Typographic Deception: The Art of Drawing Ambigrams | Nikita Prokhorov | Skillshare

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Typographic Deception: The Art of Drawing Ambigrams

teacher avatar Nikita Prokhorov, Designer. Letterer. Punster. Author.

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Getting Started


    • 3.



    • 4.

      Tools & Materials


    • 5.

      Finding Symmetry in Words


    • 6.

      Typographic Styles


    • 7.

      Sketching Your Ambigram


    • 8.

      Refining Your Sketch


    • 9.

      Final Words of Wisdom


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About This Class

Flip your design & typographic world upside-down and gain a whole new perspective on typography and lettering. NYC-based graphic designer, author of Ambigrams Revealed, and lettering artist Nikita Prokhorov will teach you how to draw your own ambigram — a word that reveals another word when viewed from a different perspective.

This one-hour class walks you through real-life examples of ambigrams, the many typographic styles you can use, how to find inspiration for your design, and of course, the step-by-step process of sketching and refining your finished ambigram.

You don’t have to be M.C. Escher to take this class — designers, illustrators, type enthusiasts and artists of all levels are welcome! A hybrid of traditional typography, lettering, and illusion — along with some artistic magic — the ambigram is guaranteed to draw you in.

Meet Your Teacher

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Nikita Prokhorov

Designer. Letterer. Punster. Author.


NYC-based graphic designer and lettering artist with a penchant for ambigrams.

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1. Welcome: everyone. My name is Nikita Pro graph, and I'm a graphic designer. M program designer and lettering artists from Brooklyn, New York Welcome to typographic deception. The Art of Drawing Amber Grams. Now, if you're anything like me, you probably have not heard of mammograms until you picked up the book Angels and Demons by Dan Brown. Up until that point, I had no idea that you could take a word, a word that I was used to seeing on a line from one perspective and you could turn it. You could flip it you could merit. Or you could read it from any number of different perspectives, and it would still be recognizable as the original word as a new word as a ward in a different language, the possibilities are virtually endless. I fell in love with Amber Grams right away, and they have been my passion for last 8.5 years. The reason why I love Amber Grams so much is that they embody everything I care about as a creative individual. Graphic design, Traditional typography hen lettering, illustration. Mystery illusion Had some would say, a little bit of magic in this skill share class I'm going to teach you how to create your very first hamburger. We will select a word. We will analyze it, and I will show you the process from start to finish and how to turn it into successful Amber Graham Emma Grams Air Americal Conversation starter. And they look great as tattoos or as T shirt designs. So are you ready to create your very first Amber Graham? Grab some pencils, graphs, um, paper and, well, let's get to it. 2. Getting Started: Hello, everyone. Welcome back to typographic deception. The art of drawing anagrams. Now, since this is a skill share class and am a grams, it should come as no surprise that your final project will be an anagram. I know what a shock the process, which I go through to create an anagram, isn't that much different from my approach to any other design project. Whether I'm developing a logo, a website page layout poster for me, it all starts on paper with pencil. The visuals you just saw is a very, very, very abridged process, which I go through. In reality. There is dozens, dozens and dozens more sketches, ideas, failures, attempts. A success is more failures. You will be going through the exact same process. So are you ready to get started At their core, Emma Grams are still rooted in traditional typography. So do your research study classic typefaces to understand their structure and design, observed and analyzed topography everywhere you go. And if you can take a topography or a calligraphy course, Petra local college 3. Inspiration: before we continue, I would like to introduce you. Somebody say hello to sparking. He keeps an eye on me during those late late hours that I stay up working and he helps me eliminate bad concepts and ideas by tearing them to shreds with his little metal teeth. Now, what Sparky and I would like to dio is to show you some additional M programs that I've created over the years. I would also like to share so my non Amber Graham traditional design work, and I would like to give you a little bit more insight into my own process and inspiration to put it simply, am programs are just fun to work on. No two are alike as each represents a very unique and specific challenge. An ember Graham is a puzzle where you already know the final outcome, but you get to create your own pieces. To develop a successful amber graham, you have to take the traditional rules and principles a graphic design and typography break them apart and then reassembled them from a different perspective while still adhering to those rules and principles. The inspiration for an Amber Graham can come from a typographic term, or a food item that is in your Cabinet or a TV show, which just happened to watch one night or an amazing community for creators, which allows you to teach an MBA Graham class. My biggest epigram project to date has been Amber Grams Revealed, which was a book published in 2013 through Pearson Education. It's an immigrant book, which contains essays by a panel of fantastic judges. It showcases 15 different case studies, which offer a wonderful insight into the thought and design process of their designers, and it also contains a gallery of 200 plus amber grams by designers from all around the world. This book is a great resource not just for new and passed AM program designers, but for designers, illustrators that anyone who loves creative topography, my design work and my I am a grim work. Both start in the same place in my sketchbook with a pencil. It is absolutely essential to both the design and the immigrant process to put all your ideas down on paper, eliminate the bad ones, embraced the good ones and at times go back to the very beginning. Just when you thought you were finished. Before I bring any work in the computer, I make sure that I've tweaked everything I wanted to and that my sketches are at their absolute best. Whether I'm working on a new brand or developing an illustration for a client or working on a monogram, I like to make sure that my work is clean, that it communicates well and that at times it's a little bit funny. 4. Tools & Materials: welcome back to typographic deception. I'd like to talk to you about some of the tools and materials you'll be using in this class Now. In theory, all you need is a piece of paper, a pencil and a lot of patients and time. But in reality, there is a lot of different materials out there, a lot of different drawing tools, a lot of different types of papers. And honestly, you can draw member Graham on almost anything being a chalkboard. Beat a piece of paper being a wall, be it, well, anything. Let's talk about pencils first. Personally, I like to use several different kinds of pencils. The main difference between them is the lead size, the lead hardness. And at times it's a matter of convenience and whatever grabbed first out of my pencil dick . If I need to draw very quick, loose exploratory sketches, I would use a pencil that has a much softer lead. If I need to draw a very tight, precise sketches, I would use a puzzle that has a very thin and a very hard line. And once again, at times, it's a matter of comfort, preference and convenience. Wherever there pencils there will be erasers, so I'd like to show you the two different kinds that I like to use. The 1st 1 is a simple garden variety racer that you can get in almost any art supply store or, for that matter, any pharmacy that sells basic drawing supplies. The second eraser is a battery powered eraser that I found in a specialty Aren't Supply store, it costs about $12 and that is absolutely irreplaceable if you need to re squid Klay precisely without the danger of tearing or damaging or creasing the piece of paper that you're drawing on. Once you're done with your Amber Graham, you'll naturally want to make it look a little bit more polished. And for that purpose, I prefer to use basic pilot pens, Micro's and sharpies. Of course, if you love drawing with color markers, crayons, pains or pastels you can use those to. This class is very flexible and for the end result, whatever you're more comfortable drawing with, that's what you should use. If you're wondering what to draw your Amber Graham on for this class, any piece of paper you find around the house will do junk mail and bills make for excellent sketching paper. I also use different types of notebooks, wants that heavy built in grid and ones that don't have a grit. I also use translucent Pelham and, as you will see later on in the class, it is absolutely irreplaceable when it comes to tweaking your final average and design sketch as much as you can sketch until your arm is virtually falling off. And after that sketch some more. The success of your Emma Graham will depend on how thoroughly you explore as many ideas as possible on paper. 5. Finding Symmetry in Words: let's talk a bit about existing typographic symmetry. The Roman alphabet, which we've been learning to recognise since our early days, has a lot of built in symmetry, which is very helpful when designing an programs. Up until now, you've probably never had a reason to examine the athlete but upside down. But since you're trying to learn how to design Amber Grams, now is a perfect time to do so. For this section, I'll be using Helvetica new and bar ability to demonstrate some of the basic principles. Helvetica is a sensor of type piece. It is almost completely moderate, and Badani offers a beautiful contrast of think of thin strokes, along with very elegant serves. The Contras between these two typefaces is perfect for illustrating some of the existing typographic symmetry. Let's look at letters that possess almost 100% rotational symmetry. Here you see the old S X Z agent end from both Helvetica and Badani. If we take each of the letters and turn them upside down, will discover that the letters are almost perfectly symmetrical, with the exception off the base in some of letters, which is a bit wider than the top and the Sara's, which are slightly different in the bottom example, the letters are almost 100% symmetrical in the top row, you see, that s from Helvetica That s Ramadhani and the capital. And from Adoni and in red in the same row. You see each of the letters rotator 180 degrees. Now the bottom row shows the s from Helvetica, the s from Adoni and the end from but Dhoni in black. And the red letters in the bottom row show the same letters but tweaked to have 100% rotational symmetry. Now, as you can tell, there's not much difference with the biggest difference being the serif on the end and within the context of an actual M program, that minor tweak will go virtually unnoticed. The previous set of letters had almost complete rotational symmetry and each time, in turn, letter it became itself. This set of letters will turn into something different. Once he rotate them upside down, the B becomes the cue that he becomes the P that and becomes the you that becomes a W and w becomes a M. If you compare the letters that we turned upside down to their actual counterparts, you'll find out that they're not that much different. If you look a bit closer, you'll notice that the EMS look a little awkward as W's, while W's look a little bit awkward as EMS. Once again, that may be very obvious now, but once you put them in the context of an actual member, Graham surrounded by other letters, these characters will look slightly different. Now that we know about existing typographic symmetry, let's talk a bit about natural Am programs. Natural amber grams are words that, when they're written out and rotated, don't require any tweaking or adjustment to actually become a mammogram. Here we have the word noon, written out in both of the typefaces mentioned earlier when looking at the same word that has been turned 180 degrees, as shown in red. You will see that the word noon written out in Helvetica, is a perfect match. However, the nude written out and Adoni is not 100% symmetrical due to the slight issue of the Serifis, which we mentioned earlier. Thankfully, it's a very minor tweak, which you can see on the right and the slide. It looks 100% symmetrical and it still looks like it belongs in the actual Badani typeface . Let's take a look at the symmetry of the word noon. But this time in lower case, if we rotate the word noon 180 degrees, it looks like something that ELISA Doolittle from my fair lady would utter. It is not a work. However, with a minor adjustment. The word noon all of a sudden develops a different kind of symmetry. What you see here is an example of a mirror mammogram. Now let's also the word noon once again to see if it effects of symmetry. The bottom row designated it a red has a slightly different and than the original one in Helvetica. If we take this M program and reflected on the vertical axis, it develops a completely different kind of symmetry. It transforms from the word noon and lower case to the word noon in upper case. In the end, the word noon had several different that symmetries which were covered after some very minor tweaking. In addition to noon, here are two other natural amber grams. The 1st 1 S. O. S is the rotational ever Graham that When rotated reveals the same exact word, however, the word mom has several different symmetries. Built in the 1st 1 is a mirror symmetry, which reveals the word Mom. But the 2nd 1 when rotated, reveals a word. Well, this is what's known as a symbiotic graham symbiotic. Graham is a word that when rotator reveals a different word from the original, as you can see, one word has a potential not only to become one Amber graham, but to become several different M programs. Your first exercise is to find three more naturally occurring MBA grams. Whether they're regular rotational, amber grams or symbiotic grams. Keep track of them on papers. You can post them later. Now we talked about existing typographic symmetry and natural mammograms. Let's talk about analyzing a word to see if it'll make a good M program. Here we have the word good. Written out in the Adoni typeface, the word is comprised mainly off round shapes, with two verticals on either side in the letter G in the liturgy. Now good habit to get into when you're learning how to design ammo Grams is to take the word right it upside down beneath the original word and establish a relationship between the different shapes in both the top word and the bottom word. In this case, the relationship is very, very good. We have the two circular rows, which are a perfect match. One rotated, and we have the letter June, the letter D that have a bit of a semi circle and a strong vertical. Now let's turn the word good into an anagram. First, we need to open up the vertical a bit on the G or the upside down D. Then we need to add the crossbar to the G and then to fill in the gap a bit. We need to add the vertical back in if we take this letter and rotated 180 degrees. We already noticed that it's a very good match for A G and T. However, just for a very minor tweak, it makes sense to raise the bar a little bit further. After just a few minor tweaks, the word good is a fairly successful program. But wait, is it possible that the word good has potential for another symmetry? Let's take a look. The top prone black is the word good as a rotational amber graham. The middle row, the word good and red has been tweaked to reveal mirror symmetry rather than rotational symmetry, which is illustrated in the bottom row. Let's analyze another word. This time it's the word saints which I already set in Helvetica and placed an upside down copy beneath original. This word is a blessing in disguise for several reasons. First, it starts and ends with the letter s which we already know is almost perfectly symmetrical . And second, it has several very strong verticals which will be very helpful in turning this into a mammogram. Now you established this word has very good Amber Graham potential. Let's pair up the letters. We already know that that s will become another s upside down with no problem. The T and the right vertical of the end will become the A and the right vertical of the A and the I will become the end upside down. I know this does not make much sense now, but it will in just a minute. The first week is to make the letter s 100% rotational. The next week is to adjust the current between the letters to match the width of the A. The next week is to make the connection between the upside down and T. To make it an upper case, A and I will get into uppercase sources lower case and mixing the two in the following sections. Then we turn the lower case t into an upper case. T we add the tittle above the I and we make the minor cosmetic tweaks to complete the S A and I, which went turn upside down, reveals an end A. T and the s considering this was done completely on the computer without any exploratory sketches, this is definitely not a bad amber graham. However, using an existing typeface to create an amber graham requires you to work within certain constraints and limitations. And since Ember grams break pretty much every rule, it makes sense to start completely from scratch on paper and pencil. And that's exactly what we will do in the next section. Your second exercise is to take any three words you want and analyze them for their Amiram potential. Keep track of them in papers. You can post them later 6. Typographic Styles: previously, you saw how the every gram of the word saints was developed directly on the computer without any sketching beforehand. Now, at first glance, this looks like a pretty good AM program. It has a consistent look and feel and ask Assistant Lee white strokes and a general. It's fairly legible, but if we look closely at the letter A, it looks a bit disproportionate. It looks too short, too stocky, as if it had no room to grow or develop. And since we're looking at this Amber Graham closely, let's much in the letter T as well. It looks a bit out of proportion, probably because it's a very small and narrow uppercase t trying to blend in with the lower case letters around it. However, just because it's not a great idea to design an Amber Graham directly on the computer, using an existing typeface does not mean that you can't create an ember Graham that was influenced by the design of a certain typeface. If I wanted to create an Amber Graham based on, Helvetica knew I would probably start in paper and develop a final sketch that would look something like this before I brought it into the computer. After stepping back and looking at the sketch some more, I would realize that the A does indeed look strange, and so does that small, tiny T that's trying to blend in. So I would probably start sketching for a scratch, abandoning the idea of designing my Amber Graham around the Helvetica new type face. My first sketches would probably look something like this where I would examine how the world looks in upper case lower case and several different styles of some of the letters. Then I would start sketching 1/2 the word because, as we saw in the previous section, it's a perfect split down the middle, so you only need to draw the first half of the word. Here's another Amberg emptive. Generally, it's not a great idea to mix upper case and lower case letters within an Amber Graham, but if he must mix them, do it right. Try to keep them on the same baseline and try to keep the lettering style consistent. Now let's go back to the sketches. My mammogram sketches usually begin with very thin pencil lines, adding just a touch of with variation to the strokes just to see what it would look like on paper while I still have the freedom to experiment. In this first sketch, you see a lower case or in uppercase s, followed by variation of an upper case A followed by lower case I When rotated, this would turn into a lower case in a lower case T and either lower case or uppercase s the woman I drew the sketch. However, I realized that he looks a bit awkward in most type faces. The crossbar of the T rests on the main line or rises above it, not in this case. And that's why I would probably discard the sketch and move onto the next one. In the next sketch, you see what is possibly a lower case or in uppercase s a different version of the A, which makes it lower case and a lower case. I when rotated, this would make a lower case in a lower case T in the lower case or in uppercase s. The problem with this sketch is that when it is rotated, the T may resemble a lower case J because of the way the bottom of the letter curves to the left. Now it may not seem so to everyone who would look at the final member Graham, but it's a potential pitfall to look out for. The third sketch resembles the 1st 1 very closely. The minor differences are that there's a dot for the crossbar of the A, whereas before we relied on the crossbar off the tee to make the crossbar for the day as well, and the cross bar of the lower case T now rests on the mean line. At this point, I'm happy with third sketch and I would proceed to the thinking process. This is what the pencils catch looks like. After it is inked. It looks fairly consistent. It looks like it has some nice contrast of fix and thins, and this is what it would look like when the half is duplicated, rotated and placed next to the original half to complete them a gram. At this point, I would be ready to bring this into the computer. My vector ization process would begin much like my sketching process, where I would first draw the M program with very thin lines, work out the letter proportions and finalized all the small elements such as a cross bars, titles and any other parts of the typographic anatomy. Then I would start experimenting with the weights of the strokes. First, I would try moderate strokes to see how the Amber Graham would read, and then I would probably experiment with additional contrasts of thick and thin strokes. This is where I would stop my vector ization process. The M Burgum looks very consistent. There's a nice balance of thick and thin strokes, and all the letters look like they belong together, even though there is a combination of upper case and lower case letters within the M O gram when compared to the original M program, which was created directly on the computer from Helvetica New, the new one is definitely an improvement. However, if you wanted to make the MBA Graham look and feel like Eletrica new with a bit mawr sketching and a bit more experimentation, it would be very possible. I'd like to make one more point about using existing typefaces to create an ember Graham. Here you see nine random typefaces that I found on my computer. They range from some that are very eligible to some that are almost completely illegible, even in their native state. If you're having trouble reading a typeface initially, then you should not be trying to create an Amber Graham from it. Imagine how challenging that would be. Now it's never a bad idea toe. Let a typeface influence your design or influenced your sketching, especially if you want to make your Amber Graham resemble a certain typeface. But it's definitely not a good idea to use an existing typeface to create mammograms without any exploration on paper. Here's another AM a gram. Keep it simple seriously, since you're only now starting to learn how to design and programs, Try to use short or relatively short words for go color and stick to just black and white and above all else. Do not use any extra filters, effects or anything else that would take away from the legibility of your Amber Graham. Seriously, keep it simple. 7. Sketching Your Ambigram: All right, everyone, it's party time now. Party time is a word which I've chosen to turn into an Amber Graham. Throughout this next section, you will see the whole process step by step as I would go through it. Every single time I approach Anambra Graham, you'll see the more in depth and programme analysis. You'll see all the sketches live and then hopefully by the end of the following two sections, you will see a beautiful and result for the purposes of this section and for the purpose of contrast invisibility. I'll be sketching with Sharpie instead of pencil. It's just a much nicer contrast on the white paper, and it will be easier for everyone to see. But when you'll be developing Ram a gram, I strongly recommend pencil because it is a race Herbal and sharpies are not. I'm not really concerned with making a mistake because this is initial exploratory stages and everything goes. The first step to my immigrant process is to write out the word in several different ways, specifically in upper case and lower case, so I can see which characters offer the greatest degree of flexibility. I know this looks very rough, but this is a rough process. Initially, so will get plenty of chances to refine it. The letter P is fairly simple, whether upper case or lower case, so is the letter A where you can ride it just a few different ways. The letter R offers a few variations as well. The letter T you condemn differentiate by lowering or raising the cross bar for the lower case, making the crossbar longer or shorter for the uppercase letter I lower case is written with the tittle or without the tunnel. Let her m offer some nice diversity, and the letter E has quite a few variations as well. Now I know this looks fairly rough, but this quick draft give this a good idea of which characters are more flexible and which characters are less flexible. Now I know we spoke about Ember Graham analysis in the previous sections. Let's get into it a little bit deeper to analyze the word. I would, of course, write it out, and then I would take a look at the letter pairings. Now there are several options. You Kiev here first option is to do a what's called 1 to 1 ratio. And this is when one letter turned around represents only one letter, a simple example that would be a lower case T. And when flipped, it would resemble lower case I. That's one option. Another option is a 2 to 1 ratio, and let's use the tea is an example again. If you write a lower case T and an eye upside down, it would resemble in him. So you have two characters turning into just one of character, and finally, very complex option would be the 3 to 1 ratio where you would have three words or three. Character is turning into one character, and a good example of that which have used a few times, would be the I, l and I. That would be very jail. You have to have a perfect match of characters coming together, and in this case, it really is because here we have the I, l and the I, which have three very strong verticals. And then you have the M, which also has three very strong verticals, so this works out quite nicely. Now let's continue with analysis, so we have the word party time. The first option is to find the central pivot letter and to go from the inner letter to the outer parts. Now, in this case, such central letter would be the why. Now it's a central pivot letter because to the left into the right of it, it has an equal number of characters. So let's take a look and see which ones work well together. Now the letter T could work well together, although it would require us to use the tea, which looks like a cross now here. I'd like to bring up on important AM program tip when you draw the characters by themselves , such as the I L in the eye that I used in the previous example, or the T I, which turned into a lower case, and they may not make much sense by themselves. But when they're in context of the actual AM program, in other words, when the blank spaces filled in next to the characters with other letters, it will make much more sense. And a letter like the tea, which looks like a cross, may look like a perfectly normal T one in context, with the other words, so on with analysis. So the letter R and the letter. I could work well together, even as a simple, quick sketch. We can have a lower case R, and then add the tittle and it makes an eye. And once again this looks a little bit weird, but in context, it may look just fine. Then we get to the A and the M, and this is where we have a bit of a problem. The letter M. Visually, it has three fairly strong verticals know The central point is not a vertical, but it has potential to be joined by other letters or to be used as a design element rather than you know a specific part of the letter. So that's why I refer to as a vertical, and the letter A. Whether it's a lower case, are uppercase on. Lee has to suggested verticals. That's where we'll fall into a bit of trouble. But to continue with analysis, the last pairing the letter P and the E. They look like they may not work well together because one letter has a nice curve and a vertical, and the E has a vertical and strong horizontal. But that will be explained a bit in the next section. Let's analyze the let the word a second time now. So we write out the word again, and what we can do now is go from the outer letters in Now. At times, it may not make much of a difference, but you may see something in this process, which you haven't seen in the process before him. So the letter P in the would work well together and now with an expiring was stumbled into an issue yet again, where the and am would not really work well together. But let's, uh, pause for a second and look at the word party time. So far we've been looking at it as a single words, in other words, a rotational M program which, when rotated, would say party time again. But what if we split the word down the middle, where it turns into two separate words? So it turns into the word party and into the word time Now, at first to say Well, the word party has five characters in the word time has four characters. How would that work? But if we remember in the previous page, we talked about the 1212 to 1, character flips. This could be the approach that we need. So now let's write out the word party time slightly in a different manner. Let's write out the word party on one line and then upside down. Let's write out the word time Now. At first it looks a little bit awkward. It doesn't look like it may work, but keep in mind that every letter can be written in many different ways. And if let's use the why and the tea is an example. If you have two letters paired up that require the use of a strong, too strong verticals, and one letter has a diagonal, one has a vertical. This can be simply amended by writing the letter in a different way. Now, in this case, the why has to verticals and he only has one. But we're getting closer, so let's continue. So let's say the why and the tea would work well together. We already saw that the tea and that I could work well together, whether it's a lower case or a nup er case version and then we get to the problem areas. Here is a good opportunity to take the A R and the M and make it a 2 to 1 letter flip. Now, I don't know if it will work really well. I don't know if it will be the final solution, but let's keep that as an option because it also gives us a nice split of the word party in time. And now it's turned into a symbiotic Graham rather than just a rotational AM program. And finally, the letter P and the you could work well together here. I've written a word party and time underneath each other since we decided to split up the single word into two words that actually makes our life a little bit easier. It allows us to experiment with different letter combinations, where we have a 2 to 1 combination here that allows us to maintain this combination, which was 1 to 1. It allows us to keep this combination, which is probably the easiest one off the whole word, and it pairs up these two letters together, while the last combinations, a bit challenging, is not nearly as challenging as the tutto one combination. Let's take a look at some loose rough, very rough sketches. Now, if you write the letter p and the e upside down as upper case. It doesn't look like it match up really well, because the P has the curve bowl in the strong vertical, and the E has one strong vertical and the three horizontal. But if we take the letter P, write it the way we've done before and we take the letter e and write it as a lower Casey, we see that there is some potential here because now both of these letters have the curve. This has the strong vertical, and this has potential for a strong article, depending and how we decide to draw the letter in its final stages. So in this initial rough approach, I think it's safe to say that this combination is worked out the T and the I combination. That is fairly obvious, as I've mentioned before, whether a lower case approach or an uppercase approach, both of these good work. So this combination works fairly well. Now, if you look at the why and the T combination the letter flip, we're trying to create the letter. Why has the diagonals and the letter T has the strong vertical and the strong horizontal. That first glance that could be an issue until we try to right the white another way. Now here's the why that has to strong verticals. Now, if we write it upside down, it looks like an age. So this is probably not a good option. And then if it write the letter t upside down and add the upper part that makes the why we start to realize that this could actually be a good option Now this could be explored in the later stages, where we work on slightly more detailed sketches. But we can already see that this may actually work. Now I remember context. It looks like a strange letter right now. But when surrounded by the word time and the PRT on the left side, this may actually work fairly well. And finally we get to the most difficult combination the A r and the W. Or I'm sorry, the the M I keep seeing is W. Because I've written it upside down. Now the option here is to take the R and A and the R and try to write it in several different ways just loosely and to see which characters could work well in this case, I already see that the letter A would work really well because it would give us the two verticals that we need for the M. Let's write it upside down in two different colors. So where do you have this covered? And once I pair of the letters in this manner, I can see that using an AR here would give us that final vertical, which would work really well. So I think it is safe to say that the solution of the 2 to 1 letter flip for the A, R and M has been found. That being said, I think this is a perfect time to move on to the next stage. If you find yourself stuck on a certain letter pairing, whether you cannot get it toe work in either direction or you can't seem to pair up certain letters, don't get frustrated and search for alternate solutions. Explore all possible options and do not give up 8. Refining Your Sketch: here we are at the next phase of your MBA Graham development in the previous section, we've determined that the best approach would be to split up the word party time into two words, making it effectively a symbiotic Graham rather than a straightforward rotational M program . We also determined the letter pairings that p in the E they are in the M, the T and I and the why and the tea. So we have 3121 letter flips and we have one, 2 to 1 letter flips off all these combinations the T I and the white. He are the easiest ones. I'm going to start working in those first the t and the i. R. Fairly straightforward. Whether you want to make the T upper lower case or upper case, those are pretty much the only two variations there are for the why and the tea. It's a similar scenario where the why and the t, the y states pretty lower case for the most part, and the tea can be upper case or lower case. In this stage, it is a bit too early to make the call. But for the sake of continuity I would probably want to use the lower case T for both versions. Right now, I'm sketching with just very simple role lines. I'm not concerned about contrasts or different weight variations, so I'll continue in a similar manner with the other two combinations. These to the T I and the T Y combinations are pretty much worked out, so I'm going to switch to the P E, which is the harder, slightly harder one. In the previous section, we saw that if we write the P in the E in their natural uppercase state, they're not a very good match because the P has the curve bowl and a strong vertical or horizontal while the E has the strong horizontal which is a good match. But then it has the three strong verticals, which is not a good match for the bull with uppercase Pete. However, if we wrote that he a slightly different way, this we noticed that they both have that desirable curve now, And while the peace still has the vertical that he has that implied vertical which will become more obvious later in the emigrant development. Just from looking at these two letters, we can see that all would essentially need to do is to open up the P of it and give it a slight crossbar to make it look like an E upside down. So that is pretty straightforward. That is pretty simple. And I do believe this combination is worked out, at least for now. And finally, most difficult combination. The most difficult letter pairing is the A R in the W already determined that a lower case option would probably be the best solution, and just drawing the two letters with very straightforward then lies. We can see that in the M State was called us the M State. It still looks like the letter M and in the air State, it still looks like the two letters, even if they're joined together at this point before I draw the final party time sketch, I'd like to point out some of the issues I run into with this M program, and most, if not all of them have to do with traditional rules and principles of typography. In this case, we've decided to make the party time Emma Graham all lower case. And if you look at some of the letters that are traditionally written lower case, we will see some of the potential problems. First, the letter p the one of the needs to look like an e upside down. But the D sender of most letters usually goes far below the baseline. And in this case, if we turn around, the P looks very much like the D. No matter, no matter what we do to it. So this is a pitfall that I will have to watch out for in the final sketches. The ear of the R is also touching the mean line, and in most eyepieces usually does. We noticed that it's at the same level as a crossbar of the tea, which in most typefaces also rests on the mean line. So we'll have to make the call of either lowering the ear of the are slightly or raising the crossbar of the tea. Now, thankfully, the only two times or encounter the tea is in the T. I flip and the y T flip. So in both cases, we can keep the crossbar at the same level, either arresting on the main line or slightly. But and finally, the biggest issue is the size of the why, in most cases of why takes up the full X height. But in this case, we need to make sure the why also looks like the T upside down. So we can't very well do something like this because that would make it look a bit awkward that we have to find a nice bounds between making it look like a why while at the same time making sure it still looks like a T in the other direction. So those are some of the major pitfalls to watch out for in this M program. And now I'd like to draw some of the final schedules taking the pitfalls into the consideration. I'm going to start off with a short, rather short A sender or I'm sorry, Descend ER, which I can tweak a bit later. I will also pay a bit more attention to the widths of the actual letters, and here I will also add a bit of weight to the strokes as well, just for a little bit more contrast. So here's my letter p slash e. We turn it upside down. It looks like a fairly decent e. The A center arms are in the D sender and now seen a center. The Dee Center is still a little bit too long, but or possibly a little bit too long. We need to see how it looks in context. Now, the letter A would be next in here. I'm going to just rough out the verticals first, and then I will draw in the remaining details. Now, in this case since the one of the issues we ran into is the problem with the ear of the are what you see here. I'm going to leave the ear on the same on the same mean line where it usually is, and I will fix the issue with the letter t itself and that will be fixed next. So here's the A R combination, which furs into the M E upside down. Then we're going to tackle the letter. Are our mystery the letter t and I upside down, which is a pretty easy combination from what we've seen before, I'm going to draw the tittle here, which will be almost online, if not completely in line with the D sender of the P. And finally I'm going to draw the crossbar just a little bit higher to see what it looks like. And finally, I'm going to draw the T. Why combo? As we can see the why also comes in really close to the T. So raising the crossbar helps us, not just with armed with the Y as well. And since the crossbar is just a little bit higher than the mean line, I'm going to make it the same on the why or in the T, which is the y upside down. So now that we've drawn this Amber Graham, just a couple of little tweaks that can be made once I start using develop first, we'll take a look at the current in, which is obviously not very consistent. That's something I can address with development. We also address the issue with the D sender and with the location of the crossbar on the tees and the location of the ear on the M. Now that I've drawn this sketch, it is fairly complete. Now I'm going to get a piece develop, and here's where you'll see why vellum is so absolutely brilliant, especially for this application. First off, you can see through it and see your grid. You get your mean line baseline. You can see the letters. You don't need to draw the grid again on the belt, and also it allows you to move your final sketch around and to tweak any issues that would mentioned before, which could be turning, which could be the height of letters. You can tweak any part of your design, so now I'm just going to sketch, design or dried in a bit more detail. This time, I'm going to use a thicker sharp before the thicker strokes and continue using the thin sharp present their strokes. So first I'm going to draw the strong vertical of the P, and I'm going to leave the a center of the D sender slightly shorter because I can always tweak it from there and I'm going to draw part of the curve, and then I'm going to use the thinner Sharpie to connect them to fill in the blanks, if you will, and to draw the final part that makes the P that yep, they don't look at it. It's a pretty that's a pretty descent. E p combo I can do here is just make a few minor adjustments to the curb or to the curve and make a few minor tweaks to level out the letter. And there is a letter, people. Now here's where the vellum comes in handy. I can move it over just a little bit and fix the turning issue, which I mentioned right here. I'm going to grab the thick Sharpie and rough out the verticals once again. And then I'm going to use the thinner Sharpie to make all the necessary connections. Now, here I can choose to make the final tweaks while the vellum is over, laid on the actual on the actual sketch. Or I can make it a bit later. That's a matter of preference. And after seeing the sketch and seeing how how I probably aesthetically pleasing the slightly raised crossbars of the T look, I think I'm going to go. I already did this, but I'm choosing to leave the ear of the are resting against me in line. Now I am going to take the vellum with over just slightly to increase the turning between R and T. There is the letter T and there's the letter. I once against some minor tweaks, can be made once a move, develop off of the all for the sketch and finally, one more letter to go on. Once again, I'm going to take the vellum and move it over ever so slightly just to just for the current ing there's the vertical or the vertical of the Why there's a cross by which has been raised the same amount as the crossbar on the Teen I couple and their ISS, my MBA Graham. Now it's not completely 100% finished, but it's a very good start, and it's very good progression from the then lines, from the thin strokes to the slightly more detail sketch to the final details sketch. Now, the other minor variations and issues I can work out here is obviously the A center or the D sender, which in context, I think, is just fine. I can increase it just a little bit. That's it. I can tweak some of the some of the letters sum of the angles if I want to before I go into the final stages. But for the most part, this M program is nearly finished. If you're in the latter stages of developing your Amber Graham and a better solution presents itself or you feel like you need to go back to the beginning and start from scratch. Don't be afraid to do so. You're Amber Graham will only get better. 9. Final Words of Wisdom: everyone welcome back to typographic deception, the part of drawing and programs for the very last time. While this is the end of actual skill share class, I certainly hope it's not the end of your own mammogram obsession. As you can see, every grams are a fun challenge to work on their tough to figure out. They can be frustrating at times. But don't let that frustration get to you. There is no greater thrill for myself or for any other African designer than to see your every dream. Come to life in a piece of paper and have your friends and coworkers take that piece of paper twisted, turn it and wonder just how the hell you got that Amaranto work. So don't let frustration get in your way. Keep sketching, keep drawing and keep experimenting. Now, before we go on, I'd like to share the final ember game that we've created throughout this class. Here's the party time Amber Graham, which we started off with in the beginning. Since it is a symbiotic graham, I chose to sketch out and finalize only half of it, but with a little bit of Photoshopped magic, the final M program looks something like this. However, I do encourage you to sketch out your mammogram completely on paper and try not to give into the temptation of bringing into the computer. The only reason is you probably have never drawn an Amber Graham before, and drawing it completely from start to finish is good practice, however, since there is no heart set rule book on Amber Grams. If you sketch out half the M program and it's extremely detailed and it's perfect, why not bring it to the computer photo shop? It printed out and showed up? As far as resource is that are included with this class, here's what you'll find. First, you will find a PdF of close to 100 hand drawn amber grams that I've created over the last few months. He'll give you a good demonstration off different materials and tools you can use as well as a range of styles. Second, you will find a PdF of the barriers, tips and tricks that have been mentioned throughout the school class, and finally you'll find a list of items that I will ask you upload. As you started going through this class, finally, thank you so much for signing up for this class. I hope you enjoyed it as much as I enjoyed teaching it. And I look forward to seeing your work, your sketches, your analysis and any comments that you may have.