The Complete History of Music, Part 2: The Renaissance | J. Anthony Allen | Skillshare

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The Complete History of Music, Part 2: The Renaissance

teacher avatar J. Anthony Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Copyright Notice


    • 3.

      Previously on "The Complete History of Music...."


    • 4.

      What is the renaissance?


    • 5.

      Europe in the renaissance


    • 6.

      7 MusicInTheRenaissance


    • 7.

      Musical training


    • 8.

      The music of Josquin Desprez


    • 9.

      The age of the castrato


    • 10.

      New compositional techniques


    • 11.

      Tuning systems


    • 12.

      Printed music


    • 13.

      England's influence


    • 14.

      The music of John Dunstable


    • 15.

      The polyphonic mass


    • 16.

      The music of Guillaume Dufay


    • 17.

      The early 16th century style


    • 18.



    • 19.

      The music of Antoine Busnois


    • 20.



    • 21.

      The music of Johannes Ockeghem


    • 22.

      The reformation's effect on music


    • 23.

      Music in the Lutheran church


    • 24.

      Music in the Calvinist Church


    • 25.

      Music in the Church of England


    • 26.

      The effects of the reformation on catholic music


    • 27.

      What about jewish music?


    • 28.

      The amateur musician


    • 29.

      Song In Spain


    • 30.

      Song in Italy


    • 31.

      The Madrigal


    • 32.

      Song in France


    • 33.

      Song in Germany


    • 34.

      Song in England


    • 35.

      The instruments of the renaissance


    • 36.

      Dance music


    • 37.

      Settings and adaptations


    • 38.

      Instrumental music on its own


    • 39.

      What next? The Baroque!


    • 40.

      Thanks for watching!


    • 41.



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About This Class


This class is for anyone who has wondered about the origins of music, how it came to be, and where it came from. 

In this course, we will look at the world during the renaissance (approximately 1300 - 1600), through the lens of music. This period begins with the church dominating most music, but ends with "the reformation", in which many churches split off from the catholic church, which had a big impact on the music in those churches. We will also look at what was happening outside of the churches musically, including songs, instruments, minstrels, choirs, and more.

Topics Covered: 

  • Politics of the world during the renaissance

  • Europe during the renaissance

  • Musical training

  • The music of Josquin Desprez

  • The age of the castrato

  • New compositional techniques in the renaissance

  • New tuning systems in the renaissance

  • The dawn of printed music

  • The music of John Dunstable

  • The polyphonic mass

  • The music of Dufay

  • Chanson

  • The music of Busnoy

  • The Mass in the renaissance

  • The music of Ockeghem

  • The reformation's effects on music

  • Music in the Lutheran church

  • Music in the Calvinist church

  • Music in the Church of England

  • Catholic music after the reformation

  • Jewish music

  • The amateur musician

  • The development of song in Spain, Italy, France, Germany, and England

  • The Italian madrigal

  • Instruments of the renaissance

  • Dance Music

  • And much, much more!

While a lot of history courses focus on memorization, this is a course for those interested in immersing themselves in the music and culture. You won't find lists of dates to memorize here - this class is designed to be fun and enjoyable.

This is the first part of a multiple-course series. 

In this course, we will focus the entire course on the renaissance period. 

By the end of this course, if you follow along, you will be ready to move on to the Baroque period - coming in part 3!

Please click the "Take This Course" button so you can start learning about the history of music TODAY!


Praise for Courses by Jason Allen:

⇢  "It seems like every little detail is being covered in an extremely simple fashion. The learning process becomes relaxed and allows complex concepts to get absorbed easily. My only regret is not taking this course earlier." - M. Shah

⇢  "Great for everyone without any knowledge so far. I bought all three parts... It's the best investment in leveling up my skills so far.." - Z. Palce

⇢  "Excellent explanations! No more or less than what is needed." - A. Tóth

⇢  "VERY COOL. I've waited for years to see a good video course, now I don't have to wait anymore. Thank You!" - Jeffrey Koury

  "I am learning LOTS! And I really like having the worksheets!" - A. Deichsel

⇢  "The basics explained very clearly - loads of really useful tips!" - J. Pook

⇢  "Jason is really quick and great with questions, always a great resource for an online class!" M. Smith

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

J. Anthony Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


Dr. J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen tea... See full profile

Level: Beginner

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1. Introduction: Hey, everyone, welcome to the complete history of music, part to the Renaissance. So in this class, we're going to jump all over the world talking about what was happening musically during this period of the Renaissance. So we're going to start off talking about kind of what the Renaissance Waas, what was happening outside of music, what was happening in philosophy, what was happening in visual art, what was happening in architecture. After that, we're going to move through different periods along with different regions. So we start off in England and talking about what was happening in England at the time. Then we're going to go over to France. Then we're going to get into this period of time called the Reformation. You may have heard of the Reformation was something happening in the church where things split off. So there was one big church, and then during the Reformation, there were three or perhaps four churches that got established, and with that, there were musical things that went along with these new churches and some musical things that they developed on their own. Remember how tied in music is with the church at this point After that we'll talk about songs outside of the church. There was a lot of music also happening outside of the church at this time, and this gets really regional as well. There's music happening in Spain, Italy, France, Germany, England. That's all kind of developing on its own and outside of the church will look at all of that . And then we'll wrap up with just talking about good old instrumental music and what it's doing and where it is in its development as we progress into Baroque. So it's a really fun class. I hope you decide to join us and we'll see you on the inside way . 2. Copyright Notice: everyone welcome to the class. So before we get started, I want to point out one thing about how we're gonna do this class. One of the reasons you don't see a lot of history classes online like this, and especially not music history classes is because there are some tricky copyright issues involved. I want to talk about music and I want to play you that music. However, I don't have the licenses to play you. All of the music that I want to play for you now in this class because we're talking about music of the Renaissance period. It's very old. I was able to put all of the music in the class where I'm talking about it. There are some copyright issues with this because I used performances of modern performers and I used everything that I used in the class eyes available on YouTube. So what I'm gonna do just to make sure, is that I'm going to put a list of all the links I used in the next segment. Okay, so the next thing you're going to see is a list of all the links for all the musical examples in this entire class. Okay, so you can download that and listen to those on your own if you want. All of those links are in the class, but it's possible that they might get taken out eventually. Okay. I think everything I've used is completely fair to use. Um, and completely. I didn't break any rules, but, uh, there's a lot of discussion about how all of this will work in the future with using links in classes. So just to make sure that you have access to the info, I'm gonna put all the links in the next, uh, segment. So look at those links. Download those links, follow them. Listen to things after the class if you want to. Most of the links are actually all of them are in the class now. Cool. So these extra links are just redundant there. Just there. In case I have to take the any of the content out for copyright concerns. This is a This is a tricky thing. And it's why again, you don't see very many online music history classes, so, um, hopefully this will give you something extra toe play around with and listen to and enjoy. Okay. With that onto the show, 3. Previously on "The Complete History of Music....": Hey, everyone, Before we get started in this class, let's do a really quick little review on some of the main topics we talked about in the last class. So we're talking now about medieval music, antiquity, old stuff and the little bit that we know about it. This is the subject of the previous class, Part one. Now we're in part two, so this gives me the opportunity to say the thing I've always wanted to say. Here we go. Previously on the Complete History of Music know what archaeologists have been able to find . There is both some instruments and drawings and evidence of music happening back then. And what those drawings tell us is how music was used back then, which is really fascinating to me, really similar. Tow us. Actually, they had music specific me very difficult to find traces of what this music actually sounded like. However, there are a few. There are a few pieces of music that scholars pretty much agree on how to interpret them, which means we can hear them. So this is one this is this is believed to be the oldest complete composition. This is how it's it's written on this, um, Stone column to secular. They're an ancestor Teoh Troubadour Songs that might be a term that you've heard before is the troubadour kind of the traveling singer. We'll talk more about troubadours and just a minute in probably the next video or two. But these versus songs they originated about 12 century, 12th century. Ah, they were sung in Latin rhyming text and they were not based on chant, but were new melodies. Case remember in a lot of chant, You had a set number of melodies that were used in different ways. These were more free form. 4. What is the renaissance? : Okay, What is the run? Is aunts or what? Was the Renaissance more properly put? So we're talking about the 15th and 16th centuries Now. Some literature says the Renaissance started in the 14th century. Some says 15th century, so 15th or 16th century up to the 17th century. So it followed the Middle Ages and the term renaissance, uh, literally means rebirth. So it's French word meaning rebirth. It means that Ah, we're exiting from the middle ages. Um, a relatively dark period in history and kind of recapturing some of the art and culture that had been bubbling up in the Middle Ages. And even before that, we first get the term renaissance in 18 55. So that came, you know, uh, after the Renaissance period, as most names of periods dio we got the name later. But in 18 55 Jules Michelet I think we pronounce his name in his book History of France. When the term renaissance for this period again meaning rebirth. So there was a lot going on in the Renaissance, and the term rebirth really fits. So one of the things is that people, just everyone from artists to philosophers to politicians. Ah, one of the things that were looking at was ideas and values from ancient Greece and Rome so kind of prior to the Middle Ages, but also developing new ideas. So one of the things that we get in the Renaissance is the printing press, and that changes things radically, right? For example, after the invention of the printing press, we start getting people, um, printing music. Ah, that came about in the early 16th century. And that really made music available to amateurs. People could buy music and perform it for their own entertainment. That's not something we had ever before. If you wanted to hear music, remember, recordings don't exist at this time. So if you wanted to hear music period, you had to go to a concert. But now, with printed music, people can play music on their own at home for entertainment, you still can't just play a recording, but you can play music at home. Other things that helped ah guide some of the changes artistically that happened in the Renaissance was we start to see musicians being having court appointed positions, so that's not particularly knew we had musicians who and composers in particular, who had jobs working in churches and for courts before. But now what we have is an increasing number of composers who had jobs in courts. In other words, working for the kings, our queen or royalty outside of their native region. People were traveling for these jobs. So you might Ah, an English composer might have a job in France working for that. Ah, nobility there. And this created a new kind of international ah style, if you will, hesitant to use the word style. But, um, composers were being influenced more and more by the music of other cultures because of these travels. Kind of like how now composers air, influenced by music from all over the world because of the Internet, on a much smaller scale. Ah, at this period of time, composers were starting to travel more and learn more about the music from the neighboring countries, in particular France, Italy and England. Now, speaking of the church, we also have in the Renaissance the Reformation, and there's a lot of changes that happen to the Church and the Reformation. We'll talk more about that shortly, but that led to all kinds of new styles of music in the church, both Catholic and otherwise. So there's a lot of different music happening in the Catholic Church. There's different languages being used, so the music did not necessarily have to be in Latin. And that led to a lot of new and exciting things happening in music just to scratch the surface on some of the things that happened in the Renaissance. So before we get to much further into the music, let's talk a little bit about what's happening in Europe, Uh, in this period and kind of what the political situation is and some of the big events that happened during the Renaissance outside of music. Then we'll come back to music and talk about what was happening musically. But it's important to understand some of the cultural, um, and nonmusical things that are happening because they really kind of influence, uh, what will find in music So off we go into that 5. Europe in the renaissance : Okay. So to talk about what was happening in Europe during the Renaissance, we could dio a number of different directions here. We could talk about politics. We could talk about art. Ah, and then many, many, many different kinds of art. Right. Um so what I thought we do to just give us a really quick snapshot of what's happening in Europe during the winter. Sounds at the time. I want to talk about two things really quick. One is just the significant things that happened, and especially the works of art. And they were going to talk a little bit about the philosophy. And we'll try to smash that all into this video here because it's gonna be brief. Let's just go through a quick little timeline of a couple of things that have happened in Europe during ah, there Renaissance in order. So right at the beginning, right around 1400 we start to see ah, the economy of Europe grow into something with a lot of stability to it. So people were making money, people were selling things, buying things, and the European economy was flourishing. Around 14 30 we get the first polyphonic mass cycles So if you remember what polyphonic means, it means that there are two or more independent voices moving in a piece of music. So mono phonic would mean one piece of music going like a singer. A singer can only sing one note at a time, so that's always Monta Phonic. But if two singers are singing two different things, that's polyphonic and music we've looked at up till now primarily was mono phonic. There might be a lot of singers singing something, but they didn't have uniquely moving parts. So we started to see that creeping in, and that will play a big role later. Around 14 50 we get the Gutenberg develops, the printing press movable type that changes a lot of things. 14 53 The end of the 100 years. War 14 92. Of course, Columbus sailed the ocean Blue is the rhyme they tell us in the United States, so Columbus makes his way over to what is now called the United States. Somewhat debatable, Um, but let's just leave it at that. 14 95. Leonardo da Vinci paints The Last Supper 15 04 Michelangelo's statue of David 15 07 Martin Luther Port Posts 95 cc's which leads us to the Protestant Reformation. 15 32. Machiavelli's The Prince is published 15 38 1st published set of variations. So music publishing we're talking about now creeping up 15 45. The Council of Trent 15 94. The End of the Renaissance We finally get Ah, Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. Now let's talk a little bit about the philosophy that's happening here. Because thinkers and writers at the time had access to an acceptance of some classic Greek and Roman literature. There was a renewal in intellectualism and in particular, a style of thinking and looking at the world. Ah, that we now call humanism humanism really focused on studying the humanities, things that pertain to human knowledge. They looked to, ah, some of these ancient writings, um, to revive studies of grammar rhetoric, poetry, history and moral philosophy. They really were looking for ideas and concepts that would grow, and individuals mind an individual's ethics, the spirit of a person. They thought this would lead to a life full of virtue and service if someone studied these ideas. Now, this isn't to say that there was some abandonment of the church. That's not really what happened here. The church was still strong and more or less in power, and the church was a So far as I can tell, the church was pretty much on board with this idea. They were sponsoring classical studies, supported thinkers, artists and musicians. Ah, lot of those things. I just read the Last Supper. Those kinds of works that were created were created at the will of the church. So the church is still a very significant power in the the life and frankly politics of or I should say, political environment of the world at this point. And I should say Europe, I suppose, to be more specific. So a super quick little snapshot of what's happening in Europe. I don't want to get too deep into that because I'm treading on things I don't I consider myself an expert of at all. So let's switch now over into talking about the music of this era 6. 7 MusicInTheRenaissance: Okay, So virtually the rest of this class, we're going to be talking about the music in the Renaissance. I wanted to take this lesson. They just talk about the big picture stuff that we're going to dive in deeper to throughout the rest of this class. So big things that changed during the run of sounds for us in music. The 1st 1 has already mentioned prolific me. Okay, so we started to get polyphony, which we may have had inklings of before. But now we're going to really start to get into prolific me more seriously. And it's helped that we're going to start incorporating instruments other than voices. Right? So some instruments start to pop up things like the sack, but, um, various Ah, redid flu like things will start to get incorporated into music as well. And something that, uh, is more or less the same is our current oboe comes about as well. Another thing that we see really happen in the Renaissance as we start to see a split between sacred and secular music. Now I'm not sure if that's a term I used in the first class or not. So let's define that so sacred music. Anything to do with the church? Secular music, anything not to do with the church. Okay, so, uh, an example. Might be if I write, uh, some music based on a Bible passage that's going to be sacred music. If I write a song about, Ah, my girlfriend, that's gonna be secular music. Right? So in the Renaissance, we have ah lot of music happening in the church. A lot of the church sponsoring and supporting a lot of music. But we also have things like troubadours happening, right? Um, we saw that a little bit in the medieval era, um, and antiquity. But we're going Teoh Seymour and more of that where there's this big division between sacred and secular. And even though we have instruments again, we're still we still have a latte like mostly vocal music. And one of the big things that that we really dive deep into is the magical. So we get is a type of piece called a magical. Um, it's known for word painting. Ah, really. Lush poetry will talk a lot more about the magical and this term word painting that I just used, which is probably confusing sounding. We'll talk more about that shortly, and we'll also see a number of composers kind of rise to some degree of popularity in this period. Um, like Palestrina and some other names that are not as familiar to you probably as Beethoven and Mozart, but they are still reasonably popular names you can you can probably find, Ah, Palestrina, um Spotify playlist, if you look hard enough. Okay, So with that said, let's start to dive into some details about what's going on here and let's start with a talking about patronage and ah, the role of the church in Renaissance music. 7. Musical training: Okay, so next let's talk about the training of musicians and also a little bit about the employment of musicians and how things kind of worked at the time. We have something emerging called court chapels. Uh, no, that's not chapel like church. It's actually quite the contrary. A court chapel was You could think of it a little bit like an entourage for a king or a ruler, if you will. So is basically if you're part of a chapel. You were a salaried musician and you were associated with a ruler rather than a building more less so instead of being employed by ex church, you were employed by this ruler and you were part of that. Rulers. Entourage, if you will. And so you might travel with that ruler. Ah, you were basically the musician for that particular king or whatever it waas. We see this first around King Louis, the ninth of France, and King Edward, the first of England. Um, they had performers, composers and scribes as part of their chapel. And those musicians in the chapel would not only perform for them for secular reasons, but also some sacred reasons. So there would do some church music and some secular songs. The church music, the sacred music would often be associated with journey or a battle or something like that . I think it's also important to note that they very often had a secondary responsibilities as well, so they might not have been the full time musician. But they might have another responsibility. Be as well. So if you were to become a musician, most musicians were trained still through the church choir, so they were choir boys. Always boys. Women were not allowed to join the church choir. Talk more about that in just a second in these church choirs. Ah, these boys are taught to sing primarily sacred music. They learned secular music later, but there are also taught other things that might be important for if you're hanging out with a king such as, Ah, writing, reading, grammar, math, theology, things like that. So your basic reading, writing and arithmetic that we know now so and if you wanted to do this kind of training back then there was a few places that you wanted to be. There were the main cities that had kind of the best known training program which is to say , Ah young Boys Choir program And those cities would be Cambria, Bruges, Antwerp, Paris, Leone and very soon after, Roman Venice. Ah, and some other places in Italy as well. No, Like I said a second ago, Onley boys were allowed into these choirs women. At this point in history, this really didn't have educational opportunities. Uh, there were opportunities for nuns, however, and a few nuns did make it into the history books for their musical accomplishments and particularly composers. We'll talk more about those shortly. So if you were part of this entourage you were toted around like, Well, let me see the different way the kings and queens and such would kind of brag about They're musicians in their chapel, right? So Ah, it was almost like having the best clothes. Having the best musicians was a sign of, um, royalty. A sign of power back then. A sign of wealth is probably a good way to put it if you had the best musician. So there was a lot of recruiting from other countries now, because of where these people were trained. Ah, lot of the best musicians came out of those cities I just mentioned, and and so, ah, lot of the Italian rulers were kind of like importing these people, especially from France and the Netherlands, because that's where the best training was happening, though, as one example of this idea of the chapel or the entourage as I'm calling it depressed. Just Quinn Depress was one of the composers of the early one. It sounds, period, that we still recognises one of the most prominent composers. We're gonna listen to some of their music in just a minute. Um, but both him and Leonardo da Vinci were both members of the sores of family, which were the rulers of Milan. So they were not. I shouldn't say members of the family. They were members of the chapel of the family. So they were part of, um, the Milan rulers entourage for at least some period of time. Okay, So with that being said, let's jump to actually listen to some music. So I'm gonna try to get in the habit of every time I mention a composer taking a pause, listening to some of their music, talking about that composer a little bit. So let's go to ah, the press or to pray. I'm not really sure how you say it, but let's go and examine some of their music. 8. The music of Josquin Desprez: Okay. Shots. Quinn. Dip breads to pray. Not really. Sure. Um so we see his name spelled two different ways. Ah, with depress being one word and deprive being two words, He was known as one of the probably most famous composers of his age. Um, he achieved a wide reputation in his time. Ah, and he was known for writing and a lot of different styles. So many that ah, scholars are still debating what works are his and which works are not hiss. There's a lot of pieces that have his name on them that we're not sure if he actually wrote them or not. There's a lot of things that don't have his name on it that we kind of think maybe he wrote . And scholars stumble over this all the time because he wrote in all these different styles , it's very hard to pinpoint what's his and what's not. Hiss. So one of the things that he's best known for is this melodic idea and writing these really beautiful melodies. So I thought we'd take a quick listen to ah, an Ave Maria, he wrote. Let's take a listen and then we'll be back. - Way , way, - way , way, way, way, way, way, way, way, way, way 9. The age of the castrato : Okay, So if you're thinking yourself Hey, man, something doesn't sound right here because you just told us that there were no women in these choirs, and yet we just heard acquire clearly with female voices in it. Well, um, let me clarify that you did hear a choir with female voices in it because you heard a modern choir performing a piece. Um, from the Renaissance, you didn't hear a Rennes sounds recording a recording made in the Renaissance because that wouldn't have been possible, right, cause we didn't have recording technology. But if that piece was recorded in the Renaissance, it's possible that women might have sung on it. Um, but more likely, we had one of two different types of people singing the high voices. Both men, we may have had young boys singing. So the boy choirs, the higher voices of sopranos in the altos of the boy choirs, um, or of a choir work work require may have been sung by these young young boys, right? So that was very common practice were also entering the age of the castrati. Now, this is a type of singer that we have references to it going all the way back to the Middle Ages and even earlier. But, um, around the 16th century is when it really becomes kind of a thing. And what this is is a very kind of unpleasant business that happened for a while. It's completely illegal now. But at one point, uh, these young boys that were be trained to be singers, they would be castrated. Ah, so as to not let their voice mature. And they would retain this. Ah, it's really pure sound of their voice. Um, before hitting puberty, they would maintain that voice throughout their into their adult life. So these types of singers were called castrati. Now you can imagine, How could a young boy consent to such a process? Why would they consent to such a process? There's all kinds of crazy ways that these were consented. Four, um, by these kids. Most of the time is by their parents on, and there are a number of reasons why the parents would subject their kids to these things . I don't want to go into that. You can read more about it. Just look up, castrato. There's a great ah Wikipedia article on it, and if you want to read a book of fiction on it, Um, one of my all time favorite books and it's It's I can't stress Enough. It's fiction. This is a book of fiction, but it's a great story about a castrato singer. Beautiful, beautiful book. It's called Cry to Heaven. It's by Anne Rice, best known for writing books about vampires. But this one is not about vampires, Um, but it's a beautiful story. Tragic story, but, uh, really, really quite powerful anyway, So the practice of doing this to to these young boys for the purpose of singing is has been illegal for a long time. However, there is one singer who was a castrato singer who lived to be old enough for us to get a recording of them. Ah, this is Maury, she known as the Last castrato. There is a few recordings available of him, so you can hear this is a grown man singing with a very, very high voice because he had this procedure done to him when he was very young. So I want you to listen to a little bit of this. You'll hear that it doesn't quite sound like a soprano like a female soprano like we expect there's something a little different about it. Um, it's quite fascinating, actually. So take a listen. Oh, - way . I know. 10. New compositional techniques: Okay, let's talk about compositional developments that were happening at the time, in particular new techniques that composers we're starting to incorporate into their music . No, at the time, the way we treated continents and dissonance was largely the same as what had come in centuries prior. Now, remember, Continents is generally speaking without getting into too much music theory. Continents is good, pure sounds and dissonance is things that, ah, rattle your teeth a little bit more, a little bit dissonance. Now in modern music, we have a lot of both. We have some constants. We have some dissonance, and that's what makes up music that we like. Um, prior to this period, we really focused on the continents. I think we talked a bit about this in the last history class, and that largely stayed true at the beginning of the Renaissance. We do get throughout the Renaissance period Mawr exploring of dissonance, but that was problematic because of the way instruments were tuned. We didn't have a really good way to play those dissonant notes because our tuning system didn't allow for that. We'll talk more about that shortly, But some of the things we did see Ah, early in the Renaissance was things like the expansion of range. So we started to let our singers go higher are singers go lower. Our instrumentalists go higher and lower by using new instruments. Now the way that comes together in the vocal repertoire was we added it. No, we added a new voice. So choral music, what we would now think of his choral music was typically three voices at the time. Um, up until now, I should say, up until this period that we're talking about right now, uh, we added 1/4 voice and the Reina sounds a base. So typically we had tenor alto soprano. But we added a base below the tenor and this is still how we organize choirs today. You know, four voices soprano, alto tenor bass from top to bottom. But composers also started to get a little funky with what they were letting into the choir . And they started Teoh Ah incorporate even more voices than that four different experimental uses so you could have choirs with 567 different voices in them. And that isn't uncommon today. Toe have you know, up to eight voices in a choir but this is the first time we see anything like that. But the four voice required to become much more standard than now. The composer's relationship to counterpoint was also quite a bit different. Typically, what we had and again I want to avoid. Ah, lot of music theory here. But a lot of the time the way music was written prior to this period was you had a central line. Uh, let's call it a melody. Really. We called it a conscious firm IHS or something like that, but let's call it a melody. Um, so you had a line a melody, and then you had other voices that would a company that line that would add, ah, thickness to that line by adding harmony, adding rhythm, something like that. But what we started to see composers experimenting with at this time was, ah, trying to make each part of the choir its own thing, smoothing out the lines and treating them all equally so that one wasn't the main line, and instead they're all treated equally. So there was a tighter relationship between the voices to give them all an equal opportunity within the choir and this'll ed to, ah, couple new kinds of counterpoint. Now, again, I have a whole bunch of classes on actual counterpoint, but, um, without getting too much into the weeds on how counterpoint works, this is where we get imitative counterpoint where different voices imitates or kind of echo . Um, the what we're gonna call the melody. It's also where we get home A funny and home a funny basically just means all the voices moving as one kind of ah, with the same rhythm. Let's say so. If this is interesting to you, go check out some of those classes I have on counterpoint. Um, it's their part of my music theory sequence. I'm trying to avoid getting really deep into music theory because I want this to be really focused on history. But sometimes you just can't separate the two. You know, um, when you're talking about how music has evolved throughout the centuries, you have to get into a little bit of music theory. But ah, those are the main things that we see as some new developments from composers. Ah, that started trickling in in the earlier part of the Renaissance 11. Tuning systems: Okay, let's talk a little bit more about this tuning situation that I just mentioned. Um, just kind of briefly. Now, I know I've got a piano on the screen here. If you don't know how a piano works and you don't know how to read music and you don't know what any notes are, don't worry. This is going to make sense. We're not gonna learn piano here. I just want to use this to illustrate kind of where we're at. So, um, at this period, Ah, were in the well, let's say, before this period in the Middle Ages were primarily using a system ah, that we now call Pythagorean intonations. So this is kind of what Pythagoras figured out, and it really got us only three perfectly in tune notes. What Pythagorean intonations says is it's going to give us the route the fourth and the fifth perfectly in tune. And then all the rest of the notes are kind of not so greatly in tune. Okay, so that would be the's notes, these notes. Okay, so these three notes are going to be perfectly in tune. Probably that one, too, because that's inactive. So let's say these four notes. So the system we have is all the other notes in the instrument or even the voice may or may not be perfectly in tune. We don't have a great system for how we're going to tune those notes. However, in the Renaissance we get a new system of tuning and in fact, a few of them and people start really kind of experimenting with tuning. We don't get it so that the full octave, all the notes are perfectly in tune. That doesn't come along until the Baroque period. But what we do get is the addition of these two notes. So now we have the same four notes is before the route, the force in the fifth and the active. But we also have the third and the sixth. Ah, there those become didn't. There's kind of an agreed upon way to tune those notes. So look at that again. Here's the ones we added. We got these two in here in the Renaissance that makes the total all of our notes. Here's ones we had before. Here's the ones were adding, and here are all of the notes we have now perfectly in tune That doesn't mean we're not going to hit these other notes. It just means that Ah, we tend to avoid them because they're not perfectly in tune. And there's really no way to know what is tuned and what is not tuned. No one really knows where those notes are, so now we have a system to get more notes. Now, Tuning Systems is going to become a big thing as we move throughout history. There are even some people today that don't agree on the perfect way to tune something like your piano. There's kind of an agreed upon way that all pianos are tuned, but there are some people that still like to tune it in a different way. So we'll talk about that when we get to modern day stuff. But for now, um, note that that's where we are. We're tuning. We still don't have all of the notes we have today perfectly in tune, but we have a lot of them 12. Printed music: Okay, so another thing we get is on the technological side of things that have developed in the Renaissance is we make big strides in music printing, and that has a lot of repercussions to it. So because we have movable type and innovations in printing, ah, written sheet music, uh, starts to make it to, ah, lot more different corners of the world, so it makes it a lot farther. The general public did have access to sheet music for the first time, and sheet music was much more reliable than music had been in the past. And what that means is that in the past, if you wanted a copy of some music, you had to hand copy it, and that lead to errors. That rent led to variations so you'd have two different copies of the peace that have a couple of notes. Different? Um, so there's no way of knowing what was really intended by the composer, but with printed sheet music, those errors and variations and different copies go away. The general public had access to them, although it was expensive towards pointing out it wasn't cheap to get a copy of some cheap music of some sheet music, but it could be done. Composers that are otherwise not well known began to get a lot more attention than they otherwise would have. Meaning that, um, people were starting to hear composers that they that maybe nobody was playing in their area. But they were able to get the sheet music from those composers or by those composers and hear new music that they otherwise might not have known about. Sheet music was made available to amateurs and professionals and helped kind of proliferate the idea that someone could make music in their own home as a way to just kind of entertain themselves or friends. So it became even more of kind of a proper thing to do to have some instruments in your house and the ability to sing. Ah, and this was kind of the, um, proper, sophisticated thing that uneducated family would have access to. And one last interesting thing about sheet music is that prior to the Renaissance, we don't really know Tate instrumental music very much. There is some, but the majority of instrumental music was either, ah, handed down orally. So you explain to someone how it was meant to be played or it was improvised, learned by ear or something like that. But with the proliferation of sheet music, we start to get people no Tate ing more instrumental music so that they could be played for Ah, events like Dances works for ensemble company Mental things. Um, there's a lot of different reasons, but church services, of course. So we see a kind of a new development of instrumental music, and that led to actually a lot of different types of instrumental music being developed for the first time. Things that will be kind of familiar words to you, probably like theme and variations. Prelude, Takata Sonata Those might be words that you've heard before those kind of all come to prominence because of in many ways we can print sheet music and that led people to pay more attention to instrumental music on that leg. Composers to write more instrumental music and explore different styles 13. England's influence : Okay, let's talk about what was happening in England. But more importantly, let's talk about how England the music of England was getting over to the rest of Europe and influencing composers there. So we have this thing happening in the beginning of the Renaissance called the 100 Years War. I'm not gonna go into all the details of that, but I know that a lot of what was happening was a lot of swapping of kings and queens. Ah, lot of people marrying other people, assuming Thrones that were maybe not theirs. And ultimately there becomes a deep relationship between England and France. So the war ends in 14 53 and the English get kicked out of France because they lose. But while the English were in France, the English nobility were in France for a long period of time. They brought with them their court musicians, right. They brought performers, composers, and they also brought actual music Manu scripts, so they brought sheet music with them. Now the English wanted to trade with the French, so this music was something that was being traded and it was making its way around France. So France was basically kind of, Ah, Gateway to importing English music because of the war and once it was in France, made its way throughout Europe. Now that's interesting in and of itself. But that's not the end of the story, because what started happening was European composers started getting hold of this English music and thinking, Hey, there's something interesting happening here. Not I shouldn't put like words into the mouth of all of the European musicians at the time . But, um, there was a lot of attention paid to this English music because it was a little bit different. There was something called the English quality to the music, and the English quality referred Teoh just kind of things that the English composers were doing a lot that other composers weren't doing in Europe, and that was things that were particularly attractive. So they started latching on to these things. A few of them would be things like thirds and sixes and parallel motion. If you don't. If you haven't taken much theory, that's not gonna mean anything. But if you have taken a lot of theory, that will mean something. So a lot of threes and sixes in peril emotion don't worry too much about that. The relationship of continents and dissonance like we were just talking about a few lectures ago. Very, very few dissonances, a lot of confidence, not very much dissonance. They use relatively simple melodies, so nothing too complex. Just simple melodies, regular phrasing, Hama phonic, texture. So that means kind of everything was moving out in one big thing. Not these interlocking lines like we heard in some of the other music that we just listened to. And we also got a few new types of musical pieces, in particular The Carol Let's Talk About the Carol for a minute. So the Carroll is a very English ah genre. It's usually a mono phonic dance song, although the word dance here is a little misleading. It's not like like we didn't expect people to dance all the time to it, but it was used for formal occasions, so the usually has alternating solo and choral sections that we saw this in the previous class. We're looking at medieval music. We had some stuff that was alternating between a solo and ensemble. The Carol, the English Carol, I should say, is usually a setting of a poem in English or Latin or a combination of the two. So having music set in English was something that was quite new at the time as well, and obviously would market as a trait of English composers. Carols are usually about based on a religious theme, not always really just text, but often, UM, but a religious theme, Um, very often Christmas and the Virgin Mary. We still used the settings of Carol's Today and compose modern composers. Still, right carols. If you are a choir composer, if you are someone who writes a lot of music for choir, it's very common for you to write. Ah, Carol every year. That means you might accept a commission to write a Christmas Carol, right? You We all know what Christmas carols are. Probably so with that being said, let's take a little pause and let's listen to something. Let's listen to a carol Ah, setting of a hallelujah Carol 14. The music of John Dunstable: John Dunstable was an English composer, one of the highest regarded English composers at the time. We're talking early Renaissance at this point. Ah, we don't know a lot about him. We don't know where he was trained or things like that. We do know, um, that a lot of his music came to us or it came to Europe through France, and at the time he had a number of royal positions. Most notably, he was in the court of John Duke of Bedford, later the Queen of England and later still Duke of Glow Chester. He wrote a lot of music and a lot of different styles, so he was kind of taking advantage of all the different kinds of music of the day and has a lot of music experimenting with all of them on this piece. This is a a carol, um, a setting of Alleluia. So it's in Latin and you're going to hear three voices kind of meandering between lines. Also, some hama phonic texture where everything is moving together, some polyphonic texture where the voices air moving independently. You're gonna hear a lot of different stuff in this short piece. So let's take a listen way , - way , No way, - way , - way , no way, - way 15. The polyphonic mass: another invention, O. R, I should say technique credited at first to English composers that later proliferated throughout Europe is the polyphonic Mass. And here's what that means. Typically, Ah, the mass ordinary is what we call the different parts of the Mass. And typically there were five parts in the Curie, a Gloria credo sank to use and the Agnew's date. Those were the five parts of the mess. Now, when composers wrote a Mass, they were typically writing five individual pieces. That's up until the early 14 hundreds. And once we get into the later 14 hundreds, composer started to experiment with this idea of having them individual pieces and combining them together in different ways. At first they did it with pared movements so they might put like the Gloria and the credo together because those made sense to be put together, or the scientists and the Agnus dei. Now, when I say together, I'm not saying back to back because there's a certain order that these have to go in. But I'm saying, connected through some musical ideas, right? Those musical ideas might be putting them in the same key, having them based on similar material having them just in general sound similar, like two sides of the same coin kind of a thing. So using common melodies, using common harmonic ideas, just connecting them together as multiple parts of the same thing as composers experimented more and more with combining these different things through these paired movements. Eventually they got to this idea of combining all five parts. Um and this is what we call the polyphonic Mass cycle. Or we just call it nowadays the mass. And the idea here is that just like what I was saying with paired movements, the movements of the mass would all work together. They wouldn't be five individual pieces, but they would make sense thematically throughout the entire mess. So you might have a singular melody shared Ah, in many movements, maybe all of the movements, similar harmonic ideas may be the key, the mode, that whatever you wanted it to be as we developed us even further, we get to something called the Contras. Firmest mass. Now, what was happening here was we would take something called the Contras firmness, and I think we talked about the Contras firms in the previous class. The Contras firmas is kind of a set melodic idea. It's just a melody. Okay, let's just think of it as just a melody. And the idea is that melody would be used throughout the mass. In all the movements, we would be putting it everything around this melody. And in fact, the melody was almost always in the early days in the tenor, and we would call this not only a countess for Miss Mass, but another term, for it was a tenner Mass because that country's firmness was very often in the tenor voice , and by the end of the 15th century, this became the principal type of mass. Now the Contras firmest Mass or the tenor Mass had a problem with it. That's that. It was typically written for three voices. This led to a problem because, as we already talked about, one of the things that we really liked in, um, or that composer started really gravitating towards was tohave the lowest voice in a group like this have some kind of harmonic grounding, which is just a fancy way to say Ah, bass player in the band, right? They wanted a bass player in the band they wanted someone who would lay that low end down to give the harmonies are really good structured field and with the three voice mass, they couldn't really do that because all three voices were working in a similar range. So as things develop a little bit more, we get the fourth voice added below the tenor. That gives us our bass player in the band, so to speak. Now, interestingly, we also get at this point the names that we currently use for our choir members. So when we added that low end at first we call that a contra tent er, a contra tenor Basu's, which is another which, in other words, translates basically to a low countertenor. So that was later shortened to just Basu's, which, um is the source for our current term base. The sound above the tenor we called a contra tender altos, which is a way of saying a high Contra tenor so something above the tenor. So we later shorter shortened that to al twos and eventually alto, which is what we call the voice above the tenor now the alto. The highest part was referred to as either the desk and or which is which we still use in some context, or the superiors meaning the highest so that as a Latin term eyes where we get our words. Soprano Um and that is the terms that we still use to this day. For the four parts of acquire the highest of soprano. The next one down is alto. The next one down is the tenor and then one underneath that the lowest is the base. So let's look at an example of a country's firmness mass a tender mass, Um, by looking at a piece by do Fay. 16. The music of Guillaume Dufay: Gil de Fe lived until 14 74. He he was a very highly regarded composer. Um he held positions in Italy and France and other places as well. He worked in a lot of different styles, just like the other composers we've talked about. And his music was sung all over Europe. He was actually born in Belgium, Um, probably near Brussels. He trained in music at in northeast France, where he was a choir boy, and after that started taking up positions with many, many different courts. He was on Ah, he was in service to many different ah nobility throughout his career, the list is quite long, he wrote. At least six Masses that we know about. There might be more, but we have documentation for at least six of them. And even though he was Belgium and we're talking about English composers, remember that the reason we're talking about him in this context was we're actually talking about the the Mass and the country's firmest mass, which is an English invention that was brought over and influenced many other composers French Belgium alike. So he was influenced by the idea of the Polyphonic Mass and adapted it as something that he ended up taking up writing quite a few pieces off. So this is one section of one of his polyphonic masses. This is the Gloria, so let's listen. Way, way, way, way, - way , way, way, - Yeah , way, way, - way . 17. The early 16th century style: next. Let's talk about the second half of the 15th and early 16th century and the composers that were emerging in that period and some of the stylistic concerns that they had. So we're really talking here about what we call the Franco Flemish composers. These are composers who came from northern France, Flanders and the Netherlands. They served in courts in France, but also in the kind of southern countries of Italy, Spain, Germany, Bohemia and Australia. Now these composers had, ah, the advantage of learning this kind of new style that was brought to them by the English composers that we just talked about and also holding on to some of the characteristics of medieval music that, ah, they might have learned in their training. So they had kind of ah ah, hodgepodge of those two things put together and that brought about some new kinds of music , some new structures and some building off of some other stuff, primarily the things that the English had brought over to them specifically. Ah, they started writing for wider range is in the voice. So the choir's they'd have higher high notes and lower low notes, um, treating the voices equally was something that they latched onto and did even more of increased use of imitation. So imitation counterpoint, the way a melody might play off of another melody. Things like that and they especially last latched onto things like Sanson and Masses. Eso we're going talk about both of those two things very soon. So when we think about this period of composers, we think about two, historically, that really kind of stand out. And this is kind of the generation following buffet. Ah, we have AKI Cam and do you know it talking? Kim served in the court of the King of France for actually the majority of his life. He didn't bounce around the way that many others did. Benoy served Charles, the bold Mary of Burgundy, Maximilian of Hapsburg and a few others. He did bounce around, which was more typical at the time. Ah, we When we think about locking him, we think about masses. When we think about Beaune Oy, we think about Shan Song. So we're gonna talk about both of those two things and listen to some music by those composers in just a second. So let's start with talking about chanson that we've talked about this a little bit before in the earlier class. This is really the French word for song. Um, so it really means song. Let's go to a new video and dive a little bit deeper into the Shan Song. 18. Chanson: Okay, So Sanson is, uh really just means French song. So what the's are is our not songs in the way that we now think of songs it's not gonna be , you know, a singer in a guitar player. Usually at least at this period of time. These are for three voices. They're usually in, like a Rondo form or something similar. Ah, and that kind of means verse one chorus verse to chorus 1st 3 chorus Ah, etcetera. The thing that makes these difference in terms of the period that were in the kind of innovation that comes about, uh, in you noise work, which is what we're looking at here is there's a couple characteristics that we see in this music that we hadn't seen in previous eras. One would be the longer melodies, uh, in kind of a single breath. So it's It kind of relates to what I said earlier about giving singers. Ah, the extended range. This particular piece doesn't really have an extended range to it, but it's asking mawr of singers in that same way that an extended range does. So we're asking them to doom or like in one breath, you know, things that require a little more technical skill. So, for example, if you look if you look at just the soprano one line okay, we have a melody here and there's arrest. So if you are singing this, you could take a breath right here, okay? And then you would sing starting here, you would go down, down, down. You really don't get another breath until here. Okay? That's a long time to sing without taking a breath. That's a lot of work. So most singers would kind of sneak in a breath right here or something like that. They might sneak it in and do what they have to do to not pass out. But we're writing longer melodies, things that require more technical skill. Another thing like I noted before, equality between voices, This is not soprano one with accompanying by soprano to and the tenor line, right. The tender line you can see right here has an imitative melody. And that's 1/3 thing that we look for in these Ah, that's characteristic of this period is imitation, Meaning we see here quarter note, quarter note. Even if you can't read music. Uh, and you don't know what any of this means. Just look at the shape of things here. This is 1/4 note. Quarter note, eighth note, quarter note. And here we have quarter no quarter note. Eighth note to eighth notes and 1/4 note. This line happens, and then this line imitates it right. Basically one bar later. Okay, so we have more of that here. This kind of a thing, and this is related to it. We have more of that happening here. This bars related to this bar. So there's this kind of imitation going back and forth. But also these other two lines are not just complimentary. They are their own thing. Secondary lines are not exactly secondary, right? They have the main melody here or in the First Sopranos is maybe more complimentary. It's less busy than this. So just by looking at this first page and without even like analyzing it, you can kind of see that each voice has its own thing. Ah, and it's not treated as the soprano is the main thing, and the other two things air secondary to it. Each voice is kind of equally the soloist in this kind of style. Now remember. The reason I'm pointing this out is because this is rather new concept at this period. So now that we've talked about this music a little bit, let's hear it. Let's go to a new video and let's hear this piece. 19. The music of Antoine Busnois: Okay. Been Oy was First of all, I'm probably not saying his name. Right. Um, my French pronunciation is just terrible, but ah, he was probably one of the best known composers in his day. Ah, Seen as kind of a predecessor to do Fay and also in the same kind of lineage as, ah King him which will talk more about in the next couple videos. He he wrote a lot of music in different styles. And, you know, at this time one of the things we look for is masses and chanson was was both of those were very popular and just looking at his works list. I'm just here on Wikipedia because he wrote some masses. Ah, he wrote some masses that are this is, you know, maybe attributed to him motet. It's who are other stuff on then secular music. This is largely where the Shan sons live and you can see he's got tons of them. You know, they go on for a long ways So lots of songs in this style. So I want to look at this one is your nape you Viva ah, I cannot live. This is the one We were just looking at eso Let's hear it Way, way, you know, way, way, - way 20. Masses: okay, This move onto talking about masses. So I am wrote 13 Masses and the main characteristics that are different from masses that we've seen before are a wider range. So let's talk about that one for a minute. So we're really giving the singer's ah ah, lot more space to go, and we're asking them to doom or virtuosic things here. And I think this is kind of indicative of what we see in and here in music of this period and going forward like we're starting to expect a certain amount of virtuosity in the performer's, which means we expect a certain amount of training, um, and a certain amount of careered performer, meaning someone who's does this their entire life. Which is kind of what we expect today. You know, if I write a piece of music, I'm expecting a very good performer to play it on, and we're starting Teoh. See that a bit at this period to we'll talk more about that later. But works in these masses were expecting the performers to be able to single lower than we've ever expected before and higher than we've ever expected before. But the primary extension is on the low end, actually, especially in the bases and tenors. So we are going to see in this piece that we're gonna look at. We're going to see more of what we just looked at, which is the voice is being treated equally. However, remember what we just learned in the previous section that we are working with the tenor mass here and there is ah, Conte's firm ISS happening. So let's talk about that quickly. So what a contrast firms is, is It's kind of like a main melody. Uh, that goes throughout the piece and everything is built around it. Think of it kind of like the main structure of a building. You know, you put up the, you know, iron poles and things. I don't know my building terms very well, but you put up the main kind of things, and then you build all the house around it are all the building around it. Ah, the country's from this kind of works like that. But ah, we're going to see the composer's play with it a little bit. Now we're going to get a little softer about are rules about how strict we need to be with that country's firmness. We'll see in the stacks piece. We'll see hockey him, let himself play with it a little bit. The Contras firms will be in the tenor, which is why we call it a tender Mass. Like we talked about earlier, However, you'll see kind of the Contras firmas. That'll probably be hard, if not impossible, for us to spot it because we don't know that melody, um, that at the time people would have been more familiar with these different melodies that would be used for the country's firmest. But it is there, however. Ah, he starts playing around with it a little bit. He changes some rhythms, he adds. Some notes. Um, he does a little paraphrasing of it, so kind of adjusting things here and there. It's a little more playful with it. Then we've seen in other composers up till now. Another thing that's happening in this music that's not going to be so apparent from listening to it is that there's really what we would call compositional virtuosity happening, meaning some really wild tricks there he's doing with the writing process. For example, this piece that were about to see parts of it were written with one staff, and then, through a combination of symbols, all four parts would be you would be able to figure out what all four parts are. So that means that you kind of have to think like five steps ahead of everything and really kind of figure out. There's a lot to figure out there. It's kind of a jigsaw puzzle when you're writing a piece like that, and it's very, very difficult to do. Um, so I guess we would file that under kind of clever tricks. Most of the peace would have been in this particular piece was written with two staves, uh, and then different clefts to tell the different singers what notes to sing. So a very tricky kind of contraption. Als Ah, very tricky kind of device used to notated and something that left a little bit up to the performers, which will see more of when we get into the Baroque era. So I guess maybe the thing to take away from that is we're starting to see composers really kind of, uh, flex a muscle and see what they can do. You know, they're really kind of unbound by some of the traditions. Okay, So, um, with that in mind, let's take a listen to, Ah, some mocking him We're gonna look at Ah, the curie A from one of his masses. Let's go to a new video and we'll talk about it just for a second and then listen to it. 21. The music of Johannes Ockeghem: Okay. What we're gonna listen to is the curie a from Misa Pro Latona, um, by attacking him now, one thing I want to point out before we hear it is this particular video that I'm going to show you has the notation on it, and it'll kind of scroll by so you can look at the notation while you hear it. Um, which is kind of fun to do. But keep in mind, this is really a transcription. Okay, So the music was originally written in the node style that we talked about in the first class, right? So we're still kind of working primarily with nodes. Although we have five staves now. So let me rephrase that the way this music was originally written, it had five staves and different kinds of symbols that we put on the staves. It didn't look like the way music notation looks now, which is what we're seeing here on the screen. This music, however, has been rewritten so that it's using the modern notation symbols, right? So that modern singers could sing it without having to learn all these crazy old symbols. And also remember, I said this was originally written with two staves. Ah, and there was some clever ah symbols used to show the other players what they should sing. So this is now written out in four states because it's a modern interpretation of it. Okay, Um, no. One thing you'll notice is that if you know how to read music, it doesn't matter if you do or not. But let me just point a couple things out here. If you don't we see things that don't quite line up into 44 bars. So this is 12345 says. Maybe in six, um, is it consistently in six? Let's see, Let's go to another for five 678 Now it's an eight. It doesn't really line up in the same way that music traditionally lines up. So what's really happening here is this. Music on the screen has been written using our modern symbols. But in order to stay true to the original, they had to do some weird things with the timing, so the timing doesn't look very modern. The timing is very kind of strange. If you know how to read music, you'll notice that there's some bar lines here that don't fall where they should. But it's written this way. Toe help it sound more true to that original notation style. OK, so it looks a little weird in our modern notation because in its original notation, it was also kind of weird, actually. Um, so just keep that in mind. Okay? Let's listen way you weigh way you oh way . Oh! 22. The reformation's effect on music: OK, moving on to our next kind of big period in history, we're gonna be talking about the Reformation. So without going into a huge dissertation on what the Reformation was, let's talk a little bit about the main principle behind the Reformation. So the beginning of the 16th century, nearly all religious people in Europe followed either, uh, the Church of Rome, which is what we would now call Catholic or Roman Catholic or were Jewish, but the dominant force in Europe Waas. The Roman Catholic Church. It was centered in Rome. It was backed by political leaders. It was the big dog of all big dogs when it comes to what people worshipped at the time. Then in 15 17 Martin Luther comes along and Martin Luther publishes a document called The 95 cc's, in which he outlines problems with the church, things that need to change. And this ultimately creates a division in the church that we call now the Reformation, or we sometimes call it the Protestant Reformation. Now what this did was split the church into largely into four different factions. There was still the Catholic Church, which still for this time is that still the big one, where most people what most people worship is the Roman Catholic Church. However, Protestant isn't comes along, and we get Lutheranism as a first branch of what was created through the Reformation. So Lutheranism, which is primarily centered around northern Germany and Scandinavia. Another division is Calvinism, led by Calvin the guy, Um, and that starts often Switzerland, Southern countries, moves up to France and into a little bit of Britain. On the third is actually the fourth because the 1st 1 is through the Catholic Church is the Church of England, which originates from King Henry, the eighth, which obviously is centered around England. So we have these four different factions now, but it's the three new ones that are really kind of driving the Reformation. So why do we care about this in music? There's good reason. Um, there's a couple things that were central to the idea of thes three new religions that have very direct musical implications. Primarily, they wanted to involve people in worship more directly, so that means we we start to see congregational singing things where the whole congregation is expected to sing along. Um, that didn't really happen before and any of the Roman Catholic stuff. But we see it in these things, which does affect how people are writing music. We also see service is presented in the common language. So if it's in France, they're going to do a service in French. Not in Latin, where the Roman Catholic Church is still primarily doing all services and especially music , and let so remember, we're talking about sacred music now, not secular music. So secular music is the music of the people. The non religious music that has been being done in the common language for a while, but still in the church were only getting Latin in services and in the music. But these new religions wanted Teoh again involved the people more directly. So they wanted the common vernacular, the language of the people, to be the source of what they were singing. So that affects me quite a bit, right, because most religious music, almost all religious music up till this point was written in Latin. Um, if it was to be sung, which most of it was, it was in Latin, and now we're gonna have music emerging in all the different languages where all of these, um religions are centered and where they're traveling to. So we start to get things like the Corral. We start to see more Psalms. We also saw some changes in the Catholic Church during the Reformation. It wasn't unscathed. It responded to the Reformation in some ways. So music, primarily still centered around Latin and still centered around Gregorian chant did undertake some changes as well. And we're gonna talk about those in this section two, and even Jewish music took on some outside influences as well. It primarily remained intact to its origins, but it did. It was affected by some of the things happening in the outside world, especially musically. Okay, so let's hone in a little bit more on each one of the different factions and kind of look at what they were doing uniquely, um, in the musical world. So let's start with the Lutheran Church and look at what kind of music practices developed there. 23. Music in the Lutheran church: so one of the things that Luther really wanted, as I've said before, is to give the people a larger role in the church, and we see that primarily through this kind of communal singing that happens a lot. So a couple of key points about it he does, or the church I'm going to say in the terms of the church. The Lutheran Church does retain some Latin, although most of it is done in the common language of the region. The people's language, which for the early days of Lutheranism was German. So we get a lot of German language music, but they do retain some Latin. There is some Latin that they keep using. I think the philosophy was that Luther wanted, especially kids, to learn Latin because it was good for educating, and that's what ah, sophisticated people were able to understand Latin. It also uses a fair amount of Catholic music. This wasn't a case where he kind of threw away all of the medieval music that we've known and all the way back to antiquity. Ah, he did hold on to some. So there is some Catholic music used in early Lutheran services and it's important to note that Martin Luther himself was Ah, singer. Hey played the lute and the flute and he was a composer and a lot of this early music in that church he wrote himself. In fact, when the church started, he worked tirelessly and wrote corrals, which we'll talk about in a second that were able to be used for every week in the calendar . So every service would have AH corral associated with it. And he just banged it out as fast as he could, and he wrote most of them. So in the Lutheran Church, the most important musical element was the corral, as I just mentioned, and we still use corrals today. Today, when we think of a corral, we think of a four part setting, kind of like what we've already been talking about with four voices. But that's not what they originally were at this time. Uh, when this word corral first creeped up, especially as connected to Lutheranism. It was a single line using a simple poem, a simple melody, um, and a relatively simple rhythm, and it was all sung in unison. No harmonization and no accompaniment. It was a melody that the whole congregation would sing along with. So corrals kind of came about with. There's kind of four different types of corrals, or four different places that corrals were created from, Ah, the first is they used adaptations of Gregorian chant, so some Catholic music that they might have already been familiar with and adopted it for use in the Lutheran church. Another possible source is existing German devotional songs. So some songs already in German that were religious in nature more or less they were able to adopt those and use them in the fort as church music. 1/3 thing is secular songs that they put new words on. Um, it's not uncommon to have found an old German drinking song and then put new words on it and make it a religious sung ah, suitable for use in church. And they did a lot of that. And in the fourth area, the fourth place that we get all of these, Corrales is just from a new compositions, people writing new stuff for the Lutheran church. So let's take a look at one. This is one written by Martin Luther, and you'll hear it in its original setting. So this is a corral where you'll hear everyone singing in unison. No accompaniment. This is how it was intended to be done with the congregation singing along and let me just translate this for you. So the lyrics that you're going to hear are now come people's savior, known as Child of the Virgin at which all the world marvels that God, such a birth for him ordains. Okay. Uh, what's here? Yeah, yeah. 24. Music in the Calvinist Church: okay on to the Calvinist church. Now the Calvinists believed in a much more stripped down approach to the way they worshipped. And this included getting rid of things like elaborate decorations, painting stained glass windows, colorful ceremonies, incense organs, musical instruments And, as you can guest it, Ah, complex harmony and prolific me and things like that. Again, we're left with a corral like thing, although they have a different word for it. Um, which is a some No. What the Calvinists really honed in on was singing the Psalms, like from the Bible, the Psalms. But the psalms have a problem. If you're just going to sing the Psalms as is, they have different lengths. Some of them don't ah, rhyme or fit into a meter. So they had to make some adjustments to make this work. And what they came up with was this thing called metrical psalms. What a metrical psalm is is it's a translation of the Psalms that kind of force it into a metric rhymed Ah, meter in the vernacular language. So again, in the language of the people that are worshiping, which primarily at this period that we're talking about, this would be in French, so we're gonna translate these into French and we're going to translate them. And just such a way that they work out well for ah to be sung. So we're gonna kind of force them into a meter. And then the Calvinists would put these together in books. They put him together in books that they called Salters, and they'd really kind of take advantage of the printing press at the time, which the printing press has played a pretty key role in all of the Reformation. But the Psalter, the main Salter that was published, had 100 50 Psalms in it. Um, and they were designed to be sung unaccompanied and in unison. So no bells and whistles and this idea of metrical psalms really kind of spread all over Europe. And even Lutherans and Catholics kind of picked up on it a little bit, and they started using Salter's as well and some of the salters that were published by the Calvinist Church. So they became very popular due to ah, the way they put them together in this book and really started mass producing them to get them all over the country. But They sound very similar to what we just heard in the corrals. They were designed to be simple melodies sung in unison without accompaniment. The primary difference here is that they didn't use other outside elements. They only used the psalms. 25. Music in the Church of England: Okay, let's hop over to England and talk about what's happening there in the church. No, the Church of England was at first a kind of a Catholic church, and then after the King died, it became kind of a Protestant church. It's a little more wrapped up in politics than it is in religion, but I don't want to get too deep into that. Largely what we have, though, because of those things, is a church that, musically, still has kind of one foot in Catholicism's. So we have masses. We have contacts for miss structures that we've talked about already. But we have them in English, so that's a big difference from the Catholic Church. It's not gonna be in Latin or not even Italian. It's going to be in English. And the two kind of main types of music that emerged from this are the service and the anthem thes air. Both things we associate with, uh, English music and English sacred music. Specifically, the service was the music for the ceremony, in particular, a mass or vespers or something of that nature. It was Contra pontell. There was some Mel is Matic work and let me define that. I don't think we've talked about that. But, um, Ella's melisma is like when you sing one word over a whole bunch of notes like, If the word was love might say Le of instead of just singing one note on the word love, so that would be a melisma of doing all those notes. So in the service we have, Mel is Matic type of music meeting, using a lot of melisma as so much more kind of ornate. Let's just say in the anthem we have polyphonic music. So multiple voices happening at once. It's gonna be in English, eh? So it's gonna be done by a choir, not a congregation, like we've seen in the other two, primarily an unaccompanied choir contra frontal style and in some types of anthems, specifically something called a verse anthem. We have, uh, solo voices emerging so we might have a choir with solo coming out. We might have organ accompaniment. We might have string accompaniment. Ah, and we might have whole passages doubled by instruments and the choir. So one of our best known composers of this types of music was Thomas Tallis. Ah, he was He worked for Ah, the Chapel Royal for over 40 years under a whole bunch of different rulers somehow weathered that storm, and reports say that he primarily was Catholic his whole life. But because of the the way the Church of England changed over the years, he kind of adapted his music to fit. So he wrote Masses in Latin and hymns. But he also wrote English service music, Sacred Works, Um, whatever was needed for the Church of England at the time. So I want to look at one of his anthems. This is if you love me, and in this you're going to hear a setting of words in English done in this anthem style. So the anthem is going to be much more simple in the way it treats the words. But musically, it's still four part. It's still elaborate, but the thing to latch onto here is that the words are clear, comprehensible. There's not a lot of those melisma is that we just talked about, Um, it's intended to be relatively easy to understand the words, even when people ah, the different voices branch often saying kind of different things, and there's simple, if any, and a lot good stuff still supposed to be relatively easy to understand, the words very intelligible, and the words are also designed to be set in kind of a natural speech pattern. So the way you would normally speak these words is how they've been set, supposedly in those rhythms that you would speak. So let's listen to If YOU love Me by Thomas Tallis to 26. The effects of the reformation on catholic music: So while all of this is happening around Europe and other parts of the world, even the Catholic Church says, Hey, we got to figure this out because people are leaving. People are going to these other kinds of churches. This Protestantism thing. We got to figure out what we're doing wrong to try to keep some people here. So they put together this thing called the Council of Trent. So the Council of Trent lasted for about 20 years. You think it's like a weekend get away for these folks? But it was long. Ah, and the whole point was to figure out what they were going to do about the Reformation. And in that they did discuss and put out some words about music. Um, not a lot. They didn't do a lot specific to music, but they did do some, Um, there was quite a lot of discussion about Well, I mean, let's rewind it just a little bit. Let's think about what they were going up against, right? They were going up against these these Protestant religions that were really trying to appeal to the every person, right? They were speaking in their own language. They were simplifying music. They were simplifying everything about the religious experience. So they talked a lot about polygamy. You know, polyphony is the thing that makes music complicated, right? And there were some people that said We need to get rid of politically. We need simple melodies just sung by the congregation even. And there were other people who said no. Polyphony is what makes our music amazing. You know, that's that's the hallmark of Catholic music. And it's been that way for hundreds of years, like we can't just throw that out. So they didn't really come do it. Consensus on that. Except they wrote this one very ambiguous sentence, um, about polygamy. They put out a statement 15 62 that said quote, let them keep away from the church's compositions, in which there is an intermingling of the lascivious or impure, whether by instrument or by voice. Okay, so that's the sentence that we got. And the way this has been interpreted is that the bishops of the church is were, too, determine what degree of political me that they wanted. They had some authority to make some decisions on behalf of their congregation, but to add a little bit more clarity on it. Some historians believe that, really, the intention here was to say polyphony would be allowed if the words remained comprehensible to all so the we could have polyphony. But we need to make sure the words are understandable. Now there's another kind of thing that happened at the same time on this is a bit of a rumor. But the leading Italian composer of church music at the time, Ah, was Palestrina. And supposedly, Palestrina, while they were having this conversation, came out with a work, a mass called the Pope Marcellus, Mass. And it was lush with polyphony, politically all over the place, and the Catholic Church leaders decided while they were debating whether or not to keep polyphony in, they thought this work was so powerful and so beautiful they could not in good conscience, ah, deny prolific me in modern music. So let's talk a little bit about this piece and about Palestrina in general. Palestrina had his own style. Ah, he was regarded as the Prince of music. His music was considered to be absolute perfection of the church style. Who's the epitome of it? He wrote 104 Masses. That is a lot of masses. Um, his melodies use a very simple, almost plain chance style, influenced largely, probably by Gregorian chant by other masses, um, that were popular before him. His melodies used long breaths like we've talked about before. Rhythmic variation. Easily singable lines, um, elegant curves. I feel like I'm describing something not musical, but that is Ah, the way people talked about this music. It was simple, elegant, but also at the same time, complex and dense. So he is really seen as the hallmark of church style and and was writing music at the time of the Council of Trent that made the council say we need to keep polyphony because of this . Music is amazing. So let's hear Ah, little part of this piece. This is the piece in question. Um, put Marcellus Mass. This is the Gloria, and it's by Palestrina way. - Oh , - way , way, - way . Oh! - Oh , - no way, way 27. What about jewish music?: I want to include a quick little post lewd here on this section and talk quickly about, Ah, the Jewish music happening in the world. There wasn't a lot. There was a small Jewish community in Europe at this time, and we don't know a ton about the music that was happening there because it was primarily an aural tradition. There's not a lot written down at the time, but we do know that Ah, lot of music in services was performed. Ah, as a response. So there was a leader. Ah, and then the congregation would respond back. They used a notation system called Tay I'm name which had a series of accents too over text That kind of gave the rough idea of the melodic patterns. So this was not notated music, but text with a series of accents and singers were kind of expected to be able to improvise on this, uh, and creates melodies based on the accented style and what they knew. Through the oral tradition that was handed down during this period of the 16th century, they began to, um, Jewish communities began to use a cantor. So someone whose job it was to lead the singing of a service. This was known as a hasan and was essentially the professional musician of the congregation , although it didn't require any formal music training. And you can start to hear a this point but doesn't really become clear until maybe a century or so later that some of the traditional Jewish Jewish music is absorbing slowly other elements, particularly from Gregorian chant and even some Arabian music. So it's really kind of fascinating. How early Christian chant borrowed from Jewish music and then Lutheran music barred from Gregorian chant and German songs and then European Jewish music blended the styles of the melodies. Ah, from society back into their tradition in some ways, so it kind of becomes full circle and many, many ways. 28. The amateur musician: So near the end of the Reformation, we start to see songs emerge, and each country has kind of their different way of doing it. And they're different styles. They have different names. They have a lot of things different, but they also have a lot of things the same. No, I think this idea of the song and I'm really talking about the secular song here, so this is kind of happening at the same time as the Reformation. But that is really focused on sacred music, right church music or music in the church. But the secular song is kind of living its own life a the same time. So a couple of things that really bring about the rise of the song is first. What we've talked about already that was happening early in this period in the 15th century , which is This international style starts to emerge, so composers air starting to get a feel for music and other areas because it's because travel is getting more efficient. There is some sheet music that's getting, um, that's making its way into the hands of composers from other places, and they're starting to learn what other people are doing so. This international style kind of emerges initially because of the development of music notation, but then later because of printed music. And that's kind of the second thing that really pushes this forward. Music Waas Really a service that was provided by musicians up till this point in the idea of having printed music that anyone could get their hands on was totally, totally new at this point. This was the first time that you could go and just buy some sheet music. Now, sheet music, as we've talked about first, was really only available to the church musicians and then ah, really nobility and very wealthy people. But it became more and more available to the general public. And this is the time when we start to see the kind of idea of a a literate socialite person being expected to be able to read music. So you might, Ah, if you were a A socialites in this area or in this era, you might go to a party where, um, there would be a piano and there would be people singing from sheet music, and it would be expected that you or someone in your family would be able to join in. And I think the key to all of this is the term amateur. The amateur musician really starts to exist for the first time because you can get the sheet music you can learn how to play. It's expected that certain people know how to play, and ah, composers are now making money from the amateur musicians. This is a new thing, so that means composers air, seeing that if they can sell music, too, the amateur meaning a lot of people right. There are a lot of people that are amateur musicians so they can sell a lot of copies, so that makes them want to write music that caters more to the amateur. Ah, not all of their music, perhaps, but some of their music. And that's where I think we really start to get this idea of this song. So this is a simple piece of music, usually strove thick, which I'll talk about more in a second that relatively easy to play relatively easy to sing . It's going to be secular, so non religious and really designed for the amateur performer to be able to do so. Nothing really virtuosic involved in it. In most of it, I should say so let's move down the list and let's talk about what's happening with different songs in different parts of the world. Let's start in Spain, so we'll go to a new video and talk about song in Spain. 29. Song In Spain: and there was a number of ah different kinds of songs emerging from Spain. But the most popular was the villain, Sako. Ah, this is the word itself comes from the Spanish word for peasant. And these were songs primarily for ah, the aristocracy. So the more kind of wealthy people Teoh, I believe what was happening was the wealthy people would want to experience some of the the music that the General Ah, peasants we're listening to and this is ah, what was provided to them. But it is very popular. The subject of the words is usually, um, more rustic or popular topics for the day, things that were on the mind of the people. The songs air quite short. Ah, in stroke thickness. Traffic is a word I've mentioned earlier, and I think I mentioned a few times. So let me define stroke thick really quick. What that means is it's a kind of song where you might have one melody but multiple verses . In other words, there's ah, a certain melody and you might sing it the first time with certain words. On the second time you sing that melody, you use different words If you ever looked at like a hymnal. And you've seen that there's some music with, like, four lines of text underneath it, and you're supposed to sing the first line the first time you sing it a second time. You sing the second line the third time you sing the third line. That's trophic music. It just means we have a small amount of music and a lot of works, so we use the words on the same melody at when it repeats. That's trophic music, and that's what we're talking about here. Ah, and ah, lot of music of this period vocal music, songs of this period, our straw vic. But it's also a way to keep a song relatively simple. It keeps it from getting too complicated. You have a melody that repeats many times so you can kind of hear that a lot and latch onto it a little bit more than if the melody is constantly changing. So one of the most popular composers of this types of type of music was one Del and Sina, also a playwright. Ah, well known for writing these Walesa coz. So let's listen to one now what you'll hear if you listen close is basically the same thing twice. Ah, with different words. I believe in Spanish. And then I think there's a little tail at the end. So you here the same thing twice and then an extra two or three bars at the very end of it , just to kind of wrap it up. But that's trophic. Ah, here you go. 30. Song in Italy: really similar to the Walesa Co. But over in Italy was the for Tola. Now the Bartolo was in principle really, really similar thing. It was a simple song. It was Stroh Fick. Ah, it was designed to be sung fairly easily. It has a few subtle differences, though. Ah, well, one big difference. It was sung in Italian. Okay, so that's the obvious difference. There's other differences, though, Uh, in these, the primary melody is almost always in the highest voice. So the upper voice, the soprano voice, almost always has the melody and everything else is accompanying. So this is perhaps where we get the idea of the soprano are the top voice singing the the melody, which is kind of still how most pop songs work in our society. Another thing that's different here is while a lot of them were written for four voices, there were also arrangements done. Ah, for other instruments, including the loot. So we're going to hear here is a version for ah soprano, singer and Lute playing the accompaniment, So the harmony here is quite simple. We're going to hear the singer singing the melody and the loot, playing very kind of basic chords. Nothing really fancy. This is a piece by Marchetto Cara called Mall Moon Muta. Pair efecto way, way, way! Call me way 31. The Madrigal: No, there was something else going on in Italy other than the fact ola there was the magical. So the Madrigal is probably the most important on influential song form that came out of the Renaissance from Italy and perhaps, ah, the entire Renaissance period. The magical the metrical is quite a bit different than the song forms we've talked about so far. There's an emphasis in the magical on the dramatic. It's not designed to be so much simple as it is to really give ah colorful musical interpretation of the text. So in these pieces in magic ALS you here, composers taking text and really trying to musically, um, convey what's happening in the text. So there's a lot of passion. There's drama, expressivity, dramatization. Some people even say that the magical is kind of the predecessor to opera in a way that it almost tells a story in each one Now. Because of this, the idea of the Stroh FIC setting goes out the window a little bit right. So wondrous trophic means we've got same melody, and then we put different words on it that doesn't work. If we're really trying, Teoh convey the really strictest meaning of the words with the music right? You can't have a stro fix setting, if that's what you're trying to do. So most magical use a different style. Similar destro thick but kind of the opposite. And it's called through composed. That means that really kind of nothing repeats. We go from the beginning to the end in a straight line, and each word in a poem is set to music uniquely all the way through, so it's being composed all the way through. Hence, through composed magic. ALS were the early magical were written for four voices. Later, we see five and even six voices, so it wasn't unusual to have a different combination of singers. Even some instrumental parts, um, were added in a swell like the loot. And there are a lot of different kinds of magic. ALS we see it really kind of split into, ah, lot of different sub categories of magic ALS, but all of them really kind of center around Italy. I want to play for you is by C priano. They roar and it is called dolla. Bela Khan trod the Orient, and it is for five voices and roughly the poem is expressing sorrow from a woman that her lover is about to depart. So ah, lot of passion. So let's hear it. Way, way, - way , way, way, - way . 32. Song in France: Okay, let's zip on over to France and talk about what's happening there when it comes to secular song. So what we have developing in France is kind of a new variation of ah, what they have called for a while now Shan's on, which is just really the French word. For some, this new style of song Ah, was light fast, um, faster. I should say it's not like fast, fast, but, um, it's there. It's a little faster than the music used to be. Four voices, um, pleasing to the ear. Simple, simple toe. Listen to let's call it that. Let's call it simple to listen to meaning. You know, it's not difficult music. It's very pleasurable. It's quite simple. The text used was usually, um, simple love songs, you know, nothing really nothing really heavy, although they did. Occasionally you can find one that's a little bit on the heavier side, but most of them were kind of simple love songs like the Italian for Tola, the French Shantz on usually keeps the melody in the highest voice, and the settings are usually strove thick, so I remember what that means. It means that the musical material is going to repeat two, maybe even three times. And the lyrics are going to change slightly. Um or, ah lot the There might be completely different lyrics, but the same music multiple times and, of course, these air settings in French. So let's listen to one. This is flood in day, sir. Me see the composer and the pieces. 10 Kate V very way way. 33. Song in Germany: all right and over to Germany, where the prevailing kind of song type that we we have coming into its own at this point is called the German lead, Um, or leader Ah, in the plural. Now the German lead is still kind of on its way into its own, and it's going to become a very big deal in the centuries to come. But it's not quite yet. German Lee is a popular song type. It still has the melody in the tenor eso. It's still connected to that country's firmest idea, and the main melody hasn't really made its way up to the soprano yet. Or we could even just simplify that and say, Outside of sticking to the tenor. Now what's really interesting here is that at the time, um while a lot of composers were writing German leader, the German people tended to get really sweet on Italian magic ALS. So they were quite popular over shadowing German lead. But like I said, don't worry about the Germans because the German lead is going to be a major player in the centuries coming forward. But at the time, we can kind of consider German lead to still be under development, will say under construction, with the most popular secular song type in Germany at the time. Being largely Italian madrigals, or German Lee, that had adopted some characteristics of Italian magical is because the Italian magic ALS were just really popular, um, in Germany at the time, So that's what was happening in Germany in a nutshell. 34. Song in England: all right. Last but not least on over to England now the English, through the court system, had established its own kind of song like thing called a Consort song. And this was a song usually for voice, accompanied by some strings. And it was very popular at the time, but not nearly as popular as once again. The influence of the Italian magical. So the magical and went through kind of a transformation and became an English magical, uh, in England, obviously. And it was super influenced, obviously by the Italian magical. In fact, um, most things at the time were influenced by Italian culture. It was the hip place to be. So we see it in art. We see it in fashion. We even see an architecture of it. So when we take when we look at the English spin on the Italian magical, we see some similar characteristics. We have stroh fix settings. We have kind of a light air lighter than the Italian magic ALS and the one we're going to hear. It's almost like a dance, like you can imagine people, you know, uh, dancing in a court kind of setting. So we're gonna hear a piece by Thomas Morley called My bony last she smiling And in this piece, you're gonna hear strove accepting So you're gonna hear Ah, same music with different words You're gonna hear ah, lot of repeated sections. So the first thing you'll hear is two parts and then repeated again. So you'll hear the kind of Maine refrain which is my bony last she smiling and then another line And then this very light and dancy follow la la la kind of thing. So everything is mono phonic during the initial phrase. So you'll hear everybody saying in the same rhythm My bony last she smile if and then another line in a similar style And then this Follow LA where everything breaks apart It gets really kind of almost very light, almost funny. And then it kind of comes together and they do that again. My bony last, you smiling and then it breaks apart. So let's take a listen. No, - when she has Oh, when she 35. The instruments of the renaissance : so so far in the Renaissance, we've really been talking about vocal music. So why haven't we spent much attention to instrumental music? Is it because instrumental music wasn't happening? And the Renaissance? No, of course not. It was totally happening, but it was largely improvised, and people weren't writing it down. Had they known we would be studying it hundreds of years later, they should have written it down for us, right? But they didn't, so we don't know a ton about it. However, um, we do know a little bit, as we've already talked about Throughout the Renaissance we get, we get advancements in both notation and the ability to copy and manufacturer music. So some instrumental music does start to get written down near the later parts of the Renaissance. So one of the first things we can look at to really kind of figure out what all was happening at the time is to look at some of the instruments. So there were actually a lot of instruments that people were playing at the time, so let's look at just a few of them. One of the most popular instruments was the sack, but the sack But although it has a funny name, Ah is basically an ancestor to the trombone. If you see someone playing, it kind of looks like a trombone that maybe you got run over by a car a little bit. It's not smaller, but it's just kind of narrower. Um, so if thinner, let's call it thinner. It's like a thin trombone. Um, and I should mention you can still see ensembles playing some of these instruments. I was at a wonderful concert just a couple weeks ago, Um, that had that had, ah, sack, but ensemble and a Cornett ensemble, which is this, uh, kind of this wood instrument that looks kind of like it was made out of some kind of animal horn. Although it wasn't Apparently, um, it has a really kind of pure sound. It has a sound like, um, almost like a flute, which it doesn't look like it all, but it's very, very clean, very pure. Think of it like kind of like a Renaissance flute. In a way, there was something called a crumb horn, which was a double reed instrument, which you could sort of kind of relate to. The modern oboe, which is also a double reed instrument. It just means has two reads generally makes a kind of a buzzy sound. There's a lot of percussion, um, Cymbals, triangles, bells, all kinds of stuff and percussion and notated music. Even when instrumental music was written down, percussion was really hardly ever written down. It was kind of just added on the spot. In almost all cases, we have, of course, the loot. Uh, now the loot was a big player in the Renaissance. Ah, and the loot. You know, we think of the Liudas, the ancestor to the guitar. Um, it's like a guitar. It's like a real big guitar tune, a little bit different, has more strings, has a little bit different shape, but you can kind of see the similarities to a guitar in it. What's interesting is that the loot is kind of is not the origin of the guitar. We can actually go back one more step and find an Arabic instrument called the out uh, which the loot comes from. The out and the guitar comes from the loot. So if you really want to trace the origins of the guitar back to the beginning, we're going all the way back to the out. Another very common instrument at the time was the viola de gamba. The view of the gamble was a lot like what we think of now as the viola, which, if you're not familiar with the viola, it's still an instrument in the modern orchestra. It's like a violin, but a little bit bigger. Ah, and a little bit lower. Viola de Gamba was even bigger than that, and you actually kind of held it in your lap. So you didn't play it the way that Ah violin player normally plays now, which is with the instrument kind of on their shoulder. But you held it in your lap. The modern viola you play on your shoulder the way that the same week that a violent is played, the violin itself does start to make some appearances, although it doesn't really turn into what we expect a violent toe look like until later into the 17th century. The violent at this point is really a three stringed instrument it's used for accompanying . It's not a solo instrument, um, but it does appear as what kind of in the next century or so will become the violin, then for keyboard instruments. They're kind of two keyboard instruments that are being used at the time. There's the clap accord and the harpsichord that the harpsichord we still have, um, and is still used in some settings. The harpsichord is like it's actually like a plucked string, kind of like a guitar like You can kind of think of it as an acoustic guitar kind of sound played with a pick. What? How Ah Harpsichord works is basically like when you press a note, you can imagine the strings air inside the instrument. And every time you press a note, there's a little pick like a guitar pick that strikes the strength in the same way that Ah , guitar pick would. A club record works a little bit differently, so it's a little bit of a softer sound. Um, generally speaking, Collab accords were used as like a solo instrument in a small setting. Ah, and harpsichords. We're more used to accompany singers and other instruments because they were a bit louder, so there were a lot of instruments at the time. We don't know a ton about exactly the music they were playing. Um, But in these next couple videos, we're gonna go over what we do know. Ah, we know a bit about dance music used for secular purposes. We know about some settings and adaptations, and we know a small amount of music that was just written as instrumental music to be taken seriously on its own. That would be the most rare because we don't have many cases of that, and we generally don't think that there was a lot of that happening at the time. But there is some and we'll talk about that in a couple videos. Let's move on and let's talk about dance music. No, not that kind of dance music, different kind of dance music. 36. Dance music: So when the run, it sounds a lot of people. Ah, danced, uh, dancing was nothing new. Um, and dancing doesn't go away. The human body wants to dance. Um, as long as human bodies have existed. The music for dancing back in the Renaissance was largely improvised, as I've already talked about. Um, but that improvisation could have been down a couple of different ways. Um, it could have been completely improvised where the musicians were just making something apposite go along. Or there could have been a rough structure for the music. Usually this would be a baseline. Um, and then the upper instruments would improvise over top of a baseline. And still another way was to use a dance form. Dance forms become quite popular in the Renaissance and even more popular later into the Baroque. We'll talk more about them later, But there's a number of popular dance forms, um, at the time, and you can think of a dance form as like, a style of dance. There would be a style of music that was expected to be played and a style of dancing, right. So you would have a specific dance, and there would be specific music to go with it and that the form would kind of the dance form would dictate meter a tempo, some kind of pattern you might feel like a 12312312 You might feel that you might feel like a 123412341 You might feel the accents there. There's different places. You might put the accent depending on what the dancers were doing right, and all of this kind of dancing with social dance. It was designed for people to relax, to be social with each other and things like that. Some of the ones that were popular at the time would be the pavane, the gal yard, the all ammand. All of those ah will remain popular and become even more popular as dance forms for music later into the Baroque period, which comes next. But one that is probably the most popular during the Renaissance and kind of gets left behind in the Renaissance is something called the base dance. Um, that's B A S S e. We don't see This one is much in the Baroque, so it's more unique to the Renaissance, and it uses five different kinds of steps. Various combinations. The music is relatively free. It doesn't have a lot of strict rules to what's happening in the music, largely improvised and shockingly, I found a video of people doing this dance with some music. So the instruments that we're going to see here performing here yeah, this bagpipe like thing, which I believe is a crumb horn We'll see a viola de Gamba, um, by the woman in the red dress. Ah, you'll see some percussion by the gentleman in the corner, and a lute like instrument looks like kind of a modern interpretation of a lute. It's got some modern conveniences that lutes at the time didn't have, like metal pegs but a lute like instrument as well. So, uh, let's watch and listen. I remember the music largely improvised. Maybe there's a baseline that they were given to play along with, and then the dancing kind of looks to me like, um, maybe a ancestor of square dancing or something like that. But let's see what they dio 37. Settings and adaptations: another place that instrumental music came to us from in this period was vocal music. Ah, instrumentalists would take scores, notated vocal music pieces and just play them on other instruments. And the more this was done, the more kind of special tricks were used in order to make this work well. And that kind of spawned some of the early stages of instrumental music on its own. So when a performer would play a vocal piece, a lot of the time the instruments are planning on didn't have the ability to sustain, you know, things like the wind instruments did. But the keyboard instruments didn't the loot doesn't it can't really sustain in the way that a voice can. So they had to devise a system of embellishments, and this wasn't really that much of a system. They just used a lot of embellishments. That basically means that if it says to hold a note for a long time, they would play it again and again, maybe had a note above it of no below it at a little, maybe trill to it, um, do a couple things to it to make it, um, to make it keep going because of that, and because of the idea of playing notated music, we start to see on just instruments. We start to see the invention of tablature if your guitar player you know what tablature is . But it's a way of writing down music in a way that uses numbers to tell you exactly where to put what finger To make that note. So tablature arrangements were primarily for loot became known as in tabulations, so you would see an in tabulation of a score meeting. It was a vocal piece that had been written for loot to be able to play using a system of tablature. And this wasn't all just in in secular music. We saw this in sacred music as well. Churches started Teoh do things like taking half of the choir of a piece written require have half of it played by, ah Instruments, primarily the Oregon right. So the organise is definitely happening at this period, and church organists will be expected to read a vocal score and be able to improvise on it a little bit to add some character to the vocal setting so you might have a piece that was written for uh, acquire to do a call and response a back and forth kind of thing. And instead of doing that just to vary things Ah, a congregation might say, Okay, we're gonna have the Colum response. Go between the organ and the choir instead of back and forth within the choir, and we start to see organs a company masses in something that later becomes known as the organ mass. So it's just a mass that we already know. But there's choir accompanying the organ and taking ah, an improvisational role on some parts of the peace. This later leads us to the development of a theme and variation idea. So the theme and variation is something we still do. We still have composers writing theme and variation pieces, and it basically means we have a theme just like a melody, and we either improvise on it or we write out an improvisation on it. So we might write a piece of music that uses the theme and then uses it in a different way in a different way, in a different way, and just kind of see how many different ways we can use it. That idea of the theme and variations goes back to this period where we have a simple theme from either ah vocal score or maybe a folk melody or maybe something written for the instrument and maybe even it's just a baseline. But we have that. We have performers playing with it, experimenting with it, developing new works based entirely just on this theme, which we call theme and variation. 38. Instrumental music on its own: now. It was not completely unheard of that composers would just write instrumental music for the sake of listening and enjoying and playing instrumental music. It was rare, but it was was starting to come into its own. And it's something that will really grow much farther into its own as we get into the Baroque. So what I'm talking about here is music that is completely separate from a dance tune, any kind of borrowed melody, ornery or an arrangement of choral music. It's really its own thing, usually still based on improvisation and usually played or incorporating some kind of ah keyboard instrument. Um, there's not a lot of solo stuff for the different horns and flute like things. The harpsichord, the organ. They start to really kind of get their own solo music at this time, and these pieces were often used as a kind of introduction. Everything's for other vocal music. So perhaps before a vocal piece started, the organist might play a little bit, Um, and these introductory things lead into the piece. They were also used for interludes in church services. So in between two things to fill space, you know they may have had an instrumental piece of music. A number of genre has kind of come up around this typical words we use in this area that will see develop into more elaborate works are we start to see use of the word prelude Fantasia Rice car. These are all words that will have a bigger role in the Baroque, but they start to really show up here. Probably the biggest in terms of instrumental keyboard music was the Takata. Takata is something that again comes up is still up. I mean, we still have to Cotto's that people are writing. Takata comes from the Italian to touch. So the idea here was that that the touch was really about the keyboardist touching the keys . So to call it a Takata was to really say, Hey, pay attention to the person, the human playing this piece not just the effects of the music but the technique in the way that this keyboard player is playing the piece. Now, in these pieces, we get a lot of embellishments, still a lot of embellishment. So remember you might hear a sustained tone and you might hear them kind of playing all over on it. the piece that we're about to hear is by the computer by the composer Meruelo. This is Takata. Number four in the sixth mode is what it's called and this is played on organ. So even though in Oregon can sustain for a long time Ah, you still hear a lot of embellishment. So you might hear you know that there's a long note, but then you'll hear them play, I note above and no below a little, doesn't it? Ah, on all kind, all over the place, Little embellishments here and there. And that's really kind of indicative of this style. The performers were not really strictly bound to the sheet music. So even though there is she music for this, they were still expected to play around with it a little bit. Add little embellishments here. There may be repeat something, maybe maybe do something different. Another in another section. So the sheet music was really just kind of a rough guideline for how to play the different sections. So let's listen to this piece. Takata number four in the six mode by Merola. Yeah. - Uh , yeah. - Uh , no. Uh uh. 39. What next? The Baroque!: Okay, everybody, thanks for hanging out. We've made it all the way through the Renaissance. Now the Renaissance is a period of time that encapsulates a couple 100 years. So are just shy of 200 years. I think so. There's a lot to cover their on, and we have covered a lot. There's more. You can get books just on the Renaissance. If you want. You can get books on each of the composer's we've talked about. There's a lot deeper you can go. But I think what we've covered here is a good overview of what's happening in the musical world at the time. Now that's not the end of the story, though. As you know, music pressed on and kept going all the way up until today. Actually, um, music never stops evolving, so there's still more to come in this series of classes. Up next, we're going to get into the Baroque, so the Baroque is when we really start to see some of the first composers that you may already be familiar with. The Baroque is when where we're gonna find Bak, Handel, Vivaldi. Ah, a couple other names. You might be familiar with Taliban Scarlatti. There are. These are names that if you're not familiar with yet you will be familiar by the end of the next class. And frankly, these air some of my favorite. This is some of my favorite music. Um, I know I'm a super modern, everything person, but if I could just sit around and play Bach all day, I would be happy to do that. Um, I just love listening to and playing Bach. I just can't get enough of it anyway, more about that when we get into the Baroque. So I hope you decide to join us in the Baroque class. It's gonna be a lot of fun. I'm really looking forward to it. So stay tuned for that. I've got a couple of their things for you yet in this class, So don't go anywhere, um, or else you'll miss out on the extra goodies that you get for completing this class. So I'll see you in the next section. 40. Thanks for watching!: All right, now, we've reached the end of the class. There is one more bit after this. In that last bit, I'm going to give you some special links, discounts, things like that. Uh, the links will lead you to our Facebook page where you can hang out with other people that have taken my classes, ask questions, shoot ideas off each other. And the discounts will be, uh, coupon codes. I'll get you into some my other classes, uh, for a discount. So with that, I just want to say thanks for being a part of this class. Ah, I love making these classes. I keep making him because people keep taking them eso Thank you for taking them and and being a part of my student community. I hope to see you in another class. I have tons of them. Just search for me on this website and you will find a ton of classes of. But so thanks for being a part of this. Stick around for the next thing where you'll get ah, little downloadable pdf with a bunch of goodies on it. And then after that, I'll see you in the next class. Thanks a bunch. 41. SkillshareFinalLecture: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out some of my courses on this site. I post a lot of stuff there, and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.