Ultimate Sound Design Complete: Mastering Sound Design | Jason Allen | Skillshare

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Ultimate Sound Design Complete: Mastering Sound Design

teacher avatar Jason Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      My Approach To Sound Design


    • 3.

      Tools You Will Need


    • 4.

      Physics Of Sound


    • 5.

      What Is Timbre?


    • 6.

      Harmonics And Partials


    • 7.



    • 8.



    • 9.

      The Sound Generator In Synthesis


    • 10.



    • 11.

      Waveforms - Sine Waves


    • 12.

      Square Waves


    • 13.

      Triangle Waves


    • 14.

      Sawtooth Waves


    • 15.

      Waveshapes Under Spectrogram


    • 16.

      Noise Generators


    • 17.

      Other Sound Generators


    • 18.

      Subtractive Synthesis


    • 19.

      Filter And EQ


    • 20.

      Gain And Q


    • 21.

      Low Pass


    • 22.

      High Pass


    • 23.

      Band pass


    • 24.



    • 25.

      Looking At Devices


    • 26.

      Sound Generators And Filters


    • 27.

      Deeper Into The Oscillator Section


    • 28.

      Deeper Into The Filter Section


    • 29.

      Signal Flow


    • 30.

      Why Two Amps


    • 31.

      The LFO


    • 32.

      The WubWubs


    • 33.

      Quick Routing


    • 34.

      What are Envelopes?


    • 35.

      The ADSR Format


    • 36.

      More Than Just Amplitude


    • 37.

      Applying Envelopes


    • 38.

      Other Ways Envelopes Can Look


    • 39.

      Preset: FatEric


    • 40.

      Preset: SadnessPad


    • 41.

      Think Or Thin?


    • 42.

      High Or Low?


    • 43.

      Short Or Long?


    • 44.

      Motion Or Stillness?


    • 45.

      Moving On...


    • 46.

      Other Types Of Synthesis


    • 47.

      What Is FM?


    • 48.

      Musical Examples of FM


    • 49.

      What Is The Same?


    • 50.

      Installing FM8


    • 51.

      The FM8 Browser


    • 52.

      Building Your Own Patch in FM8


    • 53.

      Getting To the Default Patch


    • 54.

      Add A Modulator


    • 55.

      More Modulators And Experimenting


    • 56.

      What Is Additive?


    • 57.

      Music Examples Additive


    • 58.

      What is the Same?


    • 59.

      Setting Up Operator


    • 60.

      Simple Additive With Waveforms


    • 61.

      The Overtone Series


    • 62.

      Additive With Oscillators


    • 63.

      Apply Filters And Envelopes


    • 64.

      What Is WaveTable Synthesis?


    • 65.

      Music Examples


    • 66.

      What Is the Same?


    • 67.

      Setting Up Serum


    • 68.

      Serum Basic Layout


    • 69.

      Wavetables in Serum


    • 70.

      Warp Menu


    • 71.

      Unison Settings


    • 72.

      Making Your Own Wavetables


    • 73.

      What Is Physical Modeling?


    • 74.

      Music Examples


    • 75.

      What Is the Same?


    • 76.

      Electric Setup


    • 77.

      The Model


    • 78.

      Mallet Section


    • 79.

      The Fork Section


    • 80.

      The Damper Section


    • 81.

      The Pickup Settings


    • 82.

      The Global Section


    • 83.

      What We Find In Analog Synths


    • 84.

      My Analog Synthesizers


    • 85.

      Device: Monotribe


    • 86.

      Device: Moog Mother 32


    • 87.

      Moog Mother 32 Controls


    • 88.

      Recipe Books


    • 89.

      Bass: Deep House Bass


    • 90.

      Bass: Dirty Dubstep Bass


    • 91.

      Bass: Pluck House Bass


    • 92.

      Bass: Growly Opening Resonant Bass


    • 93.

      Bass: Warm Foundational Bass


    • 94.

      Lead: Plinky Little Wavetable


    • 95.

      Lead: Buzzy Wavetable


    • 96.

      Lead: Sinewave Based Lead


    • 97.

      Lead: Aggressive Operator Lead


    • 98.

      Lead: FM8 Drive Lead


    • 99.

      The Ableton Drum Rack


    • 100.

      Drums: Kicks


    • 101.

      Drums: Hats


    • 102.

      Drums: Snare


    • 103.

      Drums: Toms


    • 104.

      Thanks and Bye!


    • 105.

      Bonus Lecture


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About This Class

Welcome to the Ultimate Sound Design COMPLETE class!

This class is for anyone who has wondered what sound design is all about. Especially:

  • Producers: If you are making tracks that rely on presets, and you want to learn how to craft your own sounds, this is the course for you.

  • Aspiring Producers: If you are just getting started with music production, this course will be the swiss army knife that you will keep in your belt forever.

  • Musicians: If you have wanted to improve your compositions by understanding how the physics of sound and partials work, this class is for you.

  • Songwriters: Improve your compositions by understanding how to make unique and memorable sounds to use in your songs.

In this class, we start with the very basics of sound design and work all the way up to working with complicated plugins like Xfer Serum, Native Instruments FM8, and others. I'll walk you through every step of the process and explain the logic behind every decision I make.

The goal of this class is for you to learn how to make original, compelling, and memorable sounds for your music.

This course is NOT specific to any DAW program.

I'll be using Ableton Live Suite 10 in this course as my main DAW, but if you are using any other program you will be able to follow along just fine. That includes Logic, FL Studio, Pro Tools, Reaper, Reason, Cubase, or any of the others. My method in this class is to teach concepts, so whatever I do, you will be able to do it in your own software.

I'm best known for working with electronic music, but I've designed this course to be as inclusive as possible when it comes to genre. We will talk about sound design techniques for all genres, sounds, and styles. All genres are welcome here!

Topics Covered: 

  • The Essential Tools of Sound Design

  • Physics of Sound

  • Timbre

  • Harmonics

  • Partials

  • Overtones

  • The Oscillator

  • Sine Waves

  • Square Waves

  • Triangle Waves

  • Sawtooth Waves

  • Waveshapers

  • Noise Generators

  • Subtractive Synthesis

  • Filters

  • EQ

  • Low Pass Filters

  • High Pass Filters

  • Bandpass Filters

  • Notch Filters

  • Signal Flow

  • Envelopes

  • ADSR

  • Building Thick or Thin Sounds

  • Building High or Low Sounds

  • Building Short or Long Sounds

  • Building Motion or Still Sounds

  • The LFO

  • FM Synthesis

  • The Native Instruments FM8 Plugin

  • Modulators

  • Ableton Live's Operator

  • Additive Synthesis

  • Wavetable Synthesis

  • Xfer Serum Plugin

  • Wavetables

  • Creating Wavetables

  • Physical Modeling Synthesis

  • Analog Instruments

  • Moog Mother 32

  • Sound Design Recipies

  • Creating Bass Synths

  • Creating Drum Synths

  • Creating Lead Synths

  • And much, much more!

If you are ready to start making professional sounding tracks, this is the class that will start you on that journey. Get started today.

Dr. Allen is a university music professor and is a top-rated online instructor - with nearly 100 courses and over 300,000 students.

In 2017 Star Tribune Business featured him as a "Mover and a Shaker," and he is recognized by the Grammy Foundation for his music education classes. 

** I guarantee that this course is the most thorough music mixing course available ANYWHERE on the market - or your money back (30-day money-back guarantee) **

Closed captions have been added to all lessons in this course.


Praise for Courses by Jason Allen:

⇢  "It seems like every little detail is being covered in an extremely simple fashion. The learning process becomes relaxed and allows complex concepts to get absorbed easily. My only regret is not taking this course earlier." - M. Shah

⇢  "Great for everyone without any knowledge so far. I bought all three parts... It's the best investment in leveling up my skills so far.." - Z. Palce

⇢  "Excellent explanations! No more or less than what is needed." - A. Tóth

⇢  "VERY COOL. I've waited for years to see a good video course, now I don't have to wait anymore. Thank You!" - Jeffrey Koury

  "I am learning LOTS! And I really like having the worksheets!" - A. Deichsel

⇢  "The basics explained very clearly - loads of really useful tips!" - J. Pook

⇢  "Jason is really quick and great with questions, always a great resource for an online class!" M. Smith


Students who register for this course will receive ongoing exclusive content and discounts for all future classes in the series. 

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jason Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen teaches... See full profile

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1. Welcome!: Hey, everyone. Welcome, Teoh. My sound design class. My huge sound design class. This is the biggest class I think I've ever made. I know I say that every time, but they keep getting bigger in this class. We're going to start by going over all the key elements of sound design all the basic building blocks. And then from there, we're gonna build and learn how to make mawr and more different types of sounds using different techniques. We're going to start off just looking at subtracted synthesis. We're gonna go into additive synthesis, and then we're gonna really dive in and go into wave table synthesis, physical modelling and more. So this will be a lot of material in this class. You're going, Teoh, really go through the wringer, and by the end, you'll be able to follow along and watch as I make sounds from scratch. Ah, that are you know, big bass sounds, lead sounds, pad sounds, drum sounds, all of it. And we kind of close the class with this big Siris of of what I call recipes. So just tons of different videos saying, Here's how you make this sound family have ever been Here's how you make this sound and we just rocked through it. We'll be using a lot of different software in this class. You can use whatever you want, but the tools that I'm going to be focusing on to show you the different techniques of sound design. Our Native Instruments FM eight will be looking at experts Serum will be using some of the built in stuff and able to. We'll talk a little bit about some of the the ah reason synthesizers and a whole bunch more . We're gonna bounce around because the goal here is not for you to learn different software applications, but to learn sound design and the physics of sound and how to manipulate any software or analog gear, which we're also gonna look at to do exactly what you need to do in order to make the sounds in your head. That's the goal of the class. I'm really happy with how the class turned out. I'm really excited for you to take it, so let's dive in. Okay, So for the next four, maybe five videos, we're going to be focusing just on this just on oscillator. A. The amplitude level is also the modulation level. Okay, Not so much here because this is going to the output. If someone walked up to you on the street and said, Draw me the shape of an envelope, this is what you would draw. This is what it looks like. Okay, You can ignore the kind. OK, the fourth element that I think about is motion or stillness. Okay, So when I'm talking about motion in that sound, like right now, we have not here. I just have one filter. And when we talk about gain, what we're really talking about is this function called decibels per active. Okay, so it sounds confusing, and it is a little bit, so I want to spend a little extra time. Okay, So we really like the mother. 32 for baselines, Right? Because it is a model phonic sense. We can only play one note at a time. Um, it's got some nice big sap so I can adjust the frequency a little bit here. This is a monstrously huge class, the biggest class I have ever made by far. So there is not a moment to lose. Let's dive in and get started. 2. My Approach To Sound Design: All right, let's get started with sound design. So what I want to talk about first is kind of how I like to approach sound design. Um, I'm not a big fan of Matt. However. There is a lot of math and sound design, or there can be We should say there can be a lot of math and sound design, but what I like to do is understand the primary principles of sound design and then experiment in play. So we need to know some of the basic things that are happening. We need to know what happens when I turn and telephone up if you see it now. But says LFO on it, what does that do? We need to know the basics of what that does, but we might find that cranking it up to extreme levels does something really fun or applying it in a different way. Does something really fun that we didn't expect. So I always look forward, Teoh those extreme situations that we didn't expect, and I'm sure we'll play around with many of those throughout this class. So what I like to do is understand the basic principles that are happening and then give us time to play an experiment and create with those There's no right or wrong way to do this. Yes, there's a right way. If you want to create a big, wobbly Web Web sound, there is a way to do that. But you might find that just by experimenting with it you you create something different and much more interesting to you. So that's the way that we're gonna do this course. We're gonna learn the principles and then we're gonna play around with it, and we're gonna have some fun while we do it. We're going to keep the math to a minimum. Although this first kind of big section that we're heading into is on the basic physics of sound, although it's not gonna be very math heavy. So don't worry. Um, there's just a couple things we need to make sure our under our belt, and we really understand how those work. So that's how we're gonna go forward in this class. Keep that in mind as you're learning everything, um, throughout these lessons, that that's my frame of mind when I'm approaching it. Okay, let's move on and talk about tools that we're gonna use in this class 3. Tools You Will Need: Okay, let's talk about tools that you're gonna need. Now, in order to do sound design, we need some things we could use. Physical hardware. We could use software. Um, we could use, you know, analog synthesizers. But what I want to do is try to make this class as universal as possible. So it shouldn't matter what tools you're using, whether you're using analog modular synthesis or you're using, uh, plug in, You know, some plug in that you got it shouldn't matter, because what we're gonna do is we're gonna learn what happens when we, um, apply a filter to a square wave. That's universal. It doesn't matter what software you're using. A square wave with the filter on. It is going to do a certain thing in all software and in all synthesis software, you're going to be able to find a square wave and a filter. If they're in there, you might have to search around to find what it's where it is because it's laid out a little different, but it's always gonna be there. These are universal things that all instruments have. Now, when we get into some of the more advanced stuff, there might be things that some synthesizers have that others don't. So I will tell you that I am primarily going to use able to live for this class. I think I'll jump over to logic for a couple things, but those are going to be my main tools. I might move over into serum a little bit, too, just because that's really popular right now, and I think a lot of people want to check that out. That's a plug in. So those are the tools I'm gonna need use. But you don't need to have those tools if you'll are a pro tools user. If you are NFL studio user, you're gonna be just fine in this class because these principles are universal. You're gonna have to find that LFO knob when I say turn the LFO knob, but it should be pretty obvious, and it's in there somewhere. It's all the same. Even if you're working on a hardware unit, I point over here. This is where my hardware synthesizers are on. I'll pull those out eventually. Even if you're working on hardware synthesizers, it's still the same, Uh, for the most part, you know, if I say turned that l A phone up, We can find it in the software or we confined it. Ah, on a physical nut if we're working with, uh, physical synthesizers. So long story short, it doesn't really matter what software or hardware that you're using as long as you've got something to use something professional. I wouldn't recommend garage band That doesn't really have the kind of synthesis that we need. We need, like, a professional kind of tool. So any pro level, um, audio software? Certainly anything that could take a plug in those will all work just fine. Cool. I'm going to use able to live, but you don't have to. 4. Physics Of Sound: Okay, So like I mentioned, Ah, minute ago. First thing we're gonna do here is go into the physics of sound. So why do we care about this? Um, all sound design is really based in wave forms, partials, overtones, and all of that means how sound is constructed. Okay, So we really need to understand what those things are that I just said. If those words that I just said didn't make any sense to you Ah, partials, overtones, harmonic. Siri's things like that. That's great, because we're going to cover that right now. I don't expect you to know those words if you do know those words. And you know how this stuff works. Uh, you could skip over if you want, but I would encourage you to to stick with me on it. I might say something that ah is unfamiliar to you. Um, so just hear me out. Uh, so we're not gonna get into the real math, heavy stuff of how this works as much as possible, but we have to understand this stuff if we're going to start shaping sounds to do what we want to do. Because remember, all sound design is about crafting these wave forms to make them sound exactly how we want them to sound. Quote. So that being said, Let's dive in, do a little bit of physics on sound to get it started and then we move on to make its noise . 5. What Is Timbre?: Okay, so the first thing we need to do is talk about this word Tambor. Okay, so this is spelled T i m b r e, but it is pronounced timber, not timber. Camber means color that quite literally, it translates as color. But what it really means is the thing that makes two sounds sound different. For example, here I have two different sounds. So here, let's just hear this one. Okay, Now, let's hear this one. Same note. Okay. Same note, same volume, same pitch, same everything. But these are two different sounds, right? What is it that makes them sound different, right? It's not the pitch. It's not the volume. It's the Tambor. The Tambor is what's different between the two of these. The characteristics of the sound are just different. What causes to sounds to sound different? It's a matter of these other waves that are not the note that I'm playing. For example, here, I'm playing middle C on both of these two different scents. Okay, let's take a look at what's actually happening here. So I'm going to add in, um, spectrum so I can see the spectra of what's happening here. Okay, so Let's go to this one. So low it okay the Tambor's created by all of this stuff up here. This is almost like a key, right? Like like a key in terms of like a key that unlocks the door. There's a very specific pattern here that's giving us that sound, that bussiness, that particular sound. That's all this stuff up here. This is called the Fundamental. This is the note we're actually playing. It's usually the lowest note. Not always, usually. And then all of these things that happened up here are called harmonics, overtones, partials, various things. We'll go over those terms in just a minute. Okay? So let me do this. I'm just going to take a quick little screenshot of this. Okay, Now let's do the same thing on this one. Let's turn that off. Let's look at this one, okay? You see a similar thing here. You see a fundamental with a bunch of stuff above it, right? But there's a big difference here. Let's take a screenshot of that one. The reason I'm taking these screenshots so that I can put him side by side. Okay, so there's one. Then there's the other one. Okay, so let's look at these. These air different, right? You see how this one has Alternating high, low, high, low, high, low Here. This one doesn't have it. If we really zoomed in here, we will be able to see there's a There's a different amount of space in between each one of these. Actually, you can see it pretty clearly. The pattern of how it starts is a little different and how it ends. Look at this weird little gap here. This all has to do with what makes the sound, uh, timber. What makes it sound the way it sounds. And this is what sound design is all about, right? It's not about crafting the fundamental. The fundamental down here is just what note we play. That's music composition That's not sounded. That sound design is how to get all of this stuff to do what you want in order to make a very specific kind of sound. Okay. And this is true not just in synthesis, but in any audio file. You have all of this extra stuff up here, right? And they make different patterns. And those patterns are what make the sound sound different. cool so that, collectively, is the Tambor of the sound. The Tambor is the result of all of this, and it gives us the quality of the sound. Now let's go a little bit deeper and let's talk about harmonics and overtones. And for that, let's go to a new video. 6. Harmonics And Partials: Okay, so let's talk a little bit more about harmonics and partials there if we really want to get in the weeds. There is a difference between these two terms. However, most people use them synonymous Lee to mean the same thing. So when we talk about harmonics and partials, we're talking about all of these bumps up here above the fundamental. Okay, that's the fundamental than that we played. These are all harmonics above it, or partials about it. Technically speaking, they are all partials above it. But only some of them are harmonics. It depends on the harmonica is kind of like specific ones, um, at specific frequencies. But, um, I don't want to get bogged down in that, Uh, that's a term that a lot of people aren't even using anymore. The distinction between those two things in common ways of talking. So let's not worry about that too much. Let's use those two words to mean the same thing. Harmonics and partials are all of these things above the fundamental Another is such a thing as a sub harmonic. That would be if we get any of these little notches below the fundamental okay, and we can't do that. There are ways that we might do that. Um, we'll talk about that later, but those would be called sub harmonics. Sub harmonics. Any harmonics under the fundamental harmonics. Anything above partials? Anything about? 7. Overtones: Now there's 1/3 word that we use, sometimes to to talk about harmonics and partials and let his overtone so overtone is slightly different. Um, although a lot of the times you hear people using it Ah, the same as they use harmonics and partials. But overtone does kind of mean something a little bit different. Overtone is a little bit more of a musical term than a kind of sound design kind of math kind of term, Um, and it has to do with a specific sequence of notes that just to make things even more confusing, we call the harmonic Siri's or the overtone series. So when we talk about these things in terms of a Siri's, we're talking about this specific pattern of notes. Now, if you don't know how to read, music doesn't matter. Um, the important thing here is that the overtones Siri's is really a pre described pattern of notes that goes up much higher than this. It starts just going up and up and up and up and up. This is like how a brass player plays their instrument. So if I say um oh, it's a good example. Well, a good example, would be like a bugle. Okay, like imagining Bugle Bugle is like a trumpet, but with no valves right, there's no things. The only way to play different notes is to, uh, move your lips in just the right ways. So what they dio is, they say, here's a fundamental and then they know the overtone Siri's so they know if they do something with their lips, they can play the second note second note in the overtone series. Or, if they do something a weirder with her lips, they can play the fourth note or the fifth note of the overtone series. So they moved between notes by changing their lips in order to move between this Siri's because that's how they get the notes. Now that doesn't really matter for us. I just want to describe the overtone, Siri's and how it works. This is really kind of built into all notes. So when we play a note as a fundamental here, a lot of the times, what comes out is something similar, and we get this pattern an octave of 5th 4th a major third, a minor third, another minor third. But it's a little attitude another major third. And it's a little attitude are sorry, a major second, and it's a little lot of tune major, another major second. And then it goes up dramatically from there. So keep in mind moral of the story When we talk about overtone Siri's, we're talking about this pattern of notes we won't deal. I don't think too much with the overtone series here in this class, but I wanted you to know about it because it does get used, Um, with harmonics, partials and overtones. Those terms get used to being roughly the same thing when they're kind of a little bit different. Okay, we've got. 8. Waveforms: okay, Before we get too far along, I want to talk about wave forms for just a minute. If you've been working with audio already, which you probably have, you've worked with wave forms. What's the difference between this thing we have here that we just looked at and a wave form which is what we're looking at under neath I point this out because I want you to, uh, be sure you know the difference and not be confused by the two. Okay, there is a very distinct difference here. You can kind of tell they look different. Um, in the patterns that are happening there is there is a lot of different. The main thing that's different between this which is a spectra graham. And this, which is a way for him, is the the graph that it's drawn on. Okay, so what we're looking at here in the spectra Graham, we're looking at volume this way and frequency this way. Okay, so that means this frequency right here is loud because it's sort of the top. We go over here. This frequency is loud. This frequency is quieter and it goes from low to high. Okay, so lower left is going to be a low frequency sound. That's very quiet. Upper right Is gonna be a high frequency sound. That's very loud. Okay, So low to high This way. Left to right and quiet. Toe loud. This way. The difference here is in a way form. What we have is volume this way and time. This way. Okay, so we don't have frequency in a way for an away form, you can't see frequency. Okay? And in a sonogram, you are a spectra. Graham, you can't see time, right? Ah, this is showing us one instance one millisecond of sound actually smaller than that of sound. Uh, this is showing us, you know, roughly 2.5, I think seconds of sound across. Okay, So just note the difference between a spectra Graham and a wave form, okay? And know when you're looking at one or the other. Main difference again is that in the spectra, Graeme, there's no time represented. And in a way, for him, there's no pitch represented primarily when we're doing sound design. We need to see the pitch because we need to see our overtones, right? We don't see overtones down here. Even this stuff. These are not overtones. These are This is a low wave form. So this is just volume going over cool. 9. The Sound Generator In Synthesis: Okay. So for the next couple, big sections were gonna be focusing on the essential tools that we're gonna need when I'm talking about tools I'm not talking about, um, a Bolton or F L O R. Um, Hardware modular. Said this. Is there anything we're talking about? Um, the general idea of these few things that we need that drive all synthesis. Those things are oscillators, filters and things like that. You will find these things in any kind of synthesis. Okay, so we're talking big picture. Um, as soon as we learned how to find the oscillator, then we'll know how to make music With any synthesizer you're using, there's going to be some kind of oscillator in it. There has to be. So, um, let's get into it. Um, now, for this 1st 1 we're gonna talk about sound generators. And so when I was just talking about oscillators, that's what I'm talking about. An oscillator is a type of sound generator. There are a few different types of sound, generally generators. So when I just said, there's oscillator in everything, that's not exactly true. There's a sound generator in everything, and most types of synthesis have oscillators. We'll talk more about that in a second. Now, One thing I like to use throughout this class when I'm talking about synthesis is this little guy. This is Ah, Corrigan. Mono tribe. This is an analog synthesizer. It's got a little It's kind of those speaker built in. It's tons of fun, that parties. Um, I really enjoy it. So what I'm gonna show you here is, uh, this first thing we're gonna talk about is the oscillator, and that's right up here. So Ah, if I just play a note way go, I can control the active. I can control the type of oscillator it is with this switch, and I have a couple other parameters that I could do here. Now this says V c o. It stands for voltage controlled oscillator. We'll talk more about that in a second. But whenever we're looking at a synthesizer, um, in most kinds of synthesis, there's an oscillator somewhere. Here's another one on my screen here. If we go over to right here, this is our oscillator section. There's a second oscillator down here which is currently turned off to see where it says osk one. That's an oscillator. It gives us the shape which will talk more about in a second and then a little bit a couple different ways. We can tune it active semi tone and then weaken de tune it a little bit. Okay, so sound generators in synthesis there has to be a sound generator to get things started. Most of the time, it's an oscillator, so let's dive in on. Let's go through how oscillators work on the different kinds of them. 10. Oscillators: Okay, So the oscillator is the sound making thing in a synthesizer. So every synthesizer you look at, it's gonna have an oscillator in it somewhere unless it's a different kind of synthesis, which will talk more about in just a minute. So the parameters that we get with an oscillator are typically the shape of the oscillator , and that is the the shape that it's creating will come back to that just one second and then some tuning parameters. So what octave it's in. And, uh, if we want to de tune it in any way with semi tone de tuning or, uh and he got him d tuning by sense, so semi tone would be like one step on the keyboard. Like one note on the keyboard, I should say and and sent D tuning would be, um, by individual sense in between the notes. So this is just like literally pulling it out of tune. This is adjusting it by a step hair, a semi tone or by whole active. So if I e play, change the way lower, so if I want a basic way low, okay, so the shape let's talk about the shape so what an oscillator does is it oscillates, right? It goes back and forth, back and forth, back and forth over and over and over and over the speed at which it oscillates gets translated into a pitch. So the faster it oscillates, the higher the pitch, the slower it oscillates, the lower the pitch, and the pattern that it oscillates in is what determines the overtone frequencies here. Okay, so let's look at a little bit easier. Way to see this is with the program called Audacity. Okay, so I'm gonna use this program called Audacity. This is a really simple program. It's totally free. Um, and it lets us generate tones. Actually, audacity does a lot of really great things. Uh, so I'm gonna generate a tone, I'm gonna say a sine wave. So this is an oscillator. OK, so we're going to make a sine wave. That's the pattern that this oscillator is going to do frequency. And that's the speed of the oscillator. Amplitude is the volume and duration. For how long do I want this to go? 30 seconds. Sure. Okay, So here's what I just made a brilliant right now, the reason I like to use audacity is because it lets me zoom way in. So let's zoom in farther and farther and farther, and there we go. Okay, so here is our sine wave. It's going up and down and up and down. That's the oscillation part. That's the oscillation of an oscillator, right? It's going up, down, up, down, up, down, up, down. So now it's doing it at a speed that generates this pitch that we're getting right. So it's doing it very, very, very fast. And that's what generates this. When I was in grad school, I found in, ah, cabinet somewhere these these old oscillators from way, way, way back in the day. And there were these big things. They were like the size of a refrigerator. And that's, you know, in early early days of computing, they had these giant things and they were oscillators and you could dial them in. They had his these huge knobs on them. Ah, that you could dial in Teoh, you know, ramp them up to get to the pitch that you wanted. But that's what it used to take to make these. Now we can make them digitally or we could make them analog with one of these. This has a circuit in it that isn't us later and just oscillates back and forth. And that's what generates pitch. Now, when we get deeper into this, what we're gonna do is we're gonna start crafting these sounds. But for starters, let's go back to live here and let's look at this shape thing, right? So what I just made was a sine wave that looks like this one. But that shape is very important to an oscillator because that generates the overtone Siri's that gets us started on making the sound that we want. So let's investigate oscillators a little bit more by looking at the different wave forms, the most common wave forms that an oscillator makes. Um 01 other thing I didn't explain yet. When we look at oscillators, we often see the letters V c o. Next to the oscillator. That's what we have on this one. V C. O v. C O stands for voltage controlled oscillator. And in our case, what voltage controlled means is that we're going Teoh, speed it up and slow it down, effectively raising the pitch or lowering the pitch by giving it different amounts of voltage. That's how these have always been used. It's not anything you need to worry about unless you're doing, uh, modular synthesis, where you're moving chords in and out of something. Then you're gonna actually care about the voltage you're sending this stuff. But if you're working completely digitally, you don't really need to worry about the voltage. Um, aspect of oscillators Very much you can if you want, but that aspect of it is already kind of handled for us in the digital world. But when you see V. C o, that means voltage controlled oscillator, we're pretty much talking about the oscillators in our city. Okay, let's go on and talk about these weight forms. 11. Waveforms - Sine Waves: Okay, let's start with a sine wave, which is what we made here. Okay, so the sine wave is the smoothest of all of them. It sounds the smoothest, uh, and why does it sound smoothest? Because it makes the least amount of overtones, right? This is a very smooth sound if we go over able 10 and just make a sine wave So I'm gonna turn everything off here, have to leave the amplifier on, but let's go zero make a sine wave No filter. Now I have just a sine wave going. It's very quiet. So let's take a quick little look at what a sine wave actually is. You might remember the sign symbol s i n from, you know, uh, your high school algebra class, Uh, and you know that a sign is basically a circle. So how does the how does a circle get turned into this thing? Here is a little complicated, but it's kind of fun to explain if we look at a circle and we try to apply a timeline to a circle, what we do is we have to move around it this way. So we call this spot one. We called this line zero and we call this spot negative. One to go 10 Negative 10 would be the path around it, and that's the same thing that's happening here. We have one appear 10 negative, 10 So that makes one cycle of the way for Actually, we have to go all the way back to one again now. Typically, we would measure that from zero. So let's say 010 negative 10 That's the more common way that we would do it. So that's one cycle. Okay, so whenever we're talking about wave forms were thinking about cycles. How many cycles per second means the pitch right? The more cycles per second means the faster it's going, uh, the less cycles per second, the slower it's going. And that makes a lower pitch. Okay, so if we look at the frequency of just a sine wave, what we would see in the spectrum of just a sine wave is, ah, fundamental and not much else after it. Ah, couple little things just because mathematically, this isn't a perfect sine wave, but really not much. There's nothing in there that's gonna add a lot of weird color or anything like that. We'll see in some of the other way forms that we get a lot of overtones in the other wave forms. And that's what adds a certain amount of fuzziness and color to the tambor of the sound all words that you know. No. So let's take a look at those other ones. 12. Square Waves: Okay, let's stick with audacity for just a minute and look at the other way forms. So I think what I'm gonna do is I want to be able to compare these way forms in a minute. So I'm gonna go to start with a new file, you go to generate tone. Let's do a sine wave at 4 40 0.8 amplitude, and let's do five seconds of it. Okay, so now we have five seconds of that. I'm gonna go to the end. We know what that sounds like. Okay, so now I'm going to go to the end of it. Now, let's generate tone. And this time, let's do a square wave. Okay? So this is a different way for what we're gonna do. The same pitch, same amplitude, same duration. Okay, now we have a square wave here. Okay, So here's our sunlight. Right. Nice and clean. Nice and pure. Here's our square with a right mess. Really brittle sound that zoom way in on that. We can see why we call it a square wave. There it is. Let's go out. One more. You see? A little bit better. Okay, so we call us a square wave because we basically have squares were going up and down and up and up and up. And that's the oscillation pattern is the square. Now why does this one sounds so harsh While the other one sounds so smooth, right. If we go back to our sine wave, this one sounds so smooth and square wave sound super harsh. The reason is that to square wave pattern generates just a lot more overtones. If we look at this in a spectrograph, we're going to see a lot of overtones happening. And we will look at it just a minute, trust me. So, in general, generally speaking, the more kind of sharp angles you have an away form, the buzz easier it's gonna be on the buzz. Easier it is is because it has more overtones that are generated. Okay, so whenever you have the sharp angles and makes buzzing, this square waves are about as buzzy as we can get. So let's zoom back out. That's one more time here. The difference. I'm gonna play. I'll play the full five seconds of sine wave and in five seconds a square wave we owe you hear all those overtones come in. Okay, so that's a square wave. It's really it sounds buzzy and abrasive, but actually really, really useful to us and synthesis. We'll get into how we use it later, but I just want to introduce these way forms now. Okay, let's go out and talk about the next one Triangle waves. 13. Triangle Waves: Okay. Next way for we're gonna look at it. The triangle weight now audacity only lets us generate a few different kinds of wave forms And try and go is now. What about right? Sawtooth and square? No alias. So we can't generate a triangle wave here, but I still want us to look at it. So what I'm gonna do is it's gonna important audiophile of this triangle wave. That's move it to where I wanted to be. Yeah. Okay. So I need Teoh make the volume of this the same. Okay, so here's our triangle E o. So we zoom way in. We can see why it's called the triangle Wave, right? Pretty self explanatory. It's a triangle. Now you see this little David here? That's odd. I don't remember. I just downloaded this from audio file. So I don't know how this triangle way was created, but it's an in perfect triangle way. And you see that in a lot of weight forms. We're looking at such small amounts of time here, like milliseconds is what we're looking at here. So it's not abnormal. Tau have imperfections. We saw in the square wave too, right? You go back to our square wave. We see that these lines should be straight up and down, but they're not. It's just an imperfection of the math that it takes to generate these. It's not very audible in any real sense, So let's compare the two. Let's compare a square wave and the Triangle ways Theo from something. That pitch is different, so these are both supposedly the same pitch. When I download this file, it said it was at 4 40 which is what we created. These that, but probably in the compression and things of uploading and downloading files, This one a little sharp, but that's OK, so it's a slightly different pitch. But listen to the overtones. That's what we really care about Super buzzy here. Less buzzy here, Theo. Right? So the triangle wave is less abrasive than square wave, but more abrasive still than a sign way compared to assign with sine wave. Here's your triangle, right? A little bit fuzzier but smoother, less of those right angles and straight lines in the way form. It doesn't have a lot of straight lines, but they're similar to the straight lines of a sine wave. If we took a signing away from basically made it with straight lines. It would look like a triangle. So somewhere in between, Okay, next, let's look at a Sawtooth wave. 14. Sawtooth Waves: All right. So if we go to generate, we can generate sawtooth wave. So what? People are setting the same. We'll go to salt. Okay. No, Sawtooth. Looks like the kind of teeth on the blade of a saw, which is why it's named that way. We was your way in. There it is. That's assault, right? So it goes. So we have a straight line here and then a diagonal line, Another straight line. We don't have any of those right angles that square wave has. But we do have sharp edges, right? And that's gonna create some bussiness. So let's hear it, Theo. Quite buzzy. More or less buzzy than square way, way different kind of buzzy, right? The overtones are different there. So here's square things were very different sounds. It's the same pitch, same amplitude, everything. So this just kind of shows you how the wave form effects that Tambor, right? So what we've been talking about so far, Um, let's compare all four, noting that this one's a little bit attitude from the rest, which is a little maddening, but kind of fun. So very different sounds in each one. Okay, let's actually take a moment and look at these in a spectrograph 15. Waveshapes Under Spectrogram: Okay, So what I've done here is I took that file in audacity that had all the different wave forms in it, exported it as one on your file. So we've got the three way forms just as an audio file, and that's here. And then I put a spectrograph on it, so we'll hear each one. And also, I took a moment to tune this triangle wave. So it is accurate mail. Okay, so let's take a look. Look at what these look like under the spectrograph. So here's r sine wave. OK, notice. Here we have being huge, fundamental. Just the other side, actually, being huge, fundamental than a tiny bit of other things happening back over here, right? So if this was a perfect sign, way we wouldn't have anything up here, but just the way that audacity created it. There is a little bit of artifacts up here, but these are really too low for us to hear. And for it to effect our, uh, the tambor of r sine wave. Let's go forward to square way, Theo. Here, notice. Here we have a big fundamental and then other big partials sticking out in kind of a pattern, right? It gets, you know, there's a big win here and it gets about half about half, about half, about half about half. We will see later that there is a science to these. It's every other partial eyes. What starts to stick out? We'll talk more about that later, but basically you can see that there's this big Siris of partials sticking out. And that's what makes that fuzzy Theo. Okay, let's go on to our tuned trying. So what we see here, we see a big partial. We are a big fundamental way. See, other big partials is well closer together, especially as we get up here, and they're actually louder as compared to the fundamental thing. They weren't square way, but a different pattern. Different pattern generates different tamper and last, it's good or sawtooth. Think fundamental. So different pattern of partials makes for different temperatures 16. Noise Generators: There's another kind of oscillator that I haven't talked about yet. So let's go back to audacity and make one this one doesn't generate. Oh, we have formed in the way that we think of so far with a sine wave a triangle wave, it essentially generates a random way. We're just gonna go all over the place all the time and we call that noise. So if I say generate noise, there's a couple of different parameters that we can say about how it does this. So let's just say avail are named after colors. We'll talk about colors of noise later. White noise. Let's dio five seconds, not 30.5 five seconds. Okay, so here is nice right now. If we zoom way in on that and look at it, what it iss is really random oscillation, right? It's going all over the place. So it's going up. Down, up, down. Crazy melts. That's what makes noise. It's random. So why would we care about noise? Why would noise be announced later? That we need to think about isn't the goal of a lot of this to get rid of noise? No, actually, for sound design, we like noise. Noise is hugely useful to us. Think about um, let's say you wanted to make drum sounds. If you're making drum sounds, you care a lot about noise. Annoys oscillator because imagine your crash, your craft symbols, right? That's a little higher pitch the next. That's a lot of noise that's in that right. There's some other things in there, too. But there's a lot of noise and that. Constable, think about your snare hit. That's a big old amount of noise. In fact, we could simulate a snare hit much this. Let's just do it really fast. Just in case you think of lying getting my noise here. Okay, let's just do this. There is I'm just going to separate this out. And if we shaped the sound a little bit still just noise there, right? We've got the beginnings of a stair drug, right? So that's just noise shaped. So the next thing we really need to learn how to do is shape these things. Let me do that. Using filters and envelopes, which will talk more about in the next section, I want to talk one more thing about oscillators before I move on and that's the different types of sound generators for the different types of synthesis. So let's go on and do that, then we'll get into filters. 17. Other Sound Generators: okay, Before we go any further, let's talk a little bit about the different types of synthesis. So, um, so right off the bat we have the most popular types that will start off with that. Is these three Sub attractive is what I'm looking to spell there. It's attractive, so attractive synthesis, FM synthesis and additives offices, all three of these. The oscillator. The sound generator is, and also so those oscillators we just looked at. That's the thing that generates sounds in these three types of citizens. Okay, well, look at all of these Texas emphasis throughout this class. Another type of synthesis is simply so. In that case, there's not an also eager there's a sample is the sound generating thing is a sample, but it's still a type of synthesis, so we'll get more into that later. Another type of synthesis, it's called physical modelling. This is probably my favorite, um, and the newest generator, in this case, physical modelling super fun. But it's pretty math. Heavy will spend a good amount of time near the end on that one. Another kind of synthesis is wave table synthesis, and in that kind of emphasised, the also the sound making thing is re sin. His re synthesized samples doesn't know that word C. S Y and fist sized samples. So in wave table, what we do is we start with a sample and then we use it to generate weight forms. Uh, it's rather complicated, but door look into it in the last thing, the last type. I just want to point out granular synthesis and this is the sound making element. And this type of synthesis is samples chopped up into grains, which is lead anybody, many samples. So the reason I'm pointing all of us out now is that every type of synthesis has a sound generating component, right? That's the take away that I want you to remember in the majority of synthesis that we're gonna be working with the sound generating component is the oscillator OK? That's the main thing. So that's what we've been looking at so far with different types of oscillators. In these other types of synthesis, the sound generating element is a little bit different. It's either a sample or its algorithm or it's other kind things done with samples, and we'll look at all of this stuff in this class, but we're going to start with these types of synthesis in particular. Subtracted. Um, this is the most common thing for you to come across when you're learning synthesis. Okay, so that said, Let's move on and let's start talking about the filter. 18. Subtractive Synthesis: Okay, so the next main tool that we need to talk about is the filter. Now, in order to do this, I really want to. Let's let's talk a little bit about the type of synthesis that we're going to start off with First, we've already mentioned the different types of synthesis, but we're going to focus first on subtract IBS, and this is now. Here's what that means. That means we're going to start with a complex sound. So one of those wave forms that's got a lot of buzzing this to it. In other words, it's got a lot of overtones. It's got a lot of partials, things like that. And then we're going to chip away at that sound to make the sound that we want. Right? So the filter is the thing that we usedto actually chip away That sound. We filter out certain frequencies, so think of it like ah strainer, right you've got you know, you're boiling your rice. You've got ah, pot with water and cooked rice in it. Maybe you didn't do it. Well, that's about example. Let's say you still got water in your pod after you make your rice so maybe you dump it into a strainer that separates the water, goes through it because that's allowed to go through and the rice stays in the bowl. That's kind of like a filter. We're gonna let some frequencies go through and really gonna stop some frequencies from going through. Weird analogy, but I think it kind of works. You get the point filter is gonna fill throughout some frequencies, right? So it's attractive synthesis we typically don't use as often things like sine waves because they don't have a very rich wave form. You know, we want to start with something that's very rich and then apply filters to it to thin it out. Noise, however, is very good force. Attractive synthesis. Okay, so with that said, um, let's go into looking at how filters work, the different kinds of filters and how to apply filter. And then we'll come back to subtracted synthesis later. But I want you to have this idea of subtracted synthesis in your mind while we're looking at filters. Filters are used in all different kinds of synthesis, so they're not just for some proactive synthesis. They are hugely important tool for all synthesis. But keep them in mind as we move forward with subtracted synthesis. Okay. All right. So let's talk about how filter works. 19. Filter And EQ: Okay, so I have your some noise that have generated an audacity like we saw before. Cool. So what I'm gonna do is I'm going to render that as a way file, and I'm just gonna pull that into able to hear so that I can look at the filter, an infinite amount of noise, because we're just gonna loop a little bit of it. Okay, so let's apply a filter to it. So I'm gonna go to my audio effects, and what I'm looking for here is actually an e que. Now, what's the difference? Creating E Q and a filter and e que typically is a number of filters. K and e que is a group of filters. Um, if we look at this e Q three and whatever software you're using, you have some kind of e que I promise you. So you may have seen any Q like this on like your stereo. Maybe your car has won your car stereo has one. Basically, what we have here is what's called a three band EQ. You. So we have a dial for lows, a dial for mids and a dial for highs. Okay, I'm going to use noise because it's really easy to hear what we're doing. Okay, so if I say let's turn off, it's this way. Let's turn off the mids And the highs were only getting lows. That's what we hear. Okay, just the lows. Let's turn up the mids. Turn down the lows. Now we have nothing but mids. Okay, turn down the mids now. We have nothing at all. Right at the highs. Okay. Made. So when all of these are up the same amount, we hear everything. When they're all down, we hear nothing. Essentially, what we're doing here is chopping all of the frequency spectrum from the lowest stuff to the highest stuff into three big buckets, right? And then we're just kind of turning them up or down. Now, this is a very kind of crude way to, uh, filter something right, because this e que Which, uh, let me just reiterate this here. Each one of these is a filter. OK? Together they make Aneke, you and e que as a group of filters. Each of these is dividing the entire frequency spectrum into 1/3 right. But when we're working with sound design and we're really trying to craft a sound. We need something a little more precise. So that isn't gonna quite work for us. So I'm going to use a filter that looks more like this. Okay, this gives me a lot of control. Now, technically, what this is is similar to what we just had, but it's an eight band eq you because I have eight different points on it, right? The bigger difference here is that I can really adjust where each one of these points are in fact get this much bigger and really get down into it. Right? So I could say Here's one K I want to pull out sounds at one K, and I can make that really narrow if I want. Let's I want to really focus in on one K boom could pull out Sounds that at one k, I put him all the way out. Right, So here I've got a scalpel right before with the E Q. Three. I had a butter knife, you know, something really flimsy to do a job, but with an EQ you like this. I can really get specific, right, and I could make all kinds of different filters do things. Okay, so and that's how filters work. Um, now what we're seeing here, let me just make sure we're on the same page here. What we're seeing here is frequency going this way across the bottom. So these air low frequencies, these air high frequencies, okay. And then volume going up and down, Sort of. Okay, so if you look here, you see, this is zero. This is six, and this is negative six. And this is 12. Mrs. Negative 12. So what we have here is when the blue line here, which is my actual filter, I was right on zero. That means we're doing nothing. Okay. Zero means we're not affecting that sound at all. So if I move everything back to zero, we're not doing anything. Okay? If we're above zero were boosting those frequencies. Okay, so here's 100 hertz. That's very low, but 100 hertz, I'm boosting 100 hertz and a lot of this stuff around it. Okay, here, I'm under zero. So I'm pulling away 100 hertz. Okay. Very important to realize that right in the center. And no matter what software you're using, they all work this way. right in the center is not affecting. The frequency means we're boosting that frequency down. Means were taking that frequency away the majority of the time in sound design, especially in subtracted synthesis. We're gonna be pulling sounds away. We're not going to do very much boosting. And in fact, it's generally something you want to avoid in all kinds of EQ. Ewing is boosting sounds with an e que. We tend to want to avoid that. So even this it's when you boost sounds with an e que you run the risk of distorting the sound very quickly. Okay, so with that, I'm going to scale this back. I'm gonna turn all the bands off except for one, and I want to focus on a single filter. OK, I just have one filter going here, and in this configuration it is doing nothing right. Everything is just passing through. I'm not boosting anything and cutting anything away, But what I want to look at in the next couple videos is this symbol. Here are these symbols, I should say, because they did not different kinds of filters. And then we'll also talk about the gain setting, uh, election. Actually, let's do the gain setting in the next video 20. Gain And Q: Okay, Next thing I talk about is gain and Q thes air. Weird settings that happened with the filter that are gonna be important to understand. So here I just have one filter. And when we talk about gain, what we're really talking about is this function called decibels per active. Okay, so it sounds confusing, and it is a little bit so I want to spend a little extra time on it. So the gain is really just what we're doing to those frequencies right here. We're pearl pulling them down, and oops, here. We're pushing them up, right? Nothing funny there. However, if we look down here at my game, this just gives me a number. Negative. 10.6 is what I'm at now. What does that actually mean? What is negative 10.6 means you might have a filter that says something like 12 db or uh 60 b. That's a common one that we find, Um, this one is just a dial. But your if your says 12 db or six TV, it's the same as if I If I just dial this in at 12 or six. What it means what this number means is decibels. Proactive. So let me, Let me just set it to 3.1. Okay, So what that means is this slope Okay, the angle here. So each one of these vertical lines is an octave. Okay, So how much down is it going in the span of each octave? In this case, three decibels per active. It's reducing it every active. It's going down by three decibels. So decibels its volume. So it's getting quieter slowly. If I increase that number now, it's 9.7 decibels. Proactive. That means a steeper slope. Okay, If I go all the way to negative 12 or negative 15 we have this steepest slope that it will give us. Right? That means from here to here, we're going down 12 decibels. Right? Because this is from here to here is one octave and we're going down 12 in that space. There's AR 15 in that space. Okay, let me look at let me show you how this looks in a synthesizer. Okay, here I have an analog synthesizer, and here's my filter. Now, don't worry. We're going to go over all of the settings here shortly, but I just want to point out this filter. So here's our filter. And it says L p 24 or we have LP 12 or some other options. We're gonna go over these other options. What? That L p stands for low pass. But we're gonna go over that in just a second. The actual next video. But we have 12 decibels proactive and 24 decibels. Proactive. Are our choices here? Okay, so we don't have a fancy looking graphic like we do here to tell us what that means. But now we know, right? 12 decibels. Proactive. It's gonna be about like that. Okay, 24 decibels. Proactive is going to be this one maxes out at 15 so it won't let me go to 24 but it's going to be almost a straight line, right? It's gonna be very fast going down. So, um, just remember, it's the slope of this that we're talking about when we're talking about that game right now. Another thing I want to talk about. Well, we're here. Is this weird que thing? Okay, let me normally put my gains somewhere normal here. Okay? You switch my filter to be this just because it's a little easier to explain. We'll talk about this shape of a filter in a minute, but what the Q does Jew doesn't stand for anything. As far as I know, I've tried looking that up, and I think it's really just like a variable in an algorithm. So it's not standing for anything or perhaps quality. Um, I think I read that somewhere. But what it really is is the width of the filter case. You see all filters, give us a point, and then, you know, it starts filtering from about here, kind of ramps up to that point and then ramps down the queue is gonna be the width of that filter. If I turned the Q down, it's going to be very, very wide. If I turn it up, it's gonna be very focused. Okay? So if I want to get out, if I want to focus right on one K, do something like that with a very narrow Q, so doesn't affect anything else around it, or as little as possible. If I want to. Generally take out, you know, frequencies around one K. I might broaden that a little bit so that we filter out things around one K a little bit. So that's what the Q does you think of it is the width, the width of the filter. 21. Low Pass: Okay, Next, let's talk about the different filter shapes. And we saw these here, here in the scent when we looked at this pull down. We have low pass band pass notch high passed, something called for mint. So let's look at what each of these are will leave off for meant for now, because that's ah, little specialized. But I want to talk about the main ones that you can you will encounter in just about everything. And that's low pass, high pass, band, pass and notch. Okay, so let's just make one here on our filter so we can hear it. So let's start with low pass. Uh, probably one of the most common filters. Okay, so if I go down here, I have these different symbols. Low pass. Is this one? Okay, so this is a low pass filter. What this means is that it goes infinitely down and it lets low frequencies passed through , okay? And it cuts off high frequencies so called a low pass because it means low things passed through it. Um, even if it's all the way up here and primarily, what we're doing is filtering out high stuff. We still call this a low pass filter this shape where it's cutting off everything above a certain frequency, is called a low pass filter. Okay, now we have two options for a low pass filter. Here we have this one that I have selected, and this one Look. This one has a much steeper reduction per active right, so this is still a low pass filter. But this gives us a lot thicker, and you'll a lot steeper cut off. And you'll notice that when I selected this, my gain no turned off because it's not gonna let me select the speed and or not speed the gain amount. Because in this particular filter, it's the steepest it allows. So this is called a low pass filter. Okay, let's look at another one. 22. High Pass : Well, we should probably hear this. Right. Sorry. So here's a low pass filter still, and let's hear it with noise waken see what's happening here, right? We're cutting off all the high stuff. I can pull this more closed that we're only hearing low stuff, right? And you've actually heard this kind of effect a lot, right? We use a low pass for a lot of, like filter sweeps and things like that. If I put in Ah, a drum loop here. Okay, let me just throw in a random drum loop. Okay, so here's a drum loop. I'm gonna put that filter on it. Solo it. Okay, So here's our drum loop. And let's say we wanted Teoh a big filter sweep, right? This is a sound you've heard before. Okay, Now, let's do the same thing with the high pass and see what happens. So high passes as you could expect, the opposite looks like this. So we're gonna let high stuff through, and we're gonna cut off low stuff, going back to our noise. It sounds like this. Oops. That's so right. Just high stuff. So we're pulling out the low. Okay, Now, you might have noticed that I could do this. If I push it up, I get this little hook here. This is called resonance Residents means a little bit of a boost right off at right at the cut off frequency. Okay, so this dot is the cut off frequency. That's where we're going to start to affect everything. So when we're using resonance, I'm gonna boost it a little bit. And that makes this this bump here. And it makes a an interesting sound. We'll look at residents more later, but really, what residents does is it gives it kind of like a laser gun sound. Theo. It's hard to hear it with just noise, but it could be a cool kind of. It could be a really cool effect. We'll talk more about residents as it comes up. So with a high pass filter, we can also use the more extreme version of it here. Right now, we're letting a whole bunch frequencies through, but they're too high for and that is the high pass 23. Band pass: Okay, so we know. Low pass, and we know Band Pass. What if we did them at same time? If we did them at same time, So I'm gonna turn on another filter. I'm gonna set this one to be low pass and this one to be high pass. What we have now is what's called a band pass. Okay, so what a band pass does is it says we're going to allow a certain band to pass through. Que In this case, it's right here around 500 Hertz, uh, is going to be the center? No, in a lot of synthesizers, you have the ability to just select band Pass and give it a center point in this particular e que I need to make a band pass by using two different filters. A low pass in a high pass. Ah, but that serves to happily illustrate the point that a band pass filter is essentially a low pass, and a high pass filter could make it as wide as I want. Um, other. Typically, when we're using one of these, it's a bit more narrow. So I could say maybe I want to get rid of the middle of this sound. Right? Okay. I want no lo stuff. No high stuff could make it even more extreme by using the more extreme versions of both of these. Right? So we have a lot of reduction. Proactive. Oh, alright. And we're just hearing this middle stuff, right? We're on Lee letting through the specific band that we're allowing to pass. That's why it's called a band pass. It can be low. It can be high right now. We're just letting high stuff through, and we can do it just letting low stuff through. But regardless, because we're chopping off the the upper free, the frequencies above it and the frequencies below it, it's called a band pass. Cool. Okay, we can also do the opposite of this, and that's the last one that will cover of the kind of Big Four filter types for now. So let's go to a new video and talk about that 24. Notch: okay. If I do the inversion of this the opposite. I'm gonna turn off one of my filters. I only need one to do this. And that. Is this one here. Now, what we have is what's called a notch filter. Okay, This means we're going to take out a specific band. Okay, so if I set this to, let's say 1000 hertz, what we're gonna do is eliminated 1000 Hertz. We're gonna notch it out. Think of it like I don't know your woodcarving, and you're gonna hit a certain notch with a hammer and knock it out of the weird analogy, but we're gonna notch it out. So it's called a notch filter. We could have a bunch of these if we wanted. Right. I have two notches. If I lower the queue on those, right, I can be very specific. About what? I'm notching out. I could do this kind of thing. I wanted to pull out very specific frequencies. This is a good way to do it. A notch filter is very good at kind of fine tuning your you're sounding pulling out very specific frequencies. Okay, so those are our main filter types and how filters work. Cool. Now we're going to be using filters. Ah, lot in this class. Filters are a huge part of sound design. No matter what you're working on, subtracted synthesis or any kind of 25. Looking At Devices: okay up next. What I want to do is put some of this into practice. Right? So we've been talking about these kind of theoretical things. Sound generators and the filters. Let's look at how to actually use them. Ah, how they're implemented into software and how to start actually making some sound. So the way we're gonna do this is I'm going to start with able tunes Analog instrument, and then we'll look at, ah, another instrument, a different piece of software. I don't want to focus exclusively unable to, um however, Mableton does make this really easy to relatively easy to understand. The, um the way they lay things out, it's really easy to see the signal flow and things like that. So, um, I'll go over what that means in just a minute. Um, but I also want to look at some other devices as well. So, uh, I'm going to assume that you already know how to set up a midi track in your software. Now, remember, if you're not using able to that's totally okay. What? I want you to get out of this next section. Actually, these next few sections is understanding kind of how to dissect a device and by a device, I mean a piece of software. Um, So whether you're looking at a Bolton or not all instrument, most instruments really kind of work the same when it comes to this basic stuff. So follow along and you'll see kind of how to find the main elements of the synthesizer. So you already know how to set up Amidi track in your synthesizer. I'm going to use the Mableton analog instrument. Someone load up one there and this is the device we're going to look at. OK, I have a midi keyboards set up so we can hear what it's doing. If you're using able to and you don't know how to set up a mini device, jump back and check out my A built in classes that walk you through how to do everything you could possibly imagine enabled. In the meantime, I'm gonna assume you know how to do that. So let's move on. And let's talk about finding the sound generators and the filters in this mess of knobs and things. Here we go 26. Sound Generators And Filters: Okay, so we've loaded up the analog instrument and able to, and you're looking at it and you're thinking I see a whole bunch of knobs and weird things , and I don't understand what any of them do but you Do you Do you understand what a lot of this does, actually, because it's doing a lot of the same things that we've already covered twice. So first of all, before we get too deep into this, let me just do a little vocab here. So when I say instrument, what I'm talking about is a piece of software that makes sound right. Just like a real world instrument, I might say device, I might say instrument. They're the same thing to me. Um, a built in calls, them devices other. Sometimes they call them instruments. I use them interchangeably. So that's what we're talking about is, uh, anything kind of like this? Okay, so, first, let's kind of look at the basically out of this. So let's ignore this dark box for just a minute, okay? The inside of it here, we're gonna come back to it. Don't worry. But for now, let's just leave that out and let's just look at the outer parts. Okay, So what do we have? We have right here, You see OSK one. So Oscillator one. Okay, so this box is our oscillator. Okay, we've got volume for it. We've got a shape, right? And we've got some tuning. We could move it up or down by an active semi tone. Or we could just be tune it a little bit. Okay? If we go down to here, we have oscillator to Okay, it's all the same. So we have to oscillators in this device. Okay? To oscillators. They're doing the same thing. Okay, if we move over to this box Phil one, OK, we have filter one. So we have Phil one. We have some settings for it. We have frequency, which is going to be our cut off frequency. And we have resonance. Now, if you remember what residents Waas residents was making that little peek right at the cut off frequency, right. Uh, we'll come back to residents in just a minute, okay? And then we have amplifier that just controls are panning in the overall volume case. So these three things oscillator, filter and amplifier are doubled again. Uh, Oops. Oscillator filter amplified. Okay, so we have the same thing twice. We also have another sound generator here in a noise generator to have separate bit of noise that we can add if we wanted to. And, uh, point, I want to point out these little yellow boxes with the name we can turn them off. Right. So here's I'm gonna do I turn oscillator to off because I want to hear just oscillator one . Let's set it to be a sine wave. Nice and smooth. Let's turn off filter one. And we have to leave amplifier one on if we want to hear it because it needs some volume. I'm gonna play a note. Okay, Move down an octave. So now I'm playing a note. All I'm doing is playing sine wave. It's not d tuned or anything like that. No filter on it amplifier a little bit. Um, just to give it some juice. If I turn off the amplifier and I play, we just don't hear it. You can see me playing a note here, but no volume coming out here, so it needs the amplifier or to make actual sound. So all I'm hearing is this filter, I can change to a square wave, right? It does just what we expect we can add in the filter. It's not really doing anything right now, so Well, it's It's hard to hear because we have such a simple wave form here, let's to go to a square wave doing that filter off square wave. Now, between the filter on right now, we really hear it. A laser gun kind of effect that you hear is their residence to the residents all the way off. You won't hear that way. We could see with just a filter. You can hear that. Doing a lot of stuff. Okay. So I can turn on a second oscillator. That's Turner. Filter off. So what if I did this to oscillators both with sine waves? What are we gonna here? Basically, we're gonna hear a slightly louder sine wave. Um, nothing too crazy. But what if I adjust this one by an active? It's going to make the 2nd 1 octave higher. Right now I'm starting to get fairly interesting sound. What if I d tune it just a little bit? Oh, you fear that you feel that like a wobble that's a tuning effect. Go a little more now. It's like, like fast. So if it's just, you tune a little bit, you get a little bit of motion in the South, we'll explore that a little bit more. So now I'm just hearing to sine waves. Let's change it to sawtooth. Wave one of them to a sawtooth wave, one of them to a sine wave, Still separated by an active and de tune a little bit. What if I went way low with this? All right, that's kind of a cool bass sound, actually. Okay, enough. 20 and around. So what I wanted to point out in this video is that most of this we already know this is an oscillator section. This is an oscillator section. This is a filter section. This is a filter section amplifiers new, but it's pretty simple. It's just gonna give us juice and control panting a little bit. And this is the panic. So all of that, you already know how that works. Um, now there are some more things here in the oscillator section and in the filter section that we haven't talked about yet. So let's go a little bit deeper into the oscillator section first 27. Deeper Into The Oscillator Section: Okay, so let's zoom in just on our oscillator section and take a peek. So I'm gonna turn off oscillator to I'm only gonna look at oscillator one for just a minute here cause I want to go over all our parameters here. Okay, so this button turns it out enough. This controls air volume. This is just a volume slider. It's just, um a little hard to really kind of see, because it doesn't look like this kind of a volume cider, but that's effectively what it is. So here's a note. Make it louder. Right. So just volume for this oscillator, you might think Why? How is that different than this amplifier? It's different in this signal flow, which we'll talk about later. Um, actually, in just a few videos. But also note that you can adjust oscillator twos, volume independently of one. So you might wanna set something up where oscillator one is a little bit louder than two or something like that. Okay, this filter one slash filter to this is an interesting little parameter. You won't see this in every synthesizer, but you will see it in a lot of synthesizers. This has to do with routing. So what these air talking about its filter. One filter to Okay, so jump over to filter one that's here. Filter to is here. What this is saying is, how much of this signal do you want to go to filter one? And how much do you want to go to Filter too? That means we could send this oscillator to this filter, which is the default. Or we could send it down to this filter. Or we could send it a little to both if I went 50 50. Oops. There we go. 5 50 50 That means half the signal is going to go into this filter and half of it's gonna go into this filter. Okay, So you can think of this as like, here's the sound. And what I'm gonna do is now I'm going to split it to go into both filters at the same time . Let's see what that sounds like. So if I go just filter one and I turned on filter one. Let's go to a square wave so that we really hear this filter. Okay, through this, give it a good amount of residents. Ah, Okay. Now let's turn filter to on when I just turned filter to on. We're not gonna hear anything different because there's no less later two on and nothing is going into filter Teoh So I could pull this all the way down and send all the signal to filter to. Now it's gonna go to filter to entirely and not to filter one at all, because this says filter too. Oh, we're not hearing anything. Why are we not hearing anything? Because after filter to the signal is going to go to amplify or two, which is off. Wait fire to on in order to complete the signal. Okay, so now the sound is going from here. It's going down to here and then over to the amplifier. Okay, Sound that we have for filter too. And this is that we have filter. What? Ah, OK, so let's go 50 50. Ah, now we're getting a little bit more interesting sound. We have one oscillator, but we're really getting to signals, right? Because we're splitting the signal and sending it to the two different filters, right? Pretty interesting. So that's what this filter one filter to does now. Just because we're using both filters doesn't mean we can't do the same thing for this one . This one, we could send a filter one or two filter to or to both. Also. So now we're if I do this. So 50 50. What we're going to hear now is this oscillator which is in octave separated and a different wave form. It's gonna also go to filter one and filter to were effectively hearing four signals now, right? So now we're starting to get a pretty dense sound, Uh, just with to oscillators to filters. But we're maximizing the signal by singing to both. This isn't something you should do. Every time you do something, It's just an option. This we would call routing. There's a lot of routing built into this instrument. We're gonna look at routing more in just a minute. So this is kind of the simplest way that it's done. Okay, so this just lets to split the signal and send it to one or both of the filters. Cool. Ah, One other thing I want to point out is here in the tuning section. This will shift us by octaves. Right. This will shift us by semi toned semi tone is like one key on the keyboard. Eso I'm gonna play the same note on my keyboard. Right? So this is one key on the keyboard d tuning. There are So for everyone on the D tune, that's one semi tone. Okay, so this note would be the same as playing the note. One semi tone, higher, one key on the keyboard. Higher. Right. So that's typically not what we do, because it be the same as doing that. So what we do here is something around here where we're just gonna pull it out of tune a little bit? Yeah. Ah, it's just a little out of tune if I go around here, I turned the other oscillator back on. You get that kind of chorus effect from them being attitude. So again, we'll talk more about tuning tricks, Leader. Um, but that's how that's the difference between these three. This is big shift little shift, an itty bitty shift in in tuning. OK, uh, let's move on and go over some of these other elements in the filter section 28. Deeper Into The Filter Section: okay. Looking at the filter section. So first we have our button here that turns this filter on and off. Then we have our type of filter. OK, so we've looked at these. You know what these mean? You have low pass, 12 db per active. That's gonna be kind of a steep one. But we have low past 24 DVR per active. It's gonna be a very steep filter. OK, We don't have the big, you know, graphical thing to really adjust the filters exactly how we want, but we do have the ability to just select them here. Okay, Well, look at for mint soon. Don't worry. Uh, so let's say low pass filter 24. So pretty deep, one frequency is going to be our cut off frequency. So let me actually throw a filter An e que? On here. Okay, I just want to use this to demonstrate what this is actually doing. So if we say low pass 24 so we just have one filter. So what this is actually going to give us is a low past 24. So a steep hoops steep, low pass. We're letting the low frequencies passed through. If I set the cut off frequency at 2.2 K here's one K. So two K is gonna be here. It's gonna be a hair higher than two K. So it's right about here. Okay? And that's what this this filter is doing. Right now. Let's assume there's no residence for the moment will come back to residents. So it's tricky because you don't get anything graphic like this. It's a lot easier to see what's happening right when you see it like this. You know, these frequencies air getting through these frequencies or not. But you have to get good at kind of imagining what this looks like. Low past 24 at 2.2 kilohertz. Ah, cut off. Okay, now, remember that. That doesn't mean that means the cut off frequency is at 2.2. So that means there's still a couple other frequencies above it. That air coming through right? Right here. Um, so we're getting a little bit, okay? The residents, we can crank up our residents don't remember residence. Is this blink? This little bit is residence. So if we say 67% residence, that's kind of a lot 100% residence is going to be right about there. Okay, zero residence is gonna be there. So a little bit of residents adds a little bit of that, That kind of sparkle to it. I always call it Shimmer. Sparkle. It's weird. Let's hear it. Let me turn off oscillator to filter too. Set this all the way back to filter one. So we just have one oscillator. Let's retune it. Ah, turned off this e que Because I don't want to hear that I just want to hear this week. You this filter, residents all the way down. I'm gonna slowly turn residents up so that you hear it what it's doing. You hear that? It's adding that bussiness if I turn this up a little bit higher way don't have any fr