Okay! So here is my super quick project - I kept it very very simple and that's what this exercise is about :)
I'm in Berlin now, the light is pretty dim, so to be honest I have very very little variation of light's intensity during the day. And I can definitely forget about the "golden hour". It's winter and with a bit of luck I might wait for a brighter day, but instead I decided to go creative. Soooo:
IMAGE 1: This is the first take (shot with iPhone) - natural wintery, very dim, grey light. The pic was taken on a windowsill.
IMAGE 2: This one was shot in a different room, far away from the light source (again only natural light coming through a big window).
IMAGE 3: The 3rd pic was taken in a darkened room with a small table lamp lighting the cactus from the left hand side. With only 1 light the whole right side of the image got pitch black with the shadow casted by the plant. So I have used a lid from a white cardboard box to reflect the light and fill in the sahdows.
These 3 pictures illustrate in a very simple way how different light conditions affect the colors in the image. Look at 3 different sades of green - while the cactus was exactly the same. Notice as well a strong yellow color cast in the 3rd image - it was caused by the artificial light. Watch how the light temperature was changing across this mini photo shoot.
Important note: the images were not processed, they represent original colors as during the shoot.