Sampling: Using Sampling for Sound Design & Production | Jason Allen | Skillshare

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Sampling: Using Sampling for Sound Design & Production

teacher avatar Jason Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

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About This Class

In Sound Design Fundamentals: Sampling, we will examine the essentials of Sound Design using Ableton Live and Propellerheads' Reason software and focusing on principals of Sampling. We will explore three fundamental topics:

  • Using samples for generating sounds, and the legal implications of sampling (And two pro tips for avoiding all the legal issues)
  • Using samples to generate new sounds through manipulation and synthesis
  • Using samplers to control drum sounds and sequence dynamic drum patterns.

This class uses the same system I've used for years in my college courses for teaching sound design: Identify and master the 4 main pieces of any synthesizer (or in this case, the sampler), and you will be flying when you first approach any other unit in the future.

This system keeps the technical jargon to a minimum and gets you making your own sounds quick.

J. Anthony Allen is an Ableton Certified Trainer and a Ph.D. in Music Composition and master of Electronic Sounds. His music has been heard internationally in film, radio, video games, and industrial sound, as well as the concert hall and theater.

He currently is a professor at Augsburg University and the CEO of Slam Academy in Minneapolis.

Praise for other classes by J. Anthony Allen:

  • "Dr. Allen does it again with his music theory for electronic musicians series. This course really opened up everything I learned from the 1st section and now I understand more about the composition side of things for music. I highly highly recommend this course to anyone!!! Really opened my eyes to many things I wasn't aware of."
  • "The Best Teacher Ever, who makes you understand the ins & outs of Music Theory by all mean without giving what you don't want to know."

  • "I have never had any formal training in music at all. Trying to learn all the notes and how everything translated was a serious challenge. After going through this class, Dr. J has totally brought down the barriers. The content was very useful and was easy to grasp for me."

Meet Your Teacher

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Jason Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen teaches... See full profile

Level: Beginner

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1. 1: Hey, everyone, Welcome to sound design fundamentals. Colon sampling this class, we're gonna cover all kinds of different techniques for using samplers. Teoh make your own sounds and instruments we're gonna be using primarily reason and able to live will be using the n n x, t and reason CNN 19 in reason. These simpler and able to live and the sampler and able to live. However, if you don't use any of those tools, you are still a okay in this class because the way I'm gonna be teaching this is to teach the fundamentals of how samplers work. The main things. We look for the main functions and you will be able to apply these to whatever software you're working on. So if you're not using reason or able to live, you're still OK to you to take this class, you'll still get a lot out of it. You'll be able to look at any sampler that you happen to be using and see it in a new light . My hope is that you look at it and you say I get it. I I know what all these buttons do now because you understand the general concepts This is very much an overview class. We're not going to go incredibly deep into the sound design aspect of creating sounds. We're gonna mostly focus on the general concepts of how these things work. It's gonna be a great foundation for you to start learning about sound design and for you to get more familiar with how sound design works if you're already testing the waters with it. Now, if you took my son design fundamentals, Sam or synthesis class, this builds off. That will be using a lot of the same stuff we're gonna be talking about. Filters, oscillators, envelopes, amplifiers. All these things that we need to know for synthesizers applied to sampling, a lot of it works the same. You don't have to take that class. You'll be totally fine in this class without having taken it. But I also recommend you to take that class because the two things work together really well. And once you start to understand the concepts you'll be flying. You'll be able to look at your stuff and you'll know exactly how to use every single button on there and every dial. So let's dive in. We're gonna first start talking about reasons. And in 19 will progress along the way. Throughout this course, we're gonna be doing a lot of preset deconstructions, which are things that I think are really helpful for learning how these devices work. What that means is we're going Teoh, learn the how the basic device works, find are key elements in it, find our concepts, and then we're gonna load up one of the presets that come with it. We're gonna pick it apart. We're gonna look at samples. We're gonna look at the settings we're going, We're gonna listen to the sounds, and we're gonna figure out how it all comes together, how they made that sound. We're also going to be making our own sounds from scratch using those devices. Ah, and I'll also be talking a little bit shortly here. I think in the second video about how to find sounds, we all know about the legal racing implications, but I have a tip for you where you won't have to worry about any of the legal stuff, and you'll be able to get the best quality sounds that you can get, and they'll be totally free and totally Ah, legal for you to use, and you don't have to worry about any of that other stuff. So check that out coming soon, and I think the second video. Okay, enough talking, Let's dive in and let's make some noise. 2. 2: all right. In this first video, what I thought we do is just talk about, um, how we're going to use sampling for sound design. So a lot of time with sound design. We talk about two kind of big, different areas synthesis and sampling. And a lot of time when people think about sampling, they're thinking about, um, using a sample of, like, a drum loop or something like that. That's not really what we're talking about here. Um, when it comes, a sound is on. You might use a sample of, like, an individual drum hit, but you're not really going to be using loops. Much were. Basically, if you watched my video are my class on synthesis. You know what oscillators are? Oscillators are the thing in a synthesizer that actually makes sound. And then we do other stuff with the oscillators to craft our sound. What we're doing with ah synth or a sampling when we start working on sound design is we're basically replacing the oscillator with a sample. Now, that sample might be five milliseconds long. It might be was really, really, really small thing. And we're gonna loop it and thats gonna make a complex way form, whereas ah, oscillator maybe made a relatively simple way form. This will make a more complex wait for him. That's one way to think about sampling. We might look at some more elaborate samples in something like like one of these sampled instruments where, like this one is a simulated grand piano. And it has all these different sounds of a grand piano notes. And these are all the notes of a piano, right? So this is trying to emulate a piano. So it's less sound design and more like instrument creation. Ah, whereas some of our sounds will be making our own sounds not trying to replicate another instrument, uh, using samples as basically as a complex wait for him. So if you know anything about synthesis and if you took my synthesis class than you do, um, you'll know that Ah, lot of this stuff should be really familiar to you because a lot of it works the same. We're really just working with a more complicated oscillator, Um, and that comes with some more complexities. That has some new parameters that we have to look at. Um, when it comes with how we deal with samples when there's a whole bunch of home like here, Um, we have to do with when the sample was triggered and how it's triggered and stuff like that . But, ah, lot of the rest of these parameters will be really familiar to you if you already know synthesis. So I encourage you to take that synthesis class. If you didn't take that synthesis class, you'll be okay. I'm gonna cover everything. Don't worry. Um ah. But so here are the four main tools we're going to use in this class in reason, which is where I am here. I'm going to use the n N 19 digital sampler. That's what we're looking at here. I'm going to use the N N x T sampler, which is kind of like a more advanced version of the end of 19. So the end of 19 will show us ah, lot of the features that we want to use, and then we'll get a lot more complicated in Ah, the way we're organizing our sounds in a couple of more parameters here. But all this stuff will make sense, nothing to freak out about. Ah, and then we'll also look over at a Bilton, we will look at the simpler, which is this, which is another sampler. So here we have a little tiny sample and then a bunch of parameters for that sample, and we'll also look at the sampler in ah, able to live. So this is using a short sample to generate a complex wave form that we will then use to make a more complex sound. It's pretty cool. So, like, here's the samples that are loaded in here and we can change them and do different stuff. Ah, so those are the four things simpler and sampler and a Bolton and CNN X T and the N in 19 in reason. And the last thing I'll say in this first video is I've said that I probably said this in the intro video. I'm going to say this probably a bunch more times in this class, but, um, I might as well start now. Remember that one of my goals is not for you to master the samplers and reason or the samplers in a Bolton. My goal is for you to be able to look at any sampler two able to walk up to a sampler and say Cool. I know how to use that. Because I know where these key elements are. I know what these functions do. I know how to load in my sound. Dial it in to make the kind of sound that I want to make. So that's our ultimate goal. So we're gonna work with four different samplers here so that you'll see these different elements applied in different ways in the different devices. But what I hope you get out of it is that, ah, you'll be able to kind of take one step back from that and say, OK, so the oscillator section, if we're looking at a sampler, means that's where the sample goes usually. So I just need to find that in whatever device I'm working on. So ah, it's gonna be a little broad like that where we will hopefully be able to understand any synthesizer or sampler that you come across in the future. Okay, so let's move on. The next thing we need to talk about is actual samples. Where do we get samples? Ah, how do we deal with this? Because you probably know there's all kinds of legal craziness about using other people's work. So let's talk about that in the next video 3. 3: All right. So this issue of using samples, getting samples, um, and using them in your own work. This is like a huge legal conundrum. I'm not a lawyer. Uhm, I'm not an expert on this. Ah, and I don't want to spend a ton of time on this class and make this class all about the history and legality of sampling. That would be a fascinating class. Maybe I'll make that one in the future. But for now, I don't want to make it a ah big deal. I'm gonna kind of blow past it. So this is going to be the only video where we really talk about, um basically, Ah, the the real question comes in is when you if you like here a track and you're like, I want to use that snare hit and you're able to isolate that snare hit from, like, the intro Ah, or the end or something like that. And you You get that as an audio file and you put in your sampler and you use it. Have you broken the law? Have you committed copyright fraud? The answer again. I'm not a lawyer, but the answer is yes. You have you've used someone else's work in your own work. You created copyright from will you get caught? Ah, who knows? That's a whole other question. So you can dance around this issue of will you get caught for sampling stuff all day long? Or you could just avoid it entirely. And there are a couple of good ways to avoid it entirely. So I'm gonna focus on that. Um, the first way is to make your own samples, so use like one of these things. This is just an iPhone. Any kind of smartphone has audio recording capabilities. Ah, you can get elaborate audio recording capabilities in, um, some of the the handheld devices that you might buy, like like one of those zoom recorders makes a whole bunch of them where you could walk around town with these look an array of microphones and record every call sounded here. And that's sweet. And I do that sometimes. But you can also get pretty good samples just off these. Um, the microphone built into an iPhone is surprisingly good. Um, so you can use one of these as just a way to record and find cool sounds that you like and then obviously any kind of actual recording, like microphones and doing stuff and whatever you're doing. Those are all for a game. Those are yours. If you do that, if you make your own sound, you never have to worry about the legal issues because you made those sounds. Those are your sounds. So that is a really good way just to dive in, get a whole bunch of samples really fast and not worry about the legal implications way Number two would be to investigate Creative Commons. Now, if you don't know what Creative Commons is head on over to, I believe it's creative commons dot org's and, uh, educate yourself a little bit on what Creative Commons means. Um, it's kind of long, but I'll, uh, very briefly describe it here. What it basically means is, it's It's a way for you to for artists and other people, but also artists to create things and kind of sort of put them into the public domain to create things and say I welcome people to use my work to create their own work, basically remix stuff, right? Um, if someone makes something and they put a creative Commons license on it. That means that you have the right to do some stuff with it. Now. What you actually have direct to do with it depends on the license. There's a couple of different creative Commons licenses, so you have to look into that stuff. But for samples, there happens to be one really dynamite website called free Sound. This website is awesome. So you can go Teoh, go to this website. You can say OK. Ah, I want a sample of a cat me out and you can see we have 252 sounds of cats. Me yelling It's more like a fart. But that's ok. Oh, my cat upstairs Gonna freak out a minute. Oh, angry one anyway, So there's tons of these things right? And this is all creative common stuff. You can use it. Um, so I click on one. I go here, here's the sample I have to log in to download it. So you have to make an account. But which is free to do here? I see It's creative Commons Ah attribution license So you can look up that some details about it about it. So free sound is a great resource. You could even go here and to say drums and you'll get way too many 19,877 just drum sounds and you can get confined Some cool stuff here just of, like, loops and anything you can imagine. That's not very interesting. Acoustic drums too slow. Okay, so that was interesting to me. That sounds like it's recorded pretty well. And if I take that, I chop it up there. There's some interesting material there that I could use to make some cool stuff with. So, you know, there's tons and tons of tons stuff here, so make an account here, log in. Um, this is all free and cool, so you know, you can always, you know, send them some love do. Ah, little donate thing. Buy a T shirt. I just got one of the T shirts. It's very nice, um, is a great website, so I encourage you to check it out. It's a great way to get sounds where you just don't have to worry about any of the legal nonsense. Um, and there's more stuff on this site than you can possibly imagine. So much stuff. So that's another way to just avoid the whole issue of the legal sampling stuff. Okay, so that's it. I just wanted to point those things out. Ah, again, I'm not an expert. I'm not a lawyer. Ah, if you use someone else's stuff, it's copyright fraud. That's just the way it is. No matter if it's one millisecond, one sample or the whole track. Ah, so don't do that. Ah, if you are going to do that, keep in mind the degree to which you may or may not get caught doing it. Um, that is totally up to you. But you can avoid the whole issue by making your own sounds or doing something like free sound. Or obviously, the 3rd 1 that I didn't mention yet is buying sample libraries. There are a 1,000,000 sample libraries out there that are fantastic, and you can find all kinds of like, really, really, really high quality sounds by just buying. Ah, couple of the professional sample libraries. They're cheaper than you would think. So, um, check some of those out and then you have free reign to do whatever you want with them if you buy them, so I encourage you to do that. Um, okay. That's all I really want to say about this. We get it right. We're cool. We're on the same page. Ah, let's move on. Ah, next thing last thing in this first big section is we're gonna talk about the four key elements to a sampler. Let's dive in. 4. 4: Okay, I'm in reason now looking at the end. 19. We're going to start with this one, Uh, explains that everything pretty clearly. So the four key elements to a sampler. Um, this is really the same pitch that I give when I talk about synthesizers or samplers or whatever you're going to use. Um, they're the same things. They look a little bit different particular in the 1st 1 So the first main component of any sampler that we're gonna look for is the oscillator section. Now, the oscillator section is the one that's a little bit different. Um, oscillator might be called the oscillator section like it is here. It might also be called the sample section, depending on the particular piece of hardware or software they're using. It's where all the samples live, right? And it's a bunch of parameters. Now, what we have here is, um, each of these little boxes here has a different sample in it. You can see down. Here is the name of the sample. Then, depending on what key we hit, we trigger. Ah, which sample. So it's holding all the samples over here. It's giving us some global controls. Where we will adjust all the samples all at once. Right? So if I switch this octave up toe active five like that now everything is often active. Uh huh. So I've just transposed all samples A productive. So that's one thing we'll talk about in a minute when we really get in. Deep on this is keeping track of parameters that are going to affect all the samples globally, meaning ever all the samples that are currently loaded or parameters that just affect a specific sample. So there's two different kinds of parameters in here, So the oscillator sections of the more complicated the rest of it is the same as synthesis . So the next big thing we look for is a filter. You're gonna have a filter somewhere. So we have frequency, and residents will look at how this works later. The next thing we look for is some envelopes. They're everywhere. In this case, we have an envelope here, and it is connected to our filter. We also have an envelope here which is connected to our amplifier, which is coincidentally, our fourth big thing is the amplifier. So filter amplifier envelope for the filter envelope for the amplifier than the oscillator section appear. There are four main components that we're gonna be looking at, and you'll be able to find these four components on any sampler you walk up to somewhere it's gonna have these four components and if you confined them and you can identify him than you'll be making some sound and you'll be able to make your own sounds reasonably quick. So again, those four things are the oscillator or sample section. It's one the filter section, the envelopes and the amplifier. Cool. All right, Okay. In our next section, we're gonna dive in a little bit deeper to the N N 19 and walk through it and just learn how the whole thing works. So we'll be looking at each of those elements and the next couple of videos as we explore the end in 19 sampler. 5. 5: OK, in this video, we're gonna talk about the N and 19 digital sampler in reason. So what I have here, loaded up is the default patch. A far feet. So organ sounds like this. Ah. Ah. If you don't know if our FISA Oregon is like this, like a box organ. Um, if you, um I can think of some situations where you might have seen one at your grandmother's house or something like that, they were popular back then. They have kind, of course. Ah, I got a nice, like, wobble to it. Okay, So what I want to do in this video is just kind of walk us through. Um, the end of 19 find are key elements. Ah, and then we'll go into more detail. Ah, shortly. So let's skip the sample sex. Well known, Let's dive right into the sample section. Um, so here we have where all our samples are. So each one of these little boxes is a separate sample, and you can see the name of the sample down here. So when I click on it, you see that there are different ai f files, just audio files that get triggered at different points. Now these are called key zones, and they are hugely important when you deal with sampling key zones and also the root key, which is set right here that these are such important concepts that I'm going to devote the whole ah whole video soon to just dealing with key zones and root keys. So let's leave that alone for now. Ah, the one thing I will point out here is that this little keyboard interface, if you click on it, doesn't do anything. But if you option click on it, you can use it. So option will get you this little thing. And that's not a Mac. I'm not sure what the PC control is. I think maybe it's Ault or something. I'm not sure, but it's something there's some key around. There's some modifying that will let you get control of that keyboard. Now, on the end of 19 we can load Ah, whole patch here by clicking this file, and we can save one here where we can scroll through using these. Some of the built in one's now very crucial here not to get confused with this file icon and this file icon Ah the difference is this one. This is where you're gonna load a whole patch. A sampler that's already been built. If you want a load individual samples into your sampler like you want to start from scratch and build your own sampler, You're gonna go here. This is gonna where you're gonna load some of these audio files that are listed here. It's right here. You can cook on this one. It's gonna let you record an audio file and important in there. Let's just do it. Bloody, bloody, bloody, bloody, bloody black blob. I don't think it's gonna work because of all the audio stuff I have hooked up to record this video. But, um, now that one's here. Let's see if there's anything there. Ah, now there's nothing there but silence because it was looking for an audio input that's routed for my video recording stuff. But, um, this is where you would go to load in a particular sample into your sampler. This is where you go toe load in a sample. Ah, patch something that's got a whole bunch of samples in it, and it's all configured the way you want it. Okay, let's look at some of the other stuff. So two key things to remember is global controls when it comes to the samples and local control. So what I'm calling local controls would be, Let's say, this sample here, this area, this is called the Key Zone to talk about in a minute. We have a couple of controls down here, and these govern this key zone this sample. So this particular sample, we can change the root note. We'll talk about in a minute, weaken, do some tuning to it. We can adjust the volume of it and we can decide how or if it loops. So in this case, it's looping forward. So if I hold the note down, the note is going to play over and over and over and over and over. We can also say loop forward and backwards. So go forward and then backwards and forward and backwards, depending on your sample. Sometimes that can be a smoother transition or Lukken be off. So this is these seven controls are set for each individual sample. Whichever one you have clicked on, right? That's where they're going to control. So you can see this one is the tune by three cents. Five over here was to tune by six cents. So, um uh, these are local controls just for the particular sample that we have selected. Over here, we have global controls. So if I say, for example, Sample start like don't. If this is all the way down, the samples are always going to start at the very beginning of the sample. If I crank this up, it's going to nudge in on the sample a little bit. And this is a global control. So this is gonna happen for all samples. So, like if I click on different keys owns this knob stays the same, meaning all samples are gonna be nudged in a little bit at their starting point. Same thing with active. So if I play a note here, I changed the octave here. I've just taken the active for the whole keyboard. All samples global to all the samples. That back, semi tone shift. That's another tuning thing. Fine. That's another tuning thing. That would be sense probably misses in semi tones. So 12 of these per active 12 cents 12 semi tones makes one active ah 100. Ah sense makes one, said me too. Envelope amount. How much of the envelope is it going to use? That would be these envelopes down here. So global controls affect all the samples loaded into your sampler. And local controls here affect only the sample that you have currently selected. Now, what if we only had one sample in our sampler? We just loaded one. The difference between the local controls in the global controls would be nothing, right, Because these would affect only the one sample that we had loaded. And these would affect all the samples, which is only one. So they would be the same if we only had one. Okay, More on cue zones shortly, I promise. Okay, let's go down and look at Let's look at our filter next. So in my list of the four kind of big things that we look for, whenever you walk up to any new device like this is the oscillator section. This is called oscillator right here, because it's affecting this sound making mechanism, which is the sampler. So this coal area here is kind of the oscillator section or the sample section. Same same thing in this case. The next thing we look for is the filter section. That's our second big thing. So here we have a filter. We have the frequency, which is the cut off frequency and the residents. So remember, um, let's review this just really quick. The cut off frequency depends. What this is doing depends on what our settings are down here. So we're on a low past 24 so that's a pretty steep filter. It's gonna let low frequencies through, and it's gonna cut off the high stuff. So what that means is, as we pull this down, we're gonna lose high stuff if we switch it to ah, high pass, go all the way up. As we pull this down, we're gonna lose low stuff. So let's go back to high pass or low pass. Sorry. And let's hear it. Ah, uh, So we've lost those high frequencies, pull it all the way down. There's not much left because there's not a lot of low frequencies in this sound. Right and resonance boosts the cut off frequency. So if we give it some residents, what that's gonna do is whatever frequency this is set to, it's going to give it a big push right at that cut off frequency. So, what that sounds like is, it gives it this kind of laser gun sound are green. Ah, get a higher note here. Uh, now, if we want to change that, we can move the cut off frequency and make kind of a filter your war a little extreme. You Why, Right, so that's residence and filter residents and cut off frequency is what we're looking at here. Okay, now we also have an envelope. Now, remember, our our third big thing that we look for is envelopes. So here we have an envelope, and here we have an envelope I see, too, for us in this particular sampler. So just to review quickly how the envelope works Ah, we always almost always see these four letters a d s r and they stand for attack, decay, sustain and release. Right. So the attack is how quickly as that sound gonna get to its full volume. Right? So right now it's all the way down. That means instantly As soon as I play the note Snoops, let's open up. My filter assumes I play the note. We get it full blast right away. If I turn this up? It's gonna take some time to get to its full volume. The attack will be slower, so it's gonna ramp in now in order here, this the best. Let's come back to this one. To the filter envelope. Let's jump over here for a minute. The amplitude envelope will be a little bit easier for us to hear. So this envelope, the filter envelope, applies to the filter so we can open and close the filter. Over time, the amplitude envelope. Adjust the volume, right? So here's our attack. Ah, it's right on. Now let's turn up the attack of the volume and now we're going to hear the volume fade in. Ah, right. So it takes some time to get in. Now that so that's the attack. D is the decay. And the easiest way to explain the decay is a skip over it. For just a second talk about sustained first and then we'll jump back and talk about today . So the sustained is as long as I have my finger on the note and I'm playing the note, where does it sit? So the attack is going to ramp up to its full volume and then for sustained. I might want it at a lower volume. So let's let's set our attack to be kind of reasonably fast there on them I sustain to be really low, right? So you hear that ramp up and then sit down. Right? So it went Mormon, and then it sat at its sustained and it's just going to sit at this sustained volume. As long as I'm playing the note, I could turn this up. E could turn it down. Sustain is just where it's gonna sit now, jumping back to the decay. The decay is how long it takes to get from here to here. So in our case, we heard it ramp up and then slam down because the decay is pretty fast. If I crank up the decay, it's gonna ramp up, and then it's going to take some time to get down to the sustained volume. Ah, going down and down and down and down. Eventually, it's going to get to our sustained volume. Worse, it's gonna sit. So the UK is how long it takes to get from the top of the attack to our sustaining volume, just just where it sits and then our is released. Are is what happens when I let go. What happens when I let go of the note that this is all the way down? The note stops. I let go stops I crank it up and I let go. Keeps going for a while. So how long does it take for that sound? To get back down to zero basically is what we're looking at now. All of this is if we apply the envelope to the amplitude the volume right over here we have the same thing but applied to the filter so we can open the filter Over time Like this, we can add a decay. We can Addis a sustaining place where we wanted to sit and then a release. So let's have this filter open slowly. Over time, Let's make our our amplitude attack zero so that we get the sound full blast. That way we'll hear this filter open up way. Okay, so I readjusted my settings is a little bit here. I'm gonna close my filter a little bit so that we can hear. Hear it. Open up then. I've got my attack about halfway up. Little more than halfway. Here's what it sounds like. So every time I play the note way here, that filter open up right. And that's because this attack is set. Teoh slowly open the filter with that. If I didn't want to do that, I could slam it down and she's gonna be open. It's just gonna be where I put it, right? That's not gonna change over time. At least not on the attack. The decay sustained release may force it to change over time. So those are three things. So oscillator or sample section first and then filter section is our second big section. We look for envelopes are third things that we look for. And then our fourth is just the amplifier, which we have right here. So we have the amplifier filter and then we have envelopes for both. Okay, so if we get time, we'll look into some of this other stuff here. Um, but a lot of this is kind of extra things that we look at the LFO. Ah, and some of the velocity map ings and things like that. But those are the four main things I want you to know about. The end of 19. Okay, so from here, let's dive in deep and talk about this key zones and root key business cause that's important and let's just do it. 6. 6: Okay, let's talk about key zones and root keys. Essential piece of information when dealing with samplers. So, um, let's talk about key zones first. So what are key zones? Um, here's the the description. I like to give people in my other class. So let's say you wanted to create the sound of a piano you wanted to make a sampler that just sounded just like a piano. So you go to a piano and you find a beautiful sounding piano, right? You like, you get this beautiful grand piano and you play a note, you play middle c, right? Like well, like middle. See, you play middle C on that piano, and you record it right, and you get a beautiful sounding recording of Middle C. Great. So you go back to your keyboard. Um, in fact, I think I'm gonna actually do this. Well, I explain it a luxury I'm not always able to do in my in person classes, So I'm gonna go grab a sample. Yeah, it's okay. So I found a piano middle C sample. So what I'm gonna do here is I am going to reset this device and empty out all samples So now if I play my keyboard, I have here I have no sounds is he says no sample. Okay, so now I have no samples. Right? And I have one key zone there. So let's go back to my piano analogy. So if I load my middle c in So I'm gonna say load now I have to find it. And it is in my downloads folder, and it's really that There it is. So let's load that. Okay, let's close. This browser case will now, I loaded that sample in here and it said it to this note right here. Now, I'm gonna come back to that in a minute, but for now, eso there it iss when I play that note. So that's my recording that I made of that piano. Now, here's where things get weird, and this is why we have key zones. What if I played a really high note now, right, That doesn't really sound like the high note of a piano right. That sounds like, ah, mid range note that's just cranked up to be really high. It sounds more like a bell, then an actual piano note. If I play a low note. That doesn't really sound like a piano kind of does. But there's something not right about that piano. It's not nearly as nice a semi middle C piano sound right now. The reason for that is that it's taking that one sample I gave it its trying to apply it all over its transposing it. So it's changing the pitch to be the correct pitch for the key that I play. But it's doing it by just slowing it down and speeding it up at these really extreme registers. And it's just not something real. So what I would do to remedy that so I might go in here and I'm going to do here is like, right click and then I'm going to say Split key zone. I'm gonna make two different key zones. So now I can say this is the one with my sample of my middle C, and I'm going to say Onley, play that sample for maybe this area. I'm gonna split this again. So now I have three key zones. So now if I say this note, Oops, let's change this sample dial here. So now that note that, see that I recorded. That audio file is only gonna get triggered when I play notes in this range. That's indicated here. I can make the range smaller or bigger on both sides. And if I play note up here is not gonna say anything because I don't have a sample in it yet. But what that means is that with each of these and these are called key zones that I could record instead of recording that one note of that piano. If I want to make this realistic piano sound, what I should do is go to that piano and record 45 notes a low note, a little bit higher. Note a little bit higher, note a little bit higher and a little bit higher. So I get the full range and then I set my keys, owns correctly. And then I've got, ah, full sounding piano. That makes sense. That's why we use key zones as so that it doesn't have to change the pitch a lot. It switches to a new sample when it gets to another area. Now we can also use that if you don't want to just create something that sounds like a real piano you can use that for more sound design benefits, which is layering sounds sometimes in not in this particular synthesizer. But in the next one we look at, we'll talk about how you can layer sounds, using key zones and doing some or extreme things by crafting your sounds. Maybe you want to put the low end of your keyboard. You wanna have a bunch of drums down there and then you want to have, you know, like a synthesizer sound in the top so you could do both at once. This is how you could design that happen so we can have as many key zones as we have keys if you want. You can keep splitting these up until you've got nothing. But you know, one note perky zone, you know, like that, like there's Mikey Zone. Um, so a couple other parameters here, these two knobs, Loki and High Key define the R key zone. So when I move them, it changes that teams of the high point does exactly the same. If we cook in drag sample is what sample is going to go in that key zone and all the samples here are gonna be ones that you've already loaded into your sampler. So I have this one called 176449 come like something. That's my middle C sample. If I scroll up or down, I get no sample because that's the only one loaded in here so far. Now the rookie rookie is super important. Here's what the route he does if I say this is Mikey Zone. What the root key tells me is, what is the unknown transposed sample? What is the pitch of it? What key do you want that sample to get triggered at without any modification? That's what the root note is. So here you can see that it's it's kind of got this. Ah, polka dot mesh pattern, I guess, on C three. So when I play C three on my keyboard, that's that. No. Or I could do the option click thing, right? That's the note. That's the audio file without any transposition on it. Now your computer has to be told what pitch that should be at what key triggers the sample without any transposition, because most samplers are not gonna figure that out for you. They're not going to say, Oh, this audio file is a G sharp, so I'll put that on the G sharp key like they don't do that most of the time. Some of them do, but pretty where? So we have to tell it. So this sample that I recorded is actually not this note. It's actually a C four, so it's actually this note up here, so if I want to change it, I just dial this up to get to see four. Now I have a situation that's a little weirder because my Rukia set correctly, but my key zone is not in that area, right, and that's OK, that's allowed. You can do that. So what that means is that this is my root key, which is important for the computer to know. Sampler needs to know what your root key is, so it knows how much to transpose the note when we play it down here. So even though the root key is outside of my key zone, that's okay. If I play this note, we're not gonna hear anything, right, because the sample for this key zone is no sample. When I played these notes, they're gonna be trance positions of that audio file. It's going to be playing at slower and slower and slower. But the pitch is going to be correct because it knows what the actual pitch is. It knows that it's a seat now. If you don't work with pitched stuff, you don't work with pitches. Um, the way this affects you is ah, the range. You know, if you want your sample to be transposed a lot, make these really far apart. If you want it to be transposed a little, make him close together. And if you don't know if the words like transposition and stuff like that are throwing you off, just think of the bigger the transposition, the goofy or it's gonna sound. That's what you really need to know. So that is the importance of the root key and the key zone. Now, also, here we have some tuning parameters so we can adjust the tuning of it. If it's out of tune, we can pull it back in, tune the level of each individual sample and how it's gonna lose. So if we set this one toe loop, it's gonna sound funny. Wait for it to get to the end of the sample just kind of long. It's really long. It's still going. Sooner or later, we're gonna hear it again. There it is. Awesome. So what we had happened there is in this particular audio file. It's just got a really long tail on the sample, so it's like fading out over like a really long period of time. That's why the loop took forever. Um, normally in a sample like this, you don't want a loop it. So those are the local controls for these individual samples. Cool. So those are our key zones and rookies? All right. Up next. Let's create our own instrument. Using the end of 19 we'll just build something from scratch. 7. 7: Okay, So I'm gonna build an instrument using a sampler on. The first thing I'm gonna do is get some samples. So I found on I'm unfree sound here. And I found this collection of tones. They're not particularly interesting, but they have several of them. So here we have noise tone. Okay. Ah, low. See? Okay. Lo a bass tone. Interesting. Oh, see, uh, higher. See who? And Okay, so they have season A is going up and down and a few different octaves And these based tones in this noise tone, which I probably won't use. So I've downloaded these. Here they are. I'm gonna open him up. There we go. So I'm gonna set those off to the side. Okay? Now, I'm in my end in 19 so I'm gonna either to finger, click or right click or whatever you want to do, and I'm gonna go to reset device. Someone just clear out all the samples, all the settings and everything here. Now, I'm gonna try to load up these samples. I'm gonna try a trick. I don't know if this works. Mm. I'm going to select all of these samples. I was gonna drag him over into this window. Okay, So what that gave me was it didn't create, um, different key zones, But it loaded all of those samples into my samples here. So as I scrub through here, I have a bunch of different samples. So what I really want to do is just disperse these out. So if I control click again, I could go to this auto map samples and have it just make you zones. Okay, so it made my keys. Owns, um I'm gonna remake them here, but at least I have a key zone for every sample, so let's spread them out a bit. So that took all the samples that I had loaded by just dragging them in and gave them their own key zone. So if I click on them and we look down here, it's loading the different ones. Okay, so now let's see how smart it did it. So here is Let's do our option click to make the sounds. That's lower. That's not good. Okay. Um interesting. OK, so let's take this one. Let's look at the name of this file, which is really hard to see here, so I'm gonna go back to my folder. This is 18 983 So 18983 is this one. This is called a tone. That means it's the pitch. A. That's how this person decided to name it, trying to set my rookie on a So I'm looking up here, if you like getting it to an A. So now these pictures are accurate during the wrong active, though. So what I really want is this one to be up. Higher sums going arbitrarily. Choose here. It's that that 1 to 18 983 What I should have done is renamed these samples 18 93. Okay, and they'll set my root key to a closer A. There's one, so these, ah will be pretty accurate. Okay, let's do it again for another one. So let's go just underneath it and see if we can get these tow line up. Okay, well, that's not what I want it all. So I have a high note. Let's try a tone to which is called 18 94. Ah, someone scrubbed through here till I get to 18 984 There it is, and I know it's an A. So let's set our root key to an A. Okay, now let's see if you sign up. Oh, no. There's a big jump there, so I'm gonna try moving this to a lower active I Oh, OK, I got it. So now I have a sound that is consistent across the key zone. So I've done what I wanted to do. Now, this takes a good amount of finagle ng If you do it the way that I did it, it's a little bit easier sometimes to load one sample and in a time so that you can get it in the right spot, get the root key all set up in its key zone, and then put another sample, etcetera. Ah, but this way works okay to it's a little bit quicker for the purpose of showing you. I'm not gonna go through all the rest of these and set him up. I have these two key zone set up just great. So from here, I can adjust more elements of my sound so I can adjust some of the overall things that I want here. I can add a filter. Let's maybe close this filter a little bit and ads from residents. See what that sounds like? Oops, maybe a little bit more. Oh, it's cool. It's getting little buzzy. There's Let's turn that down. Can amplitude envelope? Oh, look, it's kind of flute, like gets a little bit of a whistle there and maybe a filter antelope. Just open up that filter over time. Just a little bit. Sounds like a whistle, kind of. So there you go. You know, it's it's not much more complicated than that to build something simple, using something like the end of 19 or whatever sampler you want to use. All right, I want to do one more thing in the end in 19. Then we move on to a more complicated ah sampler. And I thought, We just do like a little bit of a deconstruction and look at what we've got for one of the presets that are built into reason. So let's jump over into a new video, and then we'll do that 8. 8: Okay, so let's pick apart this, um, particular patch that's built into the end of 19. This is Mel Strings or Melo Strings is probably what they meant to write, um, not meant to write, but, ah, they were trying to come up with a short version to say it, which is interesting because not very mellow. Actually, it's pretty abrasive to me, but they called it Mel Strings, and that's OK, so let's see what we've got here. We have a whole bunch key zones, right bond, two different sounds. So that means that each sample in these key zones is not transposing by very much right. It's not moving, so there's my root key, and it's only going to go up to about here. It's only gonna go to about here or down to about here. In this case, this one's right in the middle. There's a lot of root keys, and then at the end, we've got a note that transposes all the way. The rest same thing at the bottom, right? So the top and bottom are much bigger key zones. That's actually pretty typical. Um, you'll find that a lot of time when you make these things once you get, like, really high. Ah, high note can transpose to be other high notes farther and low notes lower. So so you get kind of wider on the end. It's pretty typical. This the middle is where what we really care about, and I mean the low and the high. But when you get into like the really high, it doesn't seem to matter as much. In most sounds, you'll find that it's not true, always but okay, so let's look at what we've got. Let's look at our sample. So we have a lot of samples, right? Because there's one for every key zone. If I go here to this file, it's gonna open up my samples. Who hears all the samples in this thing? Let's hear him. Okay, Interesting. So what they have here is they basically have ah, bunch of A's. A bunch of sees a bunch of D Sharps and a bunch of F sharps. So what? Their spelling out is about every four half steps. Every four notes on the keyboard is that each note is 1/2 step, so about every 4/2 steps they're making a new key zone that's what they're doing because there's 4/2 steps in between like C and D Sharp and D sharp enough sharp etcetera for sometimes three. So that's why we have all these lucky zones, because they have a lot of these samples in there. So we're all laid out. So they're actually going alphabetical here in this list. So it's hard to see, but they're really going like, um who so So that would be them in order. I basically I'm going all the ones, all the two's, all the threes, all the force. And then the few fives that air there. That's how they're laid out here to see Mel C. Two Melody Sharp, Too Well, F sharp, too. Mel C three c d. Sharp three f sharp, three a three c four, etcetera. So tell her, laid out. So there's all our samples. Let's close that window. Let's look at what else we've got over here in our oscillator section. Nothing on the sample starts. Nothing on the active. Really Nothing happening here. Our filter is off. So not any filtering. Ah, no noticeable amplitude envelope. So there's really nothing happening here except for the samples. Now this is interesting because that means that all of this stuff that they may have put into the modifications of the sound they basically just built into the sound, which you could also do. You know, you can take a lot of time crafting these sounds to be perfect, and then put them into a sampler and then do some more stuff to them, or just consider yourself as like, playing them that way. So ah, you might not need to do very much of anything in the actual sampler. If the sounds are exactly how you want them, then you just have to set up the sampler with the keys, owns the route keys, everything set up, correct, and then you're good to go. So that's one approach to doing it. We'll look at some others that don't exactly do that. Okay, up next, we're gonna move on to a little bit more complicated of a sampler called the NXT E. We're gonna stay in reason. We'll move to able to live shortly, but this next one, the enter next e. It's more complicated, but it's all the same stuff. It's just got a little bit more kick in the Ah, the way it handles samplers. A couple more tricks weaken. Do one in particular that we can do that we can't do here. So Ah, lot of the rest of the stuff is the same as you'll find in all samplers. So let's jump over and check that out. 9. 9: All right, so in this video, we're gonna dive into the end of next T now the enter next he is Ah, little bit more complicated of a sampler. Um, but that's OK, because a lot of stuff is gonna be familiar. So in this first video, we're gonna basically talk about what's familiar. What do we know from the end? 19? No. When we look at something like the annex T, it looks fairly simple on its surface, right? We don't have a lot of controls. We have our standard pitch wheel mod wheel, some kind of external control that's usually programmable to some setting. And then we have what it says here is global controls. Now, remember, that should be a clue. Tow us, right, Because we're looking at a sampler. So when we hear the word global controls in reference to a sampler what we're talking about , it's something that will affect all the samples in the particular patch. The patch we're looking at is a piano, right? So we've got a pretty nice sounding piano, and we have a filter here. Frequency and residence rights. We've got to cut off frequency. We've got the residence. We have an amplitude envelope attack, decay and release. We don't have a sustain in this envelope, but that's OK. Um, and we have a mod envelope decay. So modulation envelope, some kind of modulation envelope, and these are all global, right? So they're gonna fact all the samples and we have a mass rebellion, right? So what if we want Teoh affect individual samples or even deal with our individual samples ? Where is all that information? You've got to open this guy up. And it is this little arrow down here. It's just hiding there because this this ah sampler looks all nice and innocent and not too complicated. But if we open this guy, it gets nice and gnarly. So appears everything that we had. And now we have all this extra stuff right now. Now, remember that this is not all that different than the end in 19. Our global controls air appear, and our local controls are pretty much most of this stuff, things that will affect the different key zone. So our key zones air here. So when I click on one, we see everything light up right, because it's gonna change depending on what? Ah Kee zone we have selected. We have a lot of key zones here. What we're seeing here is the keyboard laid out appear. And then we see all our samples laid out in a list and where they're affecting and we can move him around. Right? So here's our start. Note our end note or vice versa. Our star note on our end note. It's weaken. Just those Our route key is really important is down here, and it's gonna be right here. There's our root key. And as I turned it, you can see the root note is kind of that dotted filled in one right there because there are rookies and then we have all the other stuff. Amplitude, envelopes, modulation, envelopes, lfo a filter, um, another LFO. So all of these air local controls for the global controls up here. Now there's one big thing that's different. Um, other than some of the extra things down here, we have a little bit more than we have before, right? But it's a lot of the same stuff. Um, the envelopes, the filters, the things like that. These are things that you know from the Annex T early and in 19 and we just have to apply them. The way the samples are laid out are different. And then the big difference is if we go over here and we scroll down, we get this line and then everything starts over right? Like, why do we get the samples again? And new key zones, right? That doesn't seem to make sense. Everything happens twice. So the reason for that is what makes this sampler significantly different than the other one. And what makes this one more complicated and more dynamic by dynamic I mean, we can do more with it. We can make more detailed sounds with it, and that is called velocity zones. And we're gonna look at that in the next video. Basically, what that lets us do is map both the key that we play to the different samples and how hard we play that key to a different velocity. So let's jump over new to a new video and we'll talk about that. There 10. 10: Okay, let's go back to our piano analogy that we use when we first started talking about key zones. So we record a note on our piano when we loaded in to our sampler. And as we play extreme distances away from where that sample was originally recorded, we get a less and less piano like sound, right? So to avoid that, to keep it realistic sounding in these cases where we're trying to build a realistic sound , what we might do as we white record alone Oh, a middle note, a high note and and maybe a bunch in between. So we've got maybe five or six samples, and so they don't shift as much for each one. And then we set up key zones to determine what notes happen in what area What sample gets triggered. Right? So, using that same analogy, let's say you went to your piano and you recorded those like, let's say, six samples, a low notes, middle notes, some high notes, stuff like that, and you made your six key zones. Now what if you played them all really quiet every time you hit the note that you recorded two played a nice quiet note like that, right? So then you put it together. And now you said I'm gonna play this really kind of bombastic piece on this, and I'm gonna play the notes really hard. Really loud. What you're gonna get is really soft. Piano note played really loud. That's not the same sound as if you were in front of the acoustic piano. And you, like, hit the key really hard, right? Totally different sound because there's physics that happened when you hit the key. Really heart. There's you hit the key on acoustic piano. You hit the key, Ah, Hammer shoots forward and it hits that string of hits it really hard you get more overtones . It's a very different sound than when you hit it light. So hitting it light and then just doing that really loud isn't the same as hitting it really hard. So we have something to compensate for that called velocity zones. So what we have here is let's look at let's look at our first sample here. This is called piano C 23. Um, now there's no standardization really in the way that we name our samples. You can call the sample whatever you want. Um, for a lot of these presets that do try to stick to, um, a naming convention. And you would be good to stick to a naming convention to if you're going to try to build, like, instruments like this. So let's see. Piano C two, three c 23 Okay, Now, let's go down here and look at what happens after this line. Piano C two, underscore four. So what we have here probably means that this is ah, louder version of this one. Okay, so let's have a look. How can we know? Let's click on this key zone. Let's look at it. So this is gonna activate between C zero and C one. It looks like maybe see sharp one. I can't really tell where that ends right there, but I could go down here and look, Loki is actually seen negative too. So it goes down farther and high key is C sharp one. Okay, so it goes up to this note right here. Okay. So that's where it tells us our key zone. Loki is see Negative two and high key is C sharp one. Now, here's the trick next to it. low velocity what Val stands for. Low velocity in high velocity. So that means in this particular key zone, you have to play a note in this range in order to trigger this sample. And in this velocity between zero and 100. Now our velocity range is 1 27 So the high, the hardest note we can hit is 1 27 If you hit a your keyboard with a hammer, you're going to get 1 27 So that means that when we go down and we look at this one, our low key is F sharp. Negative one. That's a little weird that it's not see negative one. But that's OK. C sharp, negative C sharp. One is where it ends, So the same spot is the one above it, and the low velocity is one. A one 2127. So 1 27 is the top high velocity 101 is where a previous velocity left off, right? So that means we have two different samples for the same key range, with a different low note. But that's OK, and two different velocities that happen. So basically what that means is, if I play it quiet or medium loud, it's gonna trigger this sample. If I play that no hard, it's gonna trigger that simple right, And all of these have them. So if I look at this one A. To underscore for X, that velocity range is one a 1 to 1 27 I go up, look at that same area. Here's a three. We don't have an A to before, so they layered the notes a little bit differently, going in the high velocity. But here's a three, and it is. The velocity range is 1 to 100. We don't use a velocity of zero. Velocity of zero means silence means note off, so our range are effective range for when you're dialing. These in is 1 to 1 27 is the top Now. Sometimes you'll see many velocity Range is where you might have a quiet sample, a medium loud sample allowed sample and a really loud sample. Um, it's not uncommon to see four different velocity range is you'll have a lot of samples. Ah, and that's okay. Um, you'll have a more accurate sound that way. So that's how velocity range is work. Let's look at another example here, So the preset I'm on here is be grand piano one If I go up. No, I'm on a grand piano. So a different piano, a different piano sound, but still a piano sound. If I look at this one, here's what I have. Let's start with this sound. So the 2nd 1 here W h p p underscore e o. Okay, so let's pick apart what they might have called that. So the e O is probably the root note. So, Eo I can look down the list a zero e one a one c to G to those are the root notes. And that's how they're naming these files. The wh I'm actually not sure why they would have put a wh there. Um, that must be for how they were categories in these sounds. But the PP makes sense. Peopie, in musical terms, means pianissimo means quiet, very quiet. So if I scroll down so actually, before I school down, let's look at the velocity range. Here it's 12 53 right, so quiet. It's on the quiet side, so it's scroll down here and we have another velocity range. Let's look at the zero again. And now my velocity range is 53 to 87. And now I don't have PP. I have wh and then something and then underscore e zero. And this something is now on em m like medium, you know, it could be a good there's a couple different things you could call it in terms of like the fancy Italian word, but PP is usually pianissimo. M is probably like mezzo piano Could be mezzo forte. Something like that, Um mezzo means, like kind of. So, um or we could just kind of think of it as medium if we wanted to. So that's a naming convention that they're using here. Pianissimo. Here is the last pianissimo one i m. And let's go down again. Another velocity range. Right here We have an f in our things. Let's go back to e zero. Have W h f f tens demean forte, right? Forte means loud. And here when we look at our velocity range, we have 88 to 107 Now one of seven isn't the top, right? So that means we've got 1/4 velocity zone. Let's look atyou. Zero. We're sorry, A you know e zero And we have f f ff means fortissimo to efs loud. That's as loud as we can. Well, it's not as loud as we can get, but that's as loud as we typically like to go two f So this is one away toe, 1 27 the very top. So these are the loud notes, right? So we have all the same keys, owns four times for the different ah, volume. So this naming convention of using the P the M, the afternoon to efs ah is not really standardized again. You can call the files whatever you want to call them. But remember that if you were making this patch, you would have a lot of files. All of these files, right? There's a lot of them. So doing something like that will help you keep track of them. So it's not a bad idea. Um, put the pitch name in there. The rookie, the what Velocity Ranger gonna use for it and then some kind of identify elect Wh cool. So that's velocity range is something we can do in the enter next e um, that makes it a much more dynamic ah, sampler to be using for making these sounds. All right, up next, let's talk about some of the extra features down here in the local controls and particularly looking at armada envelopes and our filters. 11. 11: So here. Let's look at not a traditional sound. So not a piano or anything like that. So here we just have a synthesizer load in. They called. This is another preset That's in here in reason. It's called tamper Texture. Ah, what? It sounds like Way Theo. Okay. Um, so pretty cool sound. Let's look at how it's constructed and particular in this video, I want to look at the filters in the envelopes so we don't have a ton of audio files here. Right there. Stretched pretty far out. One interesting thing to look at, though, is we have key zones here. All right, so we have all these keys owns that we've got this key zone, like what's that guy doing? This one is overlapping. All of them, right? That means when I played this note, what am I hearing? I'm hearing this key zone and this keynote key zone who have overlapping key zone. And that's OK. You can do that. Could make all of these overlapping if you want. So if I do that now, I'm gonna hear three audio files on here. This one This one and this one When I play a note in this range, right? If I do this, I'm gonna hear four. Right? Things are gonna get crazy. I don't want to actually do that. Um, so but you can overlap, Q Zone. So what they have here is and they have one sound that they want. Oh, resonate through all of this stuff, no matter what, and then they have the individual pitched sounds that they want, and this might have pitched to. It has a root key set, so it probably has some pitch. In fact, let's hear it. So if I click on just this Q zone and I go up here to solo sample, it's gonna turn all the other samples off. We're just gonna hear that one. Not much there. Interesting. So there's not much there. So I think there was a little bit of ah, thump on the attack. So every time there's a new sample, it gave me a little bit of a thump, so that might be what it's doing. It's just contributing to that attack. So I'm gonna turn the solo sample offs that we hear everything. And now let's dive into one of these and look at it. Um, let's look at the filter. So remember, up here we have global control. So we have a filter up here that will affect everything. Right? So if I pull this all the way down, then we're not gonna hear very much, right? Not much left because the filters all the way down turn up a little bit. You hear a little rumbly stuff, you know? And now we're back. So let's leave that straight up. Um, Now, let's look at some of the local control. So my main filters right down here, high frequency and resonance. My main two things that I'm looking for. We also have keyboard tracking, which we'll talk a little bit about later. Um, Frequency. So this scene Oh, works the same. We have different filter types, but key to remember here is that this Onley effects the ah kee zone that we've selected. So you can even see when I go between these two key zones and you look down here, you hear it said almost straight up. I go to the next one. It set down to about 1/4 up. So if I want to change this, you know, I could open it all the way up and then listen to this sample, you know, it's got a lot more grit to it, you know? So there's more of those higher frequencies coming through. There was a lot of residents here, and that's cool. The key here is to remember that when you're adjusting this filter, it only applies to the sample that you're on right. And you can select multiple key zones by, like, shift clicking. So I'm holding the shift key down while I'm clicking. Oops, Let's do that again. So now I'm selecting all of these. You can see it's giving me this m on parameters that have conflicting information, right? So if I adjust this, I'm gonna set them all to be the same. But this m is telling me, Hold the phone. You might not want to change that because it's, um they don't all match so and if you change it, they're gonna all match. Good example is look at the low key and high key. Those are obviously not gonna match right, cause there you go. You can see they're all different. If I change this, they're all going to the same. Let's do it. There goes right now, all my Loki Zehr the same does not what I wanted to dio. Let's see if I can undo that. Yeah, I can command Z undo one of your favorite friends. Okay, let's look at the modulation envelope here. So I'm gonna focus in on this sample. In fact, only hit this solo sample deal. OK, so we just hear that sample. Now we've got this modulation envelope and then some parameters that it's set to. It looks like it's set really to the filter. The filter is where we're we're using this modulation. Envelopes were using it as a filter envelope, and it's attack is pretty high up its hold. Now you can guess what this whole does is it's going to hold on to the attack. So as the attack goes up, it's going to stay there for a certain amount of time. Depending on where this whole this set and then it's gonna proceed to the decay sustaining release you need to review on a tactic a sustained release. Jump back Teoh, the other class on synthesis. We spend a great deal of time talking about a D s are a tactic, a sustained release and how our envelopes work. So check that out. In the meantime, um, we've got this set to filter, and we've got it slowly opening. So that means that filter is gonna open over time. And that's what's creating that watt sound. It's like opening up right. We also have an amplitude envelope that's happening over time. That's set to our level. So that's also ramping up in volume as we play the note for each note. Okay, so that's a couple of the modulation parameters in here. Mostly are filter, um, an focussing on the difference between the local and the global control is very important in a sampler like this. All right, Next, let's build something from scratch. Let's figure out how we set up our key zones in the enter next e and how we set up the velocity zones in the entire next E. In the next video 12. 12: All right. So let's build our own sampler now. So I'm gonna use the same sounds that I used in my previous example, but I renamed them. I gave them better names for us toe find. So I haven't a high e. Even a low. Uh, I have a name ID. Ah Lo See amid. See way low. I just called that one. Okay, so we'll be better if I had the actual pitch name on there like C one, C two c three, but ah, this This will work as well. So first thing I'm gonna do is clear this out. So I'm gonna do my control. Click and go down to reset device Boom. No samples now. Right? Cool. So let's load some samples in. So now remember, I have these two different ways I can do this, right? This is not what we want to do. This is gonna load in a patch. This is gonna load in sample. So I'm gonna hit this file browser Now I gotta find my way. Two downloads. And then whatever this was called, which I think with this There we go notes. Now they are Ah, tongue. I select all of them by doing the shift. Click, trick and hit return there they all are. Let's get rid of this browser. Okay? Now my notes are all in here, so I'm gonna organize them a little bit better first. So I'm gonna put my seaway low at the top just by clicking and dragging because I want things to be from low to high and you don't have to do it that way. It'll just make this your keys owns easier to see when you do it. So now let's do a low. And then Cee Lo and then a mid and then seem it and then a high. That should be low to high. So the way the Q zones are set up right now, whenever we play any note, we're gonna hear all of them. It's gonna sound terrible, but let's do it just for fun. Ah, that's actually oddly harmonious. Kind of like it, um, but it's not very useful to us. So, um, let's set up our key zones first, and then we'll work on velocity zone. So seaway low. So I know my root note needs to be us. See? So let's go down toe our route. No area here, so it's set to see three. Let's change it to a C one. And then I'm just gonna use up here to set my key zone. I'm going to say you go to about there and eyeball it, and that's okay. My next one, This is an a low. So I need to set my root key to be a ah, somewhere in that range. So let's do a one, okay? And then I have Ah, si, Lo, let's do this to shorten that. And maybe this gets a little smaller. We're gonna overlap just a little bit here. We're not gonna actually overlap. I'm going over that, Mikey here. We're not gonna overlap. Never mind. So this is a c low. So let's change this to a C to maybe see to try that. And then we have another A. Let's put this about there to there. I will set this to be a to to you, and then I have a mid range. See. So let's put that right there. Close that one off. We'll set this 12 c three looks c three and then I haven't a high animals. Put this one right about there. They make it a little bit bigger since our last one, and we'll set it to a three. Okay, lets see how we did. So if I line these up right as I scroll up the keyboard here, we should hear a consistent pitch going up higher and higher and higher and higher. Shouldn't hear any big leaps. So let's see what happens. Oh, I think we're okay if I just switched these. It's interesting that this one came off as a low in this one. A way low. But let's see what that does for us. Nope. Oh, a better solution. Undo, Undo, undo. Go back to everywhere. My actives air just wrong. So this one All right. Okay. So Okay, so I messed around with these a little bit and I got him to where? I think they sound as good as they're gonna sound. These are slightly different sounds, So it's hard to get him like, completely smooth. But what I figured out was this 1st 1 see one and the next one is a one. And then see too a to C three a three that gets us the best smooth unknown Um Okay, so I got those right now. Let's try to add Ah, velocity zone. Now, what I could do is I could just go in here and add all of those samples again, and there they are. Okay. I did the exact same thing. I selected them. I put him in there. Everything's fine now. I don't get that cool line going in between the two like this. Ah, but you can get that with this G area. Here is group. So if I select these new ones Oops. So, like all of these in the middle. And I say group selected zones. Now, I get that break in the middle, so you don't need to do that. It helps you keep track of them a little bit better. So let's just match these up. Well, that was not the right thing to do, because I haven't put him in order yet. So next one is a low. Next one is Cee Lo, Cee Lo Green a mid and then seem ID and a high. Okay, so now the 1st 1 I'm just gonna have all these that so that they match their key zone from above. When that one shouldn't overlap. Okay, now they match up. Now I seem to set the route keys to be the same. So if I look up here, it's going to see one and then a one and then see two in a two and C three and a three. So this needs to be set to see one seems to be set to a one. This needs to be C two a to oops. Hey to C three and a three. Here we go. Okay, Now we're all set. One last thing to Dio. So now these are completely identical. They're exactly the same key zone. We're gonna hear both notes all the time. I need to change the velocity, right? So let's go to our 1st 1 here. And so our velocity here is 1 to 1 27 That's the max. That's the full range. And up here, it's 1 to 1 27 So let's change it. But let's not change it for just this one. Let's do the shift. Click tool. Now let's say let's assume these air the louder sounds. Now what I did as I pulled in the same samples, right? So let's assume the samples I pulled in were louder samples. Right. Um, it's if you do this with the exact same samples. It's kind of silly. Right? Um but I'm doing that just to demonstrate without having to throw a 1,000,000 audiophiles at you. So let's assume these samples are our new samples. And there somehow sonically different samples. They have some kind of characteristics that we want to be triggered when they're louder. So what we're gonna do is we're gonna leave this 1 27 where it is. We're gonna change this low velocity up to, I don't know, somewhere around 70. So it's about halfway point a little more than halfway. And now we get these. Ah, you know, dotted lines. Meaning there's some kind of velocity parameter adjusted here. Now we're halfway there, because now we're going to hear two we're gonna hear this is set to 1 to 1 27 So if we play a quiet note, we're going to hear just this sample we play allowed. No, we're gonna hear this sample and this sample, right? Not exactly what we want. That could be interesting for some kind of sound design thing. But to generate this really? Ah, dynamic thing that we want to do. We need to adjust these ones as well. So I'm going to select all of these. I'm gonna take these, I believe the low velocity at one and take the high velocity down to one less than where the next one starts. So the next one starts at 70. Right? 70. So these ones I want to start early, one toe end at 69. So when I play a low note or a quiet note, I should say it triggers the the top bank of sounds. Ah, high note traders. The bottom make sounds. Okay, We're done. No last thing about this, though, so we're not really, really done. Um, this is kind of a pain to set up, right? So you don't want to have to do this every single time you make a patch. So that's why we have things called patches. So let's save this. So I'm gonna hit this little save icon, and I'm gonna call this. Ah, simple. Since I'll save it. Now, I've got this patch that I can recall at any point. And as long as I don't move around my samples, then it will be able to put it all back together easily. Now, what? I said when I say move around your samples. That means, like, if you it's gonna remember basically where your samples are on your computer. If you move those around, it's not going to find him. And you have to reassemble this. So, um, the best solution would be Teoh put the samples in a good spot on your hard drive first and then build this thing and then save the patch with it so that you know you're not gonna move around and it won't have a problem finding him. He okay, so that was a little tricky. One that was a little tedious. But that's how these things go. It's not supposed to be easy. Um, up next, let's do ah, little patch deconstruction and see what we can find. Ah, by picking apart one of the presets in the nxt e 13. 13: Okay, so let's pick apart another preset this time using the enter next t. So what we've got here is preset, built into reason called ephemeral, too. Okay, so, uh, on the surface looks great. Nothing weird, right? All our global controls or straight up? Nothing weird except for a master volume. Turned up just a hair. So let's open her up and see what we've got. So first, let's hear it. Go. Um, Okay, so let's look at what we've got here. Um, I'm gonna scroll up and down, so no velocity section. Right. So I would expect all of these. All of my keys owns my velocity to be won through 1 27 It appears to be nothing strange there. Um, I've got a lot of samples here. Different route notes labeled nicely in the in the audio files and set appropriately here. So this one says the route notice. Be one I would expect down here to go to the root and C B one, and I do. I got a little bit of d tuning happening on some of these. This is tuned by seven says negative too. So just some fine tuning. That's been happening? Uh, nothing weird there. Our I'm looking at the filter. Now as I scroll through my samples and they're all set the same this filter. So the filters set. Ah, the same for all pitches. So that means that we went like this. At some point, we set the filter to where we wanted it. And then we left it. Same thing with the residents. We've got an amplitude or armada envelope doing a little bit on the filter, and it looks pretty consistent all the way across. I don't see any big differences down there. So that means that we've got an a D. S are envelope being applied to the filter, but only a touch. This was like way on either side. It would be more extreme, but so what? They're going down. It's doing like an inversion of the modulation. So instead of up, it's going down, etcetera. Um, so a slight filter envelope. Very slight happening. Amplitude envelope? Not much. We have Ah, pretty fast attack was all the way down. It would be like dead on, but it was just a hair up. So that means that our sound slowly are slowing, gets louder after we hit the tone, but happens very fast, right? And that's set to level. So not a ton happening here. So fairly simple. We have Ahmad envelope, an amplitude envelope filter. Everything's set, importing predictable ways. No velocity controls, a lot of samples. A lot of key zones pretty evenly spread out. Now. I think this patch is great because it shows us that it doesn't need to be so complicated, Right? Like this is ah, fairly dense sounding patch. But there's not a ton happening that we can't wrap our head around, right? We've got some envelopes. We've got some filters and we've got some samples, right? Not rocket science. Okay, from here, we're gonna jump over, and we're gonna look at the able to in simpler. So we're going to switch platforms entirely, look at a whole different sampler and see how it works. Um, and see how what is the same? And what is different in reason versus ableto live. Now, remember, I'm gonna point out yet again that our goal here is not to learn how to master the NXT, Ian reason or the sampler or the simpler in a Bolton. The goal here is to be able to look at one of these and start to understand how it works right off the bat. So when a new one comes out, you can just be like, This is awesome. I totally get it. Um, so we're gonna look at a couple different platforms and see how the different things are laid out. But we know those four key elements that we're looking for looking for our sample section or also later. We're looking for some filters, some envelopes and amplifier. That's what we're looking for. A soon as we find it, we know how to make some stuff happen in it. So let's jump over to able to live and see if we could make some sense of the simpler 14. 15: All right, let's look at able to live and at the simpler. So I have loaded here. One of the preset patch is called the simplest piano. Um, because it is because we just want to have a look at the overview. In this first video, we look at the interface and how it works. So here's our sample. We have one sample here. Pretty simple, right? That's why it's called this simpler. Um, we can start the start, point or weaken. Set the start point. Ah, the fade length and how it's gonna loop. We've got a filter down here. Frequency and residents, right? Familiar controls. That's what we're looking for here. We're looking for familiar controls. Um, up here, we have an envelope, right? A tactic. A sustained release. We know to identify that as an envelope, and we actually I'm kind of a sneaky way. Have three envelopes here. So this is our amplitude envelope, because it has volume. Volume is amplitude right underneath it. We have filter envelope. It's turned off. You can turn down here and next under that, we have a pitch envelope, so we can just the pitch over time, and it's off we can turn it on right here. Court. So we have LFO down here. We have lfo appear on the panning. Um, we also have glide here. Glide is sometimes labeled as port aumento. We've seen this in the synthesis class. We talked about this in good amount of length as we did with the LFO. Information glide is basically how long it takes to get from one note to the neck. So it's gonna like a wound, like pitch up or down to fill in the gap between two notes. If you don't want any glide, you leave. Leave this off port aumento and glide right there. Now, this has a setting for port aumento and a setting for glide, so I'm not really sure what the difference is in the way. Able 10 is treating these. We could look that up. Um but that's OK. We'll leave it off way, have a pretty normal sounding, uh, piano here, all built on this one sample. Now, if you look really close when I play the note, you can see a little orange marker scrubbing through the sample and we could set our start point this little flag forward like Let's say we didn't want to hear that much attack, and we wanted to start it. Like up here. The whole thing sounds quieter because we moved our start point ahead, right? We also do that here. Okay, now, here we have velocity and volume. So, um, not a whole lot of, like, really in depth features. Here we have envelopes, filters, volume. Ah, or amplifier, in other words. And the sample section, which is up here and down here. If we want to throw a new sample in here, we can just drag one in. And that will make us ah, sampler out of these. Simpler. Okay, up next. Let's talk about drums. Let's talk about using the sampler. Too early. Simpler. Sorry to make drum sounds in the next video. 15. 16: Okay. Now, when we talk about drum sounds in a sampler, everything pretty much works the same. We can apply filters. We can fly envelopes, weaken, do everything we want. Um, the simpler is a good, ah, way to use or a good tool to use for drum sounds because it basically plays a sample. Uh, but we need a little bit more information in there, and at the same time, in a way, a little less. Because when we deal with drums, what's the big thing we don't care about? Yes, pitch. We don't really care about the pitch all that much. We tend to not want our drums to transpose while we play. So what I have set up here is a drum kit. Now, this is an able tin trick that they're doing here, So I'm gonna look at our kick sound. So here's our kick. And when I click on it, if we scroll over here, we see a simpler So there's some extra stuff happening here, and I don't want to go into great detail on this stuff, but basically we have ah, kick. It's got a sample in it and we can play exactly one note with this sampler because we have this stuff out here that's basically this is called a drum rack in a Bolton. What this is doing is this is always gonna output the same note so that where I put when I play the keyboard basically this box is a mapped to a note and I can play it and let me see if I can find it. You go down, inactive. There it is. So I'm playing see below middle c and that triggers that note and that sends a command over to the simpler to play this sample. And that means it's not gonna transpose because each of these have their own sampler. Simpler, Sorry. Their own simpler in them, right, These air all separate instances of the simpler. So the simpler plays that sample weaken still control it a lot. We can control it with ah, volume, envelope, filter, envelope, pitch, envelope. We could turn our filter on and do some filtering could adjust the start time. We could just spread panning LFO. We can still do anything in the world we want to do to it. Ah, but all things being equal where it's gonna play that sound. So if I look at some of my other ones, here's my snare, right? Let's hear it. So all I'm doing that's different. Here is using this drum rack idea to trigger these samples. So to set this up, it's actually really easy. Let's go to Let's go and make an empty drum rack. Throw it out here case. And now I have an empty drum rack because aren't gonna do anything. And now I can take, actually, if I just take drum sounds, let's just take some of the built in ones here. Okay, so here's a high hat. Let's just click and drag that right onto this pad and automatically throws it in a simpler right. So there it is. Let's grab. Um, here's a snare store that right there on F one right? And there it is. So all of these are already mapped two pitches, and so this is like the whole range of the keyboard going up and down right here. He's a little white dots show where we've already put stuff. It's kind of a terrible sounding Ah, snare drum. Okay, here's a bongo hit to put that there. Right and Now it's mapped, so I just need to find where that is. There it is on my keyboard. It's on my f sharp and I can put stuff. Here's a whole beat. I can put a whole beat there. Why not? So it's gonna play through this whole thing right now, and that's cool. That's gonna happen if you put a whole beat on it. We could change some settings to make to make it not play through the whole beat if we wanted to. Let's maybe say we just want that first kick sound right. I just changed the end point. Now all we have is that kick from that whole loose, So it's kind of handy that way. This is cool. This is how you can do drums. Ah, with the simpler you can think of the simpler as just like a sample player. But it still has all of our functions that we expect to see in a sampler, right? Our envelopes, our sample section, our filters and our volume. Um, but in a Bolton, if you use this drum rack thing, you can make a really fun drum. Sounds by incorporating as many different instances of the sampler as you want, but only holds one sound, but we could make 100 of them if we wanted to. That's how you could do drums using simpler. 16. 17: okay. I have here a little triangle, okay? And I'm going to drag this into my simplest piano. Okay, so now what we have here is this little triangle sound. And now, because I'm not using the drum rack, this is just map to my whole keyboard. Right? So that's kind of interesting. So what I'm gonna do in this video is we're gonna make a sound, right? So I'm going to start with this triangle. I'm gonna see if I can make a reasonably dynamic sound with it, so Ah, let's adjust some parameters. So I've got start point and point. Ah, length. I don't think I want to change any of this thing. I'm OK. You got a filter. Let's turn that filter up a little bit. Let's crank up the residents, see what we get giving a very percussive kind of sound. But that's cool. Um, let's do something crazy. I'm gonna select loop. So that means that when it plays to the end, it's gonna go back to the beginning, so OK, let's not wait all day for it. Let's just change our loop point here, Okay? Now, let's watch it. Okay? So as long as I'm holding my finger down. It's gonna loop, so check this out. Well, let's do something like this. Not even maybe even tighter. Look, Right. So now it's just looping, like, extremely fast. Okay, that's kind of fun. Let's see what else we can do with that. So let's see if we adjust our resonance, our frequency a little bit. They get a little bit more on the brightness of that. Okay, um, let's go to our volume envelope or are amplitude envelope? Um, let's give it a little bit of an attack. Okay? I'll turn it up. Kind of high to here. All right, now, let's turn on our filter envelope. Let's turn on up the attack on that so that that filter opens a little bit as the sound happens. Okay, that's kind of interesting. Okay, what else can we do to make this a little more interesting? Let's try turning this LFO on. I'm gonna turn it from hurts into the division of the beat, and we'll set it as a sign wave. Ah, let's leave re trigger on. Have it transposed by an octave. I guess so. Transposing by an octave is kind of a separate thing, But let's see if we can turn up our LFO here. So now it's panning left and right. What else could we dio? I'm just trying to find a whole bunch stuff we can do now. Our transposition is is controlled by that L f O s from that down a little bit. Getting closer and closer to a Thurman Turner. Spread up. Now, let's leave it down and cut that out. Okay? It's good. Okay, So now I took my initial bell sound What? Sounded like this, and I turned it into this, Uh, so I really low note. Pretty cool, right? So we got this alien Thurman kind of sound. So that's how you can turn one sound into another just by, ah, some slight adjustments. The main key I did here was turning on the loop and then setting it to be super small so that it would be Ah, so that would make kind of a sustaining pitch. You could get in there more and make it even smaller if you wanted to, but, um, I think I was good enough for this example. Okay, let's do one more. Ah, video with a simpler and let's do another one of our patch deconstructions and see what's inside some of the pre built patches 17. 18: okay. I have a patch here called piano bass is what sounds like how you you you you pretty cool. Um, so it's pick it apart and see what we've got. Um, we've got our loop mode turned on, and it's got a nice cross fade in there to see how this is kind of fading in and fading out , using this fade setting right, that's going to give it a nicer, smoother sound as it little right. So it's looping like that, and it's got this cross fade happening so that you don't hear it is much the the in and out of the loop, and the loop setting is turned on here. I've got no attack in our envelope here. Um, we do have decay, sustain and release a little bit up. Our filter envelope has turned up a little bit, Um, and its own. Our pit envelope is not on. Panning is such a center are glide is turned on and are glad time has turned. Oh, so we hear how it's going from one note to the other. Oh, it's gliding up to it now. If we didn't want it to do that, you could turn that off. You know, you're right. And it's just going up and down If we turn on glide. Oh, now, Oh, it's gonna wound. It's gonna zoom up to the new note. Can we have a frequency? That's our filter that's up. Just a hair and residents, that's up kind of a lot. So we're boosting it, Really kind of in the low end. Ah, which is getting rid of any, like, high frequency stuff. So let's see what high frequency stuff is in there. Let's open this up. Ah, that's kind of interesting. We can hear that loop a lot clearer now. Uh, and we can hear that it's just a normal piano note, but we're pulling all of that piano sound out now, just getting the lower side of the piano, all right? And if I even leave it up just a hair more, we start to hear this this ah, filter envelope. Oh, a little bit more. Let's leave that down where it was. And that's about it. Not a lot to dig through on the simpler Next, we're gonna look at the sampler, which has a lot more features. Now, One thing I do want to point out is that the enable tin the simpler can handle more than one ah sound file. You can load more than one sample into a simpler, and it goes into what's called a multi sample mode. Um, but for the purposes of this, I wanted to keep it simple and just show basically how the simpler is a great to use as a trigger, um, for drums for any kind of sound. Because it's so simple. When we look at the sampler, we'll see how it it works better as a more full featured sampler like the NXT Iwas. And there's even a feature in the simpler where, if you do like a right click on it, you can do this simpler to sampler conversion, where you can convert it into a sampler, which gives you a lot more control over the samples. So now we're looking at a sampler of full on sampler in able to enable Tone sampler, which will look at in more detail in the next video 18. 19: But okay, let's look at able 10 lives sampler. Now this one works a little bit different, has a lot of the same stuff in a couple different things. Um, the biggest thing you'll notice is that it's laid out a little bit different where things look different. But once you start poking around, you'll find that the key elements that we're looking for the familiar things from the other three samplers that we've looked at so far we'll be familiar to you. So let's poke around. Let's see what we've got. So here we're looking at a sample, right, So we see away form And what do we see in these different colored sections? Well, this part is probably a loop, right? So that means that when our sample starts, we get an initial attack. We start back here and we play. And well, the sustained setting is on, like while we're holding the note down, were looping in here, and you can see a little fade in and fade out to make that nice and smooth. We stay in there once I let go, the releases triggered, and it continues on, so that would be a very typical way that one of these would work. We've got some settings for our loop, start and cross fade. And now down here we have some settings for our particular samples. We've got volume sample, start, sample, end panning, Ah, root key de tune. We can reverse it, Which in this particular sample sounds not all that much different. And some general things now one of the main interface thing that's different here in the sampler as we have these tabs up top. Okay, so we're just looking at one sample here, but let's click on our zone button, right? That we know probably tells us something about key zones. Right? So let's hit it now we get this new window up here right now, we have all kinds of samples, right? And every single one that I click on, We get a different window down here. We have totally different settings for all of that stuff, right. And over here we see where the key zone is applied. So let's say let's pick this sample See, too, So that probably has a root key of C two. So let's go find it right here. Route Keesee to excellent. And it's gonna hit in this zone. Now, Also in this zone is the next sample C two hyphen to this was C to hyphen one. So we're getting two samples in that key zone now. We saw this before, right? Uh, we saw twice before. We saw twice before a situation where we would have the same sample in two different keys. Owns one was in one of the devices we looked at where there was one sample that happened on all key zones, right. It was one big key zone that went all the way across and then above it. We had several other key zones, right? So that one sample hit all the time, and then there were separate keys. Owns that happened for the different samples. You always heard two samples. That's not what's happening here. Um, that would be one instance where we saw Overlapped Keys, owns another instance where we saw overlap key zones. It was when we had velocity zones. Right. So we might want both of these toe happen in that key zone, but only one toe happen in a different velocity. Right? So let's have a look at our velocity zones now enable tin are setting for those. It's here. So we're looking at key zones here. Right. Well, as you could probably guess, is velocity. So let's look at our velocity zones. Now, hear those same two samples, see to hyphen one and C two hyphen, too. So see to hyphen one in our velocity scale of 1 to 1 27 The 1st 1 is always on. It looks like we're always gonna be playing the 1st 1 The 2nd 1 we're gonna get only at the very end. So that means at the top velocities. So if we play that note really hard, we're gonna trigger C two hyphen to this sample. So that's interesting. And you'll notice this pink little ramp here. This is Ah, cool, able tin trick. Where if I grab this little dot, pull it in, That's basically a cross fade. So when we have it here, for example, when we play this one, we're only gonna hear it a little bit, a little bit more, a little bit more, a little bit more as a velocity goes up. So that's kind of being like turned up, depending on what velocity we play it at. So Ah, interesting velocity zone. So we're going to hear at its full volume. If we play a note at 127 as hard as we can, we are gonna hear two samples here, right, Because otherwise we would expect to see something like this, right in which one stops where the other one starts. Or maybe even something like this, right where they're cross fading between the two. And I did that by grabbing this little tiny thin bar up here, and I could make a cross fade, but that's not what we have. What we have is this. So it's top volume. We hear both. Let's see what that sounds like. Oh, interesting. Now here it is. I'm gonna play it not at its top volume. So there's some extra element that's getting kicked down there at the very top. That's interesting. Now we also have 1/3 kee zone here, which is interesting here. They're all on, which means there it's not being really used here. This one is a selection tool, and what it is is it's this orange line and this one works a little bit differently in that . Basically, you can have this set on a knob on some kind of key border device that you might have so that you can basically turn it Ah, and say like, Okay, when it's down, I want to hear this group of samples. When it's up, I'm gonna hear this group of samples and you can kind of scrub through samples that way by adjusting this sample selector tool. So it's kind of another fund parameter that's not based on the key zone or the velocity zone, but set on basically where you have a particular fader that you might set to control this little orange line. So those are key zones, philosophy zones and ah, selection zones. Okay, let's look at what else we have down here. So we have our zone that shows us this new window up here. Let's close that we have our sample tab that shows us whatever sample we have selected in our key zone. Next tab, we have pitch slash off. So this is gonna be our oscillator, right? So we have an oscillator here that's gonna let us draw an envelope, which is nice. We have our attack sustained decay in release down here. Tactic. A sustained and release. We have some extra settings for it. We have loop settings, things like that. Now, also down here, we have a pitch envelope that we can control so we can make the pitch go up and down in different ways over time using the pitch envelope here. And if you don't want to use potential, oh, periods, turn it off. It's got an on off thing, and it's got its own envelope. A tactic, a stain released. I just did it totally bizarre. Okay, that's back to where it was. That's what we have here in the oscillator section. Let's go to the filter slash global tab. So here we have a filter, right? We can control where that filter is. This is gonna be a static filter. It's not gonna move over time, right? We're just gonna set it where we want, right? So let's set it to about there. If we want residents in it, we push it up, right, or you can control it here, presidents. But remember residences just putting a little spike on the cut off frequency, which we can just do by pushing it up right there. Or we can do it by doing this right? Then we have a cut off frequency. We can move there and we have a filter type. Now, if we wanted to be an envelope meaning it's gonna change over time. We can turn on the filter envelope here, and we can adjust our settings to change over time Are a tactic a sustained and release here or we can A strawman could do that if we wanted. So that's the filter. But then we also have over here Ah, global function. This looks like an amplitude envelope so we can adjust the amplitude of the sample toe happen however we want. And this Vaulx Ah vell setting here. This basically means how much of the volume is going to be controlled by the velocity. So if we play it really hard, it's going to do this envelope more. It's going apply it in a more extreme way, and if we play it light, it's going to apply it in a less extreme way, depending on where this is set. All right, let's look in our modulation here. All right, let's jump in on these LF O's first. So we have three lfo is we can use. So it's a pretty complicated thing. We've got the oscillator type. Ah, we set it to beats or weaken. Set a frequency by going here. I remember the LFO is an extra layer of motion that we're going to give to the sound. So we set it to our speed, either beats or frequency, depending on what we want to dio. And then we said it to where it's gonna apply. So we're gonna We're at about 60.2% applying to the volume that's gonna make the volume flutter up and down very quickly. We can also apply it to the filter, so make the filter open and close very quickly. The panning zip left to right very quickly or the pitch having go up and down very quickly . So there's just a hair of it on the pitch Here, Here we have another LFO this one set to filter frequency and over here we have 1/3 al fo this one set to the LFO two rate. So this LFO is controlling this LFO who's going to make it slowly change over time are actually fairly quickly change over time. Then we have an ox LFO or not? LF oh, sorry. An ox control here. This is just another envelope, right? A DSR envelope. And what's this one doing? It's set to ox, so that means it could do whatever we want it to do. So we can apply it to two things here A and B and in this list is pretty much everything in this synth. So we could apply an envelope to the LFO rate, right to have it to give it an A D. S are envelope, right? So there's a lot we could do with that. And we have a whole other list here, that same stuff, but a lot of stuff there. There's a lot we can do with this sampler. It's very robust. We can have as many notes as we can handle many key zones we can handle. We can have velocity zones. We can even have this kind of manual selector zones. We got three LF owes Ah, filter a filter envelope, an oscillator, a pitch envelope, whole bunch of settings for each sample and then our zone settings over here. Okay, So in our next video, let's pick apart another, um, preset here now, in this one in this whole video have been looking at this preset called Galactica Pad. Ah, and we'll look at another preset in the next video, and we'll just pick it apart that way as well, so we'll see you there. 19. 20: Okay, let's pick apart another one of these and just see if we can. What makes see what makes it work. So what I've got here is a preset built into able to in live called Revenge of Q pad. I don't see what it is. Um, let's hear it first is what it sounds like. That was one note I was just holding down one note that whole time, Um, so that's all in the single sound, a single pitch. Try playing a couple more notes and put some low notes and some high notes in there. Okay, so pretty, pretty dynamic sound. So let's see what's in it. So first, let's look at our zones going to click on his own tab here, so I only have five zones. Interesting. Um, and let's see what's in them. So our first zone isn't our entire low range here, and this is our sample, and let's do this at the same time. So let's look at the zone and the sample. So we see here the zone we can actually so low this zone so I can say so low. And then let's see if I can trigger one of those notes. Okay, We can actually see the loop cruising through there. I let go. We see it kind of carry on there. I don't know if you could see that through the video, but there's a little pink line running, and then it cruises off when I let go. Okay, so, uh, interesting. So we have a loop set up here, so we have ah, cross fade here. It's a little hard to see, so it's set here so we can adjust it to be bigger if we want or smaller. Okay, So interesting. Let's look at another zone. And so load this one. Now this stone is here. It's significantly shorter. That's what's in this zone. So a similar sound and we have a cross fade. We have a little bit longer loop, it looks like, but that could be deceptive. That's hard to tell, Rupkey said. To see to interesting K. Let's let's keep going. Let's hear our 3rd 1 this one set to see three. Now we can see it cruising through that loop, but we hear all kinds of other stuff, right? So we know there's some envelopes problem. LF owes working to keep this sound changing over time because the actual sample is just looping through that little bit of it. But there's all this other stuff happening, so So we'll look at that in just a second. So it's solo are our next one Theo. So same kind of deal. We have a lot of sound happening, even though we're just hearing this loop for most of that. And let's look at our last time. Interesting. Much more, uh, oboe. Kind of like. Okay, while we're here, let's look at our velocity settings. KR, velocities, air. Even so, there are all on all the time. So we're That means we basically have no velocity settings set up no velocity, no special velocity controls, Um, no velocity zones and put that way and r selection tool here. Our sample selector is always all on for all of them as well. So we don't have any zones set up for the sample selector. Go. So now let's go down and look at some of our other functions here. So let's look at the pitch. So we have an oscillator set up with an envelope on it with an 80 s are pretty long. Right? So this is gonna be slowly in and then reasonably quickly out. We also have a pitch envelope with a little nudge in it, right? Eso a very slow rise because that's not ah, going up very far. So it's going to slowly go up and pitch a little bit and then back down. Interesting. That's looking our filters. So we have, ah, filter set up here. We have a low pass filter set up about halfway through with a good amount of residence. Not too much. We have a filter envelope. It's going to slowly open that filter and then pull it back down. Right? So we've got some time set up on that filter, which is really interesting, and then our global amplitude is going to be going up and down as well. This is slowly opening right and then staying open. Look at our modulation amounts. Okay, so we have nothing on the auxiliary envelope, so that's not doing anything here because it's off right, But we have three. LFO is all cooking, so let's see what they're doing here. This first LFO set toe one hurt is controlling our panning, so that's making it spin back and forth, right? Our second lfo oh to set 2.6 Hertz is controlling our filter morph amount and pretty strongly, right? Like at up to 78. Let's go back to our filter. So here's the morph amount Low pass Band Pass. It's set to zero, but it's controlled being controlled by that LFO. So that's pretty interesting. And let's look at our last LFO. It's one set to 10.17 hurts, and this is controlling the filter que. Which is kind of how wide the filter is for the filter. Q is like like if this is our filter, it's going like like this, making it wider. Ah, and it's also controlling the pitch oscillator. So, um, the pitch is going to be slowly morphing by this LFO. So there's a lot happening in the L A. Folks here that give us those slowly morphing sounds. Right. Um, cool. So very dynamic. Sound cool. Very good. So that's the ah able 10 sampler. So there's a lot of stuff in the sampler here. Um, I just wanted to touch on and just really kind of, ah, scratch the surface of what you can do with this tool. It's a really great tool. You can do a lot with it. Um, this is Justin Overview class. So I I don't want to go into super detail on every single element of every single thing. As we found in all the synthesizers that we've been looking at, all the samplers that we've been looking at, we're really just scratching the surface. So I hope you go deeper into all these tools and just start picking things apart and exploring them on your own and seeing what you confined. 20. 23: All right, everyone. That's it. Ah, you got through the class. Good for you. Congratulations. I got through the class. Good for me. Congratulations. Um, couple parting thoughts. Number one. Remember, we've just scratched the surface here. Ah, this is very much an overview class on sampling and designing sounds using samplers. You could go miles deeper than this. Um, we've really only looked at the basic functionalities of your popular and, ah, more standardized sampler objects here. Sampler instruments here. So there's tons tons, tons more. You could dio, um I encourage you to keep exploring, keep looking for more classes. That ah, investigate this topic. Um, and another thing I want to tell you about. Ah, since you're in the mood to take some classes, the next thing I would recommend you take is I have this class called music theory for electronic musicians, which, if you are interested in learning how to put together pitches to make interesting harmonies and how the piano roll editor works, this class is perfect for you. You don't need toe know how to read music to be in this class. It's very much a We use a bolton. Um, but you don't even need to be unable to newser. You could use any software that has that piano roll editor that we're all used to working with. And we're gonna talk about how to organize pitches to make cords, harmonies, interesting sounds and work the way we want to work. We're not gonna talk about notes, and we're not going to talk about playing the piano. Um, it's not gonna be how it was when I learned music theory. So I encourage you to check out that class. There's a part one and part two to that class in part two. We focus on minor keys and getting a little more complicated. But be sure you take part one first because you're gonna be lost without it. So shameless plug for that class. I hope you had fun in this one. I hope you check out some of my other classes and I will see you soon in the next class. Yes, 21. SkillshareFinalLectureV2: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.