode. So what I need to do is tab back into object moon and then with the selected I can apply this now. And what I want to do is use my edge loops to you. Add in increasing. So all thrown actually been there, slide this towards the front. Now I don't want it is sharp as the edges for my leather because this is basically hand cut leather going all the way down this edge. And so since this is fabric and we're doing something a little bit different in terms of texture, I want this to be a little bit more tapered off like a piece of fabric would be. One thing we do is at an absolute all the way down the middle, then skill that out Kind of give us a little bit more rounded edge right there. Okay, So I'm also going to get rid of the faces in the back over here because we do not need those. We're not going to see this. Get rid of those. And now let's look at this when I turn on smooth shading speaking about a preview of that with our sub serve applied, and it's looking pretty good. So, seeing where we are right now with our ribbon, I may be able to bring our cover back out a little more now G o to Vertex moon, grab the front of our binding right there. And then I want to pull this back out a little more. Now, we're not having the same thing happen on this side. So what I'm gonna do is go ahead and apply a mere modifier in a minute to you. Correct that. But I want to give myself a little bit of room here. So you kind of layer these up, Teoh the binding right there. The idea being that the binding is held together by a piece of thread running down the length by selling these pages together and then possibly glued on top of that Teoh this ribbon, which is then adhered Teoh the leather cover that we created. So now I want to apply the same ribbon to the other side of our journal. So I want to duplicate that. And to do that, let's jump in the edit moon, Grab all of our Verdecia is right here. Makes her our three d cursor is centered up into the origin. Let's turn our pivot point onto the three cursor. I'm gonna fight shifty. I can rotate 180 degrees, which will put that on the other side of her journal. Now, our spine isn't perfectly symmetrical. So what we're gonna have to do instead isn't meat. Delete this. We have to scale down the Y axis by a negative one. So that shifty scale on the Y accidents by negative one that will put it in exactly the same position on the other side. And the only thing that we're gonna have to make sure we fix right now is that the normal they're going to be flipped again. So let's go ahead and hit control in to correct that. Now we have both sides in their part of the same object, and now we just need to fix our cover so that it is mirrored on the other side. So we're gonna do is delete half of it by selecting all these and getting rid of it. Once again, we'll apply a mirror modifier in the Y direction, and we can put this above the sub surf. Apply it's and what I can do to make sure that we do not have any duplicate Vergis eases. Laying on top of each other is select everything in my mesh jump up Teoh Tools palette right here. And then If I look for the remove doubles option, that's going to tell me it removes your overseas, which is against sign. That means that we did everything correct with our mirror. But sometimes you'll have duplicate rows of urgencies laying on top of each other, and you won't see them said Get rid of that. You can go to remove doubles and also hit W to bring up your specials menu, and you have removed doubles right here to you. So that is something I use a lot as well, and that is looking pretty good So that's gonna wrap it for this lecture. And in the next lecture will take a look at some other options we have for finishing up our journal, so I will see that. 12. Lesson 1.9 - Adding final details to the cover: Okay, It looks like we're almost done with our journal model here. And so what I'd like to do in the last few lectures for this project is just to kind of show you had a punch up the level of realism. Add in some final tweaks. Teoh, give this journal a little bit more detail, toe look at. So to do this, what I wanted to do is focus on the cover in this section. And what I'm gonna do is add in a bit of a crease and a thinning of the edge all the way around this journal so that it looks like this has been thrown around a little more. It's not a fresh cup. He's a leather. This book hasn't just been put together. It's been used. So to do that, what I wanted to use once again it's going to edit Moon. We get rid of this top half because we know that the front and the back should be identical . So let's go ahead and save ourselves some time by doing our mirror modifier trick. So we'll throw this above our sub search and change this from X to Y eternal on clipping and that wouldn't start playing around. So what I want to do first is jumping here in the face mode and let's grab the last two rows of faces for our edge. So we'll grab these two and I'm using the exact same command. Teoh, Select edges in edge over text mood, which is Theo The option. Right click to select a row and then option shift to you. Select multiple rows and in face mood. What you can do is click between two faces down the length of a row like this, and it will lie in this life an entire row of faces in the same way. So that's how I'm grabbing these and I want to do is I want to thin this out so that we have a nice tapered off edge. So what I could do is try to scale this along the Z axis. But what's gonna happen is you're gonna see that it starts bending and flattening out our entire range all the way down the length of our journal. And don't do that. What I would rather do you is take the thickness and just make it thinner. No matter where these faces are all the way down. So to do that, what I need to do is use a command which is called shrinking fatten. And so what I can do here is use the keyboard shortcut, which is option s or all, Tess. And that is the shrink and fatten. Now it's still not giving us what we want right now, And that's because the pivot is based on the median point. So if I zoom out and show you what's happening there, it's still not giving us what we want. What we need to do is switch this over to active element like that. And now, when I started fitting this out with all tha s, it's going to start doing what we want. So zoom in here, make sure that we're not going too far with this, and it doesn't take much. I just want to bring this down to about there, and then I'm good. So reexamine all of the areas of your your journal when you do this, because sometimes you'll get areas that didn't work out so well, let's undo that. Try one more time. It looks like this is not gonna work on the very edge of this corner. So what I need to do is go ahead and get rid of this election for these edges. So I'll just make a few selections until I just have this top and bottom row on both sides selected. And now let's go ahead and do the same technique. Thin this out and there we go. No problems there. Okay? So one more time I was going and inspect this and make sure that we're good everywhere. Looks like we are. So now I'll go ahead and jump into the side view and what I want to do now is its de select this row, and I just want to pull this up a little bit. It might rotate it slightly. It's gonna hook this over the edge so you can see what it's doing. It's basically giving us a little bit more risk washed effect, a little bit of crease right here, all the way down and it's thinning out the leather so that in the middle of our journalists stick, But on this edge where it's curled over from being thrown around, it's Ah, sitting down. So one more thing I want to do before we move on is to kind of squash are crimp right here as well. So So what's gonna wire, friend? There's when it gets this edge of the cramp right here and I'll do the same thing on this side. Let's check back in front of you again. Now, I'm gonna use the vertical scale on the Z to crush these. But I want to use, uh, the three d cursor to help me do this. So I'm just gonna squash these a little bit. You pull them back down and there we go. So it's a subtle effect, but it plays into the idea that this is a weathered piece of material. So from the bottom, it kind of looks a little different and see what that's doing. And all we need to do now is kind of adjust the overall position to make sure we're happy with how this is Ah, position and sitting. So I'm gonna select these two rows ing in to pull this up a little more so that it's right tucked back under that lip of our ribbon again for that binding, and that's about it for our edge. So we need to do the same thing on this side. So do that jump in the front. You here. This isn't gonna take nearly as much effort. Basically, we need to select these rows. So let's do this for here on. Let's grab this other room. Zoom in here, crab dot Okay, so once again, back around, see the active elements swash this. We're gonna have the same problem we had before. You can select these end rose. So let's un select these from our selection. Let's try that again. We're still getting a little bit of problem there. So let's do you select these and I think that's gonna work a little better for us. So now all I have to do is reposition these Verdecia is a little bit to kind of pull these up and into place. We're going to get that the same hook effect that we got on the front side, and that's about it for getting our cover wrapped up. And so, ah, lot of this may not be seen in our final shot, but it's something that from the top you you could definitely notice a little bit this hook a little bit of this crease right here. And so I wanted to throw that in there. So in the next lecture will focus on adding in some page covers by wrapping the underside of both of these pages around to cover up our priests and our crimp in our cover. And so I will see you there. 13. Lesson 1.10 - Adding cover pages: okay in this lecture, what I want to do is focus on adding in a cover page that wraps around the underside of our first page here, covers up the scene and then would be essentially glued to you the cover of our journal here. And so I'm only gonna do this on one side because the same exact process on this side. And so let's jump into our pages here. And the first thing I'm noticing as I rotate into this position, is that I'm seeing some faces pop through the underside of our page and eso Let's go and fix that. If I jump in the face mode, what I can do is grab a face that belongs Teoh the actual page here. And if I start in the middle here and hit control plus on my numb pad, I can just grow the selection out from the middle, and then I've had each to hide this faces. It's gonna reveal the face underneath that air kind of poking through, and so I can actually just get rid of the use because we're not gonna need to even see these for our shot. And as long as I fix the problem for this first underlying page. It should kind of fix the whole problem. So delete those tie back out into object, Moon and yeah, everything was looking better. All right, so let's get started. Let's un hide our faces. And I'm trying to do this. It's pretty simple process. We're gonna be using all the techniques we've learned up until now to get us all the way there. So we start by adding in some loops, I'm gonna grab the very end of our last page, and I'm gonna pull it over. So where it should be sitting in our book. So we're rotate this back. It's where it's flattened out. And then what I want to do is stick it as far up as I can into the bottom of the book. So it's not intersecting anything, but it's still kind of where it would be sitting if it were glued down and so that I can just kind of like flatness outs, pretend that this goes all the way under and is glued to the cover all the way up here. We're not going to see any of that, so I'm not gonna go ahead and try to revisit these pages and make that perfect because there's no need to, um, so what I need to do now is basically start finessing things in the place by adding in some or loops as we need. Go ahead and pull these down and over, and I just basically, I'm gonna start adding loops where I need to rotate the rest of these in the place so that it's not flattening the page out. And right here we need to rotate that back so that it's not flattening out. Any time you kind of get a pinching effect, just adding an edge loop on either side. You can rotate into place to compensate, and then you should be able tow kind of flatten things back out right there. So with this to kind of go down, crease into this and then taper into the rest of those and we collude Teoh cover. So let's pull this over. There's our loop, and this is gonna be kind of a tedious process because basically all we're doing is adding in loops and then repositioning them down the page. But it's definitely a step that will help the look of Iraq Journal and so that I wanted to show you. So you can reposition these like this. Or you could try to use your proportional edit to put these in the place. Whatever you think will work fastest and for me, Um, sometimes it's just quicker to jump in here in my hand and kind of get used in the place. So that's what I'm doing right now. The last one right here. Pull this right there. Kind of See where we're at. Okay, We'll probably need some more definition in there. So focus on, write that down. Any time you get a major curve like in these sections, you're gonna need more subdivisions. Teoh kind of get those in a place, especially without a subsidy modifier being applied right now and then. I just want to kind of even these back out by sliding these down until I get a nice, smooth transition there. But I have one more in right here. Well, that up, see, it's looking pretty good. So that is the basic process. And now, it looks like is that we have the first page part of the journal by attaching it with glue to this cover going all the way through, and then it comes back up and joins the rest of pages up top. And then all the only to do is come in, grab these first rose right here and then just pull those down. So they match the crease that we added in the previous lecture. So let's just grab these. Make sure you're in wire frame mode when you box select these because you don't want to miss any of you ever disease. Now we have those pull those down and they start kind of touching our cover right there. And then that's pulleys down. A lot of hand manipulation in this one, trying to get this massage in the place and reading pretty close right there might rotate this a little bit more last room tucked that into you are crease a little bit more like that. And then, of course, you can feel free to come down and just kind of pull these down until you're happy with where that's today. So I go down to the very last part down here. Hold control that just pull that out a little bit and there we go. So that especially all the wrist adding that cover in and you can see from the top you just peeking out a little bit underneath the pages and into the spine. And it just adds a nice little last level of realism. Teoh the pages in the cover. And so the next lecture is gonna be our last lecture. I'm gonna get ahead and replicate this on the other side. And then the last lecture, we're going to add a bookmark into the pages right here. And then I'm gonna show you how to clean this up so that we can move on to our next project , So I will see you there. 14. Lesson 1.11 - Adding a bookmark and cleanup: in the final lecture for our journal project. We're gonna be working on adding in a small bookmark detail into these pages. And then I'm gonna work on cleaning this model of a little bit before we move onto the next project. So let me start by getting this bookmark into place. What's so Hadn't at a plane jump into local view and I'm gonna speed through this a little bit because it's not a process that you are unfamiliar with at this point. So basically gonna marry this over, I'm going to solidify it, and we're gonna have some details. Now, I'm not worried about adding in a lot of details for this model because it's gonna be fairly far away from the camera, and we're not gonna be needing to do anything in the model that can't be don't textures. So let's add a little VDs hell in the bottom right here. Uh, it's gonna be sort of a satin or silk material for this bookmark. It's during clipping on and let's out of solidify. So I don't need much years can be pretty thin about us then or thinner than the pages. Something like that. Let's go ahead and apply. Make sure normals air flip the right way. And they are so at any sub surf. Smear this out and start modeling. What I want to do is basically just crease of all these edges. But I want to show you another way to do it other than just adding an edge. Loops. Um, so it would take quite a few absolutes to get all of these areas creased up all the way around because we're basically working with, um, you know, multiple sides done that here at the top of the bottom. So and these were going to do this is to go on edge, moan and just select the editors you want increased. And we can use the bevel tool to help us out, get this done a lot quicker and then adding an edge loops one at a time. So once I have all of my corner selected just like this, I can start to bevel this out using the devil tool. So use the bevel tool you control be under keyboard to start this operator, and as you slide, it will be creating multiple edges based on the adieu had selected sort of subdividing those two edges. And if I scroll up on my mass, well, I can increase or decrease the number of cuts that I'm using. So two or three segments is typically plenty, especially with a subset modifier. So I'm gonna choose to right around there and then look around and make sure nothing's overlapping. And I'm happy with what I did in that damn last time I do. You just throw in one loop cut right here to get this sort of in a place, and I could mere that over to make it perfect. But it's not supercritical sale. Just I have all this, okay? And now I have my basic book march, So let's go and jump out of local view. I'm going to turn I subject down to one, and what's position is in the place. So it's not only super critical that we get this perfect, but I do want to make this the right thickness before I rotate it to make this a little easier. So I'll just kind of squash this by scaling and busy access until it's kind of the right thickness. Now I can rotate this in a place, and it's so small where I really have to worry about bending it from side to side. So let's just bend it, uh, in the side view. Get this in a place, turn on proportional editing. Now, we just rotate this in the place, turned on my size there, and I'm just gonna work on kind of getting this where it wanted and something like that's probably pretty good. So depending on the thickness, the fabric and the type of bookmark you have, this may or may not bend all the way over, so it really depends on preference. But let's go ahead and add a little bit more with Bend here. More like that. Don't want to go too low because you will start intersecting the table where this would be today. So as long as we're not lower than the spine, we should be good, and that is about it. So before we wrap this up, let me go ahead and see if we need to clean up anything I knew I can apply the mirror at this point for my cover. I don't need that. I'm gonna take off the subsurface because I want to keep this at its lowest resolution as an option. Teoh kind of use a normal map or something later on. So I'm gonna select this middle loop running through, Get rid of that because we only needed it for the mirror. And that might save us from geometry When we use the subject, Not really gonna be a way to clean our pages up at this point because we need those for the de formacion of the top pages. We already cut out a bunch of in the middle of the section so we could clean that up. So we're good there and pretty low rez. If we look at our bookmark here, so that's fine or they left. Look, at is our little, uh, ribbon here, and we deleted the back faces over here, and I'm gonna see those. That's about it. So it looks like everything has been optimized. We look, we're sitting at about 30,000 total faces, which for something of this caliber is not bad. It's gonna be shown pretty prominently in our shot in the next course. So it's pretty good. You can always add your subsurface back on. So if I just hit control three after selecting these. We can always add these back in your quickly gonna start multiplying faces quite a bit if you add three levels of subdivision to each of these with a modifier, So I would not do that typically. But if you want a preview of this looks just to get a feel for what it looks like when you sub divide, you can do that and then always turn this back off or get rid of those. So that's gonna wrap it for this project. And in the next project, we're gonna work on creating a set of maps that will go underneath the corner of this book in our layout. So I will see you in the next project. 15. Lesson 2.1 - Creating the base mesh for the maps: in the second project, we're gonna work on modelling these maps that are rolled up in the corners over here as well as this paper way. That is sort of an amber fossil. And so let's get into that and jump in the blender. So now we're back in Blunder. I've started a new product file and I set this up the same exact way that we started off the journal. So it's gonna be pretty simple. Starting off, we're not gonna do anything that is really different from the first project. So it's going to start by adding a plane, and what I want to do is this time I'm gonna create a page just like we did in the previous project. But I'm going to go ahead and make us a different size. So jumping into edge mode here, it's going to grab this edge. And if I go up to the transform when do appear set this to global instead of local, then I could just tell it how far over or up I want to move on edge. So I'm gonna type in 17 right here. It's like this top edge and then I'll select 11 but I want to do this on the Y axis. So now we have an 11 by 17 page and I want to split this up something by this up a little bit. So let's go ahead and add INS match loops. And what I can do is just go ahead and add in. We'll say 16 for the exacts is going across. That's gonna add one cut for every single blunder unit all the way across. And then we want to go and add 10 in the Y axis that's going to give us one for every single blender unit. And basically, what this is doing is allowing us to subdivide, um, and keep squares so that it mentions are not gonna be skewed. We're gonna end up with a perfect square subdivisions. So now that we have that, let's go ahead and start jumping into our modifiers. Well, of course, want to add a subdivision service modifier? You're going to see that the corners are held in place quite a bit better this time because we already have a lot of subdivisions pushing that over. But I want to go ahead and add in some more somebody type in 0.9 on these edges to really get these corners held in place, and that's it for that. So we're gonna start with two subdivisions for the modifier. Let's go ahead and select our model. Click the smooth shading to make sure that that's on. And then let's go ahead and add a solidify. Now I'm gonna use the same setting I used for the journal pages, which was point of three. So let's go ahead and collapse these up and what I want to do. This reposition my pivot so that it's in the center of the geometry. So to do that, I can go to you set origin. And instead of choosing three cursor this time was shoes, origin to geometry. And then I can You were out my location coordinates and there we go. We've got our base mesh. So that's it for this lecture. And in the next lecture, we're going to start looking at how to manipulate this into our maps. So I'll see you there 16. Lesson 2.2 - Using empty objects and vertex groups: in this lecture, I want to introduce you to a new modifier, which is called the Simple Deform Modifier. And so let's start by selecting our map mash. Jump down to the modifier simple deform and add this to our stock. And let's go through a little bit about what this is doing automatically. When you add this to the mesh, it's going to start off with a twist operator, and it's going to you started a 45 degree angle. So if I scrub through this, you can see what it's doing to our mesh now, for the purposes of our map, what I want to do is been this instead of twisted. So I'm gonna select bend instead of twist. And now you can see the difference when I start scrambling through this angle value right here. So by itself, this is not all that useful, because all it's doing is allowing me to bend around the Z axis so I can't change the way this works, using the default values right here. So what I need to do is use a different origin and a Vertex group to help me out. So let's take a look at how this works and origin is basically just assigning a different origin for the bending operation using a model that we choose from this list. So to do this, let's go ahead at any model. And instead of actually adding a mesh that we can see, I'm gonna add a placeholder called empty. And so when she was plain axes and that's just going to show a cross hair in the three d Deport and this is sort of like a stand in or a placeholder for a three D model, it's gonna have the same location, rotation and scale which we can manipulate, but it's not gonna actually show an object. So now that we have this in the three D view port, I select my model. I go to the origin tab right here. I can pick the empty that I just added, and now it will assign a new origin based on the empty and its position to the Bend operation. So if I move this around, you can see that the bin is changing the origin and the center of the bend based on the origin of the object that we just assigned to it. So This is pretty handy for changing the center of the bend, but we can also use the change, the direction of the bend. And so, if I were the roads hates this empty on an access, it will allow me to change the axis of the bend. And so to create a been that we're gonna be using for this map, let's go ahead and rotate this by 90 degrees on the X axis. And so, if we were to change this angle, you can see that we can now been this from left to right. And if we were to turn this up to 360 we can actually create a small tube of paper by making a complete circle. So bring this back down to something like this. Let's take a look at the other option, which is over your text group. Now. We played with us a little bit in the previous project, but this is gonna act a little bit differently on this mesh. So let's jump in at Moon, make sure I have Vertex motor enable and let's go and select half of the mesh and add this to a new Vertex group we'll jump over to the object data Taber here down to the Vertex Group panel and then hits this plus icon at any Vertex for And now our weight is set at one which, if you remember, is going to add a 100% weight value to all of the Verte sees that we have selected right now. So let's assign that to ever text group jump back in the object mood and take a look at how this is gonna work with are simple deform modifier. So if we were to choose the Vertex Group we just created in this object, we can now see that it's only going to bend the Vertex Group that we have selected. The rest of the matter is gonna be unaffected by our deform. But of course, this changes depending on the weight values you assign Teoh the Vergis ease. So in the next lecture, we're gonna take a look at a special ways who manipulates this Vertex group in such a way that is gonna give us some really powerful control over how this is mending our mesh. And so let's take a look at that in the next lecture 17. Lesson 2.3 - A basic overview of weight painting: So now let's take a look at a technique that's gonna allow us to further manipulate our Vertex group, and it's a technique called weight painting. So it's kind of a visual representation of what our Vertex group is doing right now. The only way to look at ever texture is if we're in edit Moon, Weaken, de, select over disease. Choose select here, and it will re select the Vergis ease that are a sign of the group that's not really gonna be able to tell us what the weights are for these particular Vergis ease. And so there's a better way to manipulate over text group that just by doing it by hand right here. So let's get into that if one object moon and then we got onto the object mode menu right here. We can choose another mode, which is called weight painting, and you'll see that we already have sort of a weight map generated on our object. This is pulled directly from our Vertex group right here, and the reason we're using weight painting is because it assigns based on weight value, so blue is a value of zero. Red is a value of one and everything in the middle is a Grady int based on red to blue. And so you can see that all the vergis is that we had selected previously that we assigned with the value of a weight of one to the group have a red color, and everything that wasn't a sign of the group is a blue chiller. There's a tiny bit of a transition in between. And so that is gonna be how that is represented in the three d view port. So in this lecture, I want to give you a basic breakdown of weight painting mood and then how that works for blender. So looking at our object here, if we jump up to this brush palette, you're going to see that we have options for the kind of brushes weaken, select and wait painting mood and wait. Penniman is gonna allow us to pick a brush, paint on our object and get in here and visually manipulate the Vertex Group. So I'm gonna undo that, and typically you're gonna stick, withdraw. You can use these other options which, if you're familiar with photo shop and the blending moods, are going to represent how those work there. So I'm gonna pick draw, and the three things I want to look at right here that are most important for us is the weight value, the radius and strength. So starting with weight, this is pretty simple. Basically, you select, await you want to paint with from 0 to 1, and you can start left clicking and dragging and paint in a three D view port on your model . Any value. Want to set this to you can paint with. So just by left clicking and dragging, I can assign custom weight painting to this. I can also change the radius of my brush so I could turn this way up and cover a very large or very small area. And so the other option that I have here is strength. So let's say I want to taper this off and we'll start with the weight of zero. But if I just paint right now, it's very harshly in a paint a zero weighted value on this side, Let's say on a tape of this edge back in and faded into the red area. What I need to do is turn my strength down to something like this, and then I can gradually paint one stroke at a time, and it will allow me to fade this back end so I can taper the way this affects my modifier . And that's how these three work. And the other thing I want to talk about is the weight tools. So we're going to skip over stroke incur from going to cover those later when we get into sculpting in the other projects. But wait tools are pretty cool because they allow you to take the weight map that you have generated and then do some basic operations on these so you can do things like mirror. There's over from left to right. Invert the map to go from one side to together, and the one we're gonna use the most is one called Weight Grady Int. And so let's go ahead. Turn our way back down to zero. I'll crank the radius up and then turn the street to 100 and I just want to fill this in so that we don't have any weights in our map. So everything zeroed out. Let's turn this back upto one because we're gonna want to paint with Grady ants of 01 And now let's look at our weight, Grady and option and see what this allows us to do. I left click the weight greedy in. It's gonna turn into a cross hair icon, and then what I can do is click and drag across my model, and that's going to automatically apply a Grady in value based on the rotation of my initial click and drag to my Vertex group. So it's a really easy way to add in a quick paint model to the Vertex Group, which is going to give us this nice tapered been from one side to the other. So if I were to undo this, what we're gonna end up doing in the upcoming lectures is starting at a corner with the rate grading and option and then bending into the corner like this. It's really great because as you turn, it allows you to change the direction that the Vergis ease are manipulated for the droop, and you can visually see how this is looking before you start manipulating your bend with your simple deform modifier. So that is a basic a review of weight painting, and in the next lecture, let's get into you, adding this weight painting technique to you create some custom bins in our map 18. Lesson 2.4 - Adding a basic curl to the map: So now let's take a look at combining all the techniques we just discussed to add a simple curled edge to our map. So first thing I want to do is drop my weight back down to zero, and I want to paint out all the weights on my weight map right here. So now that we're back to a clean slate, let's jump up to a weight value of one. And I'm just gonna use the weight, Grady and option to paint in my map. But the first thing I wanted to you is go ahead and turn off the visibility for my deform modifier because I want to keep this flat on the ground as I paint. So let's go ahead and shoes Wait Grady in and we'll start in a corner right here and we'll start to click and drag. And I want to choose a value that's not straight at a 45 degree angle like this. But I want instead turn it so that we're just kind of rolling the page like this on end because we're gonna put a sort of paperweight right here. Toe, Hold this down. And so I want to take this off to something like this. We'll give it to about the middle of the page on the left hand side. Release that. And that's gonna be our weight map. So pretty simple. Now let's turn back on our visibility for the deform and you can see that it's not really doing what we wanted to do. So let's take a look at how to change. This will jump back in the object, Move Now we're done weight painting. And to get this in the place for the way this needs to look, I need to start looking at changing the position of the center part of my bend. So I'm gonna move this over to the corner right around here, and then all I have to do to sort of start trying to get this in the place is rotate this around the Z axis until I hit a point where it is starting to bend correctly. So right about there can also change the rotation on the X axis to start modifying this, but somewhere around there is gonna be good. So if we look at this value, we'll keep that at 120 right there and you'll notice that if we look down the access of our empty, it's actually following the direction we painted our weights then and so that's an easy way to match that up, and you'll notice that the closer we get over to the corner, the harder this work to bend. The more we bring it out to the edge, the easier it is to bend. But we don't actually have enough of an angle on this right now for this to be bending all the way over properly. Let's turn our angle up by a lot, so it's gonna maxes out at 3 60 if we drag. Let's just type in a value of something like 700. So now we're getting a little bit more like what we want once again with your the top U. Pull this back over here. They rotate this in the place. I'm looking at this edge over here to make sure that it's not coming up off the ground. I don't want that to be affected, so something like this is probably gonna be good for us. If I go up and down the sea access. I can change the amounts on the size of the spend, so that's an option. So we need to figure out a way, Teoh zero this out where the rest of the map is staying flat on the ground and the curl is happening the way that we are expecting it to happen. So let's start off with something like this, and we can choose however much curl we want by just continuing to turn up this value. So if you were to use something crazy like 2000 it's gonna actually roll itself up just like a real piece of paper would do this too much. And you're gonna start getting some distortion because you don't have enough subdivisions to you maintain this curl. So you have to watch out for that. And for this case, we're not going to really roll this up all the way. We're just going to choose a value like 700. We run there to get a nice curl on the edge of the page. And so the great thing about this technique is that once I have my curl kind of in place, what I can do if I don't like how this is affecting the map, let's say I don't like the way this is coming up off the ground right here. I can select my map, jump back into weight paint mode and then tried a hand manipulate the way this is working by painting this back off and so I'll choose a weight of zero. Let's turn the strength down to something really low, like 0.1. And then we're just gonna hand paint this by left clicking and dragging and you can see how subtle this is affecting the map. So the more I paint off, the less effect it's gonna have on this edge. And the more this is going to stick to the ground like it did originally. So you kind of just want to paint this into the corner where this is rolling and then not let it affect anything else. What? You've got your final bend in the place. So there we go back in the object modes. You preview this. Never see this is laying flat on the floor like we want, and we've got a curl in place. So in the next lecture, we're gonna take a look at adding in a second curl on the bottom left hand corner of our map, using a second vertex skirt 19. Lesson 2.5 - Adding a second curled corner: in this lecture, I'm gonna take a look at adding a second curl through the bottom left hand corner of our map. And so to do this, it's pretty simple. We're just gonna replicate the process from the previous lecture on Let's start by duplicating my empty here. So I'll hit shifty with that down to this corner. And then I'm gonna need a second Vertex group for this to work. So jump into my Vertex groups, add one more and then let's go ahead and jump into you Wait paint and I'm gonna create that grading again. Now from the bottom left hand corner up to the middle, let's turn more weight all the way back upto one strength all the way back upto one. Now let's select weight radiant and then repaint are creating it right here. So something like this should be good. And now we need to do is duplicate are simple deform modifier so that we can replicate the curl. So I'll just hit copyright here that's gonna by default keep the same setting. So we need to swap this out for our new Vertex Group and for the new empty. And now, if we just rotate by a negative 108 degrees instead of a positive 108 degrees around the Z axis. That's going, Teoh sort of correct the way this is behaving. So once again, if we want to select our map, we can jump back into you. Wait, paint moon and then sort of fine Tune this. Bring this down to zero, being influenced down to something small like 0.1 and then just jump in here and sort of top away until everything's flat on the ground again. So you can't undo you. Hit the corner a little bit there, someone do that and then just move around here. You can also dynamically change the size of your brush in the three D View port. If you hit the F key and then pick a size by moving your mouse around and then left clicking to accept shift, F will increase or decrease the strength of your brush. And so those are some handy shortcuts to keep at the forefront of your mind when you're painting or sculpting. And so once we're happy with the way this looks, we're going to jump into you Object moon and then start find tweaking our position of the curls by moving our empties around and then also tweaking our angle right here. And so the next lecture we're gonna look at is starting to duplicate this map. So we have multiple layers stacked on top of each other, and we'll look at how to you change the curls a little bit, so they're not intersecting. 20. Lesson 2.6 - Duplicating and positioning multiple maps: So now I have my map finished. What I wanted to you is duplicate this map and then start stacking them up so that I can have multiple versions sitting on top of each other for the scene. So let's go ahead and grab everything online or one, and I'm gonna duplicate this movinto layer to And now, with layer one visible, I want to go ahead and make it so that I can't select anything in this layer in the three d View port. So I'm gonna turn my properties panel into an outline, our panel and now with all the objects and I see invisible. If I select an object and turn off this little icon for the cursor in my outline, er it's not gonna let me select that any more than three deport. I'm gonna do that for both of my empties as well as my mesh for my map. And that's finished. Everything that I show in layer to should be selectable nothing and later, one. So with both lawyers visible and everything selected on layer to, I'm gonna offset the layer to map so that it's sitting directly beneath the first layer, just like this, and I'm also gonna pull it over a little bit. Now, the only thing I'm really concerned about is making sure that there are any intersections happening, especially where these curls were happening in the corners of my maps. So let's select the layer to map jump back into the properties panel. And now, if I were to turn down the angle on these corners, I can unroll this map a little bit so that there aren't any intersections happening anymore . So it's looking pretty good. And now I can further tweak the rules a little bit by moving these empties around. So I'm gonna move this a little bit in the Y direction, rotate that a little bit to the same day on this side. And now these curls we're looking just a little bit different on the second map. And so that's all we have to do to start duplicating the maps. And I'm gonna do this one more time before we get to the next lecture. So you have three of these stacked up, and the next lecture we're gonna look at is starting to create the base mash for our paperweight that is gonna hold these maps down. So I will see you there. 21. Lesson 2.7 - Creating the base mesh for the fossil: So now I have all my maps and place. I've duplicated the third map out and sort of corrected it so that all the curls are not intersecting and where I want them. And in this lecture, I'm gonna work on starting the paperweight, which is actually gonna be an amber materialized fossil that will be sitting right here to hold these down on the desk. So I'm gonna start out by jumping into layer for just so that we're not looking at our maps and let's start off with a cube so we can move this up so that it's sitting on the ground plan. And then let's add a subject modifier turned this up to three right here, turn on smooth shading. And now let's get started on our base mesh. So one more thing I can do these. Let's re center the pivot so that it's sitting on the ground plan. Set the origin to the three cursor because it's already there. And now let's get started. So I want to basically flattened at the bottom of this, and then I want to create a dome for the top. So I'm gonna start off by sort of bringing in a loop cut down near the bottom just like this. I can also introduce another one in the middle, and then most work on reshaping this little bit. So I'll bring this down scale in the very top pretty severely. And then let's just skill in the middle a little bit will squash the top down, see how that's looking. And around this out a little more. I bring that up in out something like That's pretty good. Okay, it's one more thing I want to do is make sure this bottom is really flattened out because the corners are kind of rolling up a little bit on these edges because we don't have enough holding corners are holding geometry in place. So an easy way to fix this instead of adding in multiple edge loop from the top is just jumping a face moon. And let's go ahead and inside this bottom face so that we have some more holding geometry underneath. Pull this out a little bit more like that, and then we get a really sharp uh you know, edge all the way around the bottom, almost like this has been cut in half. So That's pretty good. Now, let's go ahead and start placing this un are seen. So what I wanted to you is sort of fill in the gap between the two sides for the top left bottom left corners of our maps. And so the idea being that we have a really heavy fossil, you know, artifact that sitting on top of these maps, it's holding them down the table so that, you know, you have the journal on top of the maps over here, and then you have this false over here, you can keep the maps flat. You can look at those while you're working things like that. So I want to pull this over somewhere in the middle and then must make sure this is sitting on the top map where we wanted. It's more like that. It's a lot user to position this once you have your your pivot on the bottom of that face. So the other thing is that our maps were not necessarily symmetrical a taste for this project. So we want to make sure that we're not having any intersections happen on the beginning of this curl over here or over here. So in this particular case probably wanted Teoh move this off center a little bit up towards this one where the girl is not so severe. Sort of average the distance there and there we go. So that's a good starting position for a paperweight. I think that's a pretty good size. Might pull this up a little more and then away from the edge a little bit. Something like that is probably good. It's make sure they didn't mess up our placement on the ground at all. So now that we have our base Machin place in the next lecture, we're gonna take a look at taking our fossil right here and adding in a little bit more interesting details by sort of splitting this into multiple pieces, fracturing into separate objects and adding some cracks. So we'll take a look at that in the next lecture 22. Lesson 2.8 - Using the cell fracture add-on to split the fossil into multiple pieces: So in this lecture, I'd like to cover a basic add on that is bundled with plunder called the Self Fracture at on. And this is gonna be an easy way to add some details to you this particular fossil mashed by splitting it into multiple pieces, which will really, you know, make it pop when we go ahead. And that shooters in the next course. So this is gonna be the easy method. And then in the next lecture after this, I'm gonna show you more complex method of using modifiers to you sort of at cracks without actually fracturing this. So let's talk about the cell fracture at on if you go to you, the user preferences. We already covered this a little bit in the intro, but you can type in cell under the search and then just make sure the objects sell. Fracture at on is checked off. Turned on. This should put a menu in your tools palette over here called Self Rapture on. All you need to do is have an object selected and run the cell fresher on it in order to you create the fracture. So for this particular object, we have is a sub certain modifier that has not been applied yet. And for this fractional work, we want to make sure that this is applied. So I'm gonna actually duplicate this object put in Layer five and lets Trump later five and just work on this by itself. So let's make sure we're happy with the number of subdivisions we have. We could get away with two. That would be better. Let's stick with three and just see what happens. So we'll hit. Apply. We have a backup, so this is all right and it's heading in quite a bit of geometry, but all of its quads, and that's a good place to start. So let's go ahead and jump into the cell fracture at on. So with the selected just click cell fracture that's gonna bring this up and then there's gonna be a lot of options, which I'm not gonna cover all of them. But for this particular object, what we want to do is kind of split us into multiple pieces, so the most important options are located at the top, and these are the source of the fracturing that's happening on the object you have selected so you can fracture it based on its own geometry. Any child vergis ease that are part of child objects. You can use those. If you have a particle system, you can use that child particles. You can use those or a grease pencil, which is a way to draw in the screen. And we can use that to sort of eight in fracturing an object. Haven't had a lot of luck with grease pencil. I'm not sure if I'm using it wrong or if it's just broken, but, uh, for this particular case, we're just gonna use own verts for the option source limit is gonna be basically the number of pieces that you're allowing it to use to fracture into. So if you limit to 101 100 pieces minimum. So let's bring this down to something like three. You just to start off with something really low and then make sure under a curse of shatter , you have this off so that it's not going. Teoh continue to shatter sub objects after it does the initial shatter. So we could come back to this and use it later, but for right now just turned off all of these options, I leave on by default the way they are. You can fracture based on the volume or uniformed fracture all over, So that's gonna be more dependent on if you're animating your fracture. So we're not going to be doing that in this course. But that's what this is for. Uh, check this off. It's going to re center all of your origins based on the shattered objects, and then this is pretty handy. It's going to allow you, Teoh, take the shattered object that is based on this mash, and it's gonna put it on the next layer for you so that you know you're not having Teoh kind of guess what's part of what that's important and that's automatically checked off. So that's good. And then it has the show progress. Real time. You have debug points in case something goes wrong on you. Want to try to figure out how this works and reverse engineer why something is Bergin or you know isn't happening that we wanted to you. That's what those options afford down there. So now that we have basically said, our source limit of three own Verdes is checked off turned off incursion. Let's just go ahead and hit, OK, so that was really quick. It's gonna go ahead and create a new object only or six. So if you can tell your six you can see what this is doing is basically shattered this into three pieces and these are modeled as complete objects, so they are completely their own. Now, it's not gonna do you really nice clean geometry for you. These are definitely in guns, but in terms of quickly shattering an object and then reconnecting all the faces, this is a really fast way to do it. And it's gonna work out really nice if you want to shatter an object. So go ahead, undo this. I'm gonna delete everything on your six to match later five to our base mesh, and then we gonna itself fracture again. And let's go ahead and do something a bit more complicated So we can set this to something like six to get six big pieces. And then if we turn on the incursion, well, that's basically doing is going back into certain sections of the mesh and allowing you just continue to fracture that subdivide those based on these settings here so you can clamp the number of pieces it's allowing this operator to you subdivide. So if you don't one more than 2 50 you can set this here. I want to set. This is something a lot lower, like 25 and then you have source limit you have random, which is gonna be the the option that you sort of turn up or down. Teoh, Tell the Ricker Shin what the odds are that it's going to, you know, go on and recursive Lee subdivide, you have these types of recursive shattering which are based on random. When you're doing this, you have it based on the smallest objects that it's finding Teoh shatter those the bigger objects. And then you have whatever's closest to the three cursor or what? It was farther from the three years. So those are your options there. And for this particular example, let's just pick a random. And so with six set, their 25 cent there occurred in Cento one. It's go ahead. It Okay, this will take a little longer to do you and jumping a layer six. There we have ah, lot more fractures. You can see what this does. If you turn on this option down here, which is manipulate center points object imposed mode only if you check this off and then try to scale it will kind of allow you to scale and separate these objects a little easier . So I like to do. That's a quick way to preview where it shattered just to see what's going on. And make sure you turn that back off after you're done. Sort of with this preview, because this will sort of get confusing when you're trying to manipulate objects in a three D view port. So now you can see with that steering. Let's go ahead and delete those. Try this one more time and let's really crank this up. So let's start off with something like 25 pieces. We'll clamp the recur tions at 50 and will set this to to to do to recursive iterations off our shatter operation. So it's OK one more time. That's going to update and take a little bit longer. Not too long, and now you can see we're getting some really interesting shatter and going on there. So this is a pretty handy, really quick way, Teoh Gowin. Taken object. You want to kind of break apart? You want to do physics simulations is a great way to you. Kind of get in here and start messing around that. But for this particular course, I just wanted to show you how this add on can be really useful. And it would be really handed. Have around if you wanted to, you know, split this mash all the way through into multiple pieces. Possibly. Maybe someone dropped it on the ground. Now you have everything shattered into millions of shards and things like that. It's great for breaking glass and a lot of other stuff. So now that we have covered that what I wanted to you in the next lecture is show you sort of a better way to go about this, in my opinion, for this project, because what I wanted to you is create the sense of cracking all the way through this. But I don't want to shatter in the multiple pieces. I just want to create some surface or subsurface level, you know, scars or cracks. Sort of like it's been whether didn't you know, dug into you or something like that over the course of years and years and years. So that's what we're going to focus in on the next lecture. You would've model those in, so I will see you there. 23. 2.9 - Adding some cracks to the fossil: So in the final lecture for this project, what I wanna do is kind of show you how to you manually go in and add some cracks to this fossil. So what I want to do is start off by taking this on its layer, which we already have left over from the previous self fracture lecture. So we have this by itself on Lear five later. Four has original version. Before we applied this absurd modifier. So we'll start off. Where is this observed? Already applied once again, and when I want to do is kind of manually decide where these cracks are going to go on my fossil. So the way I'm gonna do this is by using a tool in motor called degrees pencil. So if you haven't ever used this is a pretty handy feature, it allows you to draw on the screen, uh, anywhere on your canvas and so you can see I'm holding down the D shortcut to allow meets. You continually do this. And so if you want to make notes on a blunt files But like that, it confused for that and quite a few other things. Eso just basically to start off. We could go to the grease pencil tab right here and walk through some of these options so you can click the draw button. It will. I eat to draw a line, and then once you have drawn online, it will take you immediately back out of grease. Pencil moon. You want to draw continuous lines, you can check this off click draw. And I would like to continue to draw with your mouse as you drag. And so that's gonna be adding these strokes to agrees once a layer over here in your properties panel. And so, if I had escaped, Teoh exit the continuous drawing mode. Now I'm back in my regular Vieux Port moon and you can see these air being thrown down on Sue my ground plant right there so you can have multiple Griezmann's layers. Once again, this is used for quite a few things and blunders. We will definitely be coming back to this and future courses, but I just want to cover the basics here. You've got draw a race in drawn lines by clicking and dragging their again. We're in continuous drama it, so you have to escape to get rid of that control polygons by left clicking and creating shapes like that so pretty useful. You can also attach the grease pencil to your entire scene right here. So not no matter what you have selected, it will stay active. I would have two of these. No matter what I've selected, you're still going to see these first pencil strokes. So if I were to get rid of this layer and then select object instead of seen now, if I draw with my grease pencil and I were to select another object, that's gonna disappear because those strips are attached only to this object. So that's what this is for. Let's get rid of this layer one skin, your stupid get object. And let's look at how we're gonna use this for this project. So now let's take a look at how we can use the grease pencil feature and start adding some cracks into my fossil mesh. So if I were to select these options down here, I can choose how the strokes are being applied to the scene and with surface selected, what I can do is throw a stroke down and it will be laid down on top of an object. So if I were to draw a crack going through the object like this, and then maybe another one coming in from the side and connecting up somewhere like that, what it's gonna do is then place those on top of the object and sort of deform it around. Contour itself. So let's had escaped to exit grease pencil mode. And now, when I wanted to you is take a look at how to apply the grease pencil to the model and make it into a national mesh. So let's look at the options over here with my grease pencil layer selected that I just drew again. Choose Convert. And then she used path, busy curve or political curve. And for this particular object, I'll just select Polygon Curve. And then I want to uncheck link strokes because that's gonna disconnect the front of my serve to the back. And so I wanna have that turned off. And now that I have checked that, what I can do is select this object and it's an actual object in my scene now so I can jump in Edit Moon. Look at this. It's an actual curve object as you can see, but I want to convert this into an actual mesh. So an object moon with a selected if I hit all see, I could convert this to a mesh from a curve. Now, with that selected, it's actually a curve that has been converted into a mash with edges and points connected between just like a normal meshes. So now that I have this, what I can do is start using this to generate some geometry that cuts into, uh, this particular fossil mesh. So in Edit Moon, Select All the Verge Aziz. Let's just extreme these up, so I'll scale around zero so that I can flatten it out in the Z direction and we look at this, you can see that's basically screens and planes based on our selection. And what I want to do is give us a little bit of thickness to work with. So that actually cuts into your mind, master a little bit of thickness. So I'm gonna add a solidified modifier, and I don't want a lot. I just want a little bit because the smallest parts of my mesh need to be pretty shallow. Eso I can increase this a little bit, perhaps just because we're gonna be pulled out quite a bit from the top view of this particular paperweight. But I don't want to increase this a lot, so something like this is probably good. Now, what I wanted to you is decide how far down into my fossil these they're gonna be cutting into you. And I can vary this by turning on proportional out today, and they just kind of moving things around. So I wanna dig pretty far into the top layer and then sort of taper this back out towards the edge so that it is sort of exiting the geometry somewhere over there. And so I can taper this based on my influence and my personal at it and vary the way this is working to bring this all the way down the edge so that it's exiting the lower part and going all the way through the bottom of the geometry there. And so that's a good start. Make sure we're happy with the depths going through before we move on, and I think that's gonna be pretty good. So now that I have this in place, what I wanted to you before I move on is kind of clean up my shirts a little bit smaller, German at it mood and select all the geometry right here is the L Command. To select all the link geometry. You can see that we actually have two separate objects and that it mode. So one of these is the original stroke going all the way through right here. This is the secondary stroke, and you can see it's created some geometry that's kind of overlapping. So let's turn off proportional edit and move this over slightly so that it's not going all the way through the other side of the crack. So they actually connect in the middle somewhere like that. So that's a good place to start off with. Now that we fix that, let's apply our solidify and then let's go ahead and take a look and a new operator that's gonna allow us to you cut into this mash using this artistry here. So let's name this object from Jeep, you layer. Let's name it cutter just so we know what this is named in the scene. And now that this selected, I can go and get rid of my my grease pencil stroke layer because I'm not gonna need that anymore. And with my fossil selected, let's choose the bowling operator or the modify right here from this menu. And then if I tell it to pick the cutter objects, that's going to try to use it for the Boolean operation. Now what a Boolean operation is doing is it's basically taking one object and using it to modify another object. So in this particular case, we're using the cutter object to modify our original fossil mesh. So the three options we have are intersect. Union and difference now Intersect is going to basically keep just the intersecting parts of the meshes as they exist. After the operators finished union is gonna basically just combine them and join them together is one single mash and then differences what we want for this particular course, and that's going to allow us to subtract the cutter object from our original object. So if I were to hide this object now, with the modifier still active on this object, you can see that it's adding in a nice deep cut through our are fossil mess. Using the bowling operation now The one downside of Bowling's is that they're not going to leave you with really clean geometry. So you're not gonna end up with quads like you would if you model this by hand, but it's a really fast way. Teoh kind of go in and add some custom geometry in there, not having to worry about, you know, modeling this over a course of hours. So now that this is in place, we can start working and clean this up a little bit. So there's one more thing I want to do you before I make this Boolean operator permanent. And that is to kind of taper off this shape of my cut so that it's not a single, you know, dimension with all the way down the length of both of my cuts. So I want to kind of take this officer at the beginning and end. It's sort of a shallower, you know, thinner cut right there. So it's on Haida. This geometry cutter go into Edit moon, and then when I want to do, is select the beginning and ending points of my meshes. And with this point selected with proportional edit mode on, let's Go ahead and squash this a little bit so that it's a really thin tapered line going up to this edge do the same thing down here, but I want to turn on connected proportional at it. So I'm not accidentally proportionally editing this separate stroke over here, so we'll squash this might make that a little bit bigger, and then I'm gonna do the same thing over here. But I'm gonna start up here so that it squashes area closest to my mesh. And there we go. So we would hide this again. You can see what this is doing. If I zoom in here, it's ah, sort of making a thin line that goes to a thick line in the middle and then tapers back off on this side. So now that we have this employees, let's go ahead and apply our Boolean operator right here. And that means we cannon Haidar cutter, mesh and get rid of this because we're not gonna need it anymore. And what I wanted to you is work on cleaning this mess up a little bit. Because if we were to add a subject surface modifier right now, it's going to smooth this out. We're going to get a nice clean cut. But it's also gonna really crank up the faces right here to over 100,000. So I want to add another subject modifier. But I want to do it in such a way that I'm controlling the way this is applied to the mesh , so I only want to really subdivide the crack. So what we need to do is figure out a way to un subdivide the rest of this. So what I can use is another modifier called a decimate modifier. So if I were to select this decimates, gonna try to undo what a subdivision does to your mesh. So if I were to add this after a subject modifier and then turned the ratio down something like 0.5, that's basically telling Decimate to try to cut the number of polygons in half, and it's telling me it's brought it down to 70,000. That's a good start. Let's bring it down to something really drastic like 0.1. You see what that's doing. If I've been wire frame where they're really taking that down, Teoh the minimal levels needed to render this object in a high resolution format. So with this down, we could see we're now in 19,000 faces, and that's a huge improvement for 123 for which we started out with. But what would be nice if we could selectively, you know, kind of pick where we want to un subdivide based on something like a Vertex group. And so we have an option right here for that, and what we can do is jumping at it. Moon and let's select the Vergis is that belong to our crack right here. Then I'll go into the front of year kind of de select areas that don't belong in our selection. So we just have the main areas for a crack. Let's go ahead and create a vortex group and a sign all of these with a weight of one tiu this vortex group. Now, if we look at our decimate modifier and apply our group to this, it's going to only use the vergis. Is that a part of the Vertex Group to un subdivide? So we actually want to the opposite of this. We want Teoh un subdivide the rest of this mesh except for the crack so we were to click this button here. It's gonna invert our protects group for us and they were getting. Now you can see there's a lot more geometry centralized around the crack right here, and then we're gonna start getting rid of the geometry on the edges where it's not as needed. So 0.1 is probably a little too severe. 0.25 will be a little better, and then we get so we're back up to 41,000. Not perfect, but a good start for decimating this mash so we can play with this more. And we can also increase or decrease our subdivisions initially to bring this down a little bit. So I think I want to stick with three to use a little too low, especially after we apply are decimated and that's a good start. So probably tries in the late 0.15 Somewhere in the middle, we want to keep a high resolution crack. You also don't want to see these artifacts to start popping in around our mesh because that's gonna look bad when we start shading. So let's try 0.18 Okay, so that helped a lot to get rid of those were back up to 32,000. But I think that's a fairly acceptable number considering the resolution of this crack we're getting here. And we're also able to come in and sort of tweet the position of these a little bit. So you sort of smooth this out. So that's an option we have. And as always, you want to tweet this a little bit more until you're happy with the way this looks and you get a nice balance between the pollen counts and the overall smoothness of your mesh. So that's a better way to add a sort of a more advanced crack to your mesh. It's nice and deep, smooth cut in there, and it's also not cut all the way through. So you're going to get some nice, interesting artifacts when you light and render this and cycles in the next course. So now we could turn back on our maps. You see how this looks in the final scene. So there we go. We've got our final project. You finished here with all of our maps in place and are fossilized paperweight right there . Finished. Our journal is going to go right back on top of this in the final scene. And so on the Project three. In the next lecture where we start working on modeling a fountain pen, so I'll see you there. 24. 3.1 - Setting Up the Model Sheet: Hello, everyone, and welcome to the third projects in this course. So before we get into this next project, I want to talk a little bit about some things that have changed since the last couple of projects that I tackled, the first being that I'm now on a Windows machine. So I'm using Windows 10 and switch into blender. I can show you that little things have changed here and there. I'm using 2.79 now for the blender version, and as a result, we've also had to move the keyboard shortcuts from this upper right hand corner down to the bottom of the screen. So as I move around, you'll see me using the keyboard shortcuts and the mouse and you'll be able to follow along down here. You'll also notice that around the screen little things have changed as faras adults that I have enabled on things like that. But we're not gonna be using any extra features anything like that. So no need to worry and the rest of the things all kind of point out as we move along. So thank you for joining me in this next project and it gets started I'm going to jump back over into the concept art, and let's talk a little bit about where we are at this point. So we've already talked about how to model the journal right here, as well as the rolled up maps and this amber relic paperweight sort of thing. And now we're gonna talk about how to do the fountain pen design. And so another thing that we look at is the concept art for the fountain pen. So I bring this up. This is what we're gonna be working from to build the sound pin using subdivision surface modelling techniques. So it might look a little intimidating compared to the other models we worked on so far. But let me assure you that I'm gonna walk through every single step. Um, and you'll be able to see how all of it is pieced together and what we're essentially talking about here is several smaller objects that make up a very complex looking objects, which is the entire pin. So we've got the top You here with the cap on the depend here. This is the exact same top you with the pen caps unscrewed and place on the end of it, and then this is sort of a front view of the pin. So we're going to work on each of these separate individual pieces and then kind of grouping them together in ways where we can move the entire pin as one single unit. So let's jump into blender now. And to finish out this lecture, I'm just gonna show you how I set up the concept art for this pin in the background. So first thing we're gonna do is jump into the Properties panel over here, jump down to background images, check that off and expand that we're gonna click add image. And this is gonna let us assign a background image for the three D View port based on the settings right here. So we're gonna pick front view. That's primarily what we're gonna modeling from. And we need to open the image on a hard drive. So we're gonna open that up. I will be able to provide this for you guys since this is my design, and so you should have that toe load in so we'll open this image and you won't see this since we chose to display this into the front view. So when you switch into the front view with one on the number pad and now we want to do is sort of line this concept art up so that we have a good starting point and everything should be to scale already as faras the she goes. So from the top view to the front view, you don't worry about the art not being skilled appropriately because it's it's sized. As I drew, so we wanted you is used the X and Y coordinates right here. Do you kind of shift things over into place? Someone zoom in and what I want to do is line up this bottom image, sort of where the three D cursor is in the center of the Newport. And so if I hold shifts while I left, click and drag, I can sort of fine tune where that position is, and I just want to the same thing. Hold shift in left, click and drag on the Y axis here on this background image and weaken line this up where it's approximately where it should be, so we need to pick where we want that to be lined up and then not moving anymore. And as we get further into this project, you'll see that by lining this up correctly will be able to sort of estimate scale and appropriate positions for all the objects as we build them as we go. So this is gonna be very handy for us for this more complex model that we're working on in this lecture. So we have some decisions to make right here. If I expand this out and show you a little bit better, the fountain pen center on the top, you is obviously gonna be right down the middle of this nib door out the length of the pen , and we can either line it up with the top of the nip here and leave it there. Or we can choose to align it where the middle access of this cylindrical shape is for the pen. And I think I'm going to go ahead and do that because I think it'll be a little easier to make sure everything's scaled appropriately. So I'm gonna go and shifts and left, click and drag move that surrounds a little hard to see this little faint red line. We're gonna line this up in the very center of this lion on the cap or the barrel of the pain. So get it close doesn't have to be perfect. But the closer we can get it, the more accurate will be able to scale the model and have everything a lineup. It's very hard to get your three model tow line up with a reference she it even if you went to the trouble, Draw yourself because three D dimensionally is always gonna be a little more accurate than a two dimensional drawing. But it's just a reference, so just remember that don't get freaked out if things don't line up and you should be good to go, So that's gonna be it for the first lecture. We're gonna go and save this, uh, projects to keep the background image where we want it, and the next lecture will start building out the first piece of this town's and pin. So I'll see you the next lecture 25. 3.2 - Modeling the Pen Body: in this lecture, we're gonna take a look at how to start building the different pieces and sections of the fountain pen. And so as a disclaimer, sort of getting into this next project. I'm going to speed up a little bit so that I'm not going over every single little keyboard shortcuts. Remember that they're turned on down here at the bottom so you can follow along there and always be able to ask me questions wherever you need to you in the course discussion. So what we're gonna look at first is doing some of these basic forms. So we're not gonna tackle this right away. We'll get more into the body of the fountain pen, and so there's a lot of our ways we go about modeling this. We have had some cylinders, bevel the edges, things like that. But I'm gonna show you a sort of different technique that we're gonna use little hopefully speed things up a little bit. And to start off, what we're gonna do is add a mesh and will add anything. Start the plane right here, and then we want to do it sort of happened at mode and then I'm going to get rid of all of the vergis ease, so just delete those now, something to be aware of with objects in Blender is that if we add different pieces to this in edit mode and move them around and things like that, even if they're not connected when we're in object mode, Blender considers this to be one giant mesh objects. So, technically speaking, we've got different shells. Different meshes inside of this object that are definitely not connected. But it's important to be aware that this is how Blunder sees these objects, sees the geometry, and this is how it behaves. And we can use this to our advantage to kind of, uh, further sort these objects as we build complex measures and plunder. So let's go ahead and get rid of everything on this. Objects were still in edit mode, so we'll switch back in the front. You here and now. What I'll do is sort of zoom in on the reference here, and we're going to start taking a look at how to build uh, right here first. So if I holds control and left click somewhere, I can add a vert asi in space and we will start by placing that there. I had tea too extreme. Then go ahead and just start extruding that as a connected edge. And what we're gonna basically do is build out the profile of some of these sections. And so we're not gonna worry about any of the way the subdivision service modifier is going . Teoh modify things. At first, we're just gonna try to get a basic flow for how this will look in three D space using simple geometry notice. We've got some of these edges, a little bit more rounded andan. Some are a little bit sharper in terms of how they look in the profile of you. So I want to pay attention to that as we start modeling here. And I'm just going to try to closely mimic the way that these behave. And the goal here is to get a basic slim line profile of the objects without adding too many vergis ease, because we're going to later turn this into a full three D geometry that's extremely all the way around in the cylindrical shape. And so the more vergis is we add that are unnecessary, them or polygons. We're gonna have later on and so definitely want to avoid that. So for this purpose right here, we're going to say that from here to the Verdecia that I just added is one section and I want to add a little bit of vertical depth here with another edge, just like I did here, so that when we have this object, there is not going to be invisible gaps between the object next to it. So now I can show you if we tap back in the object mood kind of what we're gonna do here. So this is the profile that we're trying to build, and we wanna take this and turn the profile into a round object. So you'll notice that the pivot point is still in the center of the three d View port On that is the that is the center of this object. And so what we can do is go to the modifiers tab and we're going to add a screw modifier. So there's two sort of big behaviors you can think of when you look at the screw modifier. One is a rotational extrusion around a central point here for in this case, it's the Z axis. If we switch this to the X axis, it is going Teoh kind of doom or the behavior that we were looking for and extrude that around this central point. And so you can use this Teoh extrude around a point. If you change the screw factor here, you can actually sort of extrude this along a spiral and that will give you the effect of sort of, ah, threads of a screw. And so that's something that we can use a little bit later, maybe for something else. But right now, when it keeps zero, make sure we have this on the X axis and you'll notice that the normals air kind of flipped right now you can play with that a little bit if you change Cal Quarter and then flipped things like that on these options. But I'm not gonna worry about that right now because we can do that after we apply this modifier later on. So just some other things to be aware of in this modifier settings is that angle was going to be how far around the circle that the object gets extruded from that profile. So if I slide this around. You can see what's happening and basically want to leave this at 360 degrees for a complete circle. In this case, steps are going to be how maney extrusion is were making around that circle. So we're gonna leave this at eight, which is going to pretty much be the number we use for all of the circular objects or cylindrical objects and this model because we're going to be adding that subversion service modifier afterwards. Now, if you wanted to keep this modifier without having to apply it and render it is render steps will take the steps into account here and ignore those when you render and instead use this subdivision level. And so that's one of you aware of so it would actually look like that's when you render versus eight. Okay, so we also want to check off emerge courtesies. That sort of a last option here. And this is the same as you used to in the mirror modifier. So that little area right there where it completes the 360 degree circle, it's just gonna merge. Those vergis is for us, as we would like it to. So if you want a preview, had this looks a little bit more, we can go ahead and add a subjection service Modifier said that two or three subdivisions in the view port and that kind of gives us a good look at how that will smooth out for objects. We'll switch back in the front, You take a look at that and you can see just by creating one profile edge we have really quickly modeled this basic overall cylindrical shape for this section of the pin. And we're basically just gonna do this over and over again, all the way down only from the pen to get the underlying body in place. And so what's great about this? Now, if we continue to use a single objects, we can build this in real time. So if I hit Shifty Teoh, copy that, verte. See? Move it over. I'm going to extrude this up. Got pretty sharp edge here, so let's just start by bringing that over, we'll ignore that vertical line for now and pretend that that's still one section. Maybe I'll move this up a little bit and then I'm just gonna eyeball this. Put these in a place. I want to space these out evenly. What I can do is go to tools down to let's see loop tools there and we can hit space and that will spaces out evenly. And we do the same thing here. Make sure we kind of have the same number of urgencies on both sides. I really want to get technical, would be set out. There we go and you can see it's following that very nicely. Now you'll notice, just like with every other subdivision and surface, we're going to need holding edges to keep things in place. So if you want to go ahead and sharpen these corners, what we can do is just adding a point right next to this point. And the easiest way to do this is to hit Alti, which will sort of extrude ever tax in between. That's still connected, so you have to cut any geometry and like that, it will depend on which direction your mouse is hovering over that versi. So if it's on the right side, hit all D, it's gonna go to the right, do that. And if it's on the left side of the Verdecia when I hit multi. It's gonna get the left. And so that's a really quick way you need about two vergis ease on each side of a single vertex to get a holding edge in place. You can see how quickly that sharpens that up and makes it look much better according to the profile here. So we're gonna need the same thing on this sign de and then all, do you? And there we go. So here we are. We've got two profiles that are not connected, but they're part of the same object. And that is how we can quickly start building outs, this fountain pen. So I'm gonna continue to do this all the way down the length of the pen and kind of show you a little bit of a sped up version of me doing this. And then I'll go back and refine these in between this lecture in the next lecture and once I'm done will jump into how to model some of the more complex parts of this fountain pen. So I will see you after the time lapse in the next lecture. Okay. Before we wrap up this lecture, I'm gonna do a little bit of house cleaning. And so what I like to do is always keep a backup of whatever I'm working on. So once I get to a place where the modifiers are still active on, I don't want to mess it up about to apply. Some of these is a duplicate the objects, and I move it to this last layer over here. So now we've got a copy of that in case you screw up and what I want to do is go ahead and make sure we're on eight steps and we go and apply the screw. So now if we jump into edit mode, you can see that all of that geometry is not applied. These are all still separate pieces, as we stated before. Now we can fix the normal, so we'll select all those control in and they're now recalculated to the outside. So the last thing we want to do is kind of make sure we're keeping the scale and proportionality of our model matched to our reference. So what I'll do is once we have the object selected, all hit s for scale and we're currently on cursor moves, so I want to go back to median points. And since we are still with the origin at the center of our three d view port, when we scale, it'll be around. That's access, which is important because we were switching sides. You can see that it's still centered perfectly on this circular access right down the middle of the barrel of our pin. And so what we can do here is we want to scale this vertically. But we want to keep this circular proportionality to our model. And so we just hit S and Z it's gonna stretch that and what we can do to get rid of that is make sure we're constraining the scale to Z and the Y axis, but removing the X axis. So what that looks like is that we have s and we hit shift and then another access such as X. We're going to remove the scale from that access. So in a three d view here, buy it s and then shift X. It's only going to scale around the Z and the Y axes. So now we have to do is use that and line up our scale with our reference. So just like that, get close and then we're good to go. And so bear in mind. Once you do this and you jump back into edit mode, your vergis ease aren't gonna line up specifically unless you switch on this preview button for edit mode with a subdivision service modifier. Ondas long to keep that in mind that you don't get distracted by the fact that usually that's turned off and this will look like it is just out of proportion with your with your model sheets. Make sure you're previewing that in object mood and everything Should we gotta go. So in the next lecture, we're going to start tackling some of the other forms on our pin again. Not gonna worry about the breakdown of how these things are segmented until we get into the grouping stage. But the next lecture will tackle some your stuff. So I will see you there. 26. 3.3 - Modeling the Nib Base: Hey, guys, welcome this lecture. And in this lecture we're going to start talking about how to model the base of our fountain pen, where the nib connects to the body and so to get started, what I'm going to do is bring over some reference that I've been looking at for this particular model. This is a Pinterest board that I'm using for this project. And right here we can see in this image how a particular need would be connected to the base of this fountain pen. You can see that it's got basically a perfectly circular opening and in the niv is resting on this feed mesh that is regulated floor the ink from the body to the tip. And so we need to make sure that we're kind of accomplishing the same ideas. We design this fountain pin so that it's somewhat after it. I'm gonna bring this back over to my monitor now. And as you start working on your own projects, I would highly recommend using something like Pinterest. Do you keep referencing around? It's free and fast and easy, and you really have to worry about using up space on your hard drive for reference, and every project that I do, I select several 100 images, Um, so that I know what I'm doing. So what we're gonna do to start off with is you saw I just centered the cursor around the middle of that whole that really working around. I also want to add another reference image, and we're going, Teoh, do a top new image. Now, for this part right here, I'm gonna use the exact same image that I have from the front view. And if I switch a the top, you now see that that image has been added. And all I have to do to make sure this is lined up correctly is copied The X coordinate from that's the front view into the X coordinate for the top you and that is going to align the left axis of our image up in the same place. And now when you switch from front to top, you can see the pin is lined up perfectly with the reference, Um, so as we get into this bear in mind that we're just trying to look for the easiest way to get this shape accomplished and for a way to build it to connect with the front of this. So we're going to try to stay as lean and as uncomplicated as we can. So I'm gonna start off with a little bit different method than we were using for the body. Because this is a little bit different of a shape. And let's just go and stop with the Cube and see how this works. Most skilled. It's not a little bit. And so we get that furniture kind of lined up with the reference there, jump into edit mode, and what I can do is scale that down until that angle was sort of similar to the reference if I tapped twice, I can pull these back along that same angle and slide those for disease. So now we jump into the top. You and we could see were lined up perfectly from the top U and wire frame mode so we can make sure we capture all of those vergis ease. Just gonna go ahead and match the profile, scaling on the Y axis and extruding along the X as we go. So there you go and then we've got the basic profile in place. Now we jump into the three of you can see it looks kind of funky right now because we haven't added any smoothing and also on the vertical axis were not really lined up yet. Now I'm gonna deviate a little bit from the reference for the side access for this front view here because getting the shape to be matching the top U is gonna be a little bit tricky with the way that this whole it has to be inserted into this This mess here and so we'll just play with that as we go try to get that lined up. Now what I'm going to do is add a loop cut vertically and horizontally. That's gonna give us a connection, points all the way around the shape, just like the body has. And now we can make this into a bit more of a circular shape and not actually going to select the horizontal the verticals because we don't need Teoh. So once again, the three cursors placed there. Now what I can do is shift this to scale around the three cursor and if I scale on his shift X, I can drop that down to get more of a circular form there. Let's go and add a subdivision surface modifier. See how that looks. Go ahead and get rid of the faces in the back. Here, isolate this. Objects one of those. Let's go ahead and smooth the object out. And now I want to make sure that these edges air connecting the way they should with the body. So once we have you selected, what's again? When it s shift X, make sure that this gap is pretty consistent all the way around. Now I can select this back edge, maybe do another extrusion into the body there, and we can play with sharpening that up. So I'm gonna go ahead and jump in the front. You bevel these edges by two cuts Sam for this here might even bevel the back edge here. Yeah, that's looking okay. It's pretty decent. So from the top view and the front view, we have the same issue we've had or the other body object, which is that it's not gonna match the reference perfectly when we add this subdivision service modifier. So let's go ahead and scale using s and then shift X, get the entire proportion in place, and then we go ahead back in and fine tune All of these edges is we dio. So I'm gonna select these, pull the none and then all we want to do is make sure we're not intersecting with, uh, the body there, and we're making it look like it's actually fitting into that whole perfectly. So we just want eyeball this, get it close, and that's good enough for now. Okay, there's one more thing I want to show you how to do before we wrap up this lecture, and that is to place this object here, which is going to be a diamond into this part of the mesh. So on the surface, diamonds are complex objects. They're hard to get right. You can't just go and throw a model together and get a proper looking diamond because of the way they refract light and things. When you get the materials, it can get tricky to get that right. So what I would recommend doing is jumping into your user preferences looking up and add on that is bundled with blunder pulled extra objects, Senator, add mesh extra objects. Check that off and then you will have a whole new menu when you jump into the add mesh jumped down Teoh extras and there's a whole menu called diamonds and you can pick Jim here . And so there's a lot of cool things you can do with this. Um, and we're gonna take a look at just doing a very basic diamond for this dump in someone jumping here, Add a brilliant diamonds just like that. And for this particular case, this is going to be fine the way it is. We're not really gonna have to switch up any of the settings here, but there's a lot of settings even dial in to get a perfect diamond. That is exactly the ship. Want you say presets for the future on do all of that there. And so I'm gonna leave all the stuff at its default for now, and then I'm gonna switch in the front. You and what's going to scale this down? Line this up and remember, we're still rotating around three cursors. Let's switch back to medium point kind of Rotate this on an angle and drop this into the side right here. Okay, So what we're going to want to do is try to figure out a way to make this look like it's sitting in here on the body intentionally and not just gonna stuff in the middle there. So we're not gonna worried too much about mashing the reference perfectly. But as it sits, it's looking a little weird, and that's because it's not really a setting for it. And so one of things we can do is make a setting for it and sort of work with the geometry that were half. So if we select these topsy Reg is right here, we can hit I to insects these, and then what we can do is kind of drop in a placeholder for this diamond. So we might do is extrude up. Do you get a little bit of a lip going on there and said again and then extrude down along the Z axis there just like that Now, without holding edges were not going to have any sort of sharp edges going on there. What we can do is we are going to definitely need to scale this in Skilling on the Y axis there, grow the selection with control, plus on the number bad, continue to scale there. So we bring the son and what we might want to do is shrink the diamond a little bit. Teoh fit it into the mold a little better. We're gonna have Teoh sort of work to get this to look a little bit more circular quickly to do this is we're not gonna have Teoh mess with both sides. That's just delete half of it. And then you Zamir modifier to help us out a little bit here. So it's go and add that mere modifier gonna do that on the Y axis with clipping. And so now we're going toe. Want to match these edges up a little bit better with the diamond. So what I can do to help me out a little bit? Is that a loop there? Then once you move these corner pieces in a little bit, so help close that gap up, let's go ahead and jump on edge Mood. Grab both of these bevel those edges just like that. Do you want cut that time And I'm actually going to not bevel this area here because it's going to help us maintain more of a smooth fall off for the rest of this inset. So that is going to be it for creating the base of this. And all we need to do now is make sure that we get a hole cut in for our, um, our need mesh. So I'm gonna go ahead and pick an area right around here. I'm going to select this verdict. Sees it's elite those once again we're going toe. Want Teoh extrude this end from the front view so that we have a hole in the inside? Go ahead and add a holding edge there so we get more of a sharper edge and there we go. So it's going reverse the order of this mirror in the subsurface so that that center angle was lined up correctly and is looking uniformed for us. And you can play a little bit more with the way this is shaped for a diamond settings looking a little bit weird. So I'm just going toe edge, slide this in the place until we're kind of happy with how this is falling off. I'm looking on the other side where it's marrying over to see how smooth that's gonna and let's see before happy. So you don't like that a little bit better. This is a little bit more into, like organic modeling with the subdivision service modifier, but it could be a fun way to you. Exercise your organic modeling skill sets. Go ahead and pull this over a little more. I want to line that up with that edge of that diamond a little bit better. Pulled us over on the X axis until that's lined up. Do you select those? Pull these back over skilled? That's in using the median points just like that. And let's see. Is there anything else we want to do? Kind of make that look a little bit better. So again, we could sit here and we can We can mess with this quite a while until we're we're happy with the way this looks. But this is the basic idea that we're after for this lecture. So in this case, probably a height issue. Yeah, just like that. Awesome. So I'm gonna play around with this little bit more to smooth this out. So we're happy with it. The next lecture were actually jump in and start working on the name itself. So I will see you there 27. 3.4 - Modeling the Nib - Part 1: in this lecture, we're gonna start modeling the nib of our fountain pen. And so to get started I'm gonna do is make sure my three cursor is sort towards the front Here, it's going at it mesh plane jumping, top year at it mode. It's going out of cut down the middle. We're gonna use our mirror modifier. You guys have seen me set this up several times at this point, so I'm not gonna go over how this all works again. So it started. What we're gonna start focusing on is the topology of our nib skill, this tunnel. But in this back to median points. And I'm gonna start by focusing on this whole here in the center of the neb itself. And what I want to do is create an edge loot that is kind of going from the front here of this whole around the sides and connects all the way up to the front of the fountain pen. So this will encourage our subdivision service modifier. It's you behave a little bit more efficiently and ah, we won't get a whole lot of extra uneven geometry. That kind of messes things up for us. so quickly creating this Lupus best. We can try to make sure everything's kind of even. We're gonna sharpen this back up. So I go ahead and add some edges in here that will make that easier to do like this doing turn clipping off because we need to have a tiny separation here. And the center also gonna turn the merge limit down another 1000 there so that we're not getting so close that emergence automatically. And there we go. So once again, just kind of spacing things out, eyeballing things a little bit. We get things in a place where we think it's gonna work for us, and we're gonna continue this all the way down. So I'm just gonna go ahead and extreme this all the way down to the tip. Skill this by zero on the X axis so that we straighten that up. There you go. And go ahead and make this sort of half the width of this four. Carney decide at a solution right there vertically. And that is going to help us sharpen this up when we need Teoh Extra that down. And there we go. Ok, so now we can go ahead and create the profile for the rest of our pen. Somebody got extreme this here. We're just gonna follow this edge around. A reminder to do this. The less time you waste trying to get things perfect, the better. Because soon as you add that subject service modifier and there you're going, Teoh, find that all the work you spent, the time you spent anything's lined up perfectly is gonna have to be spent going back and doing the same thing all over again. So, um, just keep the bigger picture in mind as you go higher. So you're not a sharper corner there. Another point in right there for that? Bends and Sweden, go ahead and start figuring out how we're gonna join all of those edges up. So it's gonna be extruded here, so that is part of the mush there. Go ahead and lose some of that there to create the quad for those extroverted sees that we were not having all of those edges extend out to the outer edge of the profile. It's probably good. And then we're going to start figuring out how we want to connect this up. So with the F two modifier turned on. It makes ah makes us pretty quick, Do you when you're sort of working with topology like this. So once you decide how you want things to kind of fold and, uh, play out with the mesh, all you have to do, said F. And, uh, it's quickly going to join those back out for you and make your life a little simpler, which is speed things up for the topology. Fit is always a good there because it's always takes quite a bit of time when you're in the middle of modeling and, you know, it always seems like it takes forever. Do so many little edge that you get is a good thing. 1/2. Okay, so let's go ahead and start figuring out this other edge here. I would like to go out to you both sides, so I see what I'm working with. The shape performs there. You just start lining things up. So that's when I need another points for this loop here. Since we got this loop going all the way down, want to make sure there's a way to connect that, and so we might have to terminate out to the middle or something like that won't get up there. Make sure we have what we need to get up to the edge. So we're going to add in another cut here, showing that up, showing us up here. Okay, so out there a little hard to see the Verdecia. Where now they're kind of small. Okay, But those connected I can start figuring out how we're going to You can terminate this. So a nod this in here on that will probably work for us showing that up and get a quad to join up here. Not sure I'm liking that. So don't do that. Scoots Hughes outer edge here. And then it looks like we're going to need to you connect this up worth another edge to make sure this is a quad. And that's fun. So do that. Move these over a little bit, Okay? They're really so we can play again with relaxing things a little bit in terms of how this is late outs. But ultimately, that is what we're after now. We just have to match up the rest of these points with the edges that we have collect there and then connect all those back to center on from here on in. It's pretty simple. Follow the number of points that we have out to the edge on. There we go. Okay, so now we're going at a subdivision service modifier. So that's looking so far, we don't have the bend in our Ned. We're just working from the top down. So bear in mind, we're gonna have to play with getting this bend into the nib somehow different ways we go about doing that, but that is going to be the basic method for getting the Nevin place. So I'm gonna go ahead and pause in this lecture right here and safe, and that we can go ahead and pick this up and finish out the knitted and the next lecture, so I'll see you there. 28. 3.5 - Modeling the Nib - Part 2: okay. And this lecture, we're gonna work on wrapping up the neighbor here and trying to get that looking pretty close to our reference. So what we're gonna do first is go ahead and lower our subdivisions back down to just one. It's going to give us just enough geometry that would go and apply this. Keep the mere modifier, apply the subsidy modifier just like that. And then we're gonna work on is using a simple deform modifier. So we go in ad this right here, and I'm also going to reposition and through the cursor around the center of our report. And let's go ahead and add and empty. So what we're gonna try to be first is bend the nib around this empty as our central axis will select this eyedropper, pick the empty inside a forcible deform modifier, and you'll see that the angle is going to control the way this works. Now, it's not currently bending properly around the right axis. So what we're gonna need to do is rotates this empty so that we can correct this and the proper rotation for this will be negative. 90 on the X and negative 90 on the sea, and that's going to allow us to deform this around the center like that. We're going at a smooth shader to that, and one more time we're gonna go ahead and jump in and add a subdivision surface modifier. Okay, just like that. So what we want to do here is bend this around about nine degrees. We look from top u. That's getting us kind of matched up with the profile here, and we're going to squeeze this in a little bit more. And, uh, it's pretty good as faras how it's been a round on here now. I did drop the reference profile of the niv a little bit low here in terms of the way that's going to work out in my practice runs for this lecture. I think this is a little low for getting this to look realistic. And so 90 degrees we're gonna use there I'm gonna go and copy the simple deform modifier. And now what we want to do is jump in and use the Taper Command instead of been commands. I'm going to make sure that the access is still using empty and we're gonna lock the why access so that as we taper this, we are only going to be doing it for the X axis. So the goal here is to pull this back a little bit so that its tapering more towards the inside of this right here. So somewhere close, Teoh here, hold shift and dial it. And pretty close looking on the inside of this lip right here. Okay. And so we'll start there kind of play around a little bit more with guts. Work with. Now, what I want to do is go ahead and add a little bit of a solidify. Teoh, Uh, this to get going on the final thickness of the nip here, notice that we're not joined up correctly on some of those. I'm gonna turn on clipping. Make sure pull that back in. So that were lined up. Same issue here, All that back and then showing up in the center. Okay, Now, let's go ahead and add in our It's a little fire. I'm gonna move this up above our suburban surface and point of one's probably a good thickness there, and we'll see what else to do. You could go in afterwards and bevel this, but I'm gonna go ahead and add in edge split modifier, which will sharpen up those edges right there. So depending on how many subdivisions we have, it's gonna kind of change the way that profile looks there. So two or three will get us some pretty decent looking edges there that would just into play with the way this looks. So one of things I noticed, uh, we're going back in and playing with this is that this is not really maintaining its circular structure. Go ahead and fix that while we're here. So I just want to select the edges that are appropriate for this. And that is gonna be these edges down here at the bottom. Careful not to select anything back in here because it'll mess with the diamond setting and everything we were setting up previously. Switch back into side view must scale in the Z axis until we get a better looking circle there. Okay. So, still a little bit of work to do on this to make sure that we are deforming this the way that we need Teoh. So I'm gonna leave that there, and instead I'm going to hold us back in and so we can see it peeking just on the inside of this edge just like that. And we just dial this and play with it until we get it looking. Do you sent? Doesn't have to be perfect bear in mind with the final uses, as always. And then if we want to play with the vertical spacing a little bit here, you can either play with the position of our empty or selecting empty and are needed and then just kind of bump this up slightly until it is in place just like that. Okay, so that is all we need to get our neighbor finished and in place. We can keep all of these live, or we can apply them and go in and make further tweaks. But as far as the overall basic mash for the new, that's all we need to do. Take some final looks and the views make sure things lining up. Go and drop three cursor right there. Select both of those the empty and the nib itself. And then I want to make sure that I have my rotation set to the three cursor, and I'm just gonna wrote to it that's down a little bit so that it's matching up with that whole right there. You can see we're getting a point where we're kind of deviating further and further away from E original concept art. But that's completely fine. Um, and again, just one thing you don't need to be concerned about. We're making this up as we go. And now any final things that we needed to tweak this mash manure didn't do it? Ah, may go back later Ads and things here They're not really sure how this is gonna play out for the final yyets, but so far I'm pretty happy with just looking. And the next lecture we're gonna start tackling the feed mesh, which is down here is what controls be flow of the ink from the cartridge inside the pen down and even lead to the very tip when you're out getting blobs and splotches or you're right and so that's gonna complete the front end where we get the sin and that's what we'll be tackling and the next lecture. So I will see their 29. 3.6 - Modeling the Feed: okay. And this lecture, we're gonna get started. Building the last of the front of the fountain panels will be this feed mesh right here. And before we do that, I'm going to add one last little detail, Teoh the tip of this and a beer. And if you look in the concept art and kind of see there is a little bit of ah div it or a sort of ball of metal on the end of this and so on ad, that little finishing touch before you move on. So what I'm gonna do is go ahead. Just center the three cursor gonna add a UV sphere, drop these segments down to six and six, and I'm gonna go ahead and scaled us on the Z axis. So we get a little bit more of a spiritual shape there. I'm gonna go ahead and get rid of half of the sphere and let's add a sometimes with service modifier, smooth it out and scale this down a little bit. Not precisely sure what the function of this is on the tip of the pen, but I think it adds a little bit character. Somebody go ahead through that in. So we'll go ahead and rotates this so that we can utilize the your modifier. So we rotate this three degrees on the sea Access I couldn't go good. Get rid off half of this through a mere modifier on make sure he places before the sub surf . And there we go. OK, so I'm going to start shaping this a little bit to replace the three cursor in the middle of these two points. So center of the top of the sphere right there. And what I want to do is take all these edges. I'm gonna extrude in towards the center, just like that. DUIs join that, then we've got a closed sphere again. And what I wanted to use go ahead and at a holding edge right there. And I'm interested in seeing if I can get this Teoh take on an interesting form. Can not obsessing about matching the profile here for the reference, but we're going to try to get something that looks decide. So start kind of moving things around here. I don't like the way that's looking, so see you else could we do to kind of give us some understanding character one thing I don't like is that we don't have quads there. Someone go ahead and fixed up. Go ahead and add a another subdivision there. Now, I want to go ahead and move the profile of this in. So that is following the contour of our nib. - So moving that out slightly. What? We go ahead and pull these forward, pull that back a little bit. Go ahead in Priestess up a little bit. That's kind of an interesting shape there and just plain arounds to get to something that looks decent. I want to try Teoh, get this to look like it is folding into the consular of the pen right here for this nude. - Okay . Probably spent time working on mats on, like everything kind of finesse things as much. Wants those in the place. A couple of more changes and then we were called this. Okay, so pretty small thing. So But I think that's a little bit too what we're working on my God and save this now. OK, now let's get started on the base mush for feed. So to get this feeling among to go ahead and use some of the mesh that we already have in place. So we have this ring selected right here. Go out and duplicate that. Split that off into a separate objects. Move this up to about here on. You want to scale that down? Go back to median point for the pivot. Remember that our origin is over there. So full shift. I'll see origin to John Tree there. I wouldn't skill. I kind of see where that's being placed in. So what I wanted to do is use this, uh, you know, circle that we already have with subdivisions applied to my advantage because already lined up in the middle, going extreme, this over go the length of this feed mesh here. And they were just basically going to block out the way this is looking. So I'm gonna add a subdivision here, move that up. And what's nice about doing the loop cut like that is that it is going to be placed on the subject and surface around the circle in the appropriate place because the rest of these points are holding the circle where it should be. So I'm gonna go ahead and delete half of this before we get started. Let's go ahead and through a mere modifier onto this, Really Not a lot of complexity. When it comes to subdivision service modeling with style, it's the same basic steps over and over again. You might run into a few interesting challenges here and there. But ultimately, it's the same process which you learned. It can take it with you and use it forever after that. So I'm gonna match this profile. So where we think it needs to g o underneath we're We're gonna end up deleting a lot of this, but just to get started, we'll go ahead and match the basic profile for how this is shaped. Gonna go ahead and turn off that sub surf so we don't have to look at it right now. And what we need to do is start figuring out how we're going to split this up so we can defied this. So I already have the the cut where we need it rights here. Slide this down until it iss out there and go ahead and figure out how we're going to cuts this right here. So I'm gonna go ahead and use the knife toward decay commands. He were shortcuts straw vertical strip there had entered to accept. Now we've cut that vertically. We'll worry about going back and adding quads a little bit later. But right now I just want to get the points outside of where we're focusing deleted so we can just focus on the mesh that we're trying to create. Okay, so that would turn back on that submitted and service modifier, start trying to fix things a little bit. So I'm going to go ahead and to your point there. Now, we've got a nice quad that we can use. Looking at this, we need Teoh. Maybe add a point there so that we can maintain that edge. Okay, so now we're gonna do a start. Attics and volume to this, so that you're clipping has turned on Pulled us over to the middle. Join this up. Same thing here. Pull those over to the middle. Should've joining correctly. And this is all pretty straightforward. So go back. Teoh edge over here strewed that on the Y axis towards the middle. Make sure that's Jonah and then make sure we have enough geometry left over to you. Connect all these quads. Backup. Luckily, this is a pretty simple shape. So not a lot to worry about their The tough part about this shape is going to be trying to optimize it, increase the edges without adding too much extra geometry. So what we have we look at the concept. Art is a bits of Hi. This got a pretty sharp corner going on with the feed mash underneath here. It's a pretty sharp corner coming down and all of these air Pretty sharp edges. So we need to definitely bevel these and think about how we're going. Teoh kind of fix. This is Ugo selecting all of the edges now that are gonna be beveled. Oh, before we do that, we need to connect this up in the back. So that's join that up. Okay, no can jump in and double. This is necessary. Okay, let's make sure that's every there. It's easy to We're gonna, um I have to go back and do a bunch of stuff. Okay, so that looks good. Let's go ahead and bevel this two cuts right there. Very tight edge. The pretty hard piece of plastic that we're looking at. Where I guess in this case, it could be metal, so just starting to smooth this out alone. But okay, so now we need to decide how we want this to kind of look from all these other angles, because from the reference, we don't have any other profile views of how this is supposed to look. So from underneath, we don't really know with a game plan, the way that's supposed to shape. So we can kind of start deciding for ourselves how we want that to be looking. I want around these edges off a little bit more, so they're tapered and towards the middle like that. This is sort of folding in. So I'm gonna bring this in like this, just like that. There you go. It's kind of folding in like that on the sides. It's like we're getting some weird things going on here with the way that's working, and it's because we don't have a holding edge vertically right here. So we need to go ahead and add a loop cut right there. Slide this down pretty close. That's pretty tight corner. Here we go. And like I said, it's very hard to get in here without really planning out the geometry and avoiding the cruising that could start happening if you're not careful. If you just start running in and adding a lot of loop cuts, it's gonna get pretty tricky. It's control. So we've already got quite a bit of a mess happening here with the way these aerial joined up for this particular model. Since we're not really going to be staring at this close up a lot in our illustration, I'm not gonna really worry about fixing it, But it is something to be aware of or future projects that could become an issue. So pay attention to you. The geometry and topology is you go. Okay, smooth this out a little bit. So we'll go and add another cut there. It's a wire frame moon. Make sure we get all these Burgess ease. I'm gonna hold us up. So that's more rounded out there. And there we go. Okay. Now we want to make sure we don't hide everything, actually, in local views, which, out of that and we want to make sure this is lined up and fitting into our are needed accordingly. So remember we roots hit it are nib from this point here, so I'm gonna go in place three cursor right there. So like that. And then let's go ahead and irritate this so that it's tucked under that that down. So it's still fairly hidden number. We've got some thickness to the nib, so I want to make sure we're clearing that. It's very good. Okay, So one thing I want to fix right away is that I don't like the way this is not sort of conforming to the taper of the needed. So we could do this manually, and in this case, it might be the fastest way to do it. Another way to possibly go about doing it would be to add a simple deform and taper this which will be doing a little bit waiting on for some of the other meshes. But in this case might be fastest. Just move this over. Talk that under like that. Okay, Now what I want to do is conform. The top of the feed, Teoh the rest of the name. So select those points there all the way down, and I'm just gonna have all this kind of move these up. Same thing here. Don't need all of this. Just want the topper over disease. She's gonna move that up slightly. Same for the very top row. Speaking out a little bit of the top. Want to make sure it's not colliding with anything and being obvious? So the more custom tweaks you can add to that which are tough to do a lot because you can start losing control of the overall form, the more you can add a small touches. Same way we took the time out to add this little bitty tip right here to the pen, the more you're gonna look like you have control over your your model is a hole, and the more it's gonna look like everything you were doing was very intentional. So one more time, Pull this down a little bit. Just make sure that's not colliding at the top from any angle. Okay, so last thing we want to do so we get into this feed mashes these little fins here that run the length of this feud. So this is something where you could be tempted to create each individual Finn and join them back to the original Nash. Um, and in this particular case, it's not really necessary because we're not gonna be seeing this pin from underneath except for at a distance. And so you won't even really notice if it's not joined. Um, let's say correctly to the original topology. So I'm gonna do is again. Start with a Let's start with a circle from an existing objects shifting to duplicate escape p and then separate. So now we've got objects somewhere in here. There it is. Were you sent that origin? Hold us back in and what I want to do is line this up with one of the first fence right here. It should work on medium points, scale this down. And now what I want to do is make sure that I've sort of joined this up into quads, so go ahead. And why not? Let's go ahead and add a mere modifier again before the subdivision surface on the Y axis. Clip that. And now we've got a fin. Okay, So the tricky part about this is that we want this to sort of blend into the top of the feed. We don't want to be sticking out like that, the top, and so I'm actually going to center the cursor right in the middle there. Let's go ahead and switch our pivot point backs and three cursor. Go ahead and scale this down until it's sort of blends in with the subdivision surface modifier showing just like that. And if it sucks in a little bit past the edge there, that's fine. Can always sort of move this out a little bit. Now, the tricky part is getting this angle to blend. And the best way to do this is just the edge slide until you get to a place where you feel like you have control over that edge where it needs to be just slightly. Tuck that in the middle like that. Okay, so now that we have the profile for Finn and we're gonna go ahead and add it, so what if I modifier? But there what? Smooth geometry. And let's go ahead and pull this back this direction. Make sure we get that thickness in pretty closely to the reference. Okay, so we can go ahead and add a split edge right there, and depending on the order that you obviously have is in, it's going to affect what this looks. Um, play with subdivision levels. Three is gonna probably needed because we want the outer profile to be smooth as possible. And let's see if we switch that up. Yeah. So, actually, what I probably gonna do instead of edge split is go ahead and creates a slight bubble on this. So in this case, I think we're gonna have to go ahead and apply some of geometry before that work. So what I'm gonna do is go ahead and let's apply the solidify out of Edit Moon. Then I want to go ahead, and there is a face that has been created in the middle here. We want to get rid of those that should smoothly join those back together. Now we're going bevel these edges. And what's great about this process is, once we do this one time, it will be enough to duplicate from the rest of fence so we can figure out a system that works and then just sort of copy this the rest of everything. Okay. Okay, so there's a couple of ways we could do the next step. We could array this and sort of dial the scent. It's a little bit trickier than just doing this by hand. And So what I'm actually going to do is select the yeast and four, we move. These gonna go ahead and hold this down just a little bit so that it's matching out a little better. And let's so I'm not gonna worry about that right now. So it's like all of this hit shifty, and then it moon through this over and the X axis and make sure it's lined up pretty well on the reference left click to select. Now, if I hit shift our several more times, we'll go ahead and get all of these duplicated over and three space. This is all one object wind up pretty well. And now to sort of get these moved into place accordingly. We're gonna add another end to you and go ahead and just duplicate this one when I name this one. So we can kind of keep track of these. This is gonna be feed. So let's make sure we have that's corrects. And then I'm gonna move this back towards the front or the back of our feet where we started modeling this jumping here at a simple deform. We're in a taper. This according Teoh, are feet empty. Let's play with locking the Y axis mess with a factor here, see what we get. Okay, so soup that's doing there. We move this around and kind of see you what's happening as we go. This will take sometimes quite a bit of playing around and said, You get something that works really well And apart from moving and scaling the actual objects, we can always rotates the axes of our empty. So shift back into your median points jump in a three D view to do this, see what kind of effect that's having their on rotating the Y axis can also try to scale a little bit to match their. Or we can move the empties location vertically or horizontally to kind of shift that around . What I'm ultimately going for is a way to sort of match this effect up front a little bit better. We're also going to want a taper this in just a little bit. As we move up that mesh, I'm gonna go ahead and it's a copy that taper again. We're going to switch the, uh, axes that were locking from Lock X, the locker y, and now you can see if we do this, we can play around with that bending just a little bit. Okay, so something like that and I'm gonna go ahead and continue this feed mesh into the body of the pen back here. I want to make sure that distance is pretty close to what it waas now we can do is make sure we've got something filling in that gap back there. So going to see if we can. So I manually move this around so we're happy with where it's today. Okay, good enough. And basically all we're trying to do is hide the hole in there so that we're not rub sitting around saying inside of that. So let's get enough for my purposes for this model and a lot we could do to sort of customize the way this is looking and feeling from one, it's you tweet this a little bit more, go in and add a few more subdivisions there, then sort of stretch this out so that it is matching the profile of that needed. And what we want to do is make sure as we pulled that profile up that were also compensating in the top you for what's happening. So pull those back tuck. Those under that nib, just like that's probably want to do a little bit as well as pull those down. And after we go back and tweet these, we're going toe. Want Teoh Reposition defends as well, so that those matchup. But this is an interesting way Teoh A little bit more depth and realism to the fountain pen , and I think it's gonna be the little model for our through the illustration. So sooner pretty happy with that feed. Want to make sure that's not intersecting right there? So let's look at this from top year. She wouldn't have anything peeking out over the edge of are needed that would kind of destroy for that profile. Looks okay, so now we're gonna want to go back and tweet the taper for this a little bit. And so there's an interesting way to pull this off, which is the proportional edit that we've seen before. So we know we want to kind of been this along. The profile of our feed mesh in turn, oh, proportional interning on down here and then move this up in the Y axis. Now something we probably haven't touched on as much. Is the editing fall off curve in this case, we want it to be more spiritual, so it's like that and then it will automatically help us sort of dial that in. So we've got spherical got roots Inverse square in this case, spirituals. Probably what we want. Subtle movements are key here for dialling the sun. Okay, so turn proportional editing off and then we'll go ahead and manually tweak a little bit. All I wanted Teoh sort of line. He's back up with the profile of our needed. Make sure you're gonna have very smooth fall off here. But the way these air angled anything that is standing out, still headed fixed that right here. So sometimes it's quick to go in and do a big sweeping at it like that. Sometimes it just takes a little while. Get everything down in the way that you wanted to dial then. But ultimately it's either worth it or it's not. And you have to be the judge of that. Some projects you can spend a lot of time sort of dialing and all these details and then other projects just not enough time in the budget. So it all depends on we're doing it for and, uh, it's for yourself. Feel free to take as much time as you need to. You get a running sort of dialed in to perfection, so probably get a little nitpicky here, Not super necessary. But overall, I think it will help. So, yeah, a little bit more cleanup left to do, but I'm going to save that for off screen. And, uh, so that's pretty much it for getting the feed messing the place and the from the fountain pen, as you can see, is looking pretty decent. So that's gonna be it for this lecture and the next lecture. We're gonna start tackling the rear of the fountain pen, and ultimately, this is just the back end. That is, um, underneath the cap and the cap itself with clip it. Everything else. So I will see you there. 30. 3.7 - Modeling the Cap - Part 1: Okay, guys, in this lecture, we're gonna get started working on the cap. That's gonna go in the end of the pen. And before we jump into actually modeling the cap in the clip and everything else that goes with it up at the top, I'm gonna go ahead and focus on how it screws into the body of the pen down here. Now, this wouldn't be super necessary if the cap was on Lee going to be covering the front part of the pen. But since we're gonna show this open in our illustration, we're gonna need to have this threading in here something that is important to note. I think, as we get into details like this is trying to decide when the ad small details in certain areas over others. So you might be wondering why we're talking about doing the threat as part of a model instead of part of the texture versus sort of down here on the nib. Why we shows not to add this in as sort of dividend in the model, but to use something like a normal map instead. And there's a good reason that's I'm differentiating here. So let's talk a little bit about that. Any time I have a model in front of me that it's gonna be textured up. I'm focusing at the modeling stage on Onley, creating the portions that are going to affect the overall silhouette of the model. So if I could stand back here and let's say we turn on some madcap materials, let's black this thing out like that. Maybe something like that. Okay, so now we're just looking at the silhouettes. Turn off the background image they were go. So anything that I'm looking at, maybe a better, better material here. It's been like that. Okay, So if I can see from a distance that I'm missing a future that I need to put it in said the diamond needs to be there. These I can't notice from the side from the top. I'm definitely not gonna be able to notice from a silhouette. And so that's a good example of where we want to add that it is a texture. I can notice that the whole needs to be there from the side because you can see that it's missing if it's not there. Same with all of these individual ribs And so that's how I decide, since the threading will be visible from the side view that needs to be in there. So let's go ahead and start working on that switch off this madcap. And we're going to use the same basic tool we used for spending the rest of this body, which is the scream on fire. So we'll start off with basic plane. We'll go ahead and re center, are through the cursor to snap this in the place. So I want to pick somewhere in the body, select a Ring of Verte, sees like that shift s Kirsten is selected, and then go ahead. It's like this plane O G or ah, shit s selection a cursor, actually, there we go, and then we start playing with this place. So what I want to do is pick somewhere on the body of the pen to kind of start this threat . A Let's say we're gonna pick here and pull this down to remember which, if you were in, we're gonna pull this down the y axis because we're actually in front of you for top you. You know, when a little bit of a taper there we actually are going to go ahead and add a submission service modifier to this kind of gets the profile of this looking correct. So we're just creating the shell here. We kind of took this is we g o going to keep this as procedural as we possibly can, so I'm gonna re sent her. Are pivot point around? Let's say this three cursor here. So control shift all to see origin, a three d cursor. Then let's go ahead and add a screw modifier that's going Teoh. Screw that around the pivot points. I would actually go on the X axis like that. It's gonna follow that profile that we create with the polygon. And this is where we can actually mess with our screw option here. So let's hear this out. We're gonna have the angle gonna be 3 60 We can actually increase this more, but we're gonna keep this at 3 60 for one complete revolution. And then we're gonna change the generations Thio more than one to get an actual screw happening there. So, by changing the screw distance, we can change the distance between the threats just like this so we can switch in front of you. Try to follow this as closely as possible. You'll notice that from the reference here, this is actually a pretty extreme angle for the screw. You have to remember we're trying to screw this cap into this front grip right here. And this would actually be placing the cap pretty cock eyed off into the left if we were going to be using this threat. So we actually want these quite a bit closer together in terms of their tilt angle. And so let's keep that in mind as we go. We don't want to actually follow the reference so closely that we lose sight of that. These are gonna be fairly tight. And if we want to modify how thick that is, can scale this down a little bit to get a tighter thread, go ahead and add a subdivision service modifier there jumping object moon, Smooth that out. And if we want, we can go ahead and at a little bit of a bevel to some of these edges. It's also like two of the verte sees that Are there control be our control shift to be? Actually, we want three points right there actually going Teoh even that out a little bit slide. The sounds of those were fairly even. And that's gonna give us a nice little tapered edge there for a double. Okay, so you can see the start point there at the top and the in points. And then all we have to do is turn up these federations to create more threats and pretty much need to dial this end where we want it to be. Fairly close. Like I said is what we're going for here. I'm gonna want a bit more of an extreme angle on the tip of the threads. So I'm going to select all of this, scale it on the X axis in a little bit. Just the tip here. Just like that. So we can see what's going on with the rest of this. We've gotta face here. We need to get rid of stripping face mood, and I basically want to keep if I delete the face here, is gonna delete all the edges and Verte sees as well. So I'm going to you just jump in ever. Text moon. It's like that edge. Delete the edge in the middle. I don't need the such either, because it's gonna be hidden inside the pen. And so to fix this opening down here, we're gonna taper those edges down into the pen itself. And we'll need to do that after we apply these modifiers so we can pick as many threats we want. We don't need tons there, but I think that is a good account for us to be using. So what I might also do is decide where we want this to be located on the pen. Maybe something a little closer said that. And we'll just have to kind of eyeball that and see how you like it. Okay, so let's say we're good with this. Now, In this case, we may want to go back and change some things. So I'm gonna go ahead and create a backup. Shifty, Move that to our last layer. A copy. We're gonna go ahead and I'm going to remove the ah screw modifier by applying it. Keep the sub, sir, for it is jump into you edit mode and let's take a look at this. So one of the things that's I forgot to mention that we could switch up are the steps. Bring those down to eight and keep that consistent with the rest of the body here. And we Teoh actually move this out a little bit so that those air still peeking up correctly and what I'm mostly concerned about is this central portion of these threats here to make sure that those are still peeking out of the pen where they need to be. And they don't need to be super extreme, but they need to be enough that they look like threats. Okay, that's probably enough. So now we can go ahead and make sure Oliver Settings or deilmann correctly edit mood. Apply this. And now, if we make individual tweaks to the end of this, it's not gonna affect anything drastically. So what I wanted to use grab the beginning of our threat here and the end of our thread here and what I want to do is move those in towards the body of our pen. So there's a kind of a little bit more hidden. So this is where you would begin screwing the pin and getting it on the track of those threads to come into the rest of depend itself. So it's got a way to feed that onto the rest of those threads. So make sure we're happy with the way that sort of emerging in. And then what we can dio is to terminate this, bring a cot down to the end over here, do the same thing on other side. Just get it fairly close to where it's meeting that body. I want to select both of these endpoints. Switch to sort of a front view down the barrel of this pen and rotate those into place so that we're meeting that into the body in a very easy, consistent fashion. So just like that and there. So that's all we needed to do to get the the Reds in a place. Once again, we can play with subdivisions, smoothness everything and, uh, stuff just like that. Okay, so in the next lecture, we're going to be jumping into actual outer show of cap and we'll get into you the rest of this. Do you finish up our pin model? So I will see you there. 31. 3.8 - Modeling the Cap - Part 2: okay, in this lecture, we're gonna start tackling the outer shell of our cap down here. And so I'm gonna do a little bit of house cleaning before we get started. And since we're gonna be looking down the barrel of this panel bit more, you can see with all of these wire frames and sub certain modifiers turned on its A little Harry to see how that, uh, looking so an eternal, optimal display for these. And I'm just gonna kind of turn these on and hide them as I g o to make it a little easier to see what's going on. Something's going down the line on every single mash is gonna get you often will display turned on its probably a faster way of doing this. But right now, I don't really care. So let's do that. Let's go ahead and turn our empties over into a new layers. Put those on layer to get them out of the way, and there we go. So now when we're in wire framed you just a lot cleaner toe. Look down that barrel like that. Okay. We're gonna use the same exact technique we've been using for most of this pin, which is to start with one of these circles. If I could get one selected and duplicate that, take the selection, separate that out in your mesh, and then I'm gonna jump into edit mode. Now, I'm gonna turn off that subsurface modifier even though we're gonna keep it. Select all of these and I'm basically just going to start extruding out some geometry to work with. Let's flip these normals. And from the top and a side view, it might be a little confusion to see what's going on here. I had a very clear idea what I wanted when I created this concept art. But I fully understand that as you're working, it might be a little hard to see what's going on. So no worries. Just follow my lead. And I promise I'll walk you through it so that it will be clear what we're doing as we go. So I'm just worrying about the horizontal divisions to see that I get enough in there to make the best of what we wanted to do. There we go. Trump in the front, you can see that's kind of how it looks. And now we want to start shaping this up as we go. So basically, what we've got is we've got a cylindrical cap and there's gonna be holes punched in the side. Right here is a big giant hole, and there's more shapes inside of that. And so we're gonna need Teoh kind of work on things to get that to that points. So with this last ring selected, let's center the cursor in the middle of that ring. And now I'm just gonna go down the line and scale shift X to make sure we're not scaling, uh, anywhere to lose that circular formation as we go. And actually, since we have these selected as individual rings, that's not really gonna be a problem. It would only really be a problem if we wanted to select all of these at the same time. Then we need to hold shift X. But I'm not gonna do that so you guys can scale however you want. But this is basically how I'm gonna do it. Whatever is easiest and fastest. That's what I say. Okay, so we have a little bit of a dip here. This is sort of an open gap between the clip and the body of the outer show of the cap it there. And so bring that down. I need another division. Actually, let's not add another division which just move this down just like that's and what I'm gonna go and do at this point is delete half of this from top to bottom and I'm gonna do the same thing from front to back. And we're going to start using a mirror modifier because that will speed us up quite a bit on this case. So we're gonna throw this up before the sub surf on a copy on, But why? Access and easy access. So we've got 1/4 of our mesh that we're working with. Smooth that out. I don't typically work this way in tutorials, but I like to hide all these menus. So we've got a little bit more real estate to work with. And so clipping turned on and extrude that vertex down Teoh the bottom like that's join up and there we go get a perfect circular join right there. OK, so that's our basic foundation. Now at the top, you have through the same sort of thing. So we're going to want to scale all of these in to match this outer profile, making sure that this last sort of Kappa right here We're not going too far towards the middle. And once you start matching that profile and getting that down, it's pretty easy to you. Get the rest of shape in, there s Oh, this is gonna look a little confusing from the top. But after you follow the outer shell right here, this cuts all the way in and then up around. So it's very skinning sort of profile. So we're following in the top. You just like this and it's gonna be a little hard to see how that curves until we turn on the subdivision service modifier preview. So it's outer sort of bendy shape right here. It's going to be lining up with our reference. It's not. We know we need adds more subdivisions, so probably gonna want to add another holding edge right around there somewhere. I don't want to start moving tons of stuff in the top you because we've already sort of nailed how that looks in the front here. So I'm now going to bring this up a little bit so you've got that second edge sort of following what it needs to follow Jump into a three D view port and kind of see how that's looking. Okay, so I'm not gonna increase anything up yet. What I'm gonna do instead is go ahead and cut outs that hole in the middle. So it's pretty simple. Anything that falls within the whole Vertex wise we're going to get rid of. And then we're basically an extrude that back in on itself to create the rest of that. So we're just the inside vergis ease. I'm gonna lose those. So we've got a hole all the way through the cap. Select this outer edge here. What's reposition the cursor around? The selected verte sees minute you to extrude as to scale in towards that cursor and actually won't scale in towards the cursor and us We pick the cursor. So let's do that U s. And then we want Teoh pull these back in towards the model. Now, we don't want to go so far that it emerges up in clips with the mere modifier Turnouts of B pay attention to that. But there we go. That's the basic idea. Now we have to do is kind of line this insect up with our reference. So let's pull this back just following this line right here to give me an indication of how that's gonna work out. And it's just a give and take just a game of give and take. So get that in a place so you can see right here we're gonna need more geometry to hold things in the place. So let's get the top edge where we need it, at least a couple of more. So lying top edges up first. Then we can start bringing this edge in. Okay, we have to bring these over all the way. We're here on the X axis. These were going to come up. So follow. That's And there we go. That's the basic idea. Okay, so we got the inset in a place. It's not gonna look really correct until we start praising things up. And so let's start doing that after we get our top profile sort of nailed. So make sure we're happy with the way this is letting up first. Not quite sure that's what I wanted. Teoh that being thrown off because of where this modifier is reacting. When we could just move a few of the points, it really throws off the curvature of everything. And these air definitely not tapering And the way that I want so cool. He's over. Make sure we're happy. With what? What that is doing for us, Okay? I definitely don't want that to be happening, So we'll pull that back in. Make sure our lip is sort of consistent in terms of the the depth of it for not getting that. We want to correct that. This is gonna be off a little bit until decrease this up. So let's go ahead and add increase here. So all of the inside or outside edges of our whole here are basically going to be Proust. So which I'm on edge moon, get a little bit better picture of that. And then again, I'm just gonna hit patrol, be for bubble, add to cuts, make that fairly tight right there. And now we've got our cut where we need it. Okay, so we're gonna want to reshape this out a little bit so that we get a nice looking cap on the end of that. Okay, so we got that smooth that little bit more like what that is doing for us. Not sure I like this right here. So, yeah, pulled up back out. So we get a rounded edge there on. I like that will be better. Something like that. Now, the inside of this, we're not really gonna see. So this wall here is just for us to make sure we don't have any gaps happening. But I still want to make sure there's inconsistency there. Okay, so now let's check the reference from the top new. We've got everything pretty much in place again. We want to match that curvature as much as possible. So now is the time to do any sort of refinements that we need to get that locked in the place. As long as we move everything that we just tweet altogether, we shouldn't lose any of the, um, but it's that we made. So it gets confusing down here. We can look on the opposite side for the mirror modifier to see what's really going on. Okay, So a little bit different here. It doesn't match up perfectly, but enough for our purposes. I'm not really concerned about all of that. Okay. May being here is to get this curvature in place. Sure, we're not grabbing anything. We don't need to grab, pull, not in. And that is matching up pretty good. Okay, the only other thing we could do here is to fix the overall with a height of our cylinder. So how do we need to do this? Well, first thing is, what's reposition our three d purser around a selection that's down the middle of our pin, access their around the body. Then I'm gonna jump back into here, and I'm gonna grab all the points that we need to grab to reposition. So it's just the front part up here that we really need to scale proportional in to match up with judges. So that's shift X. Just like that. Jump in the front year and make sure that is where it needs to be. Okay. Pretty close. Here. There we go. Okay. So now that our pen cap is in place and the next lecture, what we can do is put flea block in the sort of filler elements for the inside shells of our cap. So I'll see in the next lecture 32. 3.9 - Modeling the Cap - Part 3: in this lecture. We're gonna start working on the inner show for our cap and this is pretty straightforward . All we need to do to get this going is jump back into ur mesh here. I'm gonna creates a new mass starting at this point so we can duplicate this point or just even create a plane jumping at it. Mood. I'm gonna merge all of these. Verdecia is to the center. So we're starting with one point and we know that's down the middle of the axis of Arpin. So I'm just gonna shift this down the central part of the barrel. And so we get to a points that is close to say there. And then what we're gonna do is we're gonna use that. Ah, screw modifier. So start here, and all I wanted to you is make sure following this outer console right here in the top view side view is going to be hard to see what's going on. But what's going to switch to the top? You on, get this killer so eight steps. Once again, we want to make sure we're going on the X axis and it's pulled us out to approximately here and since we're gonna be following this curvature and the top view makes more sense to kind of go off access up here than from you. So that is one of my dear extrude this out like this. And I just want to make sure we're kind of getting that out of proof while in place. We're gonna use a subversion service modifier like we've been doing for every model in this course. And we just want to make sure we're talking that in and joining that up. So switch in front of you see? Oh, that's looking. All of this is gonna need to be shifted back down to where it is. Zero on the Z axis. You can see get a profile in three D View doing that for us. Let's go ahead and recalculate the order there Said that it is flipped for us and then at our suburban service, water fired. Okay, so we know the top view is sort of dialed incorrectly, and all we really need to do is scale this to match there, and then we're gonna have to do a little bit of manual tweaking off the reference to make sure that's not going outside where it's poking through the mush like that. So pull these in right here. It's not gonna make any huge difference for us, But all we want to do is make sure that as we close this up on the end that it is going to be nicely tucked in behind that mesh for us. So I'm going. Teoh, make sure we have that coming to a point. Let's make sure that that is terminating on the Y axis at zero. We've got murderers. He's turned on there. So that is all we need. And then we need to make sure we are actually getting this covered on the inside of this mesh. So now the goal is to join this up so there's no hole. So all we're going to do is start kind of pulling these outs just like this so we can kind of get that gap in a better place. Bear in mind were were symmetrical in a 360 degree, you know, direction. So anything I changed on the side of the profile is gonna change symmetrically everywhere around every point of that curve. So you could see that's poking out a little much of their doll that in, and it's gonna be sort of a game of give and take. And so we kind of apply the screw modifier and get that where we needed to be that, um, I want to move that out, maybe to somewhere like that. And OK, so at this point, we can keep this live to go and duplicate that, move it to the back layer, and then what's going apply to screw about a fire. Okay, so this is great, because now we can start manually tweaking some of these things, so I don't want those peeking out. But the main thing I'm concerned about is making sure that from side to side, we have everything in the right place. So I'm gonna delete this back side, and then we're gonna use that mirror modifier again to help us out. Always place before the subsurface. So that emerges correctly. Okay, so now you do kind of or doing before, just make sure that the profile is doing what we wanted to do. I'm gonna pull this out, and the trick here is to get sort of an even edge. All the way around the edge of the model. Let's add another subdivision and here kind of hold that shape a little better for us. There we go. This could be brought up going out. Another point in there that could be brought up. And one of things we can do as we get in here is to get more control over how this is joining from the edge. Put Select this and bevel it. That'll bring a bit more of a crease in that area. And if you start pushing this back in towards the model, it's going to make it a little easier. Control how that edges on lining with this insect right here on the Adam Mesh. And just like everything. It's a game of give and take until we kind of get the look that we're after. So looks like we are not applying on the correct access, but make sure we'll fix that. Erica, that would definitely not be good. So now we want to make sure we're kind of being consistent with the way this is joining up top U. S. A little farther in than we want. Do something like that. All that in the name of once again giving us a little bit more control toe work with. And actually, we don't even need the bottom of this. So if we want to, you weaken deletes that as well and just married that down in the Z axis. Save us even more time. This isn't the most exciting part of this bottle, but it will definitely pay off later as we pay attention to these details and on Lee ad in new edge loops where we need that control making food. We pay close attention to that as we go. And if we find that crease is getting a little distracting, you can always sort of pull away a little bit and remove some of that. So I'm paying close attention to the bottom edge here to see what that steering in that profile do you? It was kind of manually tweeting as we go. I apologize. I'm not providing any sort of riveting commentary for this lecture, but it's a little hard to concentrate and talk at the same time. So I just wanted to try to get this in here the best that I can also add another subdivision and there that might hope a little bit. Doll this in and there you. So the tough part about this is adding each individual sub subdivision or lute cut and see the mesh makes it more and more difficult to smooth things back out. If you start getting a lumpy in here and so it gets too crazy, you can select an area and then jump in here and hit. Relax a couple of times, and that's obviously too much. But you can dial that in Aziz Ugo. So you do that you need is the proportional at it, so turn that on makes that'll easier just move that out. But in this case, I think we're doing pretty well. And again The goal here is just to get this inside mesh sort of deilmann so that it's in the right place to you move on to the other little mush that we have to create. So I'm just shifting these over in the y axis. I definitely think we need some more. It is down here for control doing at those and then pull this outs like that. That back edge slide move that back on the X axis that would also work. Okay, We're just reshaping this until we're happy with the result. Okay? Definitely getting some weird things happening right here. And so looks like we don't have all of this deleted, so we need to get rid of that. Okay, I'm going to some a little bit more back towards the three D. Fiercer, and then we just need to fix this topology. It's kind of looking a little funky right now, and that's because of all the manual sort of changes that we've made it. We went, and so f create another edge there. And this doesn't really matter a ton because we're not going to see all of this. Probably, but because it's going to affect the way this outer shape is sitting into that mesh. I want to make sure I joined this up. And so I'm gonna create cut there. I see actually going to need another one, so we'll do that. And then I'm just making sure account all the things correctly to join this up in the right way. So you don't need that area? Apologies. Fun on the play with It's like solving a puzzle by admitting the pieces you go. So interesting science. Okay, so at this point again, we're looking for consistent and caps on this edge, and we kind of need to decide how that needs to look. So screw this back and up. Positioning these to loot cuts closer together will give us more of, ah sort of edge over there on end. And since we have sort of a corner right here, that is gonna help us kind of dial the sun. - Okay , Getting close here. Second, you get to a point where you kind of start feeling you're obsessing over things. It's time to take a step back and look and make sure that your, you know, actually working on something that's gonna be noticed. It's easy to start getting fixated on details that are going to get lost later on when you're zoomed all the way out here, you know? So keep that in mind is your work and there's always time to dial things in and, you know, fix things, Ugo, if you have time. But a lot of times it's not really that necessary. Okay, so let's say we're pretty happy with this when you go on, creates another surface right here for this interior mesh and what I want to do is go ahead and creates. Go ahead and use this right here. It's got all the modifiers already set up for it. Somebody's gonna duplicate that. Separate that out as a separate MASH. Then let's move this up. Start. It's more back here. Scale this down, man. I just wanna So with style done so it looks like we're actually way off. But the reason for that is because it's not starting in the centre. These air actually pulled off access. So turn off the clipping and then pull these back over here like that. And then what? I'm actually wanna do iss slick. That's and move my three cursor there. The cursory pivot point is what we're using, and we can rotate this around that another thing and do is switch this over to active element. And then whatever the white Verdecia is that you have selected of you what everything rotates around. So if you box select everything, hold shift and then right click twice to re select just this Verdecia is your active courtesy. Then that's your pivot point. And any time you move that around, that becomes your point that works for faces, edges, courtesies, any element at a moon. And then we just extreme this back and tried to rotate that again in the place. Right? Play with scaling right now that might do some funky things. Okay, It's not vertically. You just need to dial in kind of how this is looking. So once again, using that active element will scale on Z axis. Just gonna bring that down at another control edge loop, cut their So you kind of creeps that up on that end and written close. Definitely need Teoh. Smooth this out. You flip the normals and then figure out what's going on over here. Don't know what happens. Get rid of that. Okay, so it looks like that's sort of in the right place, but it's definitely not having the most pronounced effect that I think I want for this model. So I'm going to play a little bit with how this is shaped here. I definitely want Teoh sort of give a corner to that. So I'm gonna bevel that a little bit. I just hate that more in a place. They're looking at this top you with all the Vergis ease out of the way, we can see that we're more closely adhering to that reference. So that's good. Same thing over here. So I pull that back even further on see what's what that's doing for us. Okay? So lining up of the reference, it is approximately in place. And what actually think I want to do to kind of get this even more pronounced look is pull back this inter mesh from the edges even more so. It's been a little bit more time than we probably needed to dial that in at first, but it's definitely and not having the exact effect that I want. So think I'm gonna end up lining this mush up with that line right there? So being careful not to move this top edge because it is already kind of tucked in where we wanted along that edge and yeah, that's having a much more sort of pronounced capsule type of effect that I was looking for . All those gaps are still closed, so it's still kind of doing what we needed to do. But it's just personal preference at this point to see how we want to use the lineup it feels off, you know, trust your gut on jump in and do something about it. What's great about all of this? Is that not having Teoh sit here and worry about the topology and connecting everything up and again? You know, any time you can take advantage of something like that, definitely do it because you're you're not. You don't need to be thinking like a digital slave when you're working on these touch of projects. Now, depending on, you know, the type of project that you're doing and clients needs or if you're working with other people that need it for a specific purpose. Um, you know, you have to adhere to standards, But no one is telling you if you're kind of doing one of these things on your own, that you have to do a certain way. And if it works and, uh, you know, everything is still kind of functioning within the system as it needs to. Then you don't really need toe, you know? Be so, you know, determined to make things follow the exact right method for doing things. For a long time, I obsessed about making sure that all of my measures were completely connected and, you know, joined up perfectly on its apology level, pulling in a level on everything from my sub, certain modifiers and all that. And it was just I was putting myself through a lot of extra pain that didn't really have to be there if I would just, you know, realize that taking shortcuts isn't always a bad thing. In fact, if it speeds you up and doesn't hurt the arts at the end of the day, it's probably a good idea. Um, anything past that is just your own personal pride. So definitely dial that. And if you feel like you're doing extra work, ask yourself whether or not you really need to do that work. Because a lot of times the answer is gonna be no. And even if you're working on a team, you can you know you can make your case. Most people, if you give them a good case for efficiency, aren't going Teoh sit there and argue that it has to be done a certain way unless there's a good reason for it. So it's kind of part of me on a team, okay, so that is all we need to do for this lecture that took a little bit longer than I was hoping. But in this case, all we need to do now is finish up our clip and kind of decide if we're gonna put these details in right here. And that will be it for modeling the pen. The rest of it's just about splitting up the messages and the grouping things. And I'll leave that to you guys as that's not gonna be something that's super complicated to do. I'm sure you guys all know how to group things, parent things off that so that is going to get for this lecture on the next lecture will tackle the rest of the pen, so I'll see you there. 33. 3.10 - Modeling the Cap - Part 4: Okay, We're getting very close to completing this model. So come a long way with fountain pen. And in this lecture, we're gonna wrap things up by creating a little clip that goes on the end of the cap here. So I'm gonna start by dropping in our three cursor right about there, and I want to make sure that that is centered back up on you'll see. What is that? The Y axis. So, yeah, zeroed out right here and what's going at a plan. Skills done quite a bit. Trump in the edit mood. Cut it down the middle. And that's gonna be the prep for using our beloved mirror modifier so quickly try to block the same. This is nothing new to you guys. You have seen me do this plenty of times now, but I wanted to show you every single step to this pin, So gosh, darn it. Here we go. All right, So I'm gonna pull this all the way down in the end on this is more akin to the speed. I would probably be moving if it was a project that I was working on, uh, for myself. And I wish I could move this fast while I was talking to you guys, but not possible. My brain. It's like trying to chew gum and walk backwards and doing back flips the same time. So ah, little difficult for me. It's year kind of dial things in as I'm trying to think about how to plan a model. And even though I have quite a bit of muscle memory for these keyboard shortcuts at this point, it's, uh, you know, it's never straightforward as you would hope that it waas actual piece models. There's always a hiccup somewhere, so you gotta pay attention. Okay, so we throw the mirror modifier on their turn on clipping, and I'm gonna jump into front you and sort of start lighting things up here. So, sure, we're wire frame mode so that all of these points are going to be kind of in the right place, and we're not going to be missing anything because it shaded mode. As you know, when you try to select courtesies through a mesh, it won't select those vortices. I'm sure there's an option somewhere, so you're enabled that in the preferences I feel like I've turned that on or off. It's important that passed. Um Butz, that's all right. It's pretty simple workarounds. Remember to social life from you. Okay, so, Bret, that lined up. And now basically, what we're gonna do is it's good smooths out at a subdivision service modifier through an optimal display. And four, relieve the signs of in preview it. I'm gonna go ahead and select all of the edges on the outside of this model or this mesh, and we're going to go and give us a thickness by extruding downward. So what I want to do here is dropped the necessary vergis ease onto the surface of the cap . So some areas, like right here, it's gonna actually rest on the cap and in other areas, like for here. It doesn't actually go that far down. It's also not even extrusion. So we have to kind of pay attention. The lines points back up with our reference. So here it's hard to see from in orthogonal views. We're gonna line these up in the three d View port and of course, we know that as we turn on and off our subdivision service modifier, that will kind of change things, but that is a good start. Okay, so now let's turn this back on. And, Ben, we've got our little clip in place. Okay? So it kind of looks smooth and boring and some sort of like some sort of alien alien spaceship or something like that. So let's go ahead and start adding some visual interest, my creasing things up, doing some fun things here and there. So what I'm actually going to do is create a bit of an inset in a lip on the inside of this , and so do that. We're just going to select all of the interior faces here, and we're gonna use the insect command with eye on the keyboard. Now there is an option you can turn on and off, really the bottom of the screen. All of those options you can see such a step than offset and boundary and on individual things like that, at the keyboard shortcuts or next to those to turn those on office. So we want a toggle. Here is boundary. So if we could be on the keyboard while that's still active, it's going Teoh, make sure that our mere modifiers taking a consideration and this inner edge won't extrude faces in towards that side of the mesh. So if I turn this on and off, you can see what the effect is there. And we want to have that on. So I'm just creating a little bit of a lip here. This is not going to be. What we use is our bevel for the edge. So even though it's creasing up what's happening right here, it's really not the purpose for why we're doing this. So go ahead and set that. And then what we can dio is jump on edge moan, select this edge that we just created. Make sure we're getting all of that all the way around to the inside around like this ring . We're gonna bevel this and what that's going to do is create an inset edge loop. Inside of that, we're gonna use this to kind of build ourselves a little bit of a ring. So once we have that in place going extrude that down in the Z axis before I move too far forward, I want to make sure that I'm happy with the distance here. At this point, I'd be easier to just undo everything and go back and yeah, so not happy with the way that's working. So I want to edge slide this in a little bit before we do the bevel operation. Let's do it again. I'm gonna make the bevel a little thicker this time. Now it's extruded in the Z axis. So I'm just increasing the distance from this inner, uh, sort of depth of the lip from the outer edges of that. We still have something to double that. Okay, I can't see what that's doing there and kind of adds a little bit more visual interest and makes it feel manmade. Like something was manufactured something like that. Okay, so the other day we're gonna do is we're gonna go ahead and add a solidified modifier. So I select this and isolated with the number pad forward slash. Um, we're going to possibly be able to see the underside of this in a rare circumstance. So that's the only reason I'm taking the time to add a solidify. But that way we have an actual mesh that has thickness and an interior and know of that, go ahead and thinking that up, and we'll drop in edge there. So you sharpen up that under side. I want to make sure remove the solidify above the subsurface because that will make the creasing more effective. We can just sticking that up until we're happy with the way that's looking. So maybe something like that, Remember, as you start adjusting these settings to zoom out and make sure that with the rest of the pen on, you can see the thickness because, you know it needs to match the scale of the rest of the pin. So just be aware of that. Now, we're gonna start seeing some of this inner lip that we created peeking out on the edges. So we need to go in and manually tweak where that's today. So gonna move this in Well, but here, well, but there you don't want to do it so much that it, you know, sort of starts feeling weird. But you want to use it out of the way so that it's not putting out the side right there. It's still coming through. So just a slight nudge, what have moved that into position. And I just want a visual, you know, on the rest of the length of the clip here. Make sure that's not still happening. Like right here. Okay, pull that on the Y Axis will, but and a couple more tweets and should be good to go. Someone recently, my view port with the period on the number pad. Select all of these. Pull that in, and we should be close just to be safe. I'm gonna go ahead and hold these in like this. And they were going Okay, so now we need to work on Oops. One last devil operation, which is gonna be the search here. And we need to probably reference our reference and see how this is looking. So you definitely want a sharp corner there. I want a sharp corner here, and I want to make sure I get this little edge to so or on. That's Ah, I don't think I'll need to make that go all the way through. I can preview real fast to see what happens. So, yeah, we can still maintain quads, and that's not really an issue. So do that. Um, these are not gonna worry about. Do you want to have this edge creased here and that one? I am going to let go all the way through. And let's see if I have anything else we need to select. Yeah, okay. So probably decrease this one. Let's see what happens. We don't Don't do that. Grab this last edge. And let's kind of see how this is gonna work. So double two cuts to maintain the quads. Yeah. Okay, so here's what's going on. Any time we have a bevel with the subdivision service modifier and there's this sort of con cave shape happening on the inside of an edge, Um, we don't really need to GOP cut all the way through the mesh. It's still going to kind of work, but here because we didn't cut all the way through the mashing, there's a convex shape going out, bending outward right there. It's not holding all of geometry in place because it's wanting to slide. The rest of this let back into the rest of the mesh, so that may not make complete sense, But trust me when we select these edges now and go back and do this now, we're gonna have enough geometry there to hold that employees. So make that big enough that from back here it's still working. Okay. And then since we're getting increase here, all we really need to do is grabbing edge here and slide. He's over a little bit. Average that out a little bit. Break that up. Pulled us up to kind of make this smoother transition from this little dip here. So where that lines kind of disappearing on that cruise. And then because we bevel that up, this llopis still poking out a little bit fear. So select all of this and just pull this in a little bit. Looks like you're happy with that. Well, I'm not happy with the way that is actually been day the rest of this and then this is feeling way too far. Pull that back on the X axis a little bit. Might even just pull that back over, but it's still shared up and down inside of there. You want you can build with the inside of that up close. It's it seems weird a little bit, but you gotta remember you're gonna be you're gonna be, like, out here looking at this clip, so can't notice it from there. Then you definitely don't need to be adding extra geometry. Um, not really happy with the way that's creasing up right there. So I'm actually just gonna get rid of all of this. Hold control. Right. Click on for first edged, last agile drawled line from one edge ring to another X delete the edge loops. Same thing here. X delete the edge loops that we've got some triangles. If to merge backup quads there both sides on and see what's going on here. It feels like there's a face somewhere or an edge or something that's out of place. Select all of use and bring that back outs. Yeah, it's just that intersection. Okay, I thought there was an extra face or something there. Sometimes that can happen if you're not careful, but all we need to do is pull that out a little bit more. We should be good to go. So we're getting a weird little bit of pinching here for the same reason that happened when we were trying to bring this all the way through and it didn't really work. So even with some of the con que faces like this, you can get away with it. In this case, I think we're getting a little bit too much pinching there. So easiest way to fix this is jump into your knife tool and then draw new edges all the way out. And so that's what we do here and that will go ahead and fix that toe. Join that up with Jay, turn these triangles and quads. And now we basically don't waited here. So we're getting a little bit of a non wanted pinch there in the middle when guns move this out like that. Sure, everything's traveling all the way through. It looks like we didn't get a cut all the way through. So pull that down. So here, make sure we're at the proper angle so that it can actually see what we're trying to do here. And let's join that up, okay? Doing some weird things here. So what's jumping a Vertex mood? It's like this point at this point, it j that will cut online. That's the closest shortest path between one point. The other. That's we're gonna have to do on this side as well, Jay, to join that up. And now we've got consistent cuts running all the way through from one side of the other. Okay, a little bit of a mess, but we got it cleaned up. So what? This points, I think we are going to call this good. So there's ah ah lot. We had due to again go back in and refine and you know it's weak and play around and all that fun stuff. Um, and if you want again, the more you spend your time playing with his finishing touches and things like that, the more professional, it's only I feel. But for our purposes, this is 20. Interesting. So, uh, I kind of felt that a little bit. I like the way that's OK. Another thing we did when I was going back through and modeling this the first time around was, um we took all of the points up of the top here, and we made a slight bend down towards the other edge. It's like those get rid of that. Make sure we have all of those courtesy selected on the outside edge. This is gonna be a pretty slight effect, but maybe enough that you'll notice. So from the side, you can see we're going a little bit of a dip here, so pull that down a little bit back up to the front and get rid of that. And instances air on a straight line getting drop that down to the full steps there. So it gives it a little bit more of a curvature on the profile there adds a little bit to the depth and let's see, Yeah, we're still having some issues because we decided not to all the way through there as well . So I'm gonna again go ahead and fix this up, but we're pretty much done. Guys, that is all that. We need to get this fountain pen model into a really good place for this course. And I hope you guys enjoy this projects I've got ah, lots more coming your way and bigger plans for, uh, this pin in a project coming up. So I hope to be able to share those us pretty soon. Okay, That's not what I wanted. So it's a little d. I just slide that down. Join that up. Joint out up tribals. Apologies, fun. You can get a little messy, but you know Okay, - okay . Looking a little better there and again. Maybe not the best idea not to cut those All the way through for this particular case, anyone's you can decide for yourself. You want to sharpen up, you can sharpen it up. If not, the rounded edges right here are going to be the result that you get when you decide not to send those paths all the way through. In this case, I I think it's fun. So I'm gonna leave that. And if I don't like it, you can always come back in tweet things. Okay, So we're not a place where we can pretty much call this done. And all the details that air here again hopefully air here because the added to you the overall silhouette switch back on that madcap pick. Something like that's and maybe inter display turn on only renders. So we can kind of see what this looks like in this report Back on images. Okay, so with a pan of the whole model, so you can see again from the front of your here all the way down as we move that hopefully everything we've added to this pen has been done to enhance the profile, enhance the way that we get the dimensionality and three d and from the top you. Same thing. We, uh we only added things that helped sell This model is realistic. And that's basically what we want to do now is go back in and start separating these measures back out, grouping them and things like that. But as I mentioned previously, we are not gonna cover that. So you guys for joining me, and I hope you enjoyed it. Let me a comments. Ask me questions. I'm here to help you out. And I will see you guys in the next course. Thank you very much. 34. Conclusion: I want to thank you so much for taking this force for me. I really appreciate your investment in this force in the time you spent with it. I did enjoy putting it together for you guys. And I always enjoy hearing from you guys. So if you have it, sir, Discussion in the course you haven't asked. Question Haven't left pick. Show me what you're working on. Please do that. I love hearing from you guys. I love hearing what you're working on. And I would love to help out with the issues you have with your modeling skills inside the course. So also, please leave me a rating really does help me spread the course around on other people know that it exists and that it's a good course. If you enjoyed it, please leave me aerating. And if you didn't let me know what's up, let me know how I can fix it. Make it better. And I thrive off of comments from people because I always want to up my game. So I really appreciate that. Check out the next lecture. It's gonna let you know other courses that I provide what's coming in terms of the different things that are available on this platform, and you're going to see what other things you could be involved in other course. So I really appreciate it again that you are taking this course you have to plead it. And I really can't thank you enough your investment in your time and your energy. So thank you so much for being assume it. I look forward to seeing and hearing from you and, as always, happy plunder.