Start Thinking in German | Ingo Depner | Skillshare

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      How to Make a Good First Impression


    • 3.

      Even Advanced Speakers Make This Mistake - Part 1


    • 4.

      Even Advanced Speakers Make This Mistake - Part 2


    • 5.

      A Simple Rule for Haben & Sein in the Past Tense


    • 6.

      An Important Difference Between German and English


    • 7.

      Why You Cannot Say 'I am reading' in German


    • 8.

      Surprising! How to Use the Word 'ago' in German


    • 9.

      German Word Order? Nothing Easier than that


    • 10.

      Don't Fall for this Classic False Friend


    • 11.

      What You Need to Know about the Verb 'to want'


    • 12.

      Friend or Boyfriend? One Letter Makes the Difference


    • 13.

      Wrap up


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About This Class

Modern language teaching has long acknowledged that communication is more important than perfection. And yet, we do want to get things right. Many students are nervous about making mistakes and feeling stupid when they speak German. This course is here to help.

"It's one of the best German courses I've taken. The lecturer displayed so many common mistakes that beginner like me would encounter everyday. It's like someone's shedding the light for me not to fall into the trap. Frankly speaking, I enjoyed the course content and the lecture style very much. Thank you Ingo." - Mai Ling Fang

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Ingo Depner

Professional German Teacher

Level: Beginner

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1. Introduction: hello and welcome back. Thinking in German is an important goal that brings you a giant step closer to becoming fluent. However, many German learners ignored this fact, and when they speak, they translate word for word from their native language into German. Now German does share grammar and vocabulary with English, for example, but the problem is that more often than not in German, it's used differently. And that's the focus. Off this section. I'll show you how things work in German so that you can start thinking like a native speaker. Let's start. 2. How to Make a Good First Impression: Hello and we'll come back in this lesson. I'd like to show you how to make a good first impression when you meet people. It happens a lot that when I started lesson with a new student, I ask, Hello, brigades. Hi, how are you? And the answer I get is it's been good. I am good. However, that is wrong. The root of the problem is that how are you in German translates to How is it going to you ? Vegas deer or the short form vig? Aids? Now you cannot answer. How is it going to you with? I am good as you would do in English. But you have to say it is going well to me. Escaped me A good or simply good. All right, let's ever look at a real dialogue. We'll start with informal German. Hello begins. Hello. How are you? Escaped me? A good banker on dia. I'm good things and you escaped me a court. Thank a volunteer. And here it's important to point out that you don't ask onto but on dear, because it's the dated form Housecoat Donkey Also good. Thanks. Ah, hold donkey And the formal dialogue looks like this. Guttentag. Forget this in and good afternoon. How are you, Guttentag? Navigators in and escaped me. A good tank on in. In. I'm good. Thanks. And you escaped me. Good. Thank Won't even. Oh, good donkey. Do not flog it Also. Good. Thanks for asking. Oh, good, don. Kiddin a frog. So what I recommend is actually not trying to understand the exact grammatical rules that are involved here or translating word by word from English to German, but rather learned the German expressions as they are. And then you know that you're seeing it right, and that's it. In the next lesson, I'll be talking about another widespread mistake. See you there. 3. Even Advanced Speakers Make This Mistake - Part 1: in this lesson, I'd like to talk about a mistake that I hear every day, even from advanced speakers. I think it's quite easy to avoid this mistake. You just have to be aware of it and it makes a big difference. But first, let's have a look at the word order. In a typical German sentence, the subject is in the first position. The verb is in second position and then comes the object to refresh your memory. The subject usually performs in action. The verb is the action itself and the object is affected by the action. I decided to use colors to illustrate the difference between the parts of the sentence in order to make it easier for you to understand what I'm talking about. E s a. On another, I eat an apple e s a signing up for do cough. Stand bull. You buy a book. Do cough, stand bull. You can see that the subject yellow is in position number one and the verb red is in position. Number two. That's the important rule. And I repeat the verb is always in the second position. That's what I would like you to keep in mind. Okay, let's have a look at another sentence. This one does not start with the subject, but with an adverb. And do you see what's happening here? The verb and the subject switched places. Why? Because according to the rule, verb has to be in the second position. So the adverb is here in position number one, The verb in position number two. Then comes the subject and then the object. Heitor s a signing up for today I eat an apple. But what we actually say is today eat I an apple with the verb in the second position. The mistake that I'm talking about in this lesson is that many German learners do not switch the subject and the verb when the sentence doesn't start with the subject. And they say Heitor essay on an offer in the usual English word order. But unfortunately that is wrong. Mine. Klein, a brooder ist any pizza? My little brother eats a pizza. I chose his example to show you that the first position in the sentence doesn't necessarily mean the first word in a sentence. Because here the subject is my little brother mine Kleiner Polota. And it has three words. The verb East isn't position number two. And now let's see what happens when I start the sentence with months, my sometimes Manimal Eastman Kleiner Bruder on a pizza. Sometimes my little brother eats a pizza. The verb and the subject switched places so that according to the rule, the verb stays in the second position in the sentence du hast einen or engines after a drunken you drank and orange twos. This is an example using the past tense, and the conjugated verb here is hoste. And if we want to emphasize that you drank the orange juice yesterday, we say guest on Haas to island or luncheons after get honking. Yesterday you drank and orange juice and again hoste and do switch position. Guess done has toe in an orange and 1/2. To get drunk in the same rule is also applied to model verbs such as Kernan, which means can or to be able to do something e con de bag a zine. I can see the mountains. No mala visor can d bag a zine. Usually I can see the mountains here. The change in the word order is triggered because the sentence starts with usually and not with the subject. All right, this was the first part of the lesson, and I'll be right back in the second part. 4. Even Advanced Speakers Make This Mistake - Part 2: hello and welcome back In the first part of the lesson, we've seen simple sentences. Now let's have a closer look at some more complex ones each. Liza and Boom. I read a book or I'm reading a book in German. There is no difference. It marked a shift this high places you can bowl. I like history. Therefore, I'm reading a book. You see that in the subordinate clause, the verb and the subjects, which places so that the verb remains in the second position. Each mark a shift. Deaths hope Liza and Bull Z gauge Patsy in. She's going for a walk. It's rig mint taught steam gates, each patsy in It's raining. Nevertheless, she's going for a walk, and again the same thing happens in the support in it. Claws Eat comes before Z s pregnant taught steam. Kids each but see in do fields to tennis deuce pierced basketball. You play tennis, you play basketball. So yes to peace to tennis. Done piece to basketball. First you play tennis, then you play basketball. So we connected the two sentences with first and then these words take the first position, and that's why the verb has to follow immediately in order to stay in the second position. Now, as you know, the exception proves the rule. And that's why I'd like to show you some exceptions. The words other but wound and and then because are considered position zero. They do not change the word order here. Calmed us. London Arbor Air. Study it in Suri. He comes from London, but he studies in Zurich Z speed guitar went, ears inked in China, banned. She plays the guitar and he sings in a band equal for the UN. Then it's much Timothy expression I'm calling you because I'd like to talk to you. In all three examples, the word order remains first subject, then verb and last but not least, I'd like to mention that there is another exception. Some words such as the US that vile because and adds when in the past ends these were to send the verb to the end of the sentence rather than just switching the position with the subject. But that's a topic for another lesson. So basically, the most important insight that I would like you to take from this lesson is that when you don't start a sentence with the subject, you need to change the word order. If you do this, it shows that you're really taking your German seriously. 5. A Simple Rule for Haben & Sein in the Past Tense: if you are like most German language learners, you've probably come across the following dilemma when it comes to verbs in the past tense . When do I use the verb Harbin toe? Have and when do I use the verb Zain Toby? The textbook answer is that the past tens in German is usually formed by using the verb Harbin and the past participle. He have it. Deutsche Gallant. I learned German it habit, Deutsche Gallant. And if there is a movement involved or a change of state, then you use Zain. It's been a 1,000,000,000 griffon. I went to Berlin. It's been a 1,000,000,000 Geffen. Now this is the official explanation, and it makes sense. But I've seen that many students are still finding it hard to choose the right verb when forming the past tense. So I came up with the following not so official rule, but I think it makes it easier to understand the difference between Harbin and sign. Okay, so this is how it works. If you can sit in a chair while performing the action you're talking about, you use Harbin, and if you cannot sit in a chair while performing the action, you're talking about You Use design. Let's have a look at some examples and we'll start with ha. Been he have it in up for Gessen. I ate the apple each habit and up for guests. Earhart on Glass Road van Get drunken. He drank a glass off red wine. Erhard and Glass Road van Get drunken via Harpenden fame Gesine. We saw the film via Harpenden fame. Gesine. It's possible to do all of this while sitting in a chair, eat an apple, drink wine and see a film. That's why you form the past tense for all these examples with Harbin. And now I'll show you some sentences with design Z is no house a garden? She went home Z Is the house a gunman? Dubious title Margon in Park Gil Often You ran in the park this morning. Do best Horta Margon in Park Hill often Aside from stool after Stanton, You guys got up from the chair? Yes, I'd from stool after standing. You see that all these things cannot be done while sitting in a chair. You cannot go run or even get up from a chair while sitting in a chair. So here you have to use Zain, and that's the simple rule to distinguish between hab in and sign went, forming the past tens in German. 6. An Important Difference Between German and English: in this lesson, I'd like to talk about an important difference between German and English. Many people say that English is a very easy language, and German is so difficult now. I do agree that the gender and case system and German makes the language more difficult in English. But when it comes to verb tenses, I think German is pretty simple. Let's take a look at the verb to go. For example, I went, I have gone. I have been going, I go, I am going. I will go in German. You need only to verb tenses in order to cover all of the's scenarios, he's been gone and and it's get here, present and passed. The future can be expressed by using the present ends and the word that indicates future time. So in German, it's perfectly fine to say. Tomorrow I buy a book, but in this lesson I'd like to focus on the fact that in German there is no verb tense that can imply that something started in the past and is still going on in the present, like the present perfect in English. I have worked at the bank for 25 years now, What this means is that you started to work for the bank 25 years ago and you are still working there. And because of this, he would use the present tense in German e r. Bite a zeit. Finfronts. Fancy he are in by their bank. If you say it, Abigail abided. I have worked as you do in English. I would understand that you're not working there anymore because you use the past tense. All right, here are some more examples. I have learned German for three years. Many German learners say E hobby. If you try our nordsjaelland, it's pretty much a word for word translation have learned how big a land. However, this is wrong because you are still learning German. So you need to use the present ends. Lana Zaid, Try on George and you see that we say zeit dry, Alan since three years and not food royally for three years. As you would say in English, I have lived in Berlin for three weeks. As you might guess, many German students would say e have if you're Dr often in Bellion, give aunt. But now you already know that this is wrong and that you should say Ivana's. I'd live often in Berlin, So short recap in German. The most important verb tenses are present ends and past tense. When something happened in the past, you use past tense When something happens. Now you use present ends. There is no verb tense in between. Okay, up next I'll be talking about another interesting difference between German and English. See you there. 7. Why You Cannot Say 'I am reading' in German: in the last lesson. I was talking about the fact that there are no verb tenses in German. That compared toa I have done or I have been doing. It's either I did or I do now. In this lesson, I'd like to draw your attention to the fact that German also doesn't have a progressive verb. Tens. What does that mean? It means that you cannot express that something is happening right now simply by using a specific verb tent such as the present progressive in English, for example. There is no way of saying I am reading or I am eating in German. You can only say I read or I eat. Let's have a closer look. I am reading the newspaper if you translate this word for word, and that's what many German learners do you get. Ive been lays in the title that looks like an accurate translation, but it's wrong. What you do say, Is he Liza de title? Literally. I read the newspaper in German. There is no difference between I am reading the newspaper and I read the newspaper. Both are equally. They d title another example. It is raining. This is what I hear a lot s East pregnant, a word for word translation. But unfortunately, that's not how we say it. Incorrect German, you say, is of Ignat. All right, that was the present tense. Now let's check out some examples in the past tense because in English there is the past progressive or also called past continuous. He was cooking in the kitchen and the following Translation Evra coffin India Cushy. What do you think? Is this correct? Exactly. It's not. He was cooking in the kitchen translates to They're hot in that Kuchiki called. Why? Because again in German there is no progressive verb tense such as was doing or we're doing when in action happened in the past. You use the past tense and in spoken German. That's usually the tens called perfect that is formed with ha been resign and the past participle. They're hot in that cushy get caught. And here is another example. They were watching TV when he called a word for word translation would look like this ze var in fans in ven angles and hot. But of course this is wrong and you already know that you should use the past tense and German, and the correct translation looks like this z ha been fan magazine. It's angle for not they were watching TV when he called. You might wonder, why is it IEDs and not? Then don't worry. There will be a lesson on this topic later in the course. Okay, so the next question is, get it in German. There is no continues verb tense. But what do Germans do when they want to especially emphasize that something's happening right now? Well, the answer is, there is a work around. We use the verb together with jihadi, a word you could translate as at the moment, and Gerada is usually placed after the verb comes to mix Peter on the Waffen SS. Can you call me later? I'm eating. Or, as we literally saying, German. I eat at the moment, Constable Peter and often es again. Twinkie karate and a tacit coffee. I'm drinking a cup of coffee drinking a lotta fantastic coffee VSP in gallery basketball visto Mitch be in were playing basketball. Do you want to play along? Yes, being gallery basket by visits to Mitch be in All right. So short summaries that expressing the progressiveness of a verb is not possible in German by the sheer use of grammatical structures. I am doing something in English would be translated to the equivalent off. I do something in German and I was doing something in English would be translated to the equivalent of I did something in German. Having said that, there is a way of expressing that the action is taking place now. And that's the word Giladi after the verb. Okay, I think that's it. If you have any questions, please feel free to post them on the discussion board and I'll see you in the next lesson. 8. Surprising! How to Use the Word 'ago' in German: Hello and welcome back in this lesson, I'd like to talk about another interesting concept that exists both in English and in German, but it is applied differently, and that often leads to confusion among German learners. I'm talking about the word ago. The German translation off ago is for now. The difference is that in English ago is placed after the time indication, and in German, four is placed before the time indication. Let's have a look at an example a year ago. If you translate word for word, you get I Enya four. But that is wrong. The correct way off saying it is for anemia. You might have noticed that four requires the date of case because it's not for Kenya but for anemia. In the date of case I'm becomes, I'm them and China becomes China. Here is another example. The last game was a month ago. The word for word translation is that's let's dish Bill var. I am more, not four, but now you already know that this is wrong. You have to put the four before I am more not and apply the date of case. So the correct translation is that's let's dish peal of our four in the morning. Let's check out some more examples, and all of the's are correct. It harbor for Nevada and out or get coughed. I bought a car a week ago. This is an example with a feminine noun in a volatile a week and you see that I never hear became Aina, and by the way, you hardly pronounce the R. At the end of the word, the car, before in a vote on our target, coughed do vast for anemia in London. You were in London a year ago, do vast for anemia in London. V is in Ford's vice, stoned in in hotel angry Common. We arrived at the hotel two hours ago. V isn't forts vice Stoneman Inn Hotel angry. Common. All right, so that was a short explanation about the different usage of ago in German and in English in English. It ghost after the time indication a year ago and in German, it goes before the time indication for item here. In the next lesson, I'll be talking a bit more about the German word order, and I'll also show you an easy rule forgetting the sentence structure. Right? See you there 9. German Word Order? Nothing Easier than that: one off. The things most German learners are struggling with is the German word order. This is because it's different from English and many other languages. Now, if you'd like to form a proper German sentence, you cannot use the English word order and simply translate the words. What you need to do is understand how it works in German and use that different structures . And the key that makes German word order simple is an acronym called Take a Melo. In this lesson, you will learn how to use it. It might look a bit complicated at first, but please watch the lesson until the end, and it will all make sense. All right, let's break the acronym down. You know, every part off the sentence has a specific function. When does it happen? Is called temporal, and the 1st 2 letters are t a T E. Why does it happen? Is called Cows are and the 1st 2 letters are car. How does it happen? Is called more data and the 1st 2 letters are more and where does it happen? Is called local with the 1st 2 letters law. So in German standard sentence structure is subject verb, Take arm or law. Let's take a look at an example in English to better understand what I'm talking about. Today I'm going to Berlin by bus for a wedding. You see that? I packed a lot of information in this example so that you can see all of the part of the sentence in action. But actually most sentences are much simpler than this. Okay? And now we'll identify or that take our more laws. T. When do I go there? Today or in German? Heitor Car. Why do I go there for a wedding? Vegan in a hotel. More How do I go there by bus. Midst them Boss Law, Where am I going? To Berlin now, Bellen! And now the whole sentence in German E father. Hi it Air vegan Idaho Outside Midst him, boss, Not a 1,000,000,000. All right. I said before that not every sentence has all the different parts that I mentioned in my example Here We have a sentence without a temporal and car Caza, the father. I'm a team boss. Bellen, I'm going to Berlin by bus. More is how Metin boss and Law is rare. Not Belene. The next sentence has only a car and law part. It followed some shopping. Not Bellen. I'm going to Berlin to shop. Car is why some shoppin law is where now Bellen. Okay. Here is, in my opinion, one of the most common examples with time and location. E. Farley Morgan, not Bellen. I'm going to Berlin tomorrow. T when Margon Law. Where now? Belene? The next example is the same sentence. But in the past tense. And you see that the past participle has its usual place at the end of the sentence. Ive been guest on now. Bellen, give Fallon. I went to Berlin yesterday. T when guest on law, where? Not 1,000,000,000. Now there is an exception to this rule. If you'd like to make a special emphasis one off the tika Melo's can be placed at the beginning of the sentence. The others stick to their order here. For example, I put the car particle at the beginning of the sentence. Viggen and a hot outside fatherly Heitor, now Belene because of a wedding. I'm going to Berlin today, so I'm really emphasizing why I'm going to Berlin. The other part of the sentence stick to their order and as you remember from one of my previous lectures, the verb is always in position to. That's why you cannot say vegan on the hot side. Each father height enough Belene. But you have to switch the subject and the verb and say vegan on the hot side. Father, A height in Abilene. So that is how German word order works. I know it looks confusing at first, but you will get a feeling for it. The long you learn the language. As I mentioned, the most common sentence structure is a sentence with a time and a location. So if there is only one thing you take from this lesson, then please remember that in German time always comes before location and that's it. I'll see you in the next lesson. 10. Don't Fall for this Classic False Friend: Hello and welcome back. As you probably know, German and English both belong to the same branch off the Indo European language family, which is called the Germanic languages. Here are some off them, while many English words are derived from Latin and French for historic reasons. About 1/3 off the words are off dramatic and in particular German origin, and the percentage of thes words used in everyday conversations is very high now. What does that mean? Well, it means that you already know a lot of German vocabulary without even being aware of it. This is just a very short list off similar or even identical words in English and in German . There are many more, and some people even say the total count is somewhere between 506,000. In the standard language you see, that's a huge advantage when you learn German. However, the similarity also creates a linguistic phenomenon, and you need to be aware of this. It's called Falls Friends. What is a false friend? The false friend is a word in a language that looks or sounds similar to a word in another language, but means something different And in this lesson I'd like to focus on one of the most common false friends between English and German. The word will. Let's have a look at an example Vilena 1,000,000,000 fun. You might think Hey, this is easy. The translation is I will go to Berlin. But that's wrong. The correct translation is I want to go to Berlin. Ville in German does not have the same meaning as will in English. It's a form of the verb volen toe Want. Let's have a closer look at the congregation off this Ferb ville. I want do vist you want as the s Ville He she it wants via Volen. We want e avoid You guys want z z volen they or formal you want. So if you'd like to say that you want to do something, you use the conjugated verb Volen and the respective action in its infinitive form at the end of the sentence. Here are some examples even a 1,000,000,000 fun. I want to go to Berlin. You see the first person form off the verb volen ville and the verb Togo in its infinitive form. That's the form you find in a dictionary at the end of the sentence. It's very not 1,000,000,000 fund Do vist me heaven. You want to help me ville amid common Does he want to come along? Vili amid common. All right, now you know that ville in German doesn't describe in action in the future, but something you want or want to do and how this term informed the future tends well. We use the conjugated auxiliary verb Virdon and the action verb in its infinitive. At the end of the sentence, let's check out some future tense examples with the conjugated forms off Verdian. It's very darts landing. I will learn German do V ist in belly involvement. You will live in Berlin. Evie it by B M v r. Biden. He will work for BMW via Viet and Dominic unseen. We will move to Munich. He evaded an outer coffin. You guys will buy a car. Z yverdon. I never anal fin din. They will find an apartment. Okay, that's what I wanted to tell you about the force friend Ville or will I will also add a pdf file with an interesting list of other false friends so that you can get an even better understanding off this phenomenon. In the next lesson, I'll be talking a little bit more about the verb volen toe want in order to show you another important difference between German and English. See you there. 11. What You Need to Know about the Verb 'to want': so today I'd like to talk a little bit more about the verb volen toe want. In the last lesson, we saw that it's a force friend with the English word will. And we had a closer look at the present hands. Use just a small reminder each vill s in. I want to eat. You see that in this example the verb volen is congregated in the first person ville. And then we have a second verb in the infinitive form at the end off the sentence Essen to eat, he vill s in. That's how it works in the present ends. And here are some more examples. Vote here on and coffee to Lincoln. Do you guys want to drink a coffee? Voy tea and coffee to Lincoln Z Ville Height A medium zones. But seeing gin, she wants to go for a walk with her son today Z ville Heitor mediums on but seeing gin. Okay, And here is an example using the past tense ive alta snippets up fishtailing. I wanted to order a pizza volta and it pits Understand, As we can see in order to express the past tense, I used the so called military Tom for the verb volen Volta I wanted usually in spoken language. We tend to use the present perfect tense when we're talking about something in the past. In German, it's called perfect and you form it with the verb Harbin or resign and the party. It seeps by or in English, past participle. Some quick examples Kalfin toe by it harbor and how to get coughed. I bought a car Essen toe eat du hast on an up circuit guessing you ate an apple gin toe walk V Isn't the house a garden? We went home. This is how you usually form the past tense with modal verbs. However you use the political item and Volen is such a model verb. Let's have a look at the congregation off Volen. In the past tense equality I wanted Duve Otis you wanted is the s voter He she it wanted via voting. We wanted year voted. You guys wanted Z z Vultan they or formal you wanted. So when we slightly modified the examples, we just saw and add the verb toe want in the past tense. This is how it will look like volatile and outer coffin. I wanted to buy a car. As in the present hands, you see the conjugated form off Volen. But this time in the past tense and the infinitive form off the second verb at the end of the sentence do voters ist on an obsolescent. You wanted to eat an apple v a vote in the house again. We wanted to go home. Okay, so that was Volen in the past tense. Another way off. Using the verb toe want in English is the following. I want someone to do something. For example, I want you to read a book now. This also exists in German, but it looks different. If you translate the sentence word for word, you get ive ill Dooley's in ambo but unfortunately that's wrong. You need to use a dust construction, severe gusto and bore. Least I want that you a book read. That's the literal translation. And you see that thus sends the verb to the end of the sentence. Hugh via gusto and bore. Least he wants me to meet his parents Ville, Dusty Sign eight and Canon learning literally. We say he wants that I his parents meet another example. I want you to come to my birthday party, you vill. That's due to my neck keyboards. Tax party comes and again if you translate word for word, so you get a better understanding off the sentence structure. It will look like this. I want that you, to my birthday party, come with the verb at the end, all right, Today you've learned a lot about this important verb, and now you can actively use it when you speak German on a side note, I'd like to mention that if you're addressing somebody and ask for something, it's more polite to say he must rather than he will as an English. It's more polite to say I would like rather than I want, and that's it. Thanks for watching, and I see you in the next lesson. 12. Friend or Boyfriend? One Letter Makes the Difference: I usually say that German is a very logic language. Yes, there are many rules and many exceptions a complex gender and case system, long words and strange sounds. But the language is pretty accurate and does make sense once you understand how it works. Today, however, I'd like to show you an example where German has a bit of a problem with accuracy. I'm talking about distinguishing between a friend and a significant other. Here is a short overview. De Flynt is the male friend defined in the female friend. And now let's look at an example. Sentence gear. McMahon, IMF lined in. Stay outta. I'm going to the theater with my friend. The problem here is that the meaning is ambiguous. It could mean that you're going to the theater with a friend, but it's more likely that people will understand that you're going to the theater with your boyfriend. Why? Because it's become widely accepted to use mine, find as a code for my boyfriend and mining find in for my girlfriend. Although the literal meaning is simply my friend. For example, Matina is to mine if lined in Matina is my girlfriend. All right, let's get back to our ambiguous sample sentence. Gm it mine in Fluent in Stay Outta in the lesson title, I mentioned that one letter can make the difference between a friend and the boyfriend, and it's right here this m and now see what happens. The M is gone mindful and became inflamed. This is one strategy to avoid misunderstandings and ambiguity. The use off the indefinite article. This is very common. You can also say I'm fluent for Mia or any find informed Mia, which means a friend off mine. Matina is enough lined in formula. Matina is a friend of mine, and this makes it clear that she's not your girlfriend. Butter platonic friend. So we thought we found a solution to our problem. But surprise. It's not as simple as that. You cannot always use this strategy because it might conflict with other rules. How to use the articles. Let's have a look at an example in order to understand better what I'm talking about. Ive a guest on Mitt enough lined in I'm shopping. Yesterday I went to shop with a friend of mine. So far, so good. It's clear that she's not my girlfriend. Voter Lord Fishwick often arbor mine if lined in Mark Lord next. I wanted to buy red shoes, but my friend doesn't like red. And here, Houston, we have a problem. Am I talking about the friend who came with me to shop? Or is it my girlfriend that wasn't even there? We don't know. Okay, so we just learned Use a friend of mine instead. Will that work, if I guess done, Mitt enough Lined in bomb shop in yesterday I went to shop with a friend. It's a vital or a short coffin are any flying? And for me A mark wrote neat. I wanted to buy red shoes but a friend of mine doesn't like red. No, this doesn't really work because you will assume that I just introduced another friend that I haven't mentioned before. So we need to stick to my friend. And this is where the story will be ambiguous. You can also use other words than flying or find in If you mean boyfriend or girlfriend partner for a man or part. Nothing for a woman, for example, means partner leaving skiff ETA for a man or Leavins caveat in for a woman is significant other festive lined is a steady boyfriend and festive finding a steady girlfriend. The thing is that they sound very formal and are usually used for long term relationships or when a couple lives together. So that is the problem the driven language faces, and you need to be aware of this in order to avoid misunderstandings. Now, of course, communications rarely occur in a vacuum, and in many cases that context will be helpful for understanding. But I also wanted to give you an insight into how native speakers deal with such situations . Thanks for watching. 13. Wrap up: good job. You just finished the first section off the course and made a big step on your German learning. Turney. Remember that you can always rewind and watch elector again if you think I went too fast. If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to ask and I'll be happy to help.