Shot Composition: Create Captivating Photos & Videos Using Camera Movement and Framing | Scott Baker | Skillshare
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Shot Composition: Create Captivating Photos & Videos Using Camera Movement and Framing

teacher avatar Scott Baker, Filmmaker

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Class Introduction

      1:55

    • 2.

      Marker Settings Help Frame the Shot

      4:49

    • 3.

      Focus Assist - To Ensure the Shot is Never Soft

      3:49

    • 4.

      Depth of Field

      3:54

    • 5.

      Manual or Auto? That is the Question

      3:42

    • 6.

      How to Manual Focus

      4:43

    • 7.

      Camera Movements

      6:29

    • 8.

      Camera Movement Speed

      3:10

    • 9.

      How to Keep the Shot Steady

      5:35

    • 10.

      Reflections, Use Them to Your Advantage

      6:49

    • 11.

      Framing Techniques to Draw the Eye

      2:53

    • 12.

      Slow Motion

      2:54

    • 13.

      Conclusion

      0:33

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About This Class

Join filmmaker Scott Baker for an in depth look at Shot Composition so you can create more compelling and professional looking Short Films, Music Videos, Weddings, Promotional Material, or whatever kind of Videography or Photography you do. 

WHAT WILL I LEARN?

  • Camera Settings — marker settings, focus assist
  • Stabilisation  — gimbals, handheld, lenses
  • Framing Techniques — Leading Lines, Symmetry, Depth of Field
  • Camera Movements — Dolly & Trucking Shots, Speed of Movements, Pan / Tilt / Crane

YOU'LL BE READY TO FILM:

  • On the go with minimal equipment
  • With any kind of dslr camera, smartphone, or action camera
  • With minimal lighting equipment

WHO IS THE CLASS FOR?

Whether you're an aspiring Cinematographer, Vlogger, Wedding Photographer or Beginner Videographer, this class is for all. And it doesn't matter if you're using a high end camera or your phone, these techniques apply to all. There is some additional equipment I will recommend throughout, but as long as you have a camera you can benefit from this class and participate in the class project.

To make sure you thoroughly understand the material there are plenty of diagrams, tutorials, and real life examples. All designed so you finish this class feeling confident, and excited to use the knowledge and skills you've learned to take your filmmaking to the next level

To learn more about the Emotions and Meanings that Shot Composition can have (and other ways to connect with your audience) check out this class... 

Meet Your Teacher

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Scott Baker

Filmmaker

Teacher

After graduating from film school in 2008 I dove straight into the Toronto film industry Directing and Producing a variety of projects such as music videos and short films that have screened at festivals such as Tribeca and Toronto International Shorts. In between projects I also work on big budget film and television such as Suicide Squad and The Boys.

When not on set I'm on the road working with bands, shooting documentaries, and creating other independent projects. Even while traveling for vacation I can't seem to put my camera down, because when you're passionate about something it becomes second nature.

 

Website: www.scott-baker.ca 

Email: 21.bakers.creative@gmail.com

Instagram: https://www.instag... See full profile

Level: All Levels

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Transcripts

1. Class Introduction: Hello everyone. My name is Scott Baker and I began working in the film industry in 2009. I worked on major films and TV shows while also directing my own short films, documentaries and music videos. If you've taken any of my other classes, then welcome back. If this is your first time, then it's great to have you. If you have some experience in photography or videography and want to build on those skills, then you're in the right place. Because in this class, we're going to dive right in, starting with a more in-depth look at some of the more advanced settings and tools that our cameras can offer. Because if we want to get the most out of our camera, we need to fully understand how it works and what it can do. After that, we'll build on our knowledge of a shot composition by learning about things such as camera movements, how to place and balance objects within the frame, how to work with reflections, and much, much more. The knowledge and material that I'm sharing comes from my hands-on experience in the industry and it is designed with easy to follow diagrams and graphics, tutorial videos that explain not just how to do things, but also why we do them, and real-life examples where we go behind the scenes to see exactly how these films were created. By the end of this class, you'll have the knowledge and skills to create far more interesting and compelling shots to help tell your stories and take your films to the next level. Without any further talking, let's get started. 2. Marker Settings Help Frame the Shot: [NOISE] Marker settings is a very helpful tool you can use for a few different reasons. What it does is overlay guides on our camera screen or viewing monitor in order to help us properly frame our shots. Let's learn more about these markers, beginning with the center option. This option simply adds a crosshair to the center of the frame as a point of reference when we're trying to center objects or people. The second option is the aspect ratio, but this requires a much longer explanation. I'll leave this one until last. Moving on to the safety zone, which has two options, 80 percent and 90 percent. If we select this, we see that our frame has a white box. Without getting into the technology and science of how things are broadcast, the important thing we must remember is that anything inside the box will be received and shown on a standard household TV. If it's outside of the box, there's a chance depending on the TV that it could be cut off. It's best not to have any important details too close to the edge of the frame. However, it's such a small space that it's highly unlikely that you would. If you want to be extra cautious, you can always choose the 80 percent safety zone. Next, we have guide frame. If we turn this on, you'll recognize the rule of thirds grid. Now let's skip back to the aspect markers. You're probably already familiar with aspect ratios such as 3 by 2, 4 by 3 or 16 by 9, or other terms such as widescreen and anamorphic. By choosing one of these aspect ratios, we can see that white lines have been added to the top and bottom or to the sides. But why would we want to use this? If we go to our aspect ratio settings, we see that our camera does not offer all the different ratios. In the case of this camera, there's only 3 by 2 and 16 by 9. But what if I want my film to be broadcasting anamorphic or an older looking 4 by 3? Unless you're using a very high-end camera, it's unlikely you'll have the option to film in all of these different aspect ratios. But there is a way that we can cheat this in editing. In our editing software, what we can do is go to our sequence settings and change the frame size. But as we can see, when we do this, our footage doesn't fit and we're left with two black bars on either side or on the top and bottom. To fix this, one option is to stretch it which will show our entire frame, but it distorts the image quality. If stretched too far, it looks unnatural. This is why I don't recommend doing it this way. The second option is to enlarge the footage and re-frame it. Doing it this way, we'll crop out part of the image, but it will not distort the image. Unless you filmed in 4K and export to 1080, you may lose a bit of image quality. The third option is where the markers come into play. This is the best option because it's done in camera. One thing I always standby is whenever we can do something on camera whether it's special effects, a stunt, or in this case, framing our shots properly, it's always better than doing it in editing. Instead of trying to manipulate the footage and post-production using the two methods that we just discussed, if we use the aspect markers, we can properly frame our shots from the very beginning. Knowing that anything outside the white lines will be lost, we can make sure that everything we want to see is framed inside the markers. This way, when we get to the editing stage, we're not worried about the parts of the frame that are being cut off. We don't have to manipulate the footage by enlarging it or stretching it which means keeping its quality at the highest level. 3. Focus Assist - To Ensure the Shot is Never Soft: [NOISE] Focus Assist, also known as focus peaking, it's a setting in the camera that helps photographers and videographers easily find and maintain focus by outlining the edges in an image in a bright color. This is a setting that's only needed when using manual focus. The camera looks for sharp edges within the image by analyzing the contrast. If there's a hard edge, which only happens when something is in focus, there will be a higher contrast. When the camera sees enough contrast, it will outline the edges in a chosen color. Usually you can choose red, green, blue, and yellow. Let's look at this example. This stack of books is obviously out-of-focus, causing the edges to be blurry and fade into the background. Because there's no hard edge, there's not enough contrast to achieve the Focus Assist. But as we adjust the focus, and the edges of the books become more defined, so too does the contrast between the books and the background. Until eventually, there's enough contrast that the focus peaking appears and outlines the books. The stronger the contrast, the more bold the lines will be. Meaning, the more in focus the object is. Right here, the outlines are thinner. Meaning, the image is slightly in focus. Whereas, now the lines are thicker. Meaning, it's in sharper focus. Depending on what's in the image, you'll notice more objects may become outlined, the more in focus the image is. This may vary a bit from camera to camera. For this part, we'll discuss some of the different settings within the Focus Assist tool. First, colors. It may not seem that important, but there are different colors to choose from for a reason. Even though the Focus Assist is working, yellow outlines may be hard for us to see on our screen or monitor when filming in sunny locations. Blue is more difficult to see in dark scenes, and green will be difficult to see in a forest. As a default, I always have mine set to red, but on occasion, that won't work if there are lots of red tones within the scene, making it harder to tell the outlines and the objects apart. In which case, one of the other colors will work better. Next is the sensitivity or level. This determines how much is highlighted. Most cameras have two levels: high and low, and some cameras like mine have a mid sensitivity as well. Low level will highlight only the sharpest areas and with thinner lines. In turn, obscuring less of the image. A high level will highlight more of what's in focus and will use thicker lines. In turn, covering more of the image. Lastly, and although this is not a setting, it's something that just makes life a little bit easier. You may want to be able to turn Focus Assist on and off regularly. On, for finding focus, and off, when filming, since it can be a bit distracting. It's helpful to program this tool as a quick menu option or as a custom button. This way, you don't need to waste time scrolling back and forth between different menus every time you want to find your focus. 4. Depth of Field: To begin, let's first define what depth of field is. It is the range or area in front of the camera that is in-focus. You can have a large depth of field or a small depth of field, also known as wide and narrow or deep and shallow. Next there are three factors that affect whether our depth of field is small or large or somewhere in the middle. Those factors are aperture, focal length, and the distance between the camera and the subject. Aperture. A low f-stop, meaning a larger opening gives us more light, which results in a smaller depth of field. A high f-stop means a smaller opening which lets in less light and gives us a larger depth of field. Focal length. For focal length, it's the opposite of aperture. A low number, which gives us a wider shot also gives us a larger depth of field. Whereas a high focal length creates a tighter shot and gives us less depth of field. The smaller the distances between the subject and the camera results in less depth of field and a bigger distance provides more depth of field. As we can see in this example, when we focus on the truck which is further away the trees in the mid-ground and the deep background also come into focus. Whereas when we focus on these twigs which are closer to the camera, everything else beyond that loses focus. When the subject is close to the camera, as we adjust the focus ring to focus on the subject, we see that less is in focus. If we adjust the focus on a subject further from the camera, we see that the depth of field gets bigger and more of the frame comes into focus. Using distance to affect depth of field can also be applied between the subject and the background. A perfect example of this is head-shots for actors. When the actor is close up against the wall, the wall is relatively in focus. But if the actor takes a few steps away from the wall and we adjust the focus, the background becomes blurry. The added bonus of this is that it makes the actor stand out and directs the audience's focus to them. So when composing a shot in deciding what should be in focus and what shouldn't, it is the combination of these three factors that will decide where the depth of field lands and whether it's small or large or somewhere in-between. Something else to be aware of is the size of the camera sensor. A larger sensor will have a shallower depth of field overall and a smaller or a cropped sensor will have a larger depth of field. For more depth of field we choose a higher aperture, a lower focal length, or we increase the distance between the camera and the subject. For less depth of field, it's the exact opposite. We can choose a lower aperture, a higher focal length, or we can decrease the distance between the camera and the subject. 5. Manual or Auto? That is the Question: One question I've been asked a lot is when to use autofocus and when to use manual focus. To be honest, there's no right or wrong or definitive answer to this question. Personally, I prefer to use manual as often as possible because it gives me full control. However, there are times in certain scenarios where autofocus has proven to be the better option. Let's take a look at some of these examples. When doing close-ups, I never use autofocus. Because as this example shows, the autofocus acts as though it's confused. That's because when filming close-ups, our depth of field is smaller and the slightest change in distance between the camera and the subject, or between two different subjects makes a big difference. Our camera can't decide what should be in focus and what should not be. But if we switch to manual focus, our camera no longer has to guess what should be in focus, and instead, we'll focus on whatever we decide should be in focus. In this example, we can maintain focus on just the neck of the guitar and not worry about the focus changing to the hand as the hand moves up and down the guitar. As we pan left, we do lose focus for a split second. But because we have full control, it's easy enough to adjust and we're able to do so in a very smooth way, maintaining a nice clean close-up. When I'm following a subject, also known as a tracking shot, I usually have the cameras setup to autofocus, and that's because the distance between the subject and the camera is going to be constantly shifting. If I were to choose manual focus, then I would have to split my attention between focus, framing, and where I'm walking, which can be a lot to coordinate, especially when there's little or no time to rehearse. For example, weddings and concerts. If we keep a consistent distance between the camera and the subject, the camera's autofocus is great at making the small adjustments that are needed to maintain focus. If we're filming with a wider lens, then it's even easier for the autofocus because a wider lens gives us a larger depth of field. In this shot, it's easy to see how the focus constantly shifts between the foreground and the background as the wrestlers move in and out of the frame. In this particular situation, I don't mind the focus shifting, because the shifts are smooth and focusing on different subjects. However, if we want the focus to remain on one pair of wrestlers, maybe because they're the main characters, then we need to switch to manual focus. In this shot, we've set our focus to the wrestlers in the background, so even when other wrestlers cross the foreground, they remain autofocus, which also has a very pleasing look. A shot like this can work in both autofocus and manual focus. It just depends on the look that we want and the story elements involved. I hope those examples provide clarity to some advantages and disadvantages to both manual and autofocus and what works and what doesn't work. 6. How to Manual Focus: When pulling focus, the first thing to remember is to adjust slowly and smoothly. It may seem obvious, but when we're in the middle of the action and the subject is moving quickly, especially coming toward the camera. The instinct is to try and regain focus as quick as possible. But if you don't adjust the focus steadily, there's two problems that we will encounter. We could miss the mark and have to readjust, causing the subject to go in and out of focus, which is extremely distracting and can easily ruin the shot. The second problem if we're filming hand-held is there's likely to be some camera shake. If it's very subtle, the shape can sometimes be fixed in editing. But to save time and to get the best shot possible. It's best to avoid camera shake while filming, unless it's a stylistic choice that you are intentionally making. Perhaps for an action scene to help really make your focus pull smooth, I highly recommend getting a Follow Focus. It will act as a side handle, which also helps to stabilize the shot. And it provides a more comfortable and natural movement, making it easier to pull focus. Another option if using a gimbal is to have a remote follow focus. This way the point of contact of our hands is on the camera rig and not the camera itself. Of course, this depends on what we're filming. But when it's possible, a little bit of rehearsing can save lots of time onset, and especially in the editing room. A quick rehearsal allows us to find our focus marks. And if there's movement in the shot of rehearsal also allows us to make sure this subject stays within the range of focus. If they don't, it's a chance to practice the focus pool and get the right timing by creating markers for ourselves and for the subject. Essentially, running a quick rehearsal saves time while filming and stops us from filming multiple bad takes, meaning less footage to go through in the editing room, again, saving us time. So what if we're filming a live event and rehearsing isn't an option. What do we do then? In these circumstances, we want to find reference points that are the same or close to the same distance from the camera that our subject will be. In this short here, I use the two light posts as reference points. So instead of trying to pull focus on the wrestlers while they're moving, I knew that by simply focusing back on those two light posts. I would also have them in focus. First, if we're using a zoom lens, we can zoom in and making it easier to set our focus and then zoom back out. Some cameras and lenses have this feature built-in and will digitally zoom in for us. Second, get a monitor. It doesn't have to be a big one. Something like this works perfect and command straight to your rig. The screen on our cameras can be deceiving. On such a small screen, the shop may look in focus. But when viewed on your computer or larger screens, if it's out-of-focus, even just a little bit, it will be very noticeable. I made this mistake a lot early in my career because one, I was too cheap to get the monitor. And two, I thought my vision was perfect, only to find out after that some of my shots were still a little bit soft. So don't do it. I did get yourself a monitor. Third and last, like all other camera movements and so many other things we learn about. You need to get out there and practice using manual focus. It is a skill you need to learn and develop. And it takes time to do this because autofocus cannot do everything for you. 7. Camera Movements: [NOISE] In addition to the different shot types, which include extreme close-up, close-up, medium close-up, medium, medium wide, wide and extreme wide, we can also create interesting compositions by how we angle and how we move the camera. Let's begin with the different angles. First, there's the high angle, aka bird's eye view, which is accomplished by pointing the camera down on a subject. This makes the subject appear smaller and inferior. A low angle, aka a worm's eye view. This does the opposite. By pointing the camera up at a subject, it makes them appear larger and superior, and a Dutch angle is when the camera is tilted slightly sideways to make the shot appear on a diagonal. This is used to create an unbalanced and a feeling of discomfort. Now, let's move on to some camera movements and we'll start with a quick review of the basic ones. Pan. When the camera remains in one place like it would on a tripod and it rotates left to right or right to left. This is called pan right and pan left. Some people may also say pan up and pan down. However, this movement is actually called a tilt. If we turn the camera sideways, that is considered rolling the camera and called a roll shot. When the camera moves up and down along the y-axis, this is called a crane shot or a pedestal shot. Tracking shot. This type of shot moves sideways along the x-axis. Then there's the dolly shot, which moves toward or away from the subject along the z-axis. This can also be referred to as pushing in and pulling out. It should not be confused with zooming in and zooming out. A zoom shot is when the camera stays static in one spot and we zoom in and out by adjusting the focal length of a zoom lens. This cannot be done with a prime lens. If we're using prime lenses and changing the focal lengths, this is called punching in and punching out. It can also be done by keeping the same focal length, but moving the camera closer or further from the subject as long as the camera angle remains the same. Lastly, there is the arc shot which is a version of the tracking shot but as you may have guessed, the camera moves along a circular path around the subject. If the camera doesn't move at all in any way, this is called a static shot, which is exactly what I'm using to film these lessons. Lastly, there is a POV, which stands for point of view, meaning the camera takes the place of an object, and it can be any object like a security camera or a vehicle. The camera can also become the character's eyes, which makes the audience feel like they're in the character's head and seeing the world the same way the character sees it. [MUSIC] This type of shot can be any of the movements we just discussed or combinations of them. The shots can also be perfectly still or very shaky because the world is being viewed however the character or the object would see things. The best part about this shot is there are no rules, and when editing, the smoothest way to include these shots is to show the object right before or after the POV shot. For character POV, normally, the character will first be shown looking at something which is called the setup shot and then we cut to their POV of what it is that they're looking at, whether it's an object or another person. One piece of advice, it's best not to make these shots too shaky or last too long as it can cause headaches and motion sickness for some audience members. The Blair Witch Project is a popular example that causes some people to suffer motion sickness, whereas the film Being John Malkovich, in my opinion, is a great example that uses POVs as well, but doesn't overdo it. 8. Camera Movement Speed: [NOISE] One thing I've noticed that it's almost always overlooked when talking about camera movement, is the speed of the movement, which is odd because this is just as important as the movement itself. The faster the movement, the more energy, chaos, or excitement that it can add, whereas slower movements can intensify emotion, increase suspense, or signal the beginning or end to something. Moving slow is easy enough, but it won't always be possible for the camera or the subject to move faster. What do we do then? Here's some very simple ways to speed up movement within a shot. When the camera is moving, whether it's a tracking shot or a dolly shot, having a foreground or objects pass by in the foreground can create the illusion of faster movement. That's because the closer something is to the camera, the faster it moves across the frame. In this low angle example, the ground is closer to the camera, which makes it appear to move faster. Whereas if we raise the camera and change it to a straight on shot with no foreground, it's only the background that appears to be moving, in turn slowing the shot down. Same with this example. If we film close to the fence, it feels like it's whipping by really fast. But if we take a few steps back, the fence isn't in the immediate foreground anymore and doesn't cross the frame as quickly. Now, the movement feels slower even though I'm still walking at the same pace. Another trick is to move in the opposite direction the subject is moving. Without the object or the camera moving any faster, the shot instantly feels faster. If we want to slowly shot down, we can keep the camera static or to slow it down even more we move the camera in the same direction that the subject is moving. Third technique is how tight or wide our shot is. Without changing the speed of the action, by having a tighter shot, the shot feels faster because it brings us closer to the action. With more of the frame being filled by the action, everything feels faster. Now, if we watch the same action on a wide shot, more of the surroundings and background can be seen and it takes longer for things to cross the frame, which makes the action and the shot feel slower. 9. How to Keep the Shot Steady: [NOISE] In the previous lesson, we learned about different camera movements. Now, that we know what they are, we need to know how to do them smoothly to reduce any distracting camera shake. For these movements, the camera only rotates. The easiest way for these is to use a tripod. However, these moves are also very easy to accomplish handheld. Personally, I think they have a more natural look when done handheld because the shot won't be too shaky and it also won't be perfectly smooth, which gives the footage a more natural and organic fill. To do this, the key is to keep the camera close to your body so that it moves as if it is part of your body. Keep both hands on the camera, keep your feet firmly planted, and do most of the movement from your torso, keeping your shoulders, elbows, and wrists as still as possible. If that doesn't provide enough range, for example, when doing a tilt shot, then it's best to move from the shoulders while still keeping your elbows and wrists frozen. The goal is to keep your body and camera as still as possible while moving the least amount of your body as needed in order to get the shot. Now, if we're going handheld for shots where the camera is moving, the first thing to know is that there will always be a bit of camera shake, but there are ways to reduce it. One of the best tools is a top handle, or even better, a camera cage with a top handle. This allows us to cradle camera, which helps keep it level and smooths out any small movements. Next, we want to apply similar techniques we used for the pan and the tilt shot with one difference. Now we want to hold the camera away from our body slightly so our arms can adjust and absorb any shocks that will happen from walking. When you're walking, it's best to slightly crouch, turning your legs into another kind of shock absorber. This also readies you for any sudden movements that may be necessary. You'll probably notice that you take this position naturally without even thinking about it. Most important, you want to walk lightly as though you're sneaking around. Additionally, try to keep a steady pace as this will also make your footage look smoother. When filming hand-held, it is impossible to have perfectly smooth footage, but the goal is to have a footage look fluid, and natural instead of jittery and distracting. Now, that we know how to move, what can our equipment do to help us? We already discussed the top handle, but what about lenses? The easiest and one of the best ways to make camera shake less noticeable is by using low focal lengths because the higher the focal length, the more zoomed in we are. And even the smallest camera shakes become very noticeable, whereas the wider the shot because there's more to see in the frame and because objects are smaller, any camera shake becomes less noticeable. If you do want to use a higher focal length, then you'll need a gimbal. I also recommend a gimbal if you're doing tracking or dolly shots at a fast pace because the faster you move, the harder it becomes to steady the camera naturally. It can be a bit expensive, but they are worth every dollar, pound, peso, baht krone, ruble, rupee, real, euro, yen, whatever currency you use. They are worth it and they do a fantastic job of stabilizing our shots by adjusting for even the smallest bit of camera shake, but don't think because you're using one, that every shot will be perfect. Once again, how we move our body has a big effect because whichever way our body moves, the camera will follow. Just because the gimbal is doing most of the work, shouldn't mean that we get lazy. Putting in that little bit of extra effort will only make our footage that much better. Some other creative ways to get smooth dolly and tracking shots, quite simply, get on wheels. We can film from a vehicle, have the camera operator, wear rollerblades, or sit in a wheelchair. For close-up product shots, just sliding the camera on a hand towel along a flat surface can create great shots. Lastly, we can also set our camera to 60 or 120 frames per second, because in slow motion, everything is smoothed out, but I suggest only using this as a last resort or when the shot makes sense to be in slow motion. Otherwise, this leads to lazy film making and you'll end up with boring videos if everything is in slow motion. 10. Reflections, Use Them to Your Advantage: [NOISE] In this lesson, we're going to look at how to deal with reflections. Whether they come from mirrors, windows, water, appliances, essentially, any reflective surface. When filming, they can either be an obstacle that creates headaches and challenges, or they can be turned into a brilliant tool. To do this, we must first be able to recognize them. Let's start by checking out some examples. [BACKGROUND] As you may have noticed the biggest problem with reflections is seeing things that shouldn't be seen, such as crew, equipment or glaring bright spots from lights. To fix these issues, it isn't all that difficult. It just requires we pay close attention before rolling the camera. Here's what we can do. If someone can be seen, have them move somewhere else. The same goes for any equipment that shouldn't be there. If something can't be moved, try masking it with something that's okay to be seen. Like a prop or a piece of set dressing. If it's a window, consider adjusting the curtains, blinds, or sheers. Sometimes even an actor or background actor can be placed strategically to block unwanted reflections. If it's a small object, changing its angle might also do the trick. If none of that works, then see if a slight change to the camera angle can fix the problem. If it's glare that is causing the problem, it's a bit different. But here's what we can do. Adjust the light or your shot. If that doesn't work, we can also use a dulling spray or hairspray can also do the trick. You can also dirty the reflective surface if it makes sense for the shot. An example of this would be a reflective surface or shiny tools but in a dirty mechanic shop. Eliminate the light or use a diffuser to soften it. Attaching a lens hood to the lens can block out lens flares, so does adding a polarizer filter to your lens and it can also reduce and sometimes even eliminate reflections from water. Finally, if none of these work, once again, adjusting the camera shot to find an angle that doesn't catch the light is always an option. Now that we know how to eliminate reflections, let's get into the fun stuff and learn how we can use them to our advantage. To do this, there are two main things we need to know, how the angles work and how the depth of field works. Knowing how the angles work is one of the ways we can hide our camera from the reflections. First thing we must always remember when filming reflections is that whatever the angle of the camera is to the reflective surface, that is the same angle the subject or object that we want to capture must also be to that reflective surface. Meaning if the actor is at a 45-degree angle to the mirror, then the camera must also be at a 45-degree angle to the mirror, or at least close to the same range. But what if that angle shows the camera in the reflection? Well, by slightly moving the camera, we can make it disappear from the shot. But this also means we may have to adjust the position of the subject to get the frame we want. Meaning, we may have to experiment and make tiny adjustments until finding just the right setup. Using tighter shots also makes it easier to hide reflections. When it comes to pulling focus and setting our depth of field, it's critical to remember that it's not just the distance from the camera to the mirror that we must measure, we must also add the distance from the mirror to the subject. That's because our cameras don't recognize the mirror or the reflective surface as a solid surface. Instead, it recognizes it as an extension of the space that we're filming in. If you've ever looked at a wall of mirrors in a gym or a dance studio and thought the room looked twice as big, well, to our cameras, the room is twice as big. Meaning that to our camera, whatever is in the reflection is actually further away than the reflective surfaces. Which means we have to adjust our depth of field accordingly to make sure that our subject is in focus. Depending on our depth of field and where we set our focus, we can even hide our camera in plain sight. By keeping our camera outside the range of focus, it's possible to blur it enough that the viewer can't even tell it's a camera. If you do this, just be sure the camera operator doesn't make any large or sudden movements. Knowing these two factors when dealing with mirrors and other reflective surfaces can be an amazing tool, especially when shooting in small spaces. 11. Framing Techniques to Draw the Eye: [MUSIC] Now we're going to expand on those concepts, and learn some more composition techniques to make our footage look even more interesting and appealing to the eye. The first technique we'll start with is called leading lines. The same way that focusing on a single object directs the viewer's eye to it, so too does the leading lines technique. See how these objects lead our eyes toward this area of the image, almost as if the objects are pointing to it. Knowing this and placing your subject here where the lines seem to point is a great way to give more importance to the subject. As filmmakers, it helps us make sure the audience is paying attention to what we want them to. Leading lines are also very often found in the next technique, symmetry. Symmetry essentially goes completely against the rule of thirds, because it usually involves placing the subject in the center of the frame. But if the subject is framed with leading lines or matching surroundings, we find it very pleasing to the eye. Naturally, we as humans like symmetry because it gives a sense of balance and order. If you're choosing to break the rule of thirds concept, using symmetry to do so can be a great way to keep your shots looking interesting. Our next technique is size. When composing shots, the size of an object does matter. This doesn't necessarily mean the object has to be big in real life, it just has to be bigger on screen, meaning it's taking up more of the frame. Take this shot, for example. The bigger the object is on screen, the more important the audience assumes it is. The smaller the object, the less the audience notices it, deeming it less important. When it comes to composing our shots, size within the frame does matter. As filmmakers, these are all ways that we can direct the viewers attention to what we want them to pay attention to. They may seem like simple techniques, but they do take practice. 12. Slow Motion: [NOISE] When choosing to film in slow motion, unfortunately, it's not as easy as simply switching the setting on the camera. There's a number of things that we must keep in mind. First, it's going to take up more space on the memory cards. Be sure you have enough space or multiple cards. You must also make sure the cards are capable of handling it. Meaning they have read and write speeds that are fast enough. Second, more light will be needed. Remember, the 180 degrees shutter rule states that shutter speed must be at least double the frame rate to get proper exposure. Increasing the shutter speed means light has a less time to hit the camera sensor. To compensate for this, we need to have more light. If shooting outside during the day, this won't be a problem. But if filming inside or at night, we'll need to add more light. Shoot with a larger aperture, increase the ISO or a combination of these. Lastly, use slow motion sparingly and for the right reasons. Whether it's to emphasize a specific moment or emotion, or to direct the viewers attention to a specific story element. [BACKGROUND] Using it when it's not needed will cause the viewer to become bored of the effect and not pay close attention when it is being used to highlight something important. Using it too much, we'll quickly lessen its impact compared to using it selectively. It can even become annoying for the viewer if it's overused because then the pace of the film also becomes slower. When filming in slow motion, there's certain things that can help accentuate the effect. Things such as moving water, things that can float or flutter when following, powder and dust that catches the light, fabrics such as flags or clothing, steam or smoke, fast-moving actions such as sports, fights, or explosions. 13. Conclusion: Well, we've reached the end of this class and I hope you've enjoyed it. And we'll take what you've learned here about camera movements and composition and the related camera settings to evolve as a filmmaker and continue to practice and hone those skills. And be sure to share your photos or video compilations here on Skillshare, as well as leave a review. Good or bad, doesn't matter. It helps me improve my classes as well as create better classes in the future. So thank you very much for joining me and I wish you all the best with your filmmaking.