Pixel Art Mastery - Advanced Textures and Shading (Part 3) | Mislav Majdandžić | Skillshare
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Pixel Art Mastery - Advanced Textures and Shading (Part 3)

teacher avatar Mislav Majdandžić, Pixel Artist & Game Maker

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Intro skillshare part 3

      1:59

    • 2.

      Introduction to intermediate shading

      0:32

    • 3.

      1 Shading Terminology

      7:00

    • 4.

      2 Terminator line

      1:26

    • 5.

      3 Highlight vs center light

      4:19

    • 6.

      4 2 Styles of shading

      2:19

    • 7.

      5 Calculating cast shadow

      5:29

    • 8.

      6 Cast shadow for a sphere

      3:52

    • 9.

      7 Cast shadow in nature

      4:43

    • 10.

      8 Hitting vs looking at

      2:59

    • 11.

      9 Dithering edges

      2:10

    • 12.

      10 Dithering 2x2

      10:45

    • 13.

      11 Dithering 4x4

      8:12

    • 14.

      12 Antil aliasing lines

      5:16

    • 15.

      13 Antil aliasing curves

      5:10

    • 16.

      14 Antil aliasing object

      4:11

    • 17.

      15 Color curves

      4:22

    • 18.

      16 Challenge 14 Dithering Pattern

      1:31

    • 19.

      Introduction for Materials

      0:30

    • 20.

      1 Foliage Style 1

      16:48

    • 21.

      2 Foliage Style 1 details

      5:02

    • 22.

      3 Foliage Style 2

      9:07

    • 23.

      4 Foliage Style 3

      7:59

    • 24.

      5 Foliage Style 4

      8:03

    • 25.

      6 Foliage Style 5

      3:32

    • 26.

      7 Foliage usage explained

      6:06

    • 27.

      8 Rocks Style 1

      9:30

    • 28.

      9 Rocks Style 2

      8:51

    • 29.

      10 Rocks Style 3

      5:13

    • 30.

      11 Rocks Style 4

      3:40

    • 31.

      12 Color palette warning

      1:41

    • 32.

      13 Wood Style 1

      4:55

    • 33.

      14 Wood Style 2

      6:03

    • 34.

      15 Wood Style 3

      7:01

    • 35.

      16 Wood Style 3 morphed

      3:39

    • 36.

      17 Metal Style 1

      4:55

    • 37.

      18 Metal Color examples

      1:21

    • 38.

      19 Metal Style 2

      5:28

    • 39.

      20 Metal Style 3

      7:33

    • 40.

      21 Water Style 1

      8:12

    • 41.

      22 Water Style 2

      3:49

    • 42.

      23 Water Style 3

      3:58

    • 43.

      24 More about water

      3:40

    • 44.

      25 Ice Style 1

      6:44

    • 45.

      26 Ice Style 2

      3:00

    • 46.

      27 Snow

      3:15

    • 47.

      28 Cloud

      5:21

    • 48.

      29 More about clouds

      3:52

    • 49.

      30 Lava Style 1

      4:14

    • 50.

      31 Lava Style 2

      5:23

    • 51.

      32 Lava Style 3

      10:22

    • 52.

      33 Cloth Style 1

      19:54

    • 53.

      34 Cloth Style 2

      7:02

    • 54.

      35 Ground

      8:30

    • 55.

      36 Gem

      5:24

    • 56.

      37 Glass

      4:47

    • 57.

      38 Closing thoughts on materials

      3:15

    • 58.

      39 Challenge Material

      0:59

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About This Class

This is Part 3 of Pixel Art Master Course which is created by a professional - for people who want to become professionals.

This course (Part 3) if focused on 2 things:

1) Expanding knowledge of shading in general, but also pixel art shading techniques (like manual anti-aliasing and creation of dithering patterns)

2) Material Study - learning how to draw 10 different materials, including how to create different styles for a material

It is recommended you finish Part 1 before you start with this Part 3. (Part 2 is optional)


So far, the Pixel Art Master course consists of these parts:

Part 1 - Beginner sections - covers all around basics to get you started

Part 2 - Game perspective basics - covers most used perspectives in games

Part 3 - Intermediate shading and material study

Part 4 - coming up in future...

Meet Your Teacher

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Mislav Majdandžić

Pixel Artist & Game Maker

Teacher

Hello, I am Mislav.

I'm a game artist specialized in pixel art. I've been doing pixel art as a freelancer for years and have been able to make a decent living out of it. Now I want to share my knowledge and experience with others so they can do the same!

Making games is my life. Even in my childhood I was creating new boards and card games, so when I finally went digital, it changed my life! I want to share this happiness with others!

I'm here to give you all the knowledge you need to become a pixel artist. I think I have a lot to offer and I will create new lessons and courses as time goes on. 

I believe it's important to live your passion, but sometimes the road to success is long and hard. I'm here to make it easier.

See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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Transcripts

1. Intro skillshare part 3: Welcome to pick slot master course part three. In this course, we will study material and intermediate level shading for pixel art. Things like anti-aliasing, deterring, and all sorts of different materials in different styles. You can find part one and part two also here on Skillshare. And you can also find the links to those in the about section of the course right here down below. After you have finished part one, you can either jump on part two if you are interested in game perspectives, or you can jump right here on part three in which we study materials and shading in more detail. You can find the resources for this project right here under projects and resources tab. So all of the materials that we will study in this course, you can find right here on the right side, and the resources. In case you are using a sprite as your software, you can find the materials in a sprite format. Or if you are using any other software, you can find it in the PNG format. After you have finished all of your lessons, it will be time for you to create your own project. You can find an example right here. You can see that the project for this one is creating two different materials into different styles. In this case, we have rocks and foliage. There are also a couple of tips like limiting your color palette between 37 colors. And of course, picking a material that excites you because learning should be fun. After you have created your project, please submit it by clicking on Create Project found here under projects and resources tab. After that, you can simply follow the steps and submit your projects so I can review it and give you some feedback if needed. I hope you're excited for this course as much as I am. And let's start this journey together and let's keep on going. But please remember, the most important thing is to relax, enjoy, and have fun learning. So what are we waiting for? Let's go. 2. Introduction to intermediate shading: Welcome. In this section, I will explain shading terminology and how it's usually used in traditional art, and how it's different than what we use in pixel art. I will also show you a lot of different tips on how to create your own deterring patterns, as well as how to anti-alias lines, curves, and objects. And also a very simple tip on creating your own color palettes by using color curves. At the end of this section, I will also give you a challenge. So let's jump into it. 3. 1 Shading Terminology: Welcome back. In this video, I will explain the terminology in art and how you would usually find it in traditional art schools. And I will also explain why it's different in Pig slot or why I personally use different terms in pixel art. If you see here, we have seven terms. Highlight, Light Center, half tone, midtone, reflected light, shadow, cast shadow, and ambient occlusion. All of these are very common terms in art. And what is very important to understand is that we're essentially dividing everything into two families, so to speak. We have the light family, which is everything above this red line. Those would be the highlight, light. And halftone are myths them, however you want to call it. And everything below it belongs to the shadow family called reflected light, shadow, cast shadow and ambient occlusion. And what is important to understand that in traditional art. And if you want to draw realistically, reflected light is always darker than the half tone or mid-tone. Okay, so the brightest section in the shadow family, which is the reflected light, is still darker than the darkest part of the light family which we did, Hearthstone or the mid-tone. Okay, so why do I say this? Because in pixel art, we usually use the halftone or mid-tone as reflected light. Because in pixel art, we have very limited color palette. So we have to reuse same color for multiple purposes. So what you will most commonly find is that the halftone is the same color as the reflected light and the cast shadow is usually the same as ambient occlusion. So we would combine those, keeping that in mind, let's explain what each of these are. First, I have drawn a simple sphere using only shadow tone and nothing else. Now we need to define where exactly is the light hitting. And for that, I simply added the halftone or mid-tone. So now we have divided our sphere into two sections. The color that is representing the light where the light is hitting and the shadow where the light isn't hitting directly. Now, on top of that, we want to add the cast shadow. Why is it called Like that? Well, because the object is blocking the rays of light. So if you imagine the light casting bunch of differently, the light rays, Some of these are hitting the object and this is exactly where the light section of our object is. And because it's blocking some of these rays, and this is exactly where the brightest portion of our object is. Some of these light rays are going to bounce off. They're not going to continue. And this is this section, the cast shadow. Basically, the cast shadow is wherever these light rays are not hitting directly. So this is what our object is doing. Light is hitting the object, creating the light tones. And this same portion of the object is blocking those light rays from hitting the ground, creating the cast shadow. Once we have those three things, you already see how realistically this kinda looks. Now, let's add more to it. Now I'm going to add the light or center tone or the light tone, however you wanna call it. And the reason why I personally in Pixlr core, everything lighter tone is because it's easier to understand. And the light tone or center-right is going to be almost the brightest section in our image. What you would usually find it, or that people would create light John, or central light, and then transition slowly towards the shadow tone. And this is why it's called the half tone or mid-tone. Personally, I usually create it like that and then I add more light on top of it. However your processes and however you want to use it, that is totally up to you. Now that we have this out of the way, let's talk about the highlights. And what highlight is, is basically just the brightest portion in our object. The next one we should be adding is the reflected light. Why? Because the light rays are hitting the ground and still bouncing around and around this entire environment. And there are still some light reaching this section of the sphere. So this is why we have the reflected light. And remember, because every time the light bounces, it loses some of its energy. So it may be this bright in the start. But now right here, it already lost a lot of its value, so it's going to be weaker. And each time the light bounces, it's going to lose more and more of its energy. Still, it's important to understand that we have reflected light in pixel art. This is rarely added, so you shouldn't be too worried about it, but it's still something that you should be keeping in mind. And lastly, the darkest section of our objects are ambient occlusion. This is where basically no light is getting and you can usually just draw it black lines. You would usually find this right here down in the objects. You can see it here. But in pigs lucky, you will usually find those like in tiny cracks in the stone and something like that. And now I want to touch upon how the traditional art to pixel art correlate. If you are coming from traditional art, you will think that this isn't too many colors and that you need more colors to it. And if you are coming from Pixar, only, you may think this is way too many colors. So I'll try to find the middle ground by using the magic wand tool to select our sphere and the cast shadow. And if I use the blur tool over it, this is for our traditional artists friends and use it a couple of times. Do you see how it looks, how realistic it looks? Because we are using the blur tool to introduce more mid tones and more transitions, making it a lot smaller. This is what you would have to see in traditional art. However, since we are not using traditional art, we are using pixel art. We are using less and less colors. This is why it's important to simplify and reduce the color palette as much as possible. So we're essentially removing all of these colors until we get here. Each color should have its purpose in pixel art. And hopefully, this will help you understand a little bit. And for those of you who are coming from pixel art only, hopefully this will help you understand that if you are looking at images online for our reference, and you're seeing too many colors on a specific object that you want to replicate the pixel art. Hopefully, this will help you guide your basic process on how to replicate something in Pig slots. So you are essentially taking one color in Pig slot and using it what would be maybe even dozens of colors in usual digital painting style. That's all for this video. I will see you in the next one where I will explain what is the difference between highlight and light tone. 4. 2 Terminator line: Welcome back. In this short video, I also want to explain what specific term and that is terminator. Yes. Like in the old movies from Arnold Schwarzenegger, this same terminology is used for the line where we transition from light to shadow. So this specific section right here is going to be the Terminator. Okay? So wherever we start transitioning from the light tone to the first shell, often this is going to be the Terminator. Okay? Another thing I want to point out is that, do you see how these lines are very straight? When we are looking directly at the sphere, this isn't wrong. This is exactly how it would be. However, in art, we wanted to emphasize certain things. We want to emphasize the curvatures. So it looks nicer. So to give you an example of this, this is how it will look like. This is the previous one. And this is what happens if you tilt the sphere towards you a little bit. Do you see the difference? Before and after? It's a very simple change, but it emphasizes that this object is curved. So sometimes art is not about hyper realism, that is completely different form of art. We're not creating realistic things in pixelate. We're simplifying things. We are implying things. And with those kinds of techniques, we are presenting an object to the viewer. So I hope you enjoyed this video. I will see you in the next one. 5. 3 Highlight vs center light: Welcome back. In this video, I will explain the difference between highlight and central light in traditional art, highlight is the reflection of the light source. And center light is the portion of the object that is closest to the light source. Or basically it's directly looking at the light source from our previous example. This section right here would be the central light and this is going to be the highlight. Now you might ask a question, why isn't the highlight in the middle of this center light? Because it's even closer to the light source. And it makes sense that the brightest portion of our object should be closest to the light source. But it's really not like that. Why? Because highlight is a reflection of the light source. We need to calculate its position by taking into consideration where exactly are the eyes of the viewer. So when, whenever we are talking about reflection, we are basically taking two things into consideration. The viewer, which is you, and the light source. So here on the right, I have very simple illustration of a circle, which is basically a sphere now, because I have added two tones, the lightest tone on the shadow tone. So where exactly would be the position of the center light? Well, it's right here because it's closest to the light source. The light source is going to be this on the right side. Let's make it green or even yellow. Like so. And then we have the position of our eyes, which is going to be right down here. So where exactly should we then place the highlight? We are placing the highlight and the object where the angle between us and the object is the same as the object and the highlight. So for example, if we have a 45-degree angle between light and the object and is bouncing off of the same 45-degree angle, let's say towards us. I'm well aware that this isn't 45-degree angle, but let's just go with it. This would be the position of the highlight. So it will be roughly here. Okay, To give you another example here on the left, you would think that the highlights should be right here at the top. So we're looking directly at the sphere and our eyes are basically here in the middle. If you are looking at it from the screen. So the highlight isn't really at the top. That is the job of the central light. So this right here would be like that and the position of our highlight would be roughly here. So if our eyes move a bit to the left than the highlight would move a bit to the left as well. If we move our head a bit up, then the highlight would move up as well. If we move it down and to the right than the highlight mood, also move to the downright position. So it's very simple when it comes to creating it in pixel art, because highlights in pixel art are usually just simply the brightest section of our object and replace highlights, usually within the same space of the light. And we're not taking into consideration where exactly are our eyes. So this is something very specific to pixel art. And what I'm saying is basically don't worry about it. You don't have to calculate this because this is being used if you want to draw something realistically or hyperthyroid basically. And it pixel art. We are simplifying things and basically implying something instead of drawing it directly as it is. Because again, we have a very limited color palette. Another thing to keep in mind is that the shape of our highlight is the shape of our light source. So for example, if our light source is smaller or more concentrated like tiny little lamp, then also our highlight is going to be smaller. If it's larger, it's going to be larger if the light source is an elegant and lump of some sorts than our light source would also be elongated. So those are all the little things that you would be keeping in mind if you are drawing digitally, but not in pixel art. However, in pixel art, highlight is very simple. It's basically the brightest section of our object. So that's all for this video. And in the next one, I will explain the difference between two shading styles. 6. 4 2 Styles of shading: Welcome back. In this video, I will explain two different shading styles. Style number one is the one that I have shown you previously in the course and the one that I will be using. And it's very simple. You use one color for each of the sides of a flat object. So if the surface is flat, we use only one color. So you can see this on the cube. You can see this at the top of the cylinder, so only one color. And you can also see this for the pyramid. However, if the surface is rounded, then we use multiple colors to indicate that. Here on this cone, you see that we are using multiple colors because it's rounded. Same thing on this section of the cylinder, because it's rounded. Now remember, top of the cylinder is flats only one color. The side of the cylinder is rounded, so multiple colors, because the sphere is rounded, we want to use multiple colors. So this concept is very simple because it enables us to create very clearly defined objects in pixel art, something is flat, one color, something is rounded, multiple colors. However, we have style number two. And the style number two uses multiple colors even if the surface is flat. Remember, I am not talking about adding textures just yet. This is only the base shading, the underlying shading. You can use this style, but only if you are using very high resolution pixel art. So this is more towards a bit more realistic rendering approach if you have a lot of colors. So using only like four or five colors in this image really isn't enough. So if I use a blurred through a couple of times, you can see that this still looks like a cube, but it loses its readability. And in the pixel art, readability is very important. Now this is a low-resolution. Remember that? Because at high resolution, you can introduce multiple colors to make the grinded a lot smoother and more realistic. But since pixel art is mostly low-resolution, to meet the resolution by that I mean below 100 pixels, it's best to stick with style number one. Only if you are creating high resolution illustrations or a really high-resolution objects, then it's okay to use style number two. So I hope you keep this in mind and I will see you in the next video. 7. 5 Calculating cast shadow: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to calculate cast shadow. This is very useful if you want to create a realistic illustrations. First, we need to do things. We need our light and we also need our cube. But where exactly is this slide? When it comes to its position in the air exactly for that, we need to draw a line on this table. Let's say this is going to indicate where exactly the position of our light is. So this lamp right here, this is the place where it's directly above the table. What is the next thing we need to do? Well, we need to indicate where exactly are the most important key points and our object, those are usually the edges. So we have these four top edges of the cube. And we also have bottom edges of the cube. You see that one is hidden behind it, and that's totally fine for now. Then we need to create arrays of flight from our light source that is going to hit the top sections of our cubes. So remember these key points, these four key points, we need to create a light rays that are going through those specific key points. So you can see that we have one pixel here on our light source, the green color. And we are going to create rays of light through those top sections. And you see this red pixel on the bottom that is indicating the position of our light in this space. We cast those red lines through the bottom sections. So each of these are going to interconnect. So what is the next point? Well, that is calculating the position of our cast shadow. So how did we get here? Well, first, let's think about this specific side of the cube. So I will take the purple color to indicate it. You see this line here? Well, the top section is green color. The bottom section uses red color wherever those to connect. Right here, this is going to be the edge of our cast shadow. Okay? So since this edge behind is hidden, so you can see that this edge behind is hidden. Since this bottom section is hidden, so this side of the cube really isn't visible, or rather that edge. And they connect here inside of this cube. This means that we don't have to take this specific point into calculation. Then we have this edge right here. This green line is indicating the top section and the red line is indicated the bottom section. And again, this is the place where these two connect. The same thing goes for this one over here. So how do we go from this to this is quite simple. First, we have to erase whatever is basically just clutter. And that would be these two lines. The green one that is hitting this edge behind that, we don't see the same thing goes for the red one. So something like that. And then we will be left with only three portions that are indicating where the position of our shadow v's. And then you are basically just creating a line from 1 to another. And this is going to create the outer edge of the shadow. Then you need to combine each of these from its source point. So for this specific point, this is the source of its shadow on this edge. Basically connecting this portion here, this portion here, and this point here. So you are basically replicating the cube onto the surface of the table in this case. That's all. So once we remove everything, we should have something like this. That's all quite simple to do. Now, it does take a little bit of practice and so on, and quite a bit of time as well. But if you want to calculate the position precisely, this is what you should be doing. Okay, Let's go to example number two. What if the position of our light and the table isn't here, but rather below. So something like here. Well, we would basically just do the same process again, cost the light rays from the light source and then cause some red lines to indicate where exactly is going to be the shadow vanishing point. Then again, connect these ones and you have your cast shadow. So basically you have this because most of those lines are hidden behind our sphere, we cannot really see them. But we use the same principle. We are connecting this portion to this section even though it is hidden. So this angle is going to be very important. And we're connecting also to its source of the edge. Basically it's edge source and that's going to be this bottom section. That's all. So where exactly is the position of light source or the lamp is very important, but we also need to determine where exactly in the space this lab is, right here or right here. And it could be anywhere in-between like that's really important to understand the spatial aspect of creating the cast shadow. So if the customer is going to be like that or like that or anywhere in-between. It really depends. So hopefully, this will help you calculate your cast shadows in the future a bit more precisely. In the next video, I will show you how to calculate cast shadow and a sphere. Hope to see you there. 8. 6 Cast shadow for a sphere: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create a cast shadow for a sphere. In the previous video, I have shown you the cube, and now we are going to sphere and it's even easier, but it requires a lot of steps. So let's go and show how it's done. First, I have only drawn a circle, so I'm not bothering with shading the sphere at all because this is about the cast shadow. So let's show you how it's done. First, create a rectangle that is going to be of the same size as our sphere. So we are basically draw our line through the top edge and the side edge of the sphere. And creating this rectangle. Next, we need to cast light on these sections, or four cubed, let's say. So if you imagine this was a cubed, you would have like multiple dimensions. Like so. Now this is very rough but you get the point. But since we only have two dimensions is going to be a bit easier to follow everything along. So you're casting green light again from the top portions and the red on the bottom portion. So we again are designing where exactly is the position of our light source? Casting the red line through the bottom sections and the green light through the top sections. Then you follow along where exactly they will meet. For this, these two lines are going to meet here. And these two lines are going to meet here. Now, if you draw too many lines, you will notice that every overlap multiple times. So my advice is when you are trying to calculate everything, simply erase everything that is in the way, okay? So you have a bit clearer understanding or where something is. So moving on. Now that he could position of these two pixels where this line interconnect. Then we need to draw a line between these two points and their sources. So what is their source? Well, the bottom portion of this rectangle, and now we have the cast shadow for this a rectangular shape. Okay, what is going to be the next portion? Well, it's quite simple. It's creating the mid portions of our sphere. Because what we need to do right now is to carve out our spherical shape from this rectangular, Let's say, rhomboid cast shadows. So we're basically cutting out the portions that we will not be needing and try to replicate our sphere inside it. And for that, we need to be more precise. And the way we do that is by realizing where exactly is the edges of our sphere. And we are going to cause those directly in the middle sections like so. And the way we do that is, again, quite simple. You are casting rays of light from the light source through those points are to discuss shadow. So this section right here is important because it's here. This one is here, and this one is here. So again, you are following where exactly is the edge and trying to remember which edge corresponds to the cast shadows. So this edge corresponds to this edge, and so on. Then, once we have those points, we need to carve out manually. So you have to draw this free hand and try to simply improvise. You don't have to be too precise about it because it's important to simply hit this line marks, make it clean, make it nice. No Jack is, and then simply fill it in. And this indeed is going to be our cast shadow. So if you remove everything, this is going to be our cast shadow for our sphere. So basically this is how we calculate a cast shadow for a sphere. Now you can feel free to share the sphere however we want to. And that's all for now. I hope to see you in the next video where I will show you how to create cast shadows in the nature. 9. 7 Cast shadow in nature: Welcome back. This is the third video about cast shadows. And this time we are going outside. I have created a very simple image. So we don't over-complicate and simply focus on the cast shadow. So again, we have our object in this case is going to be a three. Then we have our light source, which is going to be our sun. And lastly, we need the position of our sun in comparison to the space. Now, how do you determine this? Well, it's not as simple as simply drawing a line all the way on the ground because sometimes that simply won't make any sense. In fact, it doesn't make any sense because this is already predetermined. How? Well we need to determine where exactly is the horizon line. The horizon line is where the sky and the ground meat. So in this case, right here, this is where they meet, right here. If this was our ocean, Let's say this is basically how you would draw it. This is the horizon line, like when the sailors used to say over the horizon and stuff like that. This is why they mean so wherever the sky and the ground or in this case, ocean meet. But this can be very tricky if you have like, let's say heels and so on. So where exactly is the position of the horizon line then? Well, wherever your eyes are at or your camera. So if you imagine you are in this scene and you hold a camera in front of you, the length of the camera would be right here. So the middle would be right here where the horizon line is. Same would be if you are right here in this scene, your eyes would be here on the horizon line. So these are just a couple of tips have you can determine the horizon line. So basically because this is the position we need to determine, because of the cast shadow, we are doing the same process, but this time around, I'm roughing out the tree a little bit and I'm adding the edges and this three. So what is important to understand in this case is that I'm not trying to create a bunch of different flights. If you want to make it like really complex, you would place a bunch of these points throughout which you have to like cast those green lines from the light source. So we don't want to do that for every single little leaf on the tree and so on. We want to focus on a bigger shape overall. So in this case, those are going to be these three. So you might ask, okay, but where exactly is the position or the bottom sections? Because under cube you have clearly find where exactly is the top portion of the edge and the bottom portion. But in this case you only see the top edges. You don't see the bottom edges. So let's talk about those. After recast our light rays from this portion all the way through, then we need to take the position of those pixels or the points with that we have predetermined and cost them all the way underground. Okay. This is basically the portion where exactly we are going to run our lines from the bottom through them. And again, we simply connect those. So we determined where exactly these are. There we go. So you have these three points, then you connect those. And now I'll finish this together with you. You simply fill this in. Now you have this cast shadow for this portion of the tree. We still don't have this section of the tree. So what you can do is simply, you can either calculate it again if it's a very complex shape, or you can simply connected like that. There we go. If you think the cast shadow is a little bit off or a little bit too sharp, you can again clean it up if you want. Now if you want to add more details and your three, let's say perhaps, maybe some kind of an edge or some kind of branch, or maybe a bird or a nest or leaves and so on. Then you replicate those roughly. The cast shadow as well. Roughly, you don't have to be too precise. Okay. Now, let's say it's something like here. Then we do the same thing on the bottom and so on. You're basically just trying to recreate the same thing on the cast shadow. So what's important is to focus on a bigger shape first. And then you can introduce a little tiny things. Now, just imagine if I had to draw a bunch of different clients through each of these little leaves and imperfections and so on, that would take forever. So simply determine where exactly is your light source horizon line focused on a bigger shape. And then you can add the details. Okay, So that's all when it comes to the cast shadows basics. That's all for now. I hope you enjoyed these three videos and I will see you in the next one. 10. 8 Hitting vs looking at: Welcome back. In this video, I want to explain a very simple concept of heating at, or looking at a specific object or light when it comes to shading, what I mean by that, Well, you are one of two groups of people that can easily imagine one form or another when it comes to shading. So one group of people, when they shade something for them, it's easiest to imagine they are the light source. There are the sun, they are the light bulb, older lamp. Whatever they can see is what's going to be the brightest, and whatever they cannot see is going to be the darker. So you can imagine that you are sunlit, say, and whatever you can see directly is going to be the brightest, and whatever you cannot see is going to be the darkest. So that's one group of people. However, for most people, it's easiest to imagine they are the object because we as humans look at sources of light. We don't look at each other as sources of flight. So if you imagine you're an object, you have to imagine you are seeing multiple things at the same time and that you are all of the object at the same time. And by that I mean, you imagine that your eyes are right here and this portion of the object. But you also imagine that your eyes are done here and then here and everywhere else. And whichever section you try to put yourself in. So let's say your eyes are here. If you are looking directly at the sun, you are going to be blinded, right? You won't be able to see properly. And if it's like that, then this section is going to be the brightest. But if your eyes are not looking directly at the sun, they are looking, let's say in the opposite direction. You don't have to worry about sun. So this section is going to be darker and something in-between, which is going to be, well, something in-between. Those are basically the two ways for people to imagine when their shade. So you are either one group of people where you are imagining that you are the light source or you might be in another group of people that are imagining there an object in which section of their specific object is going to be looking at the light or looking away from the light. So try to think about this a little bit. Try to determine which one are you, and then try to also practice the opposite way. So if up until this point, you're always thinking about, Okay, I am the light source. What am I going to hit directly? Now? Try to put yourself in the shoes of this object and tried to see, okay, this part of the object is angled. Where is it looking directly at the Sun? Is it looking to the side away and so on. Okay. And you can do this the opposite way. I hope this video will reveal to you which one are you. And perhaps you will even find out the tube like the other approach that you haven't been using up until this point. That's all for this video. I hope you enjoyed it. So relax and have fun. And I will see you in the next video where I will start talking about deterring. 11. 9 Dithering edges: Welcome back. In this video, I will talk about deterring the edges of an object and how it creates a specific effect of curvatures. I have already shown you previously that deterring the curves is going to make it a bit smaller for the eyes. Overall, it's a smoother effect. By not using any more colors than we already have, we create a small effects. And this is essentially it. Deterring pattern is simply creating a midtone between two colors, basically a blended color between two colors, okay? Nothing else. If we take the same principle implied than a cube, this is the cube that's being shaded. And then we deter the edges for cube. In this specific case, it's only one edge. What does it create for you? Do you think that this is the smooth transition between these two sides? Yes, it is. But if you've got a sharp edge on an object, we want to keep it like that, okay? If we deter it, this is basically a midtone between these two colors, right in the middle. And it would look like this if we didn't use the trunk. So remember, deterring is when we don't want to increase the color palettes. So we want to keep the color palette small or the same size. We don't want to introduce an extra color like in this case. So we use the trick, but this is the same effect. Do you see how the edge of the cube is no longer sharp? This one? It's rounded a little bit. So have you use deterring effect can really determine the shape of the object as well. Deterring patterns can also be used as a texture. But just because something has checkerboard pattern doesn't mean it's deterring. Deterring is a shading technique. So you are creating a midtone between two colors. So you're basically blending colors. And depending on how you create different patterns, you can create multiple colors from only two colors. And I will be showing you that in the future videos for now, keep in mind that if you did or the edge of an object, that edge is no longer sharp, it's going to appear a bit smaller, a bit rounder. That's all for this video. I will see you in the next one. 12. 10 Dithering 2x2: Welcome back. In this video, I will talk about deterring and specifically deterring into two-by-two pixel squares. First, I will create a new file. And we can say that, let's say the width can be, let's say 40 pixels and the height should be two pixels. Because again, we are going to be using two-by-two squares to determine the ratio and basically the pattern of our lettering. How does this work? Well, if I create a new file, it's a 50 by 50. And I use the determining that a sprite has provided us with, which you can find here on the tools right next to the paint bucket tool. So if you left-click, you will find the gradient tool. Right here. You will see multiple options. First is no deterring at all. And that basically takes whatever is the foreground color in this case, the white and the background color, which in this case is black. And if I just use the gradient tool, you'll see what happens. We have a gradient. However, since a sprite is focused on pixel art, it can also create deterring patterns called Bayer metrics. And then followed by specific number. Two-by-two means that the pattern that we are using is going to be limited on two-by-two squares and four-by-four is going to be limited to four by four squares. And I will show you exactly what it means. And the same goes for eight by eight. So if I use this one in this video and painted over this entire Canvas, you will notice that we have a very familiar checkerboard pattern right in the middle. But you also see some softer gradients to the sides. And if I zoom out just enough a sprite, we'll blend these colors like so, this is exactly what gaze creating gradients without introducing new colors. Let me show you how this exactly woodwork. So let's paint everything in white. And I will be using black color right from, let's say, the right side. First, I will create a grid. And it's going to be two-by-two. So we're replicating two-by-two squares, meaning the same matrix up here, which is bare metrics, two-by-two. How does this work? Well, on the right side, we start with four pixels, completely black. This means that this square is 100% black. Now, if I paint it again and remove just one pixel from it, so now we have three pixels, black and one white. This means that we have created a gradient that basically this one is 75% black and 25% of white, making it gray, dark gray specifically. Now, if I repeated the process and replicate this last square on the next one, and again, erase one more black pixel, we will get to 5050 ratio. This is completely neutral gray color. So if I let say, double this down for the white color, then replicate the same thing on the other side, meaning now we have completely white color, but we also need to have 75% white and 50 per cent white, which we already have. So when you get to 50 by 50 ratio within this square, then you can start transitioning towards the other color, whichever it might be. In this case, it's completely white to keep it simple. So right now we need something that is 75 per cent white, so we only need one black pixel. And that's all. So if I take this as is, this is our gradient. Now to make sure everything is even when I start showing you how it replicates and I Canvas, I want to make sure that all of these are in equal portions. So if you look here, you'll notice that all of these are roughly of equal length. So I want to make sure the same thing happens here. Right now I have two squares, both of which are 50 by 50 ratio, but I can only one squared, which is seventy-five percent ratio. So I will move everything a little bit to the left, let's say like so. And replicate this exact pattern on two squares. So right now we have two tiles, let's say two by two, which are 50% to 75 per cent, and two which are completely in a solid color. So now if I take this specific pattern and create a new canvas, let's say 50 by 50, and paste it right down the middle. Now the easy way you can replicate this pattern is by using Control V function, which will create a brush within a spread. If you don't have a sprite, what you can do is simply copy, paste this entire pattern and just keep on going and keep on going and so on. Since we are in a sprite, I'm simply going to use shortcuts to make it a bit faster. And there we go. So you can see this is the same pattern that we are finding right here, but it's a bit narrower simply because that's how I made it. I made it manually. So it doesn't scale as well. But if I were to zoom out enough, you can see that we again have those three colors, which are also here as well. It's just that the stripes of those colors art as why? Because, well, the deterring pattern also isn't as wide. So this is a very simple way how you can create a different pattern. This is the most commonly used, especially the one with a checkerboard pattern because it's the easiest for beginners. Now, where does the font start? Creating your own detecting patterns can be extremely fun. It's a bit limited and two-by-two squares, and it basically becomes exponentially more fun when we get to higher resolutions. But for now, let's experiment a little bit. Let's create our own deterring pattern. And how am I going to do that? Well, let's start the same. But this time around, let's expand this just a little bit because I don't think this size will be enough to represent what I want to talk about. Let's say maybe 50. I hope this will be enough. Let's start roughly in the middle. And instead of creating checkerboard patterns, like so, what we can do is remember that all that's important is that we keep the ratios within the squares the same. So 50 per cent should be black and 50% should be white. So we don't have to use checkerboard pattern. So what if we do this? We still have 50% black, 50% white. Now to make it smoother, Let's say we can repeat the same pattern, but let's swap the pixels around. So we're keeping the same ratio of fit by 50, but we are basically just reversing the colors. This is all going towards completely solid black color. So let's keep on going. What comes next after 50 by 50? Well, we need to create 75 per cent ratio. And this one pixel can be placed anywhere. We can place it here, here, here, or here. So we have four places. Now suppose I place it here. And on the next square, which also has to be 75 per cent. If I want to, I can place it here. So I'm essentially moving this square instead of being here, I moved to the left. So it connects with this one, replicating the same pattern we are having here in the middle. But I'll smaller scale. So let's say I do the same thing here. One pixel here, one pixel here. If I go further away, let's say make it here. Let's make it here. And then further along, I don't need to create anything else because all of these pixels, these ones are 75 per cent, these ones are still 5%, this one are cent, five per cent. So all of these squares, these styles, are seventy-five percent white in this case. Okay? So this is a very easy way how you can do it now, because we are going towards black color, we need to reverse these ones. So let's do that just quickly. There we go. And now we can have a completely black color on the right side. Like so. Now we can do the same thing on the left side as well. And that is basically what we have just done here before I reverse the colors. So let's go and do just that. So first I want to make sure that we also have to square root of 50 by 50 ratios. So we'll go like this. And then we will start skipping those colors like so. We want to make sure it's of the same patterns. So we have one up, one down, one up, and then one down. There we go. So this is the same pattern on both sides. So if I take this pattern right now and go back here and create a new, basically just a frame, paste it, and bring it down all the way. Again using our control B shortcut. There we go. So we have a very simple gradient. It's a bit different, it's a different texture. So if I zoom out, you can see that it also again creates those same colors, the same five colors, but it's different. So you are not limited to creating your checkerboard patterns. What if I want to experience even a bit more? So let's say I want to push these pixels a bit further away. Let's say I skip one completely square and make it completely black. And then I repeat this pixel here, like so. Let's do the same thing here on the other side, this will be very easy because it's a very tiny change. But we can easily compare it to this pattern right here. So again, I will create a new frame. Erase this one, and paint over this one. Like so. So do you see the difference? It's very tiny. It's on the edges. But if I zoom out, you will notice that there are some stripes right now between completely white colored, you have this one stripe of gray color. And same goes here for the black. You have one stripe between those. So this is kinda like deterring inside of deterring. Okay? So it creates really nice smooth colors and how you approach this can be so magnificent and so versatile that it's very hard to explain unless you experience it for yourself. So you can create your own patterns. Do not be limited by what software gives you. You are an artist. You are here to create something new. You don't have to reuse the tools that you have been given. It's up to you to use those tools however you want. But again, you have the freedom to create whatever you wish to. So that's all for this video. In the next one, Let's jump to four by four squares. The drink. 13. 11 Dithering 4x4: Welcome back. In this video, I will talk about four-by-four matrix and how to create different patterns within those. In the previous video, I have shown you how to create a two-by-two matrix using the a sprite. And now we have four by four. So you can see that it's a lot smoother. We have more gradients, we have more colors if you were to zoom out. And basically this is just a way to introduce more complex deterring patterns inside of your well deterring and the high-resolution pixel art you're creating, the more distinct patterns you can use. Because most people use low-resolution pixel art, simple checkerboard pattern is usually enough. So what I have done here is created a very simple file. And we have four-by-four pixel matrix, basically a thiol of four-by-four. So if I go back here and if you remember the previous lesson, wherever you look at, you will have a certain percentage of black and white colors. So here we have mostly white and a little bit of black. And here we want to replicate that same process. So right here we have 100% black, and now we want to introduce slowly what color one-by-one pixel. In the next section, I'm going to introduce only one next to it. I'm going to introduce another pixel. Let's, let's say maybe it's here. Then I will introduce another one, perhaps here. All you're doing is replicating the previous style and just introducing more white colors to it. So we are here right now on number four and now we need to reduce number five. So let's say something like this. Then let's say we need a number, six, perhaps seven. And then finally, we have eight. So what we have done here is created a pattern all the way here where it's 50 by 50 per cent. Okay, now, we need to also create the same thing, but for the white side as well. And we don't have enough space. So what am I going to do is double the canvas size to 96. This section, let's say right here, flip it around. So you can basically flip it around horizontally connected. Or you can keep it disconnected if you want. And now we need to reverse colors. This is where you can do. This, is simply make one color completely in the other color. Turn off the contiguous. There we go. Now we can paint the black here and white on this color. Now we can bring them together. There we go. In this case, you will see again that we have 50 by 50 per cent ratios and two of these squares. The next one has less than now which type of receptors that exactly as you have to calculate, but essentially one pixel less than this creates these kind of like plus signs. If you take a look here, you will notice these plus signs happening right here. So basically, if I wanted to spend a bit of extra time, I can make sure that each of these patterns has at least two squares inside of it. But for now, let's just take this entire pattern is as is, Let's move it a bit to the right for one square, since we have four white squares here on the left side, I also want to have four black squares here on the right. I can take this entire pattern, create a new file. Let's make the height a bit more like so. And again, Control V to create a brush from it. And there we go. So now if I zoom out, you can see here the software starts to blend it. It's quite nice and easy to do. So have your data is very easy. The process is quite simple. The more transitions you have between each color. For that you need higher matrix, the more smoother transition you will have. Let's see how we can create something of our own, just like we can have previously here. So this is going to be our starting point. Let's reset it, and now let's start working towards our pattern. Now, in this case, if you recall what I have done previously, just use the checkerboard patterns for 50 by 50% ratio. But in this case, I want to make something different, just as I have done in two-by-two matrix, I will create the same pattern here, basically creating lines instead of dots. So let's go and replicate it on multiple of these. Now I have to remove some of these colors because right now it's 50 by 50 per cent. And here's the trick. Up until this point, all we have done is removed one pixel, but we don't have to do that. What we can do is instead removed two pixels at the same time. We are not limited to removing only one pixel at a time. So the amount of pixels you are going to remove, how you are going to create ratios inside of each of these squares. Each of these grids are tiles hover, we want to call them, is up to you. So let's connect these instead of here going like so. Let's move them down a little bit. So you're also not limited again, to keeping all of those pixels on the same lines, which the software, by default is doing. What software does is not what you have to do. You are free to create something your own. So now let's move these two pixels up. So what we have basically done is replicated this tile. But we can move these two pixel lines a bit down and this one pixel that's a bit up. Now we can connect this. Now suppose we again want to remove two pixels instead of one. Well, now we can remove, let's say these two. Now we can connect these two like so. Again, alternating that finally, let's say we want to have only two pixels inside R squared instead of four. What's important is to try to keep the removal of pixels the same. So if I remove two pixels previously, this is the same amount I want to keep removing. I don't want to remove some or three pixels somewhere on the one though, please do experiment and you'll see what we'll get as a result. So let's keep on going. We have always two squares of the same amount of pixels, as you can see here, we have two squares with four pixels in it, white pixels, I mean, then we have 262 with eight. We only need two squares where we have only two pixels, like so. And then we can simply go black completely. We don't need to introduce one pixels. Those certainly you can if you want to. So that's completely up to you. Now this away we can replicate this is again, we're going to copy paste this here, flip it horizontally, change one color. So let's say red. And then we can invert the colors like so. There we go. So I'm going to take this same distinct pattern, create a new file. Or I can even use this previous one, simply add a new frame, control B, and I can paint it all the way down, like so. We have one pattern and we have another. Both of these create gradients. So if I zoom out, you can see that I have created a different type of gradient, just as this one. Now you can see that if I zoom out, the more complex deterring pattern we have, the more trouble software has to represent it in solid colors. So you can see that even zoom-out, the previous pattern does have a little bit of deterring within it as well. So you can see it right here. The next one has a solid lines. So again, how do you want to approach the truck is up to you and please feel free to experiment because right now we are only using four by four matrix. And because we have a lot of space here, we can create lots of different interesting patterns. So those don't have to be lines of checkerboard patterns. You can combine those two. You can create even more interesting patterns like squares with lines and so on. Because I think the discovery is part of the process. You should be enjoying it. And also this will be part of the challenge in few videos type. So this is all for this video. I will see you in the next one. 14. 12 Antil aliasing lines: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to anti-alias lines, straight lines. Why is this important? Because when we start entirely async, larger objects, especially high-resolution pixel art, you will notice that most of anti-aliasing is simply lines and curves, basically trying to recognize what kind of an anti-alias effect you want to achieve. And doors are divided simply in curves and straight lines. So here's going to be an example. We have a simple straight line. And what essentially anti-aliasing is, is smoothing client. So you can think of it as basically just making it blurred. That's all there is to it. So you are blurring out the edges of the line manually. So we can create this anti-realists effect. So that's enthusiastic, making something smarter, making a tone smaller, and basically just blurring out the edges of a specific client on a curve. So how can we do this? Well, it's very easy to do. First, you have to take into consideration two colors, the color of your line and the color of your background. In this case, it's completely black and the background isn't completely white adjusted. It's a bit easier on the eyes. And anywhere in-between, we can simply a color and make anti-alias and the edges. So we're just taking the edges. And that's all you can see here in the preview. This is the first line. This is the second line. You can see how the second line is being blurred a little bit on the edges. You can make this even like so and so on. If you want to add Pi LS even a bit more, you again take a mid tone between this color and the background. And then you make it even smaller with anti-aliasing, something like this. You can even extend the line like so. You see the difference between this line and this line. And just so they are same, Let's just fix the length. There we go. So you can see how this line is a bit smoother. What you have to take into consideration again is the color of the environment. If the environment is, let's say blue. This doesn't work anymore because we have to combine black with the blue color. So now we are going to take something like a mid-tone and the edges at something even a bit darker. Let's say here. Now this line has been anti-alias because again, we have to take into consideration what is the color next to it. So whatever the color this pixel is kicking, in, this case blue. This is going to be our new color, you, so you are basically blending two colors together. We read out of the way, let's talk about more straight lines. But what if they're angled? So perhaps something like that or that, and so on. So let me give you a quick example. So let's say it's something as simple as this. We can keep on going and so on if you want. So it really depends on you. So let's take this same color and tried to apply on this right here. How would you approach this? Well, because we want to keep this straight line as straight as possible, we need to dissect exactly how this line functions. We have sections of one pixel and sections of two pixel. And those basically make a ratio of one to two pixels and they keep on going to make a straight line. The easiest way I can do this is by imagining that you are extending this section one pixel up and this one pixel down. But because this now looks a bit jagged, you are taking those pixels which we have extended and creating an anti-alias color. That's all as easy as that. So now this is anti-realist. Perhaps we can even make this a bit brighter if you want to, and so on. But basically this is how you would approach it. And just so we have an easy comparison sake, I'm going to create a new frame so you can see how exactly multiple different techniques will function. So this is technique number one. Again, if you want to make it a bit easier on the eyes, you can color it like so. You can see here in the preview, this is the before, this is after. It's a bit smoother. So what is going to be the next technique is quite simple. We are going to combine these two pixel because this pixel right here has been extended up. So you're basically stretching that pixel over two pixels. We can make this entire pixel basically in one color. You can imagine that this pixel right here is losing half of its strength, let's say, and becoming blurred like that. Okay? So we're going to do this on every section that has two pixels sections. So right here and right here. So if you see here in the preview, this is the result. So we have the before and after. So there are multiple techniques on how you can decide and have to anti-alias specific line. And it will really depend on the environment. Again, if you change the color of the environment, we would have to change the color of our anti-alias color. Okay, So that's all for this video. I will see you in the next one where I will show you how to enter alleles occur. 15. 13 Antil aliasing curves: Welcome back. In this video, I will talk about anti-aliasing curves. So I have shown you in the previous video how to enter earliest straight lines. Now, let's talk about the curves. What we need to think about at all times is what exactly are we trying to achieve with a specific anti Alice effect. So if I take a simple curve right here, something of this nature, you will see that we want to smooth out the curvature. So you essentially have a couple of different options. So if I take this same one, perhaps here on the inside, you can even make it like so let's take this brighter color. And you can also apply it here on the outside. If you look here in the preview, you will see how this line is being smarter. It's being blurred to some degree. Because again, if I just take the bloat tool, it just dust way too much. We're not supposed to be using this blur tool in the software in this kind of way. So anti-aliasing is again, just blurring out. The edges are lights. So in case of a straight line, as I have shown you previously, we can extend those like here. We can smooth out the lines in-between the straight line. So basically we are smoothing the middle sections of a straight line or we're smoothing out the edges of the straight line. And we can do the same thing here. But if you notice this curve, you can basically divided into two things. We have the straight portion, which we can apply this section right here, so we can blur out the edges in this way. And this middle section, which is the curvature itself, this one we can anti ls again in multiple different ways. Now, how you decide to do that is totally up to you, but I will give you one very practical example. Let's say we have a circle. There we go. And if you notice this circle has the same size as this one. So it's basically just this curvature multiply by four times and we made a circle out of it. So what will happen if I do this? If I smooth out the edges on the outside. Well, I have already warned you about this. But if you make an object that is around the lithosphere or a ball, or perhaps a gym. And you enter alias the outside of the object. If you change the environment, this no longer works because again, you will have to change the color of the anti-realists color. So this is why anti-aliasing an object on the outside really isn't the best idea. So in this case, I will simply focus on the curvatures. Okay, so let's take a step back and try to anti-alias the inside. You have essentially two ways, how you can do it properly and poorly. Poorly would be something like this. You would try to anti-alias. Basically, Wherever you will start to curve. This will look just way too much. Do see how noisy this is. Another way how you can pull to make it is by targeting these sections right here. Like so. Do you see how it looks strange? This looks more like a circle than this. Why? Because this line right here is the straight line. And if I, again, what I did right here, if I extended down here like so, and simply make this color like that, this is what we would get. So it's not really the best solution because if I remove these colors, basically replaced them with a black color, you will notice that these sections of a circle look like bulged. They are simply too rounded. Basically, they become something like this instead of being nicely curved. So those are two examples of how not to do it, because right now we want to target the curvatures. So we want to target this section right here. We don't want to target these sections. So what we need to smooth out is exactly this portion right here. This is the curvature. And how we can do that is, well, simply by targeting these sections right here. So how can we support them? Simply place them like that? And that's all. So now if you take a look at this specific circle before and after, you can see that this section is now a bit smoother. And this is what we always want to keep in mind. We don't want to anti-alias everything. You need to be conscious of what you want to anti-alias. What do you want to blow out? What did you want to create a smoother effect? Is it aligned if it's a straight line? This is the approach. You can take these two. And if it's a curvature, this is also the way they approach. But again, if it's something on the outside, this won't work just as well. And yes, you can also create it like that. The same thing goes for this one. If the environment changes, you can no longer do that. But if you are creating icons in a game and you know that there's going to be a very specific background color. You can also anti-alias the outer edges as well. So I hope this helps clear up some misconceptions about anti-aliasing. And in the next video, I'll show you an example of how to entail is a very simple object. I'll see you there. 16. 14 Antil aliasing object: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you a simple example on how to anti-alias a simple object, perhaps Iraq. So let's create a new scene. We can make the background, Let's say something neutral, perhaps of a green color. And let's just use this default color palette in S prime, though, you can certainly use anything else. Now, the way we can create a very simple rock is let's say something like this. Now we need to determine where our shadow is going to be. And now if we even want to, we can create an even darker shadow within this shadow as well. There we go. So this is something very simple. I will talk about how to create a rock texture in details later on. So this isn't supposed to be anything overly complex because I just wanted to target a few different shapes. So when we entered earlier something, I have already told you that if you enter early as the outer edges, if you start creating anti-aliasing all around, it's going to be too much. Yes, you can certainly create an outline if you really want this object to stand out. So that's a completely different thing. Outlines and anti-aliasing attitude, different things. Outlines are simply here to be used as something that is going to emphasize the object inside of the environment. But anti-aliasing would be taking this same color. So in this case, I have the outline of this brown color. And I will try to find middle ground between these two colors. So it could be something roughly of this nature. So this would be anti-aliasing if I were to use this same line, let's say on the same position. So this isn't something that we want to do. So I will go back to anti-aliasing, but I just want to say that the aliasing and outlines are two different things. So now let's say I want to smooth out some of these edges. Let's say I have a shadow like So. Do you see how this shadow is very harsh? And this may be just something that we want inside of our rock object. But suppose I want to smooth it out. There are multiple ways I could do that. So let's say number one is like So do you remember these straight lines where we transition from one color to another to make it a bit smaller, we can do the same thing with the shadow tones. So this is the darkest shadow. And the shadow tone next to it is going to be this one. So we can extend this line. So you can think of this entire line being the one that we need to anti-alias in this direction. So we simply take a tone that is brighter than that, which is going to be between these two. And when you are creating objects, you simply use the color palette that you have. You don't have to create new colors by blurring out everything and so on. Use this shelf tone and extended maybe by one pixel, maybe by two pixels. And that's all simple as that. So suppose you want to do the same thing here as well. Well, that's how you can do it. Now it looks a bit smaller than the previous. So if I create a new frame and just go back a few frames, this is the before, this is after. So it looks a bit smarter. This may or may not be something that you want, but it's still here. So now let's try to create a curvature and try to smooth that out as well. So let's say we have an example of something like this. Okay? So let's say we think that this transition between this lighten and shadow tone is a bit too harsh. If I imagine this is the curve. Again, I want to target the curvature. So I'm going to target this section right here. So by doing that on the outside edge, I create a smoother transition. So how do you create an anti-realist effect is up to you. This is why I've said that recognizing a lines and occurs inside of your object is what is going to determine which section you want to anti-alias and which section you will not want to anti-alias. That's all up to you. There's no right or wrong answer per se. The real depends on what you are trying to create. So I hope these couple of tips helped you out. I will see you in the next video. 17. 15 Color curves: Welcome back. In this very short video, I will explain how to use color curves to create your own color palettes or rather chaotic red tones for a specific color. Now a lot of you have trouble creating your own color palettes. So here's a very simple guideline. Please pay attention here on the left side and how we create a specific curvatures here in the color picker tool. So we start here on the top-left and we start to curve colors like so. So if I remove this and create something like that, this is the curvature that we are creating. We start at the highlight here and we start on the darkest shadow down here. So that's one curvature that you can do, just one. And this is usually used on only one colors. In this case, I'm creating a blue color. What if you do the other way around? So we're starting here on the other side and we're just creating a seeker. So let's start with the highlight. It goes a little bit like that. And you can see that this is a very simple curvature. So something like this. So far, I'm showing you two curves, this one and this one. But it doesn't have to be like that. Your current can be like this or like this, or like that, or like that, or like a letter U or the other way around. So that's basically all up to you, how you decide to create your own colors. Some of the things that you need to keep in mind, however, is that if you create a new color, if this is the highlight and it's very bright, your darker shadow usually won't be that bright because while you will have to stop roughly here. So maybe like reverse letter J or something like that. And the same thing would basically go for the other way around because this highlight, we need to start somewhere up here because it needs to be brighter than basically the darkest color. So these are just a couple of ways, a simple tips how you can use this as a guideline. Please do not use this as a specific role. This is only a simple guide on how to create lighter tones and shadow tones for whichever color you decide to do. This is another example. Here. I'm not following this. I'm just zigzagging left and right. So you can see that I start top left, go to the right, then go to the left, then go to the right, then goes to the left. You can see how this specific color palette isn't as balanced as all of these. It doesn't have that same, Let's say rules set in and of itself. That is going to help the color palette be a bit more cohesive. However, look at this. On the left side you have the color palettes. On the right side, you have a very, very simple image. And this is what I have used. The same colors on the left side are what are being used here on the right side. So for the highlight, we have the clouds. For the lighter tone, we have the sky. For the mid-tone. We have this entire ocean. For the shadow tone, we have the flag on the ship, and also here, the shadows on the ocean. And for the darkest color, we have this vote. So on the next one, this curvature right here is this one. This curvature is this one. You can see how everything is a bit more saturated and different. And lastly, we have this one. You notice that even though this color palette is zigzag and right here, it kinda looks better than this one. The clouds and sky are a bit more emphasized. So again, this is a very simple example where I'm saying, don't take this as a rule, take it just as a guideline. And you can create your own palettes however you want to. Last example I want to give you is a very desaturated color palette like this one. So not everything has to be very saturated. So if we take a look here, notice how very little movement we have between colors. This is the same curve like that as the first color palette. But you can see the difference in the result. Okay, we have the same image tone. So if you take a look here, and if I draw this mid-tone over all of these, this is the same mid-tone, but the way I created light tones and shadow tones is a bit different. So again, take this on as a guideline, not a 0. All. I hope you enjoyed this video. I will see you in the next one where I will give you a challenge for this entire section. 18. 16 Challenge 14 Dithering Pattern: Welcome to the challenge for this section. For this challenge, I want you to create your own distinct pattern, but using eight by eight matrix, this is the only one that I have left out to the videos because I have shown you how to create using the grid titles by two-by-two pixels and four by four pixels. Those are definitely useful and they have a lot of places in different combinations. But for this challenge, I wanted you to have even bigger freedom. So eight by eight pixels, this is the last bare metrics in a spread that you have available. Though deterring patterns can be even larger than that. It can use matrix by 62 by six then are ten by ten or six by six. So it really depends on how you want to create your own words. So this is the last one. You can find it here in the sprite. And this is roughly how it would look like. So you can see a very specific pattern with these stars and signs of pluses. Let's see. But you can create your own in this challenge, I want you to really experiment. Yes, you can certainly start with the simple checkerboard pattern in the middle, like this pattern did. But you don't have to. Please feel free to experiment with different lines, with different shapes. Perhaps in the middle, you want to start with blocks like that. Perhaps you want to even make some kind of star shapes like so combined with other shapes as well. So please experiment as much as your Hartford like and create your own deterring pattern. That's all for this challenge. I hope to see your submissions. 19. Introduction for Materials: Welcome back. In this section, I will talk about materials and how to study them and how to approach them, and what makes each specific material work. I will cover different styles of foliage, different styles of rocks, different styles of wood, metal, water and ice, as well as snow, clouds, lava, clothing, dirt, Jim, and the glass. At the end of this entire section, I will also give you a challenge. Let's have fun, and let's go. 20. 1 Foliage Style 1: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create foliage. And this will be a series of videos because right now we are starting to study materials and this will be only style number one. This will be the hardest one. So this video will also be the longest one. And as we progress further along, you will see that the same principle of maybe what is more complex foliage style can be applied also on more simple styles. So let's jump into it, and this is going to be our starting point. Let's talk about the color palette. You can see we have seven colors here. If you notice here on the color palette, this is an S curve, which I haven't talked about in color curves videos, but it's also one of many colors, as I've said, please experiment. So we have completely black color. Then we have a shadow tone, and we keep on going and going and going and going. If you also want to replicate this same color palette, take a screenshot from this video and you'll be able to do it. So this is basically a very aggressive S-curve, something like this. Now let's talk about the shading and what is going to be our starting point. Personally, I think it's always best to study materials and a spherical shape. Why? Because sphere is usually the most difficult to shade. So if you know how to shade something or create a texture or something that is rounded, you will most certainly be able to do it when it's completely flat. But if you only study on flat surfaces like cubes and pyramids, this doesn't mean you'll be able to do it and rounded surfaces. So this is basically the light source on the top left corner, and this is what we'll be using for most of the textures. But for foliage, I decided to go with this with a top light source. Why? Because in games, we usually create foliage with a light source being above it, not to the side of it. This is most commonly used. So this is, I think the best approach for teaching the basics like this. Now, let's start texturing this in a foliage style number one. This one is going to be randomized. And by that, I mean, we have a random sizes of leaves and you'll see how all of those overlap. So let's start with very simple. First of all, not to over-complicate it. I'm going to erase two colors, and we'll add those later on in the next video. So now we have only five colors to work with. Let's start with the shadow tone. First, we need to replace all of these colors with these five colors. I also replaced the outline in the shadow tone. Then we have this shadow tone, not the darkest one, but the next one. And we can use this one for reflected light, but also we can use it for this midtone. Or if you really want to, you can simply use the midtone for this one, and then the light on here and then the highlight here. But because we want to keep the highlight at the very end, because highlights are usually used and only few pixels, not too many. So we don't want to create this highlight up here, so I will erase it by replacing it with the lightest tone. Now we have our base from which we can start to work with. Let's start from the bottom to explain simple concept. And then I will start from the top all the way to the middle section. Now, if I take a look down here, you will see this reflected light in order to implicate leaves or foliage and stuff of similar nature, which is usually bundled up together. We want to create patterns. We don't want to be drawing every single leaf and adding details on top of it because at this resolution, we simply don't have enough space. I will be showing you in later styles with larger leaves. So please be patient until then. So for now, we will start very small. Now, imagine that you are simply creating patterns that are going to repeat, and those are basically going to be our lives. So let's say we have Tetris, maybe sampling of these, maybe in the opposite way, perhaps something like this. And the more we go to the side, the thinner the patterns are going to be y because this is fear, sphere is rounded. So if you notice this section of the sphere is closest to us, because this top section is a bit further away from us, it's being rotted away from us. So if something is very thick in the middle, as we try and start rotating it to the side of the cube, is going to become thinner and thinner all the way until it's only one pixel wide. Of course, that doesn't have to apply everywhere because leaves have the grove in nature are very random. And again, we don't want to be drawing every individual leaf, but rather we want to focus on the overall bundle of leaves. So let's start by erasing this section where the reflected light would be. And we're simply going to draw some of those patterns that I've talked about. And those are going to be down here. They can be a bit thicker in the middle. We can extend this a little bit because remember, leaves in nature are just like that, very sporadic. And as we go and rotate upwards, we're going to have thinner and thinner examples of these patterns. And we don't have to order it. You can definitely repeat the patterns if you want. Those can be like maybe only three pixels, maybe only two pixels, four pixels, five pixels, six pixels, and so on. So those are all up to you. Have fun with it, experiment and see which one. Do you think looks the best for you? And remember, since we are simply studying a material, feel free to emphasize certain specific portions of this entire sphere so you can erase the outline or you can extend the outline, which we'll talk about more in the next video. Since this is a spirit as I've talked about before, I want to focus the attention here. Because if I look at the side of the sphere, this is going to be the closest to us. So I really want this to have the most attention. And because the light source is coming from the top, I can extend it a little bit like so. So this is where the most details are going to be. These sections right here. Basically, everything else except this middle portion is going to have less detail. So I won't be adding as much lights and tones specifically to leaf. So now that I have done this, let's start from the top all the way to the middle section. And why am I doing this? Well, it's practical because if I create a leaf, Let's say this is going to be a leaf. This leaf is going to create a cast shadow below it. So you can see this entire bottom section is completely dark. And let's say I want to recreate this same leaf. But on top of it, look what happens. This same leaf is going to cast shadow again on top of this leaf. So in order for me not to waste time and basically drawing a leaf and then drawing on top of that leaf and so on and so on all the way up until the top portion of the sphere. Well, I'm simply going to start at the top and then I'm going to start creating leaves below it. Now, you can use whichever approach you think is best. Please try both of those out. So for now, I'm going to start from the top. That's the basic reason, simply to save time. Now let's imagine we have a couple of leaves extending, let's say, from this route, if you will. Let's say this is going to be our lives. It's a big giant leaf. And because I don't want to create too many details on it, I'll just use this shadow tone, which I also have used here as a reflected light. This share of torque can also be used here, which we will be using. But here on the top, Let's use it like so. Again, there is no right or wrong. Because leaves are very, very random in nature. And we can replicate this same style of leaf perhaps here on this side as well. Just to give it a bit more volume. Okay, there we go. Now let's start looking downwards. Suppose we have a big giant leap here, right in the middle. Maybe it's something like like this. Okay, Nice. This is one giant big leaf I want to market so you can see it a bit more clearly. So this is the leaf, okay? By itself, it's going to cast shadow below it. And to decide maybe not even this one side. But if I want to separate the leaves that are going to be next to it, this is one way to do it. So now, imagine there's a leaf right below it, perhaps something like this. There we go. Now, if I just replace these colors with, let's say the shadow tone. Do you see how those become lost? So I have to be very careful. I like to create outlines around the leaf below it because I know this leaf is going to cast shadow below it. But also because I know there is going to be leaf on top of it that is going to cast shadow this specific leaf. So I'm basically creating an outline for this leaf. Then I can go back inside and create shadow tones and even lighter tones like so, which we'll come back to later. Now, these are already highlights. If it's easier for you, simply try creating and outline for our leaf, then start to shade it. Now we're starting to use this higher contrast shadow because this is the darkest tone that we have currently available. And if you want to soften up this cost shut up just a little bit. You can basically just make it one don't brighter, like here, you see. So what is maybe below is going to be completely dark. And what is to the side can maybe be a softer shadow. So maybe this brighter tone, this one. Now what I want you to do is I'm just going to repeat the process. So I'm going to imagine leaves being bundled up perhaps like so this isn't one gently. Maybe we have one leaf here than one leaf here then one of here, but I'm going to bundle them all together because I have only few pixels to work with. I don't have to emphasize each and every single one. Just like I didn't hear, this may look like individual leaves. Imagine how this one is big because this one is in the center and will have the most details. This will basically set the tone of how large the leaves are all around this entire sphere. And because these are smaller, this will implicate that we essentially have bundled up leaves together in all sorts of random directions. Do you see how this one specifically is hidden below this one and above this one. So this leaf is below it and these leaves are above it. So this one tiny pixel is also a leaf, again bundled up. So don't overthink it and simply go with the flow and try to create what kinetic is the best for you. Again, for this sides, I don't want to have too many details because I want my focus to be on this middle section. And in order to save up a little bit of time, I will also cut this right side of the sphere and replicated on the left side. We'll go from there once I finished this right side. Now that I have gotten to this point right here, I also want to create some leaves right below this section. Maybe something like this. Now this isn't the reflected section. I want to keep this to separate. So I will erase just a little bit of this because I want to keep in mind that this is the reflected portion with the reflected light. Okay, there we go. So now you can see how this right side looks a lot different than the left side. As promised, I will take this entire right side, copy-paste it, flip it around horizontally and connected down in the middle. Now please, you don't have to do this. You can simply go and keep on working on this. But because this is an instructional video, I want to keep it as short as possible. And here we go. This is what we will have. Now in order to create some asymmetry because in natural, very readily find something that's symmetrical. Because this can very easily become something like a scale of some sorts. So in order to not to confuse this, I'll take this largest one. And I will replicate it also down here, just below. And perhaps I will erase the top section because remember that we also have cast shadow from this leaf above it. And now let's try to fit it in like that. There we go. If you want to go, you can go back inside and fix it a little bit, but not to overdo it. There we go. Now, the fun part starts right here, because right now everything looks a bit blended like a part of some background, which may be exactly something that you are looking for. But I will create a new frame where I will start introducing the last portion and that is going to be the highlights. Now, each of these leaves is going to receive a little bit of highlight. And again, I want to focus those and these leaves in the middle. So here we go. Since we are also adding some highlights on these leaves in the middle, we can also add a little bit of highlights here. And this side leaves as well, but we're not going to be using the same color. You're not using the brightest one. We are simply using 1to1 brighter than whichever liked the tone for this one is, in this case, the brightest one will be this one. For this live at the side. The next brightest stone will be this one. And so on. These ones at the bottom, if you really want, you can add just a little bit. Don't overdo it because these are only supposed to be the reflected light. There we go. If you really want, you can add some light on these leaves behind as well. But I think they take away from the focus here on the middle. So I'd really like to use those like in the background, basically. Perhaps even an editor, a little bit of this darkest shadow as well. There we go. So without highlights, this is how it looks. With the highlights. Look how it now it looks, it looks a lot brighter. Now, this by itself isn't all the way finished, but I think this is enough for this video. So the key points to take away for this video are start with a basic shape, in this case sphere, shaded with a specific light source in mind. Then apply your colors to it. Try to look for specific ratios which you will be using as leaves. Then try adding more and more details. Then start atop, create some leaves and work your way all the way to the middle or wherever the shadow Tony's. And use less details in the shadow. Because if they populate the shadow area with too much details, everything is going to blend. So we want to create details where you can see them. Think about it in real life. If you are in the light in the room and you can see everything, you can see a lot of details. But if you switch off the lights in the room, suddenly it's dark and you can no longer see so many details. In fact, there's a lot of it that you cannot see. This is the same principle that if want to apply here. So whatever is in the shadow will have less details. And Velez details. I mean, less patterns and also less colors. The same leaf that is in the shadow may only use one or two colors, but this leaf in the light may use maybe four or five or even six or seven colors. So that's the important thing to also remember, and remember to also break away a little bit from this silhouette, which we'll be working on in the next video. So that's all for this video. I will see you in the next one where we will work even a little bit more. And this is specific sphere. 21. 2 Foliage Style 1 details: Welcome back. In this video, I will talk about how to render the foliage even in more detail. For now from the previous video, we have this nice sphere which you can also look at all times here in the preview with only five colors. But remember that we have started with seven colors. So I will repopulate the color palette with these seven colors. And now I will add the highlight to this section's all the unfilled pixels. I don't want to overdo it again where the highlights were. This will again be an even brighter highlights. So we can also brighten everything up by one or two steps if you really like. So maybe something like that. There we go. Same goes for these on the sides. I want to avoid too many single pixel highlights. Because if I just place one pixel highlights all around, it's going to become very noisy. If you sit here in the preview, I like to remove those. And if I can, I like to use two pixels for highlights. If I really cannot help it, maybe I'll use just one few places, but generally I'll try to avoid it. Now we also have the black on the darkest one. This will be the ambient occlusion, and this may even happen on few places like this. You can randomize it. You don't have to be overly precise. But do you see in this section over here, which basically I'm only shadow. Now here we can start to play around and give it more volume. And because we have higher contrast between these two colors, this entire image will appear to have more volume because the shadows and lights are what creates the three-dimensionality of a specific object. So here we go. And we also want to edit a little bit on the bottom as well. Okay, Now let's start breaking away from the silhouette because remember, this by itself. Looks okay. But because this is foliage, now we need to create some, maybe some branches or leaves that are sticking out to the side. And we also want to break this symmetry just a little bit. So this leaf on the top, Let's make it a bit smaller, perhaps something like this. Let's make this a bit darker as well. Maybe we have a leaf sticking here at the side. Like so. Perhaps we have a vine coming all the way down here, maybe even being rotated like so. And another while maybe like that. Perhaps they even connect in some way. We can do a similar thing here as well. Perhaps this one is spiraling around. Because remember, this may be something that you want to create. This May 1 even catch a little bit of flight. Same goes for this one. If you want to give it a bit more volume and more attention, you can certainly do. So. Let's extend all of these a little bit more doubt. Again, extend this a little bit extra to the side. And you can play around. You can be as valid as you want. Because this is really all up to you. There we go. It's very quick, easy to do. Adding details later on is very easy because you are basically just creating something. So if you have a good base, creating something else or can be quite easy, I think these shadow tones or bits to connect to. So let's try to create some of those patterns with leaves, with this shadow tones as well. I think this will be just fine. There we go. It already looks a bit better. Now you can keep playing around to break the symmetry that we have talked about previously. And how much you want to invest into this specific point. Because remember, I have flip this image around, so we don't have as much asymmetry, but you can certainly keep working on it if you want. So we have the before and after. So just adding two extra tones, highlights and only a few places. Black color as the darkest details, basically the darkest shadow of the ambient occlusion, maybe adding some extra volume, but adding some random leaves and vines to the side. Look how it looks like. It looks way better. It has much more volume. And perhaps if I wanted to make this in some kind of a monster, perhaps I can make this, let's say eyes of some sorts and make everything here darker. You can already see how it might look like. Maybe it's even smiling funnels. Now remember to have fun, that's the, basically the main thing of trying to say, okay, so this is all when it comes to style number one, this was the most difficult one and certainly the longest one when it comes to the amount of time we will have to watch, at least for the foliage videos. So let's move to the next video with another style of foliage. I'll see you there. 22. 3 Foliage Style 2: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create foliage in style number two, which uses bigger leaves, bigger, more defined leaves. Because in the previous style, all of these leaves are so bundled up together and kinda unrecognizable with all of these vines and so on. So in this style, I want to use a larger leaves. The first one I'm going to do is basically use the previous style is a base, but I will remove all of the details so we can start pretty much fresh. Now. I will clean up the edges just ever so slightly. There we go. Now we can start working on our style number two. So first is always, I want to divide this into two sections in light and shadow. Roughly down the middle. This will be our base. If I really wanted to, I can start with something like this with two shadow tones basically and start adding light on top of it. Because if you remember from previous video, just adding light gives us so much more volume. Let's start working on those bigger leaves first, how do I want to approach this? Well, since I already have a shadow tone here, I want to approach this a bit differently. The shadow tones are here. Now we can start working on bigger leaves. Let's create the biggest leaf of them all, just like we've done in the previous video, which is this one in the middle. And we'll take this as a base of some sorts. So let's say this is our biggest leaf. Below it, I want to have a clearly defined cast shadow using the darkest tone. Now, from this leaf, I can start shading that live in more details. I'm basically leaving the shadow tones or the mid tones, one pixel thick here at the edges. Though, I can certainly break that rule in cases like this. So I'm not just going to create like that. I'm giving myself some free space to interpret this live how I want it to. There we go. And without adding highlights for now, we will keep those. Later on. I want to start to create more leaves as well. And for this, I'm going to use this light tone to determine the size of our leaf. And remember we're creating bigger leaves. So this one is quite big. And again, Sheraton below it, Sheraton around it and above it. Then some shadow on some of these sections like so. Again, very exactly want to place those shadows will be up to you if you want to add some texture to your leaf, like those veins down in the middle. You can certainly do so. But for this style, I will leave them out and maybe I'll introduce them in the later video. Let's talk about these leaves on the top. Maybe they're a bit brighter. Let's say like that. If you remember those two leaves that I have created here on the top, I've tried to replicate it does because I think those just look cool when it comes to presentations of this nature. Now, I'm experimented with the cast shadow. You can see that the cast shadow is right below this specific leaf. But here I have a shadow tone before the cast shadow, simply because I wanted to see how it looks like. So remember to experiment. Don't just copy a specific style, because if you copy somebody else's style and not to try to create your own, you will never be able to create your own style. But if you really like someone's style is certainly a good starting point to study it and try to create something of your own later on. So now let's keep on going. I want a bit sharper, leaves, like so. And now I'm just going to quickly run this through and see what type of leaves I can get. But this process is very simple, as you can see. I'm basically just targeting the cast shadow, creating a leaf out of it and creating some sharp edges. And you can already see that we have to cast shadows here. So I know I can place my leaf right down in the middle and I can even extend it if I really want to. There we go. Now because two of these leaves are the same height, I want to emphasize that this layer is on top of this one. So I will actually erase a little bit of this leaf below it. Now this one, since a top of this one. This is something that you can do in multiple ways if you really want to, again, that's totally up to you. I'll go back on this one and start shading everything else as well. Do you see how we have bigger leaves than before? Now, if I want to create softer shadows, I can certainly do so between specific clips that I think there's just a little bit too much contrast. Here at the side. I also need to create, introduce some extra leaves and I want to keep them sharp. This is a very simple style where you are essentially creating just straight lines like so. And just creating a leaf of straight lines, nothing else. Basically a rectangle of some sorts. When it comes to this side leaves and you can create a whole style based just on this. Trust me, it's. Easy and user-friendly to do, especially for beginners. But because we are starting to slowly move towards more advanced sections, I want to make sure that we have at least multiple styles under our belt. Because when you start to create high resolution backgrounds and images, I want you to understand how those textures work without me having to explain every single step. Because then if you take forever, trust me. Again, we are extending the leaves a little bit to the side. And if we instead them a little bit down as well. Because these leaves are very triangular, very rectangular, if you will, but angled. We can also create few of these now here as well. And we can make them larger because remember, these leaves are indeed larger than the previous ones. And as they go towards the side, they will become thinner and thinner because this is in the atmosphere. You can break that rule every now and then. There's no problem. Okay? I think this is generally a good starting point. Perhaps here at the side. I want it to be a bit more muted and tone down on these leaves to be a bit darker. Same goes for this one. It's a bit too bright for my taste. And the sides. I want more details here in the middle. So perhaps couple of these leaves in the middle would work wonderfully. Yes, I think this will work just as well. And perhaps just a couple of tiny leaves here to fill in this empty space there again, because this is shadow, we can simply leave those out. But I really like to see a little bit of extra, just like so. There we go. Now on top of this, I want to create highlights and for that, I will use my brightest don't, and that will be this one. This is exactly what we'll have this entire image again, pop out a lot more. And I will only use it on these brightest stones. Like so. I'm only targeting this space. I'm not going to use highlights and the shadows only within the light. And for these ones below, this will be enough. I don't want to introduce highlights there as well, though. If you want, you can certainly do so, but try not to overdo it because again, as I've said, creating single piece of highlights usually doesn't work the best and foliage like this. So if you really want to use at least two or three soo created that volume. I will ask select. I like to add a little bit there as well. And this is the before and this is after. So this is very simple to do. We have multiple leaves with multiple styles and we just go around and do those. This is a bit more straightforward than the last one because these leaves use very straightforward angles. So you can see that all of these are basically just straight lines. This is how we determine the overall shape of the leaf with some exceptions here or there to break the symmetry. Okay, so that's all for this video, for this style, I will see you in the next one. 23. 4 Foliage Style 3: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create foliage style number three. And this one will have the biggest of all leaves. So it's something quite useful if you want to create a very close-up shot of a specific plant, okay, now, how am I going to do this? Well, this time around, I'm going to use something in a sprite under View, you have symmetry options and you can click those on. And now something we will appear here and this is what will happen. This is basically symmetry option in a spreader. You can certainly use it in other software if the habit and this basically replicates whatever I draw on one side to the other. If you don't have this specific case pry tool, what you can do is simply draw 1.5 of it. And just as I did it in the first video, you can just copy, paste it, flip it around and you'll get the same effect. But because it's easiest to do it like this and it saves a little bit of time. I will do just like that. So what I will do right now is create an outline of a specific leaf. And remember these are going to be giant leaves. So I want to make sure that I tried to capture as much simple details as possible. So let's go. I want to keep it straight legs. So because this will be a giant leap, something of this specific shape I'm thinking about. So I'm thinking about how far I want to go with this specific leaf shape. I have to zoom out or look here at the side a little bit. And let's see, I think this should be enough. Maybe something like this. There we go. So this is going to be our leaf shape, basically the shape. And because we wanted to have in the lights don't like so now you can see how it looks like. We can also make some extra lives here in the middle because right now we have plenty of extra space that we are not using. So let's try creating a little bit of those as well. Okay, there we go. And now I want to turn off the symmetry option because right now it looks way too symmetrical. So I want to offset a little bit of these, perhaps this leaf on the right. I want to offset it down just by one pixel. That's totally enough because we'll introduce more asymmetry with shading. And I also want to do the same thing here because I'll erase a little bit of this leaf right here and maybe just place it one pixel down as well. This already creates the symmetry because we have a consistent size of leaves. And we also have some asymmetry like we would find in nature. Now, I also want to introduce maybe one middle ear because I really love to create a dose. So because these leaves are very elevated, I want to think about how this is going to turn out. And I think this will be just fine. Okay, so we have one leaf right here in the middle. There we go. We have five leaves. Now how am I going to shade this? It's quite simple. First, we already have the darkest shadow and it's already in place, so we don't have to do anything with it just yet. Now I'm going to take the shadow tone, which is one-to-one brighter than this one. And I'm going to start to shade all of these. First, I want to shade it a bit darker here near the stem, at least when the stem would be if they had it. This is basically going to create a transition from this darkest shadow tone to this brighter portion to this brighter portion. And finally in the light, Let's do just that. Now I'm going to repeat it with the midtone and also with the mid tone because this is the transition that I was talking about. I'm going to create a little bit of shadow on this leaf. And this inside edge. Same goes for this one. Now, if you remember those winds that I've talked about in the previous video, this example, we can create those legs. So now a common mistake that I see is trying to introduce too many details. Because if I try to create this vein from this leaf right down the middle, like so, it looks just too much. I only want to imply it. I don't want to draw completely everything about it. So even this is completely enough. Do you see you don't need too many details when it comes to creating something of this nature. Okay, there we go, and I'll try to replicate the same thing on this leaf as well. Again, I'm implying a texture because even this vane inside of this leaf would become thinner as it travels to the top of the leaf down here. Okay, so just something to keep in mind. Again. First, we take care of the transition from the dark to light. We introduce a bit of shadow. And there we go. I think this is totally enough for this specific leaf. And again, just implying that texture. I don't want to overdo it. There we go. And so far, so good. Now to add highlights, you can imagine those being as a ring around this entire plant. So wherever this plant is roughly in the middle, this is where we can place our highlights. And I went to create a new frame. So you can again see the difference between highlight and the null highlight. Because these two connect like so. I like to apply this texture like so because this vein right now, it looks a bit too dark because I don't want highlights to be touching this darker section like so basically surrounding it, even though this texture, I want to make it one-to-one brighter so it doesn't break away too much. Because you can see that your brain recognizes that this section right here is going to be basically that vein from this plant. And I can do the same thing if it's runs. That's why I don't want to do here in the middle. Similar thing. If it's being surrounded entities, I just remove it like so. And because this one is way below, it's not going to be part of this ring. But still, I want to place at least a little bit of highlights here as well. There we go. So this is going to be before highlights and adding some highlights. And again, as a final step, I can add some of these leaves in the darkest shadows, basically using this color. And this will again add more volume to the overall image. And remember these leaves are completely in the shadow, so they will not receive the same treatment as the other leaves because if they are in the shadow, they will receive less details, meaningless colors. I want to make sure that on the outside I have this darker tone. There we go. This is the before highlights and some details in the shadow. And this is after. You don't need more than that, trust me again. But if you want to experiment, feel free to do so you can add some extra details and so on. But personally, I like it like that. So that's all for this style number three, when it comes to foliage with big giant leaps. So far, we have covered very, very tight, randomized with vines type of style than we have with some straight, sharp, big leaves. And now finally we have some rounded, even larger leaves. So there's plenty of style of foliage that we can create, and I will cover two more. So I will see you in the next video. 24. 5 Foliage Style 4: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you style for, of creating foliage. And this time around we will be using this fear as a base. And now look what I will do. Quite simply. I will again erase these gray tones and replace it with my colors. Just a sucker done previously, but this time around for these three tap tones, I will use this a lifetime. I will keep the highlights and the mid tone or this shadow tone depends how you use it. For other purposes. I also want to keep everything separated cleanly so I will not be using any outlines. Changed the styles a little bit. And on this bottom section, I don't want any reflected light at all. So we'll have a nice gradual transition from light to shadow, just like we usually have in games, perhaps some tiles. So now that we create that other way, let's start working on our leaves. In the previous videos, I have talked about leaf patterns and this time around, you can think about those again. So think about how you can create interesting patterns and how they will curve as we go to the side of the sphere. And now I will start working on those. So I will take this light on and simply extended down a little bit where I think we will roughly have this entire lives. So what you see right now is not what I'm only drawing, because right now I'm thinking about multiple things. You may see that I have only extended this, but she pixels down, but this isn't the only leaf. This is what I'm thinking about when I tried to imagine that leaf. Same goes for these ones. This is going to be the leaf. So try to imagine it before you draw it. I know it can be a bit tricky, but once you get used to it, it's going to be very, very easy and quite fun to do it. In fact. There we go. Now let's keep on going on this other side. Okay, now I'm going to take a shadow tone which is 1to1 doctrine that this one which is also the midtone. And I will go over these and in-between these leaves to make sure that the shape corresponds to what I previously wanted it to. So you can see right here that I just needed to extend this pixel one down extra. Finally here at the side, we need to make it just ever so slightly smaller. There we go. So I quite like how this turned out. But there is also one thing that I will want to basically fix, but we'll get to that in just a few moments. So if you want to save some time, you can definitely take 1.5, got it, flip it around and put it together or simply use this vertical tool for symmetry. But this time around, I won't be using it because I think this style is very simple and quick to do anyways. So we don't have any need to try to save some extra time when it's really not needed. Alright, there we go. So do you see this curvature of the sphere? I think it's just a little bit too flat down the middle because these three leaves are basically at the same height. So I want to push this one, just one pixel down, just so we have that curvature a bit more emphasized. Okay, there we go. So we are already most of the way there. Now, I want to create another layer of these leaves, bill of these ones. Then we go, but this time around, I'm going to use everything 1to1 darker. So you can imagine these leaves will be overlapping and above the leaves below them. So we have used methadone to create this shadow. So in order to create enough space in, within this limited color palette, I will be using this shadow tone to create cast shadow only on the buttons sections of these leaves. So I will keep this midtone above it. If you remember the anti-aliasing effect, this is exactly a place where you could use it. Now we have placed below vary. We can use this mid tone to create leaves below them because if I have left this shadow tones, the cast shadows the same color, the sake of the blend, I don't have enough space for them. And now there are basically two ways how we can go about it. You can either target space between these leaves, so something like this. Or you can target the leaves themselves. So basically directly below of this leaf, you are creating another one. Whichever way we want to go, you won't be wrong. Both options will work just fine. This time around. For the cast shadow, this function right here. I will be using this darker stone which is already here. So I don't need to use this dark tone here as well because this will again messed up with the perception a little bit, because we are using the same color for the cast shadow, for this bright leaves and for these dark leaves. So we also want to use everything 1to1 darker because the color of the leaf is darker, the cast shadow will also be 1to1 darker. It's quite a simple concept, so I hope this brings it a bit more together. Let's say to be a bit more cohesive. We are adding just these lighter tones to bring it more volume, just ever so slightly. Now in this darker sections, I want to create some leaves using this shadow tone. We are almost there when it comes to this entire piece, this entire style. So you can see how simple it is. This one focuses quite a bit on the shapes themselves. And basically creating this, let's say sort of a hairstyle to some, to some degree, if you will. Now, let's talk about this upper section. Do you remember how I like to always to create those two leaves on top, but I'm going to do the same thing here. But it's going to be a bit different. So I'm just going to emphasize that the possibility of these leaves are like, so that's all I don't need more than that. I'm not going to render them out in more details as I have done previously. Again, if you want to add more details from the shadow, perhaps indicate a leaf or two, you can certainly do so. And now we want to create highlights, which is going to give us the highest volume. And for that we are going to target these leaves on the edges. And we also want to angle them a bit towards the middle. And again, you are imagining a ring around this entire section. This is where the light is going to catch the most and those are the highlights. So you can see how the highlights in big slot as it just a bit differently than in traditional art. Though again, if you simplify that the highlight is simply the brightest section in the object, that works just as well because it actually is. Okay, so there we go. This is quite nice and simple and easy style to do. You can see that it's quite different from the previous styles. And this type of style I might be using in perhaps let's say, some kind of a tile which I'll be showing you in the last video when it comes to the foliage examples. Okay, so there we go. That's tile number four. I will see you in the next video where I will show you the last and perhaps the fastest way to create foliage. I'll see you then. 25. 6 Foliage Style 5: Welcome back. This video is going to be definitely the fastest when it comes to creating foliage style, because it's very, very simple to do. This time around. I'm going to again, use only five colors. Again, you can always add more colors and more details. Justice previously are simply prepare this entire surface and now look at this. For this, you will either need a sprite or you will need a lot of patients, whichever one you want to choose. So what we are going to do is create a simple shape, which is going to be our brush. So let's create a new file completely and we will create a simple brush inside of it. So these are going to be the leaves. So if you imagine the patterns of leaves, this is essentially what we are going to create here. So perhaps one leaf is going to be here. Maybe one is going to be here on this side. Maybe one is going to be here on the top. It's going to maybe be a bit thinner. And maybe let's say one is here. Now from this we are going to create a brush. So we select the pattern that we want to create. And as I have shown you previously, press Control B. And now you have this brush available to basically replicate this pattern in whichever color you want. You have three options. For this one, I will use paint brush so we can paint it however we want to. Now, one thing to note is that if you don't have this option in a sprite, then you will have to basically just copy, paste this on top of each other and try to replicate like that. But in that case it's no longer fast. This technique basically only applies if you have either a Sprite or some other software that can use paint brushes, basically custom paint brushes. Okay, so let's say that we have created this pattern. Let's use it just as well. Okay, So these are way how we can do this is simply pick the darker stone picket few times simply to create the silhouette. Then within that, you can take one tone brighter and use it and few times. Be very careful not to overdo it because the light is coming from the top-left. So basically like this. So we want to make everything brighter in this area. Then pick again 1to1 brighter. Use it a few times. Do it again for these leaves. And then finally, use a couple of times, maybe three max, and there we go. So you are basically doing the same thing that we have done previously, but automatically. So you are taking the leaves and the shadows, and you are placing the leaves in the light on top of them. And that's all. This is very fast start to do. And now that everything has been layered, now we can go back inside. And if you want to play around, you can refine it in, in a sense, if this is something that you really want, and so on. But basically you can see how this style is very quick to do. And depending on how your brush is, you will have different effects. In this brush, we have four leaves. You can have one leaf to maybe a dozen. Who knows? So please experiment with this style. If you have a sprite, it's quite easy and fast to do. And it's excellent for prototyping. But again, if you want something more refined, you will definitely have to go back inside and refine this entire foliage as is, because we are pixel artists and we wanted to target specific pixels and make sure everything is in its proper place. Okay, so that's all for the foliage. In the next video, I will show you part of this foliage styles that I have created so far can be used in perhaps a game mockup. I'll see you there. 26. 7 Foliage usage explained: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you a few simple ideas that you have to keep in mind when you are creating foliage. So I have shown you five styles. This is Stan number one, basically expanded. Then we have style number two with more details. We have Stan number three with even a larger volumes when it comes to the leaves that he has done number four, which is very nice, neat, mostly soft style. Then we have Stan number five, which is the style, which is a very quick to create. If you have a software that is capable of creating custom paint brushes, let me give you an example of this specific one. I will take this entire middle section it out, and create a new file. And let's say the height is 32 pixels. Maybe the width can be, perhaps let's say a 160, and the height can be any something a bit higher. So let's say 96 should do just well. Now you can see this foliage here. Now I will fill in this bottom section with this color. And now I also want to fill this top space just a little bit. Now I can take this intersection, use it as a paintbrush. And I want to make sure I align it to the source. There we go. You see how this style is nicely. Now, I will use this to create something below this. There we go. You see how nice this looks. This is a very simple style. How you can create a nice foliage or grass when it comes to creating tasks, perhaps for a platformer or maybe even a action platformer and so on. Now what about the other styles? I will omit this style. The last one, the fifth stuff because this is the easiest one to create. And I want to focus more on this one because the concept behind them should be quite important. So let's talk about this one. You can see that these leaves are kinda the middle size, let's say the medium-size. And I want to create a background, let's say for this entire piece, Let's say this should be just fine then on a layer above it. But between these two, I can create this. If I take this, let's say foliage and use it as some sort of a bush. You see how nice it looks. But because the highlights and this entire foliage are so bright, they are the same brightness as the highlights on this platform or here making the whole concept of space a bit distorted. It's like it's a bit too close to us. So what we would want to do is erase these highlights completely. Like so this is exactly why I have created something without highlights and width palettes because it gives more volume and it also gives us the sense that it's closer to us. Now let's use this as an example and simply create maybe like a couple of these in different sizes. I think this will be just fine. Now suppose I take this again. But I created another layer behind this one. So you can see then we also again have to remove and darken it everything by one extra shade or tone. There we go. So now just see how this blends in behind, simply because it uses less Carlos. So we have less details creating the illusion that it's further away. So now suppose I do the same thing again, and I use only the shadow tone. They can that one out of the effects. So let's redo it like so. But you see we are also creating the atmospheric perspective, while at the same time creating details where they're not needed. If you create too many details, like in this example right here, where it has too many details, It's too bright. So it means it should be closer to us. But the less details suddenly has further away from us. It should be just like in real life, you can see details only if you are up-close. If something is too far away, you cannot see those details. Now let's talk about the final one. And that would be this one with the largest types of leaves. If I take it and create a top layer which is going to be closer to us. You can recognize these leaves and you can also use it as such because they are closer to us. Because these leaves are very close to us. They can be bigger. If something is far away, the leaves are smaller. But again, it also depends on the species of the plant. So if a specific plant simply has a giant list, then you can use them like that. There we go. If you want to place this specific plant, maybe a couple of places like this one, perhaps on the edges. You can certainly do so. Now we have the foreground, we have the mid ground where the player is. And if you had the background, I'm not going to create anything wearing behind, but you can create something if you were a little more too. There we go. A nice simple scene using only foliage, and I think it looks pretty nice. So what's most important about all of this is to remember when you're creating foliage for our game. Threat to think about its usage isn't going to be in the background. If so, don't use too many details. Use as little detail as possible simply to convey the message that, yes, this is some sort of a bush. You can understand from these simple shapes that yes, these are leaves. You don't want to be wasting time when you are creating games or art for games and unnecessary details because you are wasting time and also it won't look good. That's all I wanted to say. When you start the foliage study in as many details as possible, started an up-close study in a far away. But when you are creating such a football game, think about where exactly in the game is going to be used. That's all for this video. I will see you in the next one where I will start creating some other materials as well. 27. 8 Rocks Style 1: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create rocks in Stan number one, in the previous videos, I have shown you how to create different styles of foliage. And now we will do the same thing when it comes to rocks. Here on the top left, you will find the color palette. It's quite simple. Again, you can take a screenshot and simply copy the color palette if you want to do again, it's really not necessary. So the curve of this color palette go slightly like that. Okay, Now, when it comes to rocks, I have already explained to you very simply in the RPG view section and how to create a very simple Iraq. And this same principle will be applied in this video as well. What is that principle? Well, it's quite simple. If I create a simple Iraq, we have the top section of the rock, then we have two sides of it, both of which are in the shadow. There we go. So this can be like a very simple Iraq. If I take this, create a new file, place disrupt somewhere in the middle and create a background. You can see how this is very clearly a rock. This same style of rock will be applied to this entire sphere. Basically, a bunch of flux bundled up together to create our architecture. And this is quite useful if you're trying to create a rocky background, perhaps in the mountain side and stuff like that. So what is the purpose of each color in this palette? First, we have the highlight. We will keep that all the way until the end to emphasize the edges of the rocks. Then we have what is going to be our top tone. In this case, this is going to be the top surface of our rock. Then we have a midtone, which is going to be used to smooth out the edges of Iraq. So if you imagine that this is the straight edge and this is going to be, let's say the shadow, Let's say this stone. You can imagine that this is a very sharp angle, but with this midtone, if you want to smooth out the edge, we will basically create this type of effect. So the edge is slightly rounded, a bit slanted. It's not as sharp as it was before. So this is going to be the purpose of the mid tones. So we're basically going around this top section and creating basically a softer edge. Then we have these two shadow tones. One is going to be on the left side, one is going to be on the right side, just like it is here. And then finally we have the occlusion shadow. And this is the darkest color in our color palette. So those are basically places between rocks like some kind of cracks between runs that you cannot see. Now let's jump into creating this entire image in rocks. First of all, I want to create everything in the darkest tone. Now, I will take this light tone, which is going to be the top surface of our stone, I will make a larger brush simply because it's a bit faster to create. And now I will go over the image and simply create different stones in different sizes. And then here where we know the shadow would be because the light source is coming from the left side. So like this, we are going to use 1to1 darker. So, so far we have used this color. Now let's use this color, which is the midtone for these rocks in the shadow. And we can also extend a little bit outside of the silhouette that if you create it from a perfect sphere, There we go. What we will do now is start from these ones and create these left and right sides. So if you imagine that we have the top side made here, which are all of these top sides. Now we need to create a left side and right side. So first of all, wherever these rocks will be, I create first this left side of the shadow. And all of these will be slightly angled because this is a sphere, so they also reflect. So you can think of those as targeting 45-degree angles when it comes to creating shadows. And then for this section, because again, 45 degrees, we can create this darker shadow. Which section you want to live out to, which shadow is up to. You can create it like that. You can create it like that. So the ratio is totally up to you. You can even make this shadow in the middle and these darker shadow around it. But for this specific style. And to keep it a bit simpler, just go with roughly half and half. Though you can again expand those ratios have wherever we want it. Now, let's keep on going. So under left side, we have this shadow, and I want this shadow to always begin, at least below this lighter tone. And then these darker shadow. And we just keep on going. If we think that this rock below, we want to keep it a bit higher, we can simply extend it up so you can see how it covers up this upper rock, the rock on the top. So however you want to expand upon, this will be totally up to you. And that's all. So now we just repeat the process. Left side, lighter shadow, right side, darker shadow, and we just keep on going. And if I ever feel the need to make a specific shape darker or lighter, I can do so. Okay, there we go. Now that you have done this, we also have these rocks which are in the shadow because they're lighter tone is what is going to be our midtone and these rocks up here. So what we can do is basically just use this shadow tone as the left side and this occlusion shadow tone for the right side. So we create a nice contrast. And perhaps on the near edges, I only want to have very, very little detail. So maybe only a couple of rocks that are going to be in this shadow tone and nothing else. We are not going to bother with reflected light in this case. Now as I promised, we need to introduce the mid-tone. So wherever it wants to make it a bit smoother, we can do so if you want to introduce a little bit of texture on top of the rock, this is also a nice way to do it. And we are only targeting these lights spaces. We're not going to go into shadow and mess up the share of tones because it will mess around with the shape. Though feel free to experiment again. We will do another style where we're going to use this done as a shadow tone, but let's not spoil too much, shall we? Okay, there we go. Now for these ones in the shadow, yes, you can certainly do the same thing for them as well. But because they are in the shadow, I don't want to introduce as many details in case I want to imply perhaps just a little bit of shadow. I can do so, but I don't want to overdo it just a little bit. And these ones which are the darkest of all rocks in this case, I don't want to introduce any details on them whatsoever. Now for the highlights, the highlights, we are basically doing the edges. So wherever this lightest tone is so far, we will create a little bit of edge. Again. I will create a new frame so you can compare the difference between highlights and no highlights. And where you place the highlights will be totally up to you. We can even mess around with the position of this midtone if you want to. We can move it around it now for this one, did the shadow. If I want a little bit of edge, I will just create it on the top side, so it's the opposite. So on all of these rocks I'm creating the highlight on the top section. And for these rocks in the shadow, I'm creating just a little bit of light tone. And the upper edges. There we go. So we have the before and after highlights. Again, you can see how the highlights create nice sharpness to the image. And in case you don't want it to be sharp, you want it to be more muted and part of the background, then you would not be using highlights as I previously discussed. Now, if you want to add more of these occlusion shadows and more cracks in between rocks, you can certainly do so. So these are all going to be up to you how much of each of these there is no right or wrong, because even rocks in nature usually appear completely random. So you can see with darker shadows and brighter highlights, it gives it more volume. But again, higher contrast may not be something that you necessarily want. Okay, that's all for this video and for step number one. In the next video, I will show you style number two. 28. 9 Rocks Style 2: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create rocks in style number two. And these rocks are going to be even smaller and more randomized when it comes to their size. In the previous video, I have shown you how to create this specific style of rock where we used this stone as the top section. This stone as one shadow. This one is another shadow tone. And this stone was the mid-tone, which we have used to create a little bit of texture on top of these rocks. Now because I want a softer look to our rocks in the new style, I will still use this. Don't afford the top section, but this is going to be the sheriff to number one and this term will be the shadow number two. So basically what I did is created a brighter shadows, just as before, I will create everything in the darkest shadow tone. And a now I'm going to start positioning the rocks and I'm going to have plenty of these and those are going to be very small. So we're not going to create a giant rocks like we did before. And you are basically just think of shapes. There is no right or wrong shape. This is only the top portion of the rock. So again, this can be a rock, this can be Iraq. This can be a rock, or even this can be erupt. So those are all up to you, how you want to create those. So I will just speed this process up because these are just small random shapes. One thing I would want to try to avoid is have too many of the same shapes next to each other. So you can see these three rectangles, two by two pixels. I don't like that. So I want to make it look a bit more randomized. So I will just change this up a little bit. Let's keep on going. And in some places, we can certainly break away from the silhouette. Now, for these ones in the shadow, I want to go one turn darker so we know that this should be the basic shading, so we should start to slowly transition towards the shadow tones here. So I will change some of these in the shadow, like so. And then for these ones even deeper in the shadow, I will use even darker tones. So we have three different tones transitioning for the rocks in the shadow. Then lastly, we have this darker shadow tone, which is going to be right here on the edges. Again, I'm not going to create any type of reflected light, so we don't have to worry about that. Now the process is going to be exactly the same as before. We will take the sheriff don't make it on the left side. And if you'll take a darker shadow on the right side, wherever I think I would need to extend the rock a little bit, I will certainly do so. So let's just keep on going. And I will try to raise as many of these occlusion shadow sections as possible. Again, left-side branch shadow, right-side, dark shadow. This is all I'm going to do. I will speed this one up, but not too much. I will speed it up maybe by two times so you can still follow along if you didn't want to. But again, the process is very simple. I will try to erase this and the edges to create more volume on the outside and just keep on going with the shadows. So right here, I'm going to connect these two rocks and create Share button here, simply because I want to avoid using this occlusion shadow tone as much as possible. Okay, so right here, my shadow tone will start to conflict with the top section or the light tone for these ones in the shadow. So this right here will be the place where I will start to separate those with the shadow when, whenever possible. We have again, a clear distinction between what is going to be the light and shadow. Alright, now for these ones, all the way here in the shadows, since the light tone is different, we have to turn that everything else. So our shadow side, which was the darkest shadow for these ones in the light, is going to be the brighter shadows here. We need to use another color to create even darker shadow. And again, I can separate these either read shadow tone or I can start in these sections, I can start using Ambient Occlusion to separate the rags between which one you decide to use. It's totally up to you. But I definitely want some occlusion shadow here in these sections. Okay, very nice. So this is basically it. Now, I will just zoom out and take a look at the image because if you're always zoomed in, we tend to lose the grip of the overall image. So now I will try to look for the shadow, shapes and light shapes wherever I think it's a bit too much. So for example, right here, I think that this shadow doesn't really connect the best with this rock on top of it. I highly doubt it would create such a big shadow. So I will just extend this rock ever so slightly to the left. So it basically just connect. And now this stone on top can be extended like so. And this one above it, maybe like that. So these are not rules set in stone. So please just feel free to run around because everything here is a random, there is no right or wrong. As long as you have one, let's say basic rule when it comes to shading in place. And in this case, that rule so to speak, or guideline would be left side is in the shadow, right side is even darker shadow, and the top of the rock is the brightest. Now that this other way, now we can add highlights just as we have previously did in the now very wherever you place those. This is going to be the brightest section. Again, totally up to you, where exactly you want to place these play around. In this case, I will place it on the top, in this case the places on the bottom of this light section. There we go. So this is the before and after. Again, the highlights introduce just a little bit more extra color to it and a bit more volume. That's all for this style of rocks. It's quite simple to do is the same principle as the previous one. But this time around we have plenty of different small rocks. Again, this is a really nice technique how to create the different surfaces, perhaps in a downward for the flooring or four, or some kind of hierarchy staircases, or maybe even the side of a specific sculpture. Plenty of different phases. We can use this approach. But what you need to keep in mind that rocks are sharp, so we want to emphasize those sharp edges. These are not smooth drugs. Again, we have plenty of smooth drugs as well, especially if you carve it out like a smooth rock. We have softer rocks, we can definitely harder rocks and so on. I'm not a geologist in a sense, so I cannot cover all of the possible rocks in the world. But for Pixlr specifically, I'm showing you how to create a very simple rock styles because these are very commonly used when you are creating game assets. That's all for this video, I will see you in the next one where I will show you another style of rocks. 29. 10 Rocks Style 3: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create rocks in style number three. And this one will be even a bit simpler because up until this point, we have created two very simple styles like these two. And now we are going to expand a little bit and try to create a rockstar, which usually I personally like to use at least that basic approach when I create cliffs in RPG style views, perhaps like an RPG mockup and so on. So again, I will start with a completely dark color, which is our ambient occlusion. And now I'm going to create rock. Let's say, write it down in the middle, maybe something like that. And because this is a sphere, we need to keep everything rounded. I will create a couple of smaller rocks, let's say on the side like so. And maybe even like a platform of some sorts here on the top as well. Now we use the same basic approach. This is going to be our top section. We will use this as a midtone to create some extra details as well as the highlight. And we're again going to use these to shadow tones doing indicate left and right side. But this time around, I don't want left and right side. I want to start from the middle. You can think of this as an upside cone. The middle section is going to be the brightest. And then left and right side are going to be darker. So I'll start like so. Again, imagine a cone. There we go. And it slowly transitions all the way to the darkest shadow tone. And if you want, you can imply their symptoms like bumps in the rocks as well. And we do the same thing for these ones as well. So you can imagine that the light source is coming from above. It's no longer on the left side. So you can think of it being like that more so than it's like this middle side is going to be the brightest. These two are going to be darker. There we go. How much you want to emphasize specific section of a cliff will be up to you. Personally. I like to use for this threat middle one, I like to use a less details so we have a more emphasized curvature. And now again, we will create the same thing for this one. There we go. For this top section. Same thing applies. We have the middle section, which is going to be In one share of tone and the sides are going to be an even darker shadow tone. This is going to be our platform on top. Now if you want to, you can even create platforms here at the side if you really want to play around with details. But this time around I'm just showing a very specific type of stone. There we go. Now, let's start talking about the details which are basically as random as possible. Trust me, because this time around we will reserve these edges for the cliff because we want to emphasize that this edge is indeed from where you can jump. Let's say from here all the way down. We can also emphasize this platform on top if you want to, which I think is okay. But personally, I like my attention to be on these ones in the front, so I will leave it just like that. Now we go back and use the midtone to add some details. Again, these are as random as possible. What I did find out that using checkerboard patterns and rocks certainly does help to convey that rocky, rough texture. Now here below, if I want to create some lighter sections we have previously done. So you can imagine this rug being just like in the previous videos. Top section, left section, right section. You can see how it also creates a nice little platform, if you will. And there we go. Now because this is a cliff, we also need to remove some of these edges. And I don't want to remove too much, but I definitely want that sort of shape. This is also needed honeycomb. You can start creating floating islands if you are interested in those. And then perhaps you have tiny little, small platforms. And down here as well. Quite simple, quite easy to do. It's just another way to create rocks. This is Style Number three. I will see you in the next video where I will show you another style. 30. 11 Rocks Style 4: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create a meteorite of some sorts. So this will be styled number four when it comes to rocks. So first of all, I'm going to change these colors to the ones that I'm using for all of the rocks and all of the styles up until this point. And please enjoy all the color palettes still stays the same because in future materials, I will most likely change the color palette for different styles of a certain material. Now, let's start and talk about how we should approach this. Well, first of all, I want to enlarge on my brush so it's two by two pixels. And now I will stamp this pattern here in the shadow. And I also want to extend it just a little bit so I break the silhouette ever so slightly. There we go. Now, I will use this next shadow tone and simply worked my way all the way to delight. So I'm not holding this specific brush and just going like that. I'm literally just clicking on. So they overlap sometimes. Now, this shadow tone, on this case, this would be the mid-tone because it's in the light. Then we can take the light tone and start blending everything together with these stamps. And finally, we have the light from this time around. We won't be having any harsh highlights, so we won't be using this color at all. Because I think that for meteorites, this kinda tends to look the best. If you ask me. This is, again, one, a very simple and easy styles to do because just as we had done previously with the foliage, we start with something a bit more complex, explaining something in more details. And then as we progress and we tend to create something more simple and easy and especially quick, because I want to make sure that you understand the material. And then we can jump to shortcuts. Now I can go back inside here and start to think about, okay, where exactly they want to see more light. I can take one pixel brush and just start working towards it. If I think this specific sites should have, let say like one giant shadow here. Yeah, I can do that. I see no issues with that. Perhaps I want to extend it like so. There we go. And this is all very much randomized, so don't think too much about it. Perhaps there's a crack in the asteroid here as well. Maybe we have some shadow tones, are mid-tones here in the middle as well. Because this asteroid should be a rough surface. At least. If I make it like that. There we go. So this is a very simple and easy way to do. You can see it right here. And now imagine that this here is in space. So how far you want to push all of these is up to you. Perhaps you want to make this lighter tone even darker. And this would reduce the overall saturation and brightness of this entire piece. But that will be all up to you. So yeah, there we go. This one was very quick and easy to do. It's kind of a shortcut if you are trying to create some simple assets when it comes to specify acid, perhaps pay shooters and so on. So yeah, There we go. This is the basic approach card to create a very simple asteroid. Again, if you want to read it in more details, just go back inside and see what you can come up with. Okay, so that's all for rock styles. I will see you in the next video. 31. 12 Color palette warning: Welcome back. In this video, I want to give you a simple warning. Don't lock yourself in a specific color palette. Only. Please experiment with different color palettes. So far I have is only one color palette for different foliage because I wanted you to focus on shapes of the foliage instead of thinking about colors just yet. And similar thing goes to rocks as well, I wanted you to focus on the overall shapes and shape language that I wanted to convey to a specific material. But you don't have to be constricted to one specific color palette. And here's an example. This rock uses colors which are in the blue hue and those look quite cold. But if I switch it around and I create a color palette which is in reddish orange. Q. Look what happens. I have a different type of Iraq. If you just Google rocks, they come in all sorts of different shapes and sizes. So you can most certainly create a bunch of different trucks. You will be constricted a little bit better solution. So you won't be able to go into as many details as possible. But yet again, don't constrict yourself to only one color palette. The foliage, up until this point, when you take a foliage, you think usually for green, perhaps, if it's awesome, Those leaves can become purplish, maybe even yellow and so on. But generally speaking, they are green because of photosynthesis. But when it comes to rocks, there are so many of them. Please don't constrict yourself to one specific color palette. From now on, I will be using different color palettes in different styles. And hopefully this will help you loosen up a little bit when it comes to studying materials. I will see you in the next video. 32. 13 Wood Style 1: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create good style. And number one, on the top left, you will find a color palette. It is located in the yellow all the way to orangeish, reddish hue. And it's simple C curve. The contrast between colors is fairly small because I want this to be shiny flooring. So you can take off the flooring inside the house pocket if you will. And this is exactly what I'll be creating, but in a spherical shape. So I will start from the sheriff don't work all the way up, but here, I will also use the lighter tone. So this is going to be our starting base. Now, I want to go and check the outlines and shaded those as well. Always be one tone darker. So you'll notice that this right here, I'm creating it with the midtone for this specific case, since these are two tones part away, I will take the shadow tone and blend them in like so. Same thing will happen on this outer edge as well. And we'll finally here. So basically the outlines are 1to1 darker than the color beside them. So you can see that right here. This color is a specific term, basically this fourth one, and the outline is one-to-one darker. It goes all the way around with the exception here, which we can do that if we really want to read, might as well keep it. Now it's time to create those lines that the wood has, those grains of inside the wood. And in order to create those, I will use a red color and create lines and our sphere. So I will start here from the left side, and I will turn out to be so perfect simply because it will save me a little bit of time. And you can think of this as grains of wood because they indeed are. And perhaps we want to start curving them a little bit because greens and Ruth are completely straight. They wobble a little bit. I want to make sure I also include that. So let's say let's start straight, then starts to curve out a bit more than go back down straight and so on. And perhaps here at the end I will occur one like that, and perhaps one like that. There we go. So this would be the grains, it's out of the woods. Now, I also want to go inside and they can them up a little bit here near the middle. Because if you think about this section of the sphere is closer to us. So I want this course to be a little bit thicker. Yes, they might look a little bit jagged, but that's totally fine. And in certain places I met also taking it up just ever so slightly. There we go. So overall, I'm happy with this now, what am I going to do? Well, I'm going to shift everything by one tone. And this is why I have left this lightest tone here as well. So do you see this position of the light stone beneath these lines? I'm going to color these lines in 1to1 brighter. See, just like that. Whenever this would shift in this shadow tone, instead of keep using this color, I will take just one color, which is 1to1 brighter than the color beneath it. So in this case, it would be this one. Then here on the edges. This is the current color. And I will just make it like so there you can all, again keep it like that. This is all up to your outline style. Either way would work just fine. Then I will repeat the process for each and every single line. You see how these two blend. And now in places like these, I will extend the shadow. So I have a clear distinction of this grain of wood right here. There we go. So this is the basic idea. Now I can go back inside. And if I see a specific curve that I want to emphasize that just a little bit more, I can certainly do so. So let's play around just a little bit more. Here we go. Quite easy and simple to do. It's quite fun as well. And you can see how, because we have such low contrast between colors, it creates this shiny effect. It's like it's polished. So there we go. This is a simpler way how we can make flooring a pocket style of wood. So this is still number one. I will see you in the next video where I will show you how to create style number two. 33. 14 Wood Style 2: Welcome back. In the previous video, I have shown you how to create a Word installed number one. Now let's jump to style number two. This time around, we're going to create something in-between of flooring and completely natural. So this will be, let's say planks of wood. And the approach will be quite similar. So I will take red color and I will decide where exactly each plank will go. I will curve it just ever so slightly. However thick or thin you want to make these plaques will be totally up to you. There we go. And now we to need divide this into plank. So I will try to aim here where we have kinda transitions between shadow tones and lighter tones. And to make an exception, Let's make one like here, maybe one here, and perhaps one just here. There we go. So we roughly have Planck's made with these lines. I will start to shade each and every single plank, starting from these ones in the shadow. So first, to make it a bit easier to see, I will remove this red color with the darkest tone, like so. It's already quite nice. But let's start shading this outer portion. Here. The planks underneath the edge in the shadow. I want to leave them with as little details as possible. And sometimes I also want to indicate wood grains inside of them. And I can do this with simple lines. There we go. Now, whenever I have two tones like this one, I want to make sure that the blank between them, like the space between men, is a bit softer. This is optional, but I like to do it because it just starts, ends up the whole look. Okay. But again, if you want occlusion shadow you in, you really want this to be as dark as possible. You can leave it just like that, like it was. So this one will be totally up to you and your personal preference here as well. Do you see how these two pixels are of the same color? So I just want one tone darker between them to indicate that separation. Same goes here. So this is just a stylistic preference. Please do keep that in mind. And in case I have something like this where I have the Sheraton above and lighter tone below, or it can be the other way around. It's all the same. I'll just take one turn darker than this one. I'm still aware that these don't belong is brighter. It still helps to soften it up just a little bit. Now, on this outside edge, I want to introduce softer shadows. So I will make it with one tone darker. So these are shaded outlines. This isn't something that you have to do. It again, stylistic preference and depends really on game design and which sections you want to emphasize and which not. Now instead of this, I can create the highlights down. And I will use this to emphasize this curvature. And these light tones below. I can certainly create something of this nature. Again, just like in lab sections of each of these boards or planks hover, we want to call them. Now, in order for this to look more natural, if you want to push it in that way, you can add some branches to the side. This is against something completely optional. So if you just want to play around a little bit, this is a nice way to do it. Maybe another branch here to this side. Again, I'm shading the outlines because I want to keep the styling consistent. There we go. Now if we want to add some leaves, you can certainly do so and you can keep on going. You can perhaps a standard, something here down as well. Since I don't want too many sharp edges, those are certainly branches like that, especially if they're broken. Since I have created nice soft edges and these branches here, I also want to keep that same style down here as well. So maybe just something like that to indicate it. There we go. So quite nice and easy style to do in basic steps, just like the previous style. Use a specific colored line which you can clearly distinguish. And then create those either for lines to indicate grains inside of the word or in this case, we use those lines to indicate the space between each plank of wood. So that's all for style number two. I will see you in the next video where our show, style number three. 35. 16 Wood Style 3 morphed: Welcome back. Before we start with another lesson with different materials are definitely want to reuse this style number three to show you how we can morph it just a little bit. So it's a bit more similar to what you might find in a game. Let's try and think about the overall shapes. So we already have these lines in place, these curvatures. So see how they're a bit bulge out on the outer edge. So we essentially have this on the outer edge and we can emphasize this by creating a silhouette. Erase some of these. You see the difference before and after. So we're breaking away from this proper, let's say spherical shape. Now think about this specific shape over here. If you see this branch, it's quite wide here near the edges. And the branches would usually start very thin, become wider in the middle, and then again thinner and the ends. And if we want to indicate that this is again completely optional, we can start to slowly transition it to be a bit more thinner. Now, the result will be a thinner line at the top. But in return, our branch below will become thicker. And we can imply the same thing here. So we want that bulge, Let's say C. And we can do the same thing here on this side. So if you imagine this being the line so far, now we want to push that line sooner up, so perhaps something like this, okay? And we can follow along that line just as well. There we go. Now, if you also want, we can play around with different types of shadows and shapes. Perhaps this one should do just as well here. You can apply this same approach on these edges as well. Wherever I think I would have that bulge, Let's say on this left side. So you have this shape right here. I can do the same thing here on this side. And it doesn't have to be overly realistic either. And perhaps here on top, I can introduce nice little branch as well. Perhaps. Something like this would also look cool. Maybe some sharp edges. So far we have only use soft edges, rounded edges. So perhaps having a couple of these which are very sharp, can break that silhouette a little bit. Which can be a good or a bad thing. You can decide which one is going to be. There we go. We have the before and after. It's the same style, but I just change it up a little bit. So perhaps as a metric previously, this could be a part of the armor perhaps for the belly, Let's say. Let your imagination run wild. You can always move all of these styles into something else. The point is that you can think about the overall approach and how to render a specific word style if you really want it to. So that's all for this video. In the next one will start rendering different materials as well. 36. 17 Metal Style 1: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create metal in style. Number one. This one will be quite easy and we'll cover a very basic understanding of reflections because metal is a reflective surface. So you can think of it as being a mirror of some sorts. The way to represent metal Olympic slot is very simple. Add reflected light and emphasize it. So in this example, I will keep the outline here like so. I do have some new colors. They are basically identical that the ones that have previously, as you can see, I didn't mess around too much. I perhaps as a just slightly tint to them so they are maybe just a bit brighter, like so. Then I have the shadow tone here. And finally, I will start to add reflection so you can take one color. So let's say I will take this color specifically, and I will go around the edge and add the reflected light all around. There we go. Just adding this line. You see how this line already makes it look like it's a reflective surface, like it's metal. And it's important for this reflected light to also connect with the rest of the light here. Because if I just separated, it will basically look like a reflected light. But who knows on what kind of material, but perhaps this is a stone. So I want to connect those because it will help the overall volume of the metal because it's reflective. Let's say this is our sphere which has been polished, so it's a polished metal. We need to keep those reflections all around the surface because no matter in which direction you look at the polished metal ball, it will definitely have reflections all around, not only on one specific area. So to emphasize this, Let's go and take this darker stone. Now we will create something really awesome. We will create a ring inside of this, which is going to be in an area, the darkest area, in fact, which doesn't receive all the slides. Or in fact, it's catching the environment which perhaps could be very dark. I want to connect this with this shadow tone. There we go. And perhaps also want to extend this darkest tone a little bit. Now I also want to emphasize this area, and I can do that by using the light tone like that. Then again, anti-alias this section or connected with the lighter tone. And the now that we have emphasized this area, I want to make sure that this area of flight is just a bit smoother. So I will take this midtone and use it here to make a smoother transition between the lights and shadows. Because if it's a polished sphere of metal, you will have those softer gradations. There we go. Just as simple as that, we have a metal sphere. Now imagine this was in a dark environment. You can see how it would look like. Now if you have another secondary light source, perhaps you can add a little bit of reflection there as well. We can take our mid-tone, surrounded like that, perhaps a little bit of lighter tone, and so on. So you can see how this can very easily turn into a metal. Okay, now I undo those changes with the secondary light source. So we will take this as a base. In the next video, I will show you how to add some different colors to this metal sphere. Can see how different metals perhaps could work like. This is a very easy and solid base. If you don't want to over-complicate, you can even take this midtone and swap it around with this Shelton certainly have, let's say, five colors to work with. Okay, here's another thing. There's one share of tone that I haven't made into this new color palette. So there we go. Now, if you want to, you can even take this midtone and remove it altogether if you really want. But I think it looks quite nice for this transition between the light and the shadow. Okay, so that's all for this video. In the next video, I will show you how to perhaps use different colors to create different types of metals. I will see you there. 37. 18 Metal Color examples: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you three different examples with three different color palettes when it comes to this metal sphere. So all we're going to do is change the colors. So here, example number one, it's very saturated, It's like gold. Then we have another which uses basically the same material, I would say gold, but this one uses a lot more hue shifting. And finally, we have the third option, which is very muted. So perhaps in a more serious tone, may be some kind of a death night or horror themed or something like that. And you can see that this one is a C curve. So do you notice how we have smaller jumps between colors and quite desaturated. If you want to make something look a bit more serious and realistic when compared to all of these other ones, which are very bright and saturated, I have a lot of jumps between the colors. So there is no set rule for a specific color palette. You can create a lot of different things. And however you decide to create your own color pet is up to you. So this is the basis. Just remember that for the metal, you want to have a reflection that clearly defines it as a metal. That's all for this video, I will see you in the next one where I will show you metal style number two. 38. 19 Metal Style 2: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create metal in style number two. And in this style we will expand a little bit more on reflections. So here's the color palette. It's a bit different than the last time. It's a simple slope. As you can see in the color palette. How are we going to approach? This is quite simple. First, I will transfer everything into one solid color. And let's say it's going to be in the lighter tone. There we go. Now, I also need a place where the Sheriff Tom is going to be. And I will use this symmetry tool option to define that. I think this should be just enough. Okay, let's make it like that. There we go. So now we have the light and shadow tone. How am I going to work with this is quite easy. First of all, I need to create a reflection. So imagine that this entire room is completely black. That means that the reflection on our sphere is also going to be black because whatever is in the surrounding area, that is what our metal sphere is going to catch. Because if you think about a metal sphere which is polished, it functions as a mirror. Previously, people use silver as aligning to create videos. So because this is a sphere, perspective would be distorted, but nonetheless, we will focus on larger shapes. Let's try to create some reflections. And we will use our darkest color to create those. Okay, there we go. Because the sphere is rounded. I also want my highlights to be rounded as well. I don't want to just make a straight highlight like that. No, I want to curve it because the sphere is also curved. So perhaps we have couple of these like that. And maybe we have a giant, huge giant highlight here, like so. There we go. I want to emphasize the skeletal, just ever so slightly. Nice. So now we have reflections which is very dark, and highlights of the light sources which are very bright, because we have so many different highlights, this would indicate multiple light sources. So we're not going to recreate the entire room, but let's just indicate there's some details in the row that we're also catching. And we can use a simple, bright or rather brighter colored in black, or in this case almost entirely black. The indicate there is something in the room. We're not going to render out the details because those are really needed. But if this was in a higher resolution, we could certainly create even entire humans inside of this sphere. So now that we have this, let's keep bunch shading on the bottom here. I want to create also another sheriff tone and I will use the symmetry tool. There we go. Inside of that, I also want even darker tone. Awesome. Now let's say that this right side, we have a little bit of shadow going up here like so. But we also extend this a lighter tone below, something like that. So let's say some of this surface area is going to be brighter than the rest of it. We don't need to overdo it. And we also need to extend this shadow tone just ever so slightly. I'm doing this just to create a bit more asymmetry in the image. So this by itself will be enough. Let's clean this up just a little bit more. There we go. So now imagine that this room is very dark. So you have more reflections going on the surface of this metal sphere. Now this is a simple concept, but how do you decide to interpret it is up to you. I just played around for a few minutes here, and this is what I've created. So the simple concept was, let's take this reflection right here and expand it into something else. So this time around we place it, write it down in the middle so we can add a bit more details to the sphere. This might be useful if you want to create some kind of illustration in 5 perspective perhaps. But for now, I want you to understand the metal reacts basically like a mirror. And the more resolution you have, the higher resolution the object, the more of those details inside of this reflection, you can add, The smaller the sphere, the simpler the reflection will have to be. So this resolution, I can feed these details quite nicely and I can even add more if I wanted to, but let's not waste more time. And you also have for smaller resolution spheres. This could work just as well, just some simple highlight. Okay, that's all for this video. In the next one, I will show you style number three. 39. 20 Metal Style 3: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you a metal in style number three. In the previous two examples I have shown you how to work with reflections and this time around, I'm also going to show you how to introduce a little bit of light from those reflections. So here we have a very simple color palette in blue tone, which you can see on the left side. And I will rework this entire sphere into these colors. So you can see it's a bit bluish tone. Now first I will start to rework this entire section, reflected light. So I think I also want to extend it just a little bit maybe for a couple of pixels here and there on both sides. I think this looks okay. And now I'm going to use this shadow tone to indicate a clear separation between these two. You can think of this as similar thing that we have done previously in this video. But in this case, I have left a lot of shadow tone by this time round, this specific portion will be extended even a bit more so throughout this entire section. So let's introduce a little bit of reflection. There we go. Now let's work with the secondary color, which is going to be this one. And finally, we also need our mid-tone. So let's start basically be the mid-tone and then introduce a little bit of flight so we don't confuse it too much. There we go. So you can see how the reflection is quite bigger than it was before. And then finally, if we want, we can also add a little bit of shadow here on the edges as well. And at some of these, I also want to separate it just ever so slightly, perhaps in this direction. Alright, this is starting to look quite nice. Again, clear separation between these two. And since this middle section is becoming blurred with this other section, I'm going to leave it as is. So now let's play around with the shapes a little bit more. So far, we have kept the sphere quite clean and clear. Suppose we want to blur it out and mess around a little bit with the surface of the metal. Well, we can take this highlighted on Create couple of different of these highlights. Like so. There we go. Then we can surround the dose with the lighter tone to create a smoother transition towards the mid tone, which is going to be this color right here. And now, I'll use this shadow tone rather the mid tones to create a softer shadow on this outer edge. And you can do the same thing all around if you want to. This is simply a matter of stylistic preference. There we go. So let's say this is our base. Now let's introduce a little bit of texture here in the middle. Not too much. We don't want to overdo it. There we go. And maybe, perhaps a little bit here as well. Now we have a lot of reflections, so I think I want to tone it down just a little bit more so I can introduce more of these sections with a rough details because I want this surface to appear just a bit more rough than it currently is. I'm introducing multiple colors there. They're usually would only be perhaps only one. There we go. I think this looks totally fine for now, at least. Now, let's talk about this section right here, because this is going to be another color, basically. Now imagine that we have maybe, since this is in the blue tone, Let's create something perhaps in, Let's save reddish tone, perhaps even purplish. Let's say something like this. And we're going to create these highlights in a different color, perhaps this pinkish hue. And I'll slowly transitioned towards the metal color. Basically I'm pushing this pink color towards the purple color because this is in blue hue. Now keep this fairly desaturated. There we go. I'm only transitioning these sections of shadow, which were supposed to be of the reflected light sound. Now suppose that we have, let's say, a clot of some sorts lying around, let's say down here and the rest of the room is perhaps let's say in this tone. So you can see how the light would hit this surface. Right here, pick up that color, and jump onto this sphere, which is in the blue hue. But because we are combining those, we are going to have to influence the color of the sphere with the color of this fabric. Let's say that is the basic concept. So you can either do it like that or you can simply imagine that you have a light lamp that's just directly, for some reason hitting this side of the sphere, though, in this case, it would probably be more like a reflection type of thing. This is a basic key point. Now imagine that perhaps we also have another fabric behind. Let's say it's a for green color. Well then I would have to take the green color and then start working on the edges as well. I would have to introduce a little bit of green instead of this metal sphere and so on. So you can create all sorts of interesting and complex colors and shapes within the metal sphere, especially if it's really high resolution when it comes to methyl and rendering methyl, keep these two things in mind. One, reflection is very important. So you want to be able to create these reflections because even in low-resolution, these clearly defined that this indeed is a metal. Perhaps in some cases, it might look like a gym, but I'll talk about that in the future. And also, if something is colored, if you are creating an illustration and high resolution illustration static image. And you know that specific surface material near your metal sphere is, let's say, of a different color, then you also need to show color of that surface. Like in this case, this was the fabric in the metal sphere as well. Because this again functions like a meter. So these are the three styles of metal that I wanted to show you to explain the basic concepts between the metal as a material. I hope you enjoyed these three videos. I will see you in the next one where I will jump onto the next material. 40. 21 Water Style 1: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create a water texture and what makes it work. Here in the top left you can see that I have prepared a very simple color palette, all in blue tones. I do want to point out that in games, you usually won't be making a water in a sphere. It's usually going to be flat, like a puddle or maybe a C, or an ocean or a river. So it's not going to be in this spherical shape. Perhaps in a potion bottle, it will be like some kind of a liquid. But usually it's going to be out in the environment regardless, we have to think about what makes the water look like water in pixel art. And there is one key component to it. And that would be the fluidity and tiny reflections. If you think about water in animation, it's usually going to be very fluid. And we usually express those in pixel art by using curves or curved lines, if you will. If you want to make something a bit more rigid, you want to make very sharp corners. So in this case, since we are talking about water, which is fluid, Let's work on those curves. First, I'm going to start by telling that in this example, I won't be using this specific colors, so we will only work with five colors. And in the next video we'll add the sixth one. I will start from this section all the way to the shadow. And I will gradually create these stones. Now the next step is going to be very similar to what we did with the wood right here and here. We are going to create a lines by using a red color. And we will start here. So where exactly is the light source? We will start here. And then From this point on, we will expand it around the sphere. And remember, because this is a sphere, we have to curve those around. But this won't be enough because this feels way too rigid. And remember, because water is fluid, we want to emphasize that these are how we can do that is by emphasizing each of these curves. So let's take this one for example. Instead of creating simple curve like that, I want to introduce a bit more fluidity to it. This is what's going to make our water look, appear more fluid, if you will. Let's say this is a curve. This way, how you can create simple curves is by avoiding one pixel curvatures like this one. Instead of creating suddenly this, I would rather create something like this. Okay, do you see the difference? This one is just a little bit too sharp. So I want to create a bit more space for my curve. Now let's go and try to create couple of these. So there we go. And now I will just work my way towards this section right here. And again, all I'm doing is just following along. I'm not creating thicker or thinner lines anywhere else. You can think of this like an octopus of some sorts. If you imagine tentacle spreading from the center right here. Now we are almost done with these ones as a source. So this right here is the source of these curves. And right now, you don't have to be limited to that. You can also connect them. You can also expand from each of these. So instead of taking this as a source, I can take this specific pixel to the source and it doesn't have to be this one. It can be anyone, it can be here, it can be here. This will be all up to you. How much details you want to include totally or your preference. So what I'm going to do is just make a couple of these to see how this line looks way too straight. So I definitely want to introduce more curvature to it again to emphasize the fluidity of this material. There we go. So step number one is over. Now what I'm going to do is use this highlight tone, which is almost completely white. Do I think it's better if it's in a blue hue regardless. And now I can color here. Now, if you want to make the simple, it can be just completely white color. It's not that big of a difference as you can see. I just like placing a little bit of hue in my colors. Now, whenever I would expand outside of this first brightest blue circle where the center light will be. I will use this don't these lines. What other curves? When I go here in the shadow tone, again, I'm using only once on brighter than this underlying Tony's. So in this case, I would have to brighten it up a little bit. So you can see that this curve starts from white and then simply follows the trend alone. Because this term right here, 1to1 brighter in the color palette is white. And the same thing goes for this one below. So if this is the underlying tone, as you can see for this highlight on top, I will use 1to1 brighter to indicate these lines. So as you can see, I just follow that logic along. And whenever these would interconnect like this, if I have to prefer, I would rather prefer the brighter one. Though. You can do this in two ways. You can either make it like that or you can surround this one with oblique bit of this darker tone and simply transitioning that way. Or you can do it the other way around. You can also make this section adjust a bit brighter and transitions like that. So how do you decide to approach? This is totally up to you. There's really no right or wrong. What's important about the water as the material is that you remember it should have this curves, okay? And finally, we have one thing over here. And there we go. Now what is important to remember is that when you are creating water for a game assets, remember that all of these waves and lines which indicate the floor with texture of the water as a material. You will have a less of this if your water surface is calm. So if there is no wind, if there are no waves, you will have very little, or maybe even none of these waves, so to speak, because you can imply the textures. So if I take a very simple example and simply mecca of water puddle here, you see that you don't need more than that. If it's a calm surface, you don't need anything else to indicate it. Okay. It's very easy to create because color in Pixlr also conveys a lot of message. It conveys a lot of information and our brain can interpret a lot of things without any extra information, so we don't have to render too many details. So if the surface of the water is very calm, no waves, perhaps you can just create couple of pixels in few places, straight lines. Then if creates some space and add one pixel to it, That's all you need to create. Information that this has some reflection to it and maybe you can animate these lines if you want. That's all. You don't need more than that to indicate water material. But when it comes to creating waves and more complex shapes, you have to keep this in mind so you want to create these curves. Okay, that's all for this video. I will see you in the next one where we will work even a bit more underwater material. 41. 22 Water Style 2: Welcome back. In this video, I will expand upon the water style number one, transforming it slightly into water style number two. And the main thing which will differentiate this style from the style number one is one more details, but also the reflections. Because if you think about water as a material, if the surfaces of the water is very calm. So if you think of a lake, you can see reflections on the water, because water is also reflected suffers as well. So this type of style extend upon that concept. So just as we had with the metal, this ring around, which indicates a reflective property. We will do the same thing here. So we will take this lighter tone and go all the way around. There we go. So you can see the before and after how it looks. And I will also repeated everywhere here on top as well. To keep my shadow tones only here to indicate some depth of the water. And now I will also extend these lines wherever I think they might be needed. Okay, there we go. Now, the next step would be adding more depth to this overall image. And these Rebecca we can do this is by taking this shadow tone. So introducing a bit more color. And I will place this shadow tone here inside of this shadow. You can see the before and after so far. And now I will also take this shadow tone and introduce a bit of noise inside of this overall sphere. So I will do it in places. So you can see that I'm creating 1to1 darker than whatever the surface material currently is and just creating some details. And I'm just indicating that there is some sort of depth here. Okay. Nothing more than that. And the more I go towards the light, the less I want to over saturate my image with these details, I definitely don't want to overdo it. I can do the opposite thing as well. So if I want to introduce, instead of some shadow here, if I want you to do a bit of flight, I can certainly do so as well. So you're not limited by creating a shadow tones inside of these, let's say paddlers. But the thing to keep in mind is that we already have created this lighter tone on the shadow as these lines and curves which indicate the top reflection. So I don't want to mess up this clear information distinction. So we're keeping the lighter tones and the shadow as part of those curvatures on top, which will have the reflections. And we're also keeping these larger shapes inside of the light tones. So we're cutting shadow shapes inside of the light to indicate some extra depth. And finally, we can work on the last portion. And those are the reflections are the highlights, in this case on the top of these waves. In case of this example, the highlight can be made like that. Because I'm just taking 1to1 brighter than it currently is An indicating. There are some reflections. You can do the same thing here on the bottom as well. But usually I like to differentiate the shadow side from the light side. And because this color right here, 1to1 brighter is going to be this almost white. I'll use this color right here like so. Where exactly decide to place this college is totally up to you. Okay? That's style number two is a bit more detailed than the style number one. And that's all for this video. I will see you in the next one where I will cover the last style. 42. 23 Water Style 3: Welcome back. In this video, I want to talk about water style number three, or rather I want to talk about the energy of the water. In the first video, I have talked about mostly about the color of the water and how you want to imply some of these curves as imperfections on top of the water, perhaps some kind of reflections or some tiny, tiny waves. In the second video, I've talked about how to introduce reflection and more depth to your water. And I want to talk about the energy. So in case you want to animate water attacks, stuff like that, this will be quite useless because the energy of the water is again, if we connect it with the previous lessons, curved, if you want to make something filled fluid in pixel art and animation in general, you want to create curves, a nice fluid motion, just as we did with these previous waves. I want to apply this principle and this overall spheres. So this will no longer be a sphere. And if you think of the shape, you can think of it as being unique shape. Okay, there we go. So now if I take this red line and indicate the energy can see how it flows. The outset edge is a curve. It's not jagged, It's not rough like some stone surface might be some spikes and stuff like that. This is curvatures. Please remember that it's very crucial for all types of liquids. Now let's talk about quick shading. We have to adjust our lighting just a little bit. First, I want a clear distinction here that this indeed is going to be in the light. There we go. We can keep the shadows right here. There's no big problem. And you can sort of imagine the light coming from the left side and a little bit in the front. And we don't have to revert this all the way around. And there's a quick trick how you can make this fit in a bottle. Let's say this by itself, Alexa little bit of volume. So we want something to have behind imagined. This is in a round potion bottle. In the background. If I just add a little bit of water, you can already see how this makes a huge difference. This is the before. And this is after. This is why I have created these lighter tones in the front, which will indicate this separation between the foreground and the background. Now, how much details you want to put into each of these will be completely and totally up to you. The main takeaway from this specific video is to keep the energy of the water in mind so it's flowy because curves will in fact created that energy. So now look at this little change. If I take this tail and just change it a little bit. So it's not like this. You can see that the energy changes the source energy. So instead of going from the right and then curving, you can see that in the new case, it starts on the bottom side and then starts to curve up, and then it goes in the same manner. So how do you end your curves is also very important. And now, if you want to add more details here in the background, yes, you can certainly do so. I advise not to add too much details because you definitely don't want it fighting for attention. And you definitely don't want it as bright as the foreground elements in this case. Okay, That's all for this video. In the next one, I will talk just a little bit more about the voter as a material, and then we'll move on to the next material. I'll see you there. 43. 24 More about water: Welcome back. In this video, I will give just a final thoughts about what Reza material in games take a couple of things into consideration. Number one, how deep the water is. If the water is very deep, you don't have to add too many details because you won't be able to see too deeply. Perhaps here near the edge, you would be able to see a little bit of these, let's say cliffs or maybe this is grounded so on. But usually you won't be able to see too deep into the water. You would see usual just a reflection of the sky and the opposite side if the water isn't it, but rather very shallow, you wouldn't be able to see more. You will be able to see some rocks below, perhaps some kind of clams or some creatures and so on. So the deeper the water is, the less details you will have to use. The other side of the spectrum. If the water surface is very calm, you don't need to add a lot of details. In fact, you shouldn't be adding too many details. Button the other side. If the weather is bad, if it's stormy, you would need to add a lot more details and shadows because you will have to somehow drove the waves of the water. So it really depends on what exactly you want to convey. Color does make a big difference. Blue is usually reserved for the water. But please, when we come to the point number two, which is water is a reflective surface, it acts as a mirror. So if you have ever been on the sea or in the ocean, and if the sky was clear, you can see how the water is blue. But as soon as you get clouds and it's cloudy weather, it also matches up the color of the water because water simply x is a giant mirror, especially if it's calm. Now, let me give you a quick example. If you don't want it to have in this blue tone, Let's go all the way on the other side of the spectrum. And let's create something in the yellowish, orangeish. And you will see how it will still read as a liquid. Because of these highlights and curves. We'll speed this one up. There we go. I've changed the hue of the water all the way towards the warm colors. And also I have this saturated everything. So you can still see how it doesn't have to be bright blue. It can be totally different color depends on the mood you want to set your world in. So if the world is series or a team, or it's simply about whether you want to desaturate everything. You want it to be a bit more serious. And this still reads as a liquid because of the last point that I have talked about in the previous three videos. And that's curvatures. If something is a liquid, it should have curves to it. That's the easiest way we can read that. That's the shape language of liquids. Especially if you want to animate something, you want to have a lot of curves. And if you want to have something a bit more rigid, you can use straight lines, perhaps like I did here on these rocks. So none of this is set in stone. If you see the woods and the grains of the wood in this example, like these branches, I have use curves because branches are usually a bit flexible. So don't take this as a solid rule. Take it as a guideline. If you want to have something more flexible fluid, use curved lines. If you want to make something look a bit more rigid, use straight lines and use sharp angles and that repeat, take this only as a guideline, not as a rule that applies to absolutely everything. Okay. That's all for this video. I will see you in the next one where we'll start working on another material. 44. 25 Ice Style 1: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to Chris ice in style number one. In the previous video, I've talked about how to create water in different styles and how curves are very important to convey the fluidity of material. This time around, I will use the exact same color palette because ice is water but frozen solid. And I will show you how using straight lines instead of curved lines or curves, you will be able to achieve a more solid look to the overall image. The amount of highlights will also play a big role in this. But let's overall start with the shape language. So first I want to color everything just as I did previously with the water. There we go. I do want to add a little bit of reflections here for our eyes. Not too much though. And I also want to extend this just a little bit. Let's say like that. Now I will start working on reflections, which I will use this highlight color. Instead of creating something curved like I did here on the metal, we see how this highlight curves. I don't want that. I want to create a nice sharp angles to the image. So I will keep everything in triangles or straight lines, or perhaps blocks. Or if I want to keep it a bit more sharper, something like that, basically the outer edge of my shape. So this outer edge, I want it to be straight or under 45-degree angles. Okay? So I don't want any curves. I don't want to create a nice curve like this. I don't want this to be my outer edge. Ok? And now I'll create a few of these. Some of them can be very small, some of them can be a bit bigger. And maybe some highlights here at the side as well, even though we are already in the shadow. But I think this should be enough. Now what we're going to do is create this lighter tone around all of these edges. So I basically just want to go all around of this and create one pixel wide light around these highlights. And also in cases like this where this ends. So if this was aligned to extend further on, I also want to add just a little bit of extra space to them. And this here would be a nice example of why I wanted this to happen. So right here, if I simply syringe with what pixel of thickness of outline, let's say the circle is add rich, does become a little bit more rounded. Which could be something totally fine. But if I extend this just one pixel down, and then one again, the see how sharp it looks. I can also extend this Alexa, which also indicates sharpness to a degree. But in this case, I would rather follow this outer edge, like so an extended light tone in this matter. Okay, so now I want to go back inside and just create a few sharp angles. Again, I'm avoiding curvatures. I'm trying to find a place where I can put some 45-degree angle lines or straight lines like 90 degree angles. And also here on the outer edge, I want to repeat the process. And I also want to introduce a little bit of this checkerboard pattern. So I indicate a little bit of a rough surface again, because checkerboard patterns are very useful if you want to convey a bit rougher surface. Okay, there we go. So now on this other side, I want to introduce a bit more light, including this highlight tone. Because I want to emphasize the reflections on this specific type of material. This isn't something that's completely needed to be honest, but it's something that I personally like to do. And again, I'm erasing these edges because they look a bit curved. So I'm placing like that. So I have, again 45-degree angles to create a nice sharp line. And lastly, we also need to have this darker stone as well. Now I'm playing around the edges just a little bit more. And I think we should be pretty much finished. I can also introduce a little bit of tiny shadow here as well. I don't want to overdo it. Perhaps only a few places. Now, if I think there's just a little bit too much light and highlights, I can turn those down a little bit. There we go. So now you can just play around and create all sorts of different shapes and sizes. But generally speaking, you want to keep in mind that you want to emphasize the highlights with sharp edges. And the same goes towards the light tones and even in the shadows. And if you multiply a bit rough surface instead of completely smooth surface or a bit underlying imperfections below the surface of the ice. You can create some of this checkerboard patterns which do create this nice effect. So this is the water using the same colors and this is ice. So you can see how we have more brighter colors to it. And we have kept the overall spherical shape of this object. So this is the start number one. I will see you in the next video where we will expand the standard one into style number two. I will see you there. 45. 26 Ice Style 2: Welcome back. In this video, I will expand upon style and number one of ice and go into Style. Number two. This time around, I want to break apart from the spherical shape. And if you recall that, I have said previously that if you want some spikes, you want to use straight lines. So let's say I extend this highlight here on the left, all the way outside here. Like so. Maybe I want to create a nice spike here up as well. So I break, so I'm breaking just apart from this overall sphere as a perfect rounded object. So when the snow melts and it starts to drip, you have some icicles. Well, we can create a dose here, done well. Quite easily, quite simple to do. If we want to emphasize them a bit more. You can create it in the lighter tone. So maybe something like that. You can create a little bit of highlights if you really want to emphasize it. So how much you want to play on that specific area is totally up to you. You can create the same one. It doesn't have to be like that. You can flip it around, you can place it on another side. So you're not limited to only one style. And let's just play around a little bit. So all I want to do is create some sharp edges on the outside. You can see how I place in just one line, which is the highlight and below it and placing one shadowed. So now suppose I want to create another spike, but it just slightly larger than the usual. So this can be the shape of the spike. And now I can play some lighter tones on this side, perhaps with a bit of highlight and lighter tones around it. There you go. It's as simple as that. If you want to tone it down a little bit, this is another way how you can do it. And you can keep playing around. There's no right or wrong. How much you want to emphasize specific things in ice, It's totally up to you. There is not set Rolling Stone. Let's say we want to make this into a larger icicle. I think this will look just fine. There we go. And you can just keep on building and building and building and refining. So in case you want your game to have ice spikes, this is an easy way how we can do it. This is another example right here. So this will start number one is done. Number two, we simply expanded this material to include some spikes and also some basic understanding that if the water is dripping, it creates icicles. It's a natural phenomenon. But in case you are living somewhere where the snow doesn't fall, perhaps this might be something new to you. Now you see how even using the same color palette on the same element, which is water but solid, can produce very different results. So I hope this comparison between ice and water and how curves against straight lines and also different ratios between highlights can influence how the overall object looks like. So yeah, that's all for this video. I will see you in the next one. I will start working on another material. I'll see you there. 46. 27 Snow: Welcome back. In this video, I will talk about snow, another form of water. And this one is going to be quite easy. So let's start working on it. First, I'm going to remove the outlines for this type of style. Then I'm going to use this white color. I also have the midtone and the shelter. And I will use it and basically almost the entirety of the sphere. Then I will use the shadow tone now is simply water but crystallize because of the cold. But as you can see, it's not ice. But if you compress snobby enough, you will get ice. Snow is simply just another form of water. As I have mentioned, what I think is the most important thing about snow melt the material is that it is soft. It's not hard as ice. It's still called it's frozen, but soft because there's a lot of space in between each of the snowflakes. So I think the best way to present snow is to keep the details very low. So I'm keeping most of it here in the light. And I will only introduce details where it would connect with the shadow. So perhaps only a couple of details to indicate that. There we go. That's all you can see. This is now if I introduce too many details all around, it is going to become very noisy. And this isn't something that I personally like. Perhaps this is your preference of our cell and that's totally fine. But personally, I think it's usually to keep the best for snow, at least to keep these types of details where the shadow is. Now suppose you want to introduce a bit more tones to it. You can always add more details. So perhaps I will take this midtone and soften all of these transitions up. Before I conclude this video, I want to emphasize how important it is that Snap is soft. If you remember outside, if you play in the snow, you will live a lot of marks on the ground, footprints, and same goes for the animals. So now suppose I have an animal here that has taken one step. Let's make a very simple Markov it, this could be enough. Perhaps you want to make it a bit larger. You can also do that. Perhaps something like that. Or you can create some, even like a monster who knows. The basic point is that I want to keep the details where I think they would be interesting. So in the snow, in games, I like to have that visual quality of snow that it can be completely white, but when you take a step, it leaves a footprint, which then also, if the snow is falling, covers up and disappears. So I like this type of stuff because I'm teaching you this, I have to emphasize this is my own personal preference. You don't have to go this route. But please keep in mind that as a material snobby soft. That's all for this video. I will see you in the next one where I will show you how to create simple clouds. 47. 28 Cloud: Welcome back. In this video, I will talk about clouds, another form of water way up in the sky. And the easiest way how we can do those is very random actually. So you can see the color palette here is very desaturated. And if you take a look at clouds in the sky, yes, there are certain types of Clouds depending on how high up they are in the atmosphere. For example, if there are stormy clouds that are puffy clouds or they're very thin or very thick and so on. But generally speaking, we don't need to over-complicate, so I will just show you one style of clouds, and this one is quite easily, quite random to do. So what we will do is try to create a simple shape of a cloud. Okay? So it's one of those puffy ones and I can just basically erase everything around it so I don't need anything else. And because this is a cloud in the sky, I also want to imply what color would be our sky off. In this case, I'll just make it simple blue. Okay, now how can I approach creating some clouds here? Well, it's quite simple. If you imagine, let's say, I tiny sphere right here in the middle, you can create a very simple shadow around it. Because this is going to be one section of the cloud. Then you can fill this one in with white color. There we go. So you already have one sexual clouded done. So now try to identify where exactly would see those spheres. So perhaps there's a sphere right here. Perhaps let's say it's a fire this size right here. So I want to create some shadow all the way around it. And let's say also here, and let's make it a bit thicker as well. We can also extend just a bit further so we don't have to follow along because remember, clouds in the sky are very random. And you have all sorts of clouds which are overlapping each other in different ways, in different shapes and sizes. So it's very random. Don't get the idea that there is only one specific way how to draw clouds. Now, not by any stretch of the imagination. Suppose we wanted to create something a bit more fluid. Let's say I take this shadow and curve it a little bit. Perhaps satellite is how the wind or the air element usually is in the games, it's usually represented by some kind of a curvy symbol. So now let's take this example. Let's say there's a sphere right here on this section of the whiteboard because it's hidden. You see how it overlaps with this sexual, the Cloud which should be in the front and closer to us. So now we can hide portion of it and we can differentiate it with a little bit of shadow here behind as well. So that's another way how we can do it. And as I said, there are so many different ways of clouds, how you can represent them don't feel constricted by one way or another. This is just one simple way on how we can approach creating some clouds. Here's another sphere. Now let's say we take this entire Cloud is a giant sphere. And let's just say on this entire bottom section, I want to have some shadows and want this entire bottom sexual to be in the shadow. That's totally fine as well, perhaps. And this section right here, these clouds, this code is so behind that we have a lot of shadow right here. I have a little bit of flight reaching on this other side. Perhaps that is positioned, again, very random. No need to over-complicate it with specifics. Because clouds are definitely like that. There we go. A very simple Cloud life we want emphasize this curvature to keep it that Florida State, I can definitely do so. Now, let's introduce a bit more detail. Let's go one tone even darker than this. Now wherever I think I would want to emphasize the shell of a little bit more, I can do that. So perhaps in places like this, like that, perhaps all the way here on the bottom. I would want to emphasize a lot more that shelf down. And if I want to add even more than that, I can definitely add another color. And my color palette right now is definitely in blue tone because I want my clouds to be in that same color. Let's say I want to add a little bit of shadow here as well. Perhaps thicker shadow and this section. Now you can just play around wherever you think you want to. You want to emphasize the shadow, you can certainly do so. And here we have a nice, very simple Cloud. It's quite nice-looking. We did over-complicate things. Think of those basic shapes like spheres and you can go around those and share them with just one tone and then add more details later on. But no matter what, beliefs be random, you don't have to be overly precise because clouds in the sky are very random in sizes and shapes and how they overlap with each other. So take a look, a bunch of references online and see which type of clouds you'd like and try to replicate those in pixelate. But this is just one way to approach it. And in the next video, I'll talk a bit more about the colors of the clouds and how you can approach it in the environment. That's all for this video though, I will see you in the next one. 48. 29 More about clouds: Welcome back. In this video, I will cover two extra things about clouds and what to keep in mind. The first thing will be the color of the clouds, whatever is the color of the sky. Those are going to be our base colors for our clouds. Basically, the color of the sky is blue in this case. So our entire color palette is also again in the blue hue. So in case we change the color of this kind, something else perhaps, let's change it to something like this. You see how this same Cloud, but with different colors, looks quite differently in it conveys a bit different emotion and the different states of the sky. So in this case, this could be a color of dusk. So you can see in the color palette we are no longer in the blue hue. This is the color of the sky. And you can see how our entirety of our clouds are starting here, almost in the red hue. And then we transition in the red all the way to purple tones and even right here where they are very dark. So you see how this influences. And you can also see that the jumps between colors in this color palette are very high. When compared to the first one, which are very small. You see how the contrast between colors in the first color palette are very small, yet they are very high when it comes to this color palette, the new one. So which type of emotion you want to convey and in what way will be totally up to you. So that's number one. Keep in mind the color of the sky and the color. You're clouds in that same color or similar colors. So it wouldn't look right if my Cloud was completely white at this type of sky, right? It would have to be in this specific term. So please do keep that in mind and you'll be good to go. Now, the second thing about clouds is referring to the overall composition. This is just a very simple tip. I won't go into too many details because we are studying materials and not the perspective just now. But suppose we have a very simple background here like that. And you want to create a bunch of clouds. A common mistake I see is that people create, let's say cloud is of this size right here. In fact, let's take this Cloud specifically and place it on that background. There we go. Now suppose they want to create more clouds in this image and they keep on piling them on. There's no real perspective here, okay, Again, I will talk about perspective in detail in the future videos. But for now, think of where the horizon line is. So in this case, where the sky and the ground meats, so it will be here. And the closer you are to it, the smaller the cloud will be. So if I take this same cloud and place it on a couple of different positions all the way here to the horizon line. The closer the Cloud is to the horizon line, the smaller it would be. So in this case, let's say this cloud would be perhaps of this size. Then here near the horizon line, it will be even smaller. Because the further away something is from us, the smaller it will be. Now, do you see how this perspective, It's quite a bit better. I repeat, I will go into prospectus later on, but for now I hope you take this deep to your heart. And of course, the further away the Cloud is, the less detail is it would have. So you wouldn't have to use so many colors and such detailed rendering. So yeah, those are the two concepts. One thing, the color of the sky into consideration when you are creating your color palette for clouds. And second, clouds are smaller the further away they are from you, or rather, the closer they are to the horizon line. That's all for clouds and water in general, at least for now. In the next video, I will jump onto different types of materials as well. So I hope to see you there soon. 49. 30 Lava Style 1: Welcome back. In this video, I will talk about lava in style number one. You can see the color palette here on the top left side. It's very bright and saturated, starting from orangeish color all the way here to the red. And you can see that I'm just keeping everything very bright and saturated. There's no real, let's say, curvature to this overall color palette. Before I start drawing anything, lava is molten rock. So if you have a rock, you melt it, you get lava. That's all that lava is. What to start style number one, it's something very easy. We are going to take one of our rocks, perhaps this one, because it has a lot of cracks between each rock. And I'm just going to use it as a base. So you can start by creating some rocks basically in this specific style. Now in order to draw lava, I will start with this orange color, so it's not the brightest one. Do you can even start with the brightest one if you want to. And all I'm going to do right now is say where exactly allow is going to be at. I'm going to aim at these cracks between the rocks. Wherever here is the darkest, I'm going to give it some space that the lava flows. This tells us that the lava is a liquid. It has a liquid properties because it flows. You can see how it flows between each of these rocks. This one is going to be very simple and easy to do. There we go. Perhaps there's a little bit of flour here, but it did not manage to penetrate this specific section. So it may be even like separate a little bit. And the larva up here perhaps is a bit bulge out, just like here as well. And we can do the same thing here on the side. And they also want some larger chunks of lava showing in specific areas, perhaps because most of our life, if we are just talking about the rock on this sphere, most of it is right here. So this is where the light is showing you the most because of these highlight edges. I wanted to take some space here for our lava and expanded a little bit. Just to recap, a little bit more space to work with. I think this should be just fine if we take this as a sphere. If you think about this type of shading, I will take the red color, which is the darkest one, and let's say it's the shadow tone. I will select all of these colors and simply go around the edge to give it a bit more volume and basically just focus light on the middle section. Then I will take this orange tone, which is a bit darker than the one we currently have as the first color. And now I will just connect the red color with this one. So this color is basically just a transition in color between red and this main orange color. But you can also use it in some places. If you want to mix and match it just ever so slightly. Now for the rest of these, now we can take this brightest stone, which is going to be this basically yellow color in this context. And draw it and few places. And now we can go and add the details if you think we want to add more details with different shapes in other areas. So this one is very much up to you how you decide to render it. And there we go. I might erase a little bit of that. Perhaps I want to imply that we have some lava going down here as well. Maybe something like this, and so on so we can keep on playing around. And this is still number one. In this case, we are focusing more on the color of the lava, meaning it's very bright. And we are also focusing on the liquid property of the lava so that it's flowing to some degree. That's all for this style. I will see you in the next video where I will talk about the second property and also the second style of flower. I'll see you there. 50. 31 Lava Style 2: Welcome back. In this video, I will talk about the second property of flour and that is light emission. Because lava is globbing, it also has to influence its surrounding area. This means that whatever is close to lava will start to pick up its color. Because you can imagine lava is tiny little sun or a light lamp that it's going to illuminate the surrounding area. So right here we have a rock, and this is the color palette from these rocks, materials that we studied before. And we only have four colors for the law. So what we wanna do is take into consideration the color of our rocks. And let's say these are these four spaces colors. We want to push these colors towards these ones. Because again, this is the source of flight. This is the color of the light, and this is the local color of the rocks. Local color, meaning simply the color of the rock. So if an apple is a red apple, it's local color is red. So that's all what local calories. So we are basically combining these two into a new color, and that is going to be the new color of our rocks. So let's start with this specific shadow tone. So if you look here on the color pallet and you quickly switch between these two, you can see the hue shift is there. And you can also see how bright and saturated Something disease. Because this is the shadow tone of the rock. I wanted to push more towards the red color because the color of the light, in this case would be read again if you take the whole hour, it really depends how hot it is, the harder it is. It's going to be brighter. The color Love Is, it started to become well rock because again, lava is just a molten rock. So let's go and combine these colors. So this specific color, I want to make it a bit more saturated because this color is more saturated. And I also want to make this blue color a bit brighter as well because the lava is brighter. And now I also want to push this blue hue all the way towards roughly purplish hue, because I'm combining blue and purple color. How much you want to combine this into. It's going to be completely up to you. Now we can simply take this as a static port and keep going and you can keep on combining. But essentially, I want to keep in mind that, yes, this is the darkest shadow, let's say for the rocks. And yes, we have one even darker. But for now I'm just combining these for now. I know that I want to have subject even brighter and more saturated. And again, I'm pushing even more, and I'm pushing the few even more towards the red color. Then I'm going to again make it a bit brighter and more saturated and push it even more towards the red color. And then finally, this is quite yellowish color. And if I want to combine this in further, I would again have to take this color, make it brighter and more saturated and push it even more towards the red color. Perhaps even almost all the way to the red color. There we go. Now what we are going to do is create a shadow tone. Now, the tricky thing is that if you only follow curves, you will have a lot of trouble creating something based upon only curves. For example, right here you can see this curve goes nicely, but when it comes to the larva itself, it doesn't really have a curve, is jumping around. And if you take a look at the stones, are the rocks in this case. We also have a curve, but which is different than this one. Okay? So don't like yourself and be flexible. For this darker one, I'm simply going to make it a bit more blue and even darker. And what these saturated. And for this brightest stone, these are the highlights on the stones. I will show you a couple of things. Can we can approach this? So first of all, let's change this color. So I will change all of these into the new colors. And this is where a car can do it. It is simply use the paint bucket tool. There we go. And now that if you change the colors, now we can also influence the highlight. The highlight can go two ways. If you want to make something really soft, you can simply omit it. And that's all. This would be the before and after. However, in case you want highlight, we can make the highlight quite bright. So if you take this specific color, Let's make it just a bit darker and a bit more orange. Because again, we're pushing this towards the original blue hue. And I think this should be just enough. There we go. In case you don't like this specific type of highlight, you can again render more. You can add more details with this brighter color. So these are all going to be up to you. You are not locked into one specific decision. Feel free to experiment. So this is the before and this is after, this is done number two. And this second property of flour, which would be light emission, is very important if you want to make it look a bit more realistic. So that's basically it. Install number one, we had only the colors of the lava and how it flows a little bit in style number two, we went and even extra step, and we added that the lava also has its light which impacts the environment around it. So this is still number two. I will see you in the next video where I will talk about style number three. 51. 32 Lava Style 3: Welcome back. In this video, I will talk about allow style number three. And this style will be more interesting to you if you're interested more in the law itself, instead of the rocks and having lava between it. This time around, we will have most of it lava and have the rocks float on top of the lava to some degree. This is where how we can do that is first, we can color everything in one tone. This would be the rock. But we're going to transform it slowly until our first because we know the lava flows. Okay. We can indicate that by lines and curved lines specifically. Okay. But if something has a lot of curves and is very thin, this implies that the viscosity of this liquid is very small. So perhaps like water, but since lava is a lot thicker, it's viscosity is way higher than water. We want to imply that, but having thicker strokes, so we have thicker lines and it doesn't occur as much. It's going to curve or less because it's thicker liquid. Just imagine water and oil. Because oil is thicker, it has a higher viscosity. It doesn't flow as easily as water. We want to apply the same thing about flower. So let's say that we have a bit of Florida up here, a little bit of it here. And I'm just going to block out spaces where I think larvae will be. And I will also leave a little bit of space for the rocks. You can see that the rocks will be these leftovers, which are currently at least in the dark. Perhaps something like this. Okay, now we have our basic level here. Now let's talk about the rocks and how they connect with lava. Because lava is molten rock, we need to think about that aspect, how something is becoming a liquid. If you imagine, let's say, piece of ice, in which case it might be something very bright. And if you start imagining which piece of this ice is going to melt first, you would obviously say, well, here at the tips, because wherever the surface area is the smallest, that surface area will melt first. So if you imagine these rocks that have these edges which are very sharp, okay? The first thing that is going to melt are exactly these edges, okay? This is why the rocks in lava, if they float, they should be rounded, not sharp. Though again, it's up to you. You can make it however you want to. But we want to apply these rocks to be a bit more rounded. So let's say something like this. Perhaps I want to separate these two. Perhaps we have a simple one floating around, like so maybe like that. And how much or how little you want to introduce, that's going to be up to you. You see how this edge is very sharp. I don't want that. I want to have a nice curvature. So if I take a look at the outside edge, it's very sharp and I want to make it a bit more curved. So if I take it like that, perhaps. Now you can see how this outer curvature is actually a curve. It's not a straight line anymore, and this is what I want to achieve. So rounded drugs, I'm taking this time for this style into consideration. What lava actually is and how it functions. Okay, there we go. Let's say this is lower. Now I want to introduce some shading to our lava. And first I'm going to do the exact same thing as the last time. I'm going to go with the red color. And let's say I want to focus most of my attention on this area. So I want the outside edge, again to be a bit darker. Because I'm making a sphere. I want to have at least that compositional element in control, at least to some degree. Now we can again blend the transitions. I'm using larger brushes simply to say a little bit of time. And then we can use the highlights. Now this highlights, or rather these brighter tones, this yellow color. Why do you think this is? We can think of those simply as rocks, pieces of rocks that melted away. And that's how you can decide also on the shape of this. So I will simply use a smaller brush and try to implicate those to be a bit more around it. Because this is a liquid, it's important to remember that liquid equals curves, not three clients. Now, I can go here on the edges and perhaps have a little bit more fun and implicating certain shapes to make it a bit more interesting and not as flat. Now suppose this law is starting slowly to let it drip away. We can make a little bubble here like so. So it's a very simple, easy shape. Again, it's a curve. And we have some light. There we go. And we simply connected. And that's what you get is a way to do it. We can repeat it down here as well. Let's say maybe something like this. There we go. Perhaps with this one even has a bit of a brighter color to it. I can add a little bit of this darker tone here as well. And again, I'm trying to keep the interest and the rendering of these rocks as consistent as possible. Okay, now I want to extend some of these rocks towards the sections where they are flowing away. So do you see this section right here? How we have this rib going on indicating that the law flows in this direction. Well, I want to take this let's say stone or the rock and angle it towards that specific slope. So you can think of it as a tiny waterfall to some degree. And I can do the same thing here. I can angle this one in the implicating that it will soon go away and float away. Okay, there we go. Now, how much in detail you want to go, that's going to be up to you. You can play around with it. Personally, I want to go onto the next step and that would be the rocks themselves. So we already have this darker scholar. First, I would like to change them all into one ton brighter. So we have a bit more light through it because right now we have a lot of lava. This means we have a lot more light. So I don't want it to be as dark as let's say here. Because even here, this darker stone only happens in few places since we didn't change the structures of rocks. So in this case, if I'm going to place this darkest section, is just going to be an indication that this may be perhaps our ambient occlusion. And now I'm just going to light up this rock so I can take this brighter tone and simply go around the edges. And I want to shade them in such a way that they will imply again, around the ditch, around the drug. Okay. It doesn't have to be too precise. There we go. And now based upon these ones, oh, I forgot one here. So let's fix that quickly. Now, based upon these rocks, I will place again one lighter tone on top of this. There we go. It's quite easy to do. Basically. The rags that are floating, the more melted the day are the rounded there. This is just a quick reminder of the first explanation that I did previously. And now we have some of these highlights and a few places we don't want to overdo it. If we really want, we can even indicate some of these with a bit of a highlight like so. But personally, in this case, I don't want to have any rough surfaces or sharp edges like we had previously. Okay. I want everybody to be a little bit smoother and a little bit more rounded. And now at the end, if you really want to add some empirical occlusion or simply shade the outer regions so it gets a bit more volume. You can certainly do so. You can keep playing around. But basically, that's all there is to it. It's not really complicated. So this is still number three where I've talked about how the polymer three implies more multilingual rocks. So you are taking into consideration the shape of each rock. And you're also taking into consideration the viscosity of flower. Since lava is molten rock as it starts to cool down, is going to become darker and darker. And once it cools down completely, it's going to become a solid rock again, to conclude a larva as a material for style number one, you can simply take a little bit of color, implies some liquidity because it flows install number to emit some extra light and it's done number three, if you really want to focus more on lava, increase the thickness of the lines, which indicates where the lava flows create some rocks. If you want drugs to be flowing around. If not, remember that this yellow sections are also just flowing rocks. And if you want to make everything a bit more darker and more dramatic because the reducers, so that's all going to be dependent upon your preferences. That's all for this video. I will see you in the next one. 52. 33 Cloth Style 1: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to draw a clot. It's going to come into different styles. In first one I will show you how to draw a thick clouds. And in the next one, I'm going to show you how to thin it out, how to make it a bit thinner. First, I'm going to shade this entire sphere in, let's say, a different color. Let's say this is good enough. Then this is our color palette right here. So you can see it's a bit strange seeker. I'm going to take this as our main light tone, and this is going to be our main shadow tone. I'm basically going to divide this entire piece into two tones first, and then we'll start working on details. So imagine that a clot is being put on top of this sphere. Imagine that it's basically something like this. So I'm placing it on top of the sphere. Then once it comes here, let's say it falls down, maybe almost all the way down. And then we can repeat the same process on the other side. But let's say that the clot is a bit thicker or it fell in such a way that the crisis has created some volume between the sphere and the clot. So it's that completely tight. It's a bit loose, if you will. Half or we might want to go with this is totally up to us, but let's say that this is just enough. And the same thing, it's going to start falling here from the side. And now started for this proton, we have two possible approaches. We can either simply start drawing the entirety of our clot, in which case, it's going to be something like this. And that's all. It's going to cover up the sphere completely. Or the other approach which I think should be the better one for teaching the clot is going to be that we have a little bit of it hanging down here. This is going to be on the backside, let's say of this clot. Then we'll also have some cloth on the front portion which does not fall behind the sphere but rather in front of it. So let's say perhaps something like, let's take the pixel. Perfect, Nice. I'm just creating a line. There we go. I think this should be justified. And now I want to divide everything into light and shadow. So first things first, let's draw this entire portion in light. So you can see that this is in front of the sphere. And then I'm going to draw the shadow, which is going to be behind the sphere. There we go. Since I want the entire sphere to be in one solid color, Let's just paint everything like so. Now before I start, I just want to place it one pixel up so I could see the bottom sections of the Cloud. There we go. So how can you approach different creeks and crevices and folds and whatnot in clothing. Clothing is very random. Okay? And usually you will find a few different ways how to imply certain folds on the clothing. And those will be your main selling point that this indeed is a cloth. Now if you take a look at my shirt and if you see some faults happening here on this side, and if I just pinch it, you see how it becomes very straight. This is what I'm going to talk about first. And you have some different, let's say, rules of how to pinch your clothing, let's say, and essentially your pinch or wherever the clothing is very tight, is going to be a source point from which different types of cones will develop. And that's essentially how we're going to shade those. Going back to show this on a very simple example. Now, imagine that this right here is a cone because it has been protruded downwards a little bit. So it has this curvature. Okay? I'm going to take one light tone and simply apply with the lighter tone that this indeed here is clothing. Okay, same goes here. So we are creating tiny cylinders or some sorts. And we could do the same thing right here as well. There we go, since we are creating lighter tones and the shadow. But for the light section, we're going to approach this a bit differently. Again, you can imagine that let's say this here is going to be a cone. And this section is already being lit, so it's already in the light. So we are going to target these other sections and create our shadow tones. So perhaps something like this, and I'm very simplifying this entire piece, so it's a bit easier to see. We can do roughly the same thing, let's say here as well. Do you see how this creates this nice effect of these folds? Now to expand upon this concept, I'm going to create a new Canvas. And here I'm just going to place a very simple circle, and this is going to be our table. I'll use the symmetry tool to create a very simple table. I imagine that this is the top side of our table. And from it we are going to use the clothing and for this type of thing, I am going to create a nice clot that is falling down from this table. And instead of just simply replicating this specific outer edge of the table down here as well, which would be equivalent to this. Do you see how it just doesn't look right? It's going to turn out like some kind of a cylinder. This see how it doesn't look right? It's going to turn out like a cylinder. So I definitely want these types of flowy waves, the bottom edge, because those are again, the folds in the clothing here. Now I'm going to color this entire top section in this color. And let's just say that this is going to be our shadow tone. So on this entire bottom section, and again, first I'm going to find those, let's say waves on the bottom. So let's suppose we start here. And then I create a little bit of it like so, perhaps not as much, perhaps something like this. And I keep creating those waves until it gets to the edge. There we go. So now I can erase everything else that I do not need. Then you can imagine these being those cones. So this is going to be a cone. If you imagine, and we need to define again the light source. So if you imagine the light source being while you right in the middle, you can just place some white in the middle. But if you want the light source to be, let's say on the left side, you can place a light on the left side, and then you can find the shadow tone. A place the shadow tone on the other side. And you can also combine these techniques. Perhaps you just want to place some shadow to indicate that this right here is going to be, as you can see in the light. And this just by itself would also work completely fine without any issues. And you can see how it starts to resemble a tablecloth. Or you can go the other way around. You can target the lighter areas, or you can do both. Okay? So it simply depends on what you want to achieve and in what manner you want to approach rendering your clothing. But what is important to understand is that no matter which way you decide to go, try to imagine where exactly the clot is being pinched or it's completely under tension. Okay, so right here where the edge of the table, the clot is very tight, so it doesn't have any faults, as you can see on the top of this entire table. No faults only here where the clot is very loose. It's not under tension that it starts to create false because well, gravity, and this is exactly what we want to replicate. Going back over here, I'm just going to create a nice shadow area here on the top edge. And suppose I want to create a nice, Let's say, fold right here. I can do it just like that. And let's say I followed these fold all the way here, like so, so it fell in a strange manner. Let's say this right here is entire folder. So I'm going to erase just a little bit of this. You can see what it's going to look like. So you can see this outer edge is the fault. So it's going to happen in this manner. And if I want to emphasize it, that can either create another fault right below it. Like so. Now I need to connect this volt with this one so you can see how it can very quickly become very chaotic. And when it comes to read and clothing, that's exactly eight. So if you have ever done a live drawings of fabric, you'll know exactly what I'm talking about. So don't worry too much about big everything in place. You can get away with a lot of random stuff. So let's say that this right here is going to be one fold. Let's say this entire section is then going to be in the shadow. So we define everything a bit more tightly. Now suppose right here we have another fault, okay? So wherever this side is bulging, I'm going to create some light. Okay. I think this should be just fine. There we go. So you can see that this area of shadow between these two folds is essentially this. So if I look at it at a side view like that, this area in-between is going to be the shadow. So this right here, this area is this shadow right here. And here's the trick on creating thick clothing. You want your faults to be very thick. So this right here is what, three pixels tall? That's good. Here. It's two pixels. It's a bit on the edge, but it's enough if I want to make it look thicker, simply what I'm going to do is create a sticker false. So for example, right here. If I want this section to look a bit thicker, what am I going to do? Well, I'm going to increase the size of it, right? You can see how it starts look thicker and also thicker clothing can't have as many creases and falls because of its volume. Because thicker clothing is harder to fault. So it will have less volts, less creases. And when it does have folds, those will be larger. Okay, So now let's keep on going. So suppose this folder right here. This big one is on top of these cones, let's say on top of this false. So you can decide which one to prioritize. Perhaps this specific cone is getting into this folder right here. This cone is overlapping. This top section. Okay? So do you see how this will influence it? Or you can go the other way around. You can let this top fold have the priority and let it influenced the cone below it. So you can play around all day long because fabric is, again, very random and very fun to do. Okay, now suppose I'm happy with default, so we have only two colors, light and shadow. Now what I'm going to do is create more light tones in the light and more shadow tones in the shadow. For example, only this area or flight will receive these two brighter colors. So let's take the first one. And wherever we think, again, this is the cone. Wherever we think that we would have more light, this is exactly where we are going to place it. So think of cones, think of basic elementary shapes and try to apply those right here, as well as the light source. So if the light source is coming directly from the right, it can be like this. It's coming directly from the left. It's going to be something like that or something in between. So depending on this specific light source, as you can see, it's a bit to the left side than the right side. So, but you also have to take into consideration the shape of the fault. So not all folds are going to look in the same way. Let's say there are not going to be angled towards the light source in the same way. So take a lot of freedom with it. This right here is going to receive a little bit of light as well. I want my light tones and these thicker faults to have larger volume because if the fold is thicker, I want my life to be also ticker. Let's say on this top section, I create a light tone like that. Now finally, let's go out to the brightest stone, which are going to be basically highlights and use it sparingly, use only and flip places. But whenever you do use it, try not to go over the board. These are highlights. There shouldn't be too many of those, okay? And perhaps we want to indicate that this top section is a bit softer because of their larger volume. If the Chris is very sharp, It's going to have a very tiny highlight, meaning the highlight is going to be maybe one pixel thick. And if the overall volume is very large, the highlight is also going to be a bit softer, meaning larger in volume. It's not going to be as sharp. Now, let's do the same thing, but for the shadows. So we already have one shell of tone. We also have 1to1 darker than that. So this time around, I want to go over this entire bottom portion because I want to separate this specific section of the clothing. And this is only the outline style, so you can do it or you can omit it. It's totally up to you. Okay? Okay. Now, I want to make this outline even darker. So I'm going to create another color. This one could be even completely black, to be honest, and I'm just going to change the color of the outline to this specific color. So get more volume. And now I can use this shadow tone to go back inside and start creating some shadows. Now again, think of the cones. So if you look at this specific section, you can see that the light is in the middle. You have shadow tones and then even darker shadow tones. That's exactly what I want to achieve. Now we just keep on going around. There we go. So this section behind the sphere is completely done. Now, we can go and this upper area and work towards our shadow tones even more so. If you imagine this area right here is being bulged like that. And then next to it, I also have this cone-shaped light, which is going to be roughly like that. So this entire space in-between, I can imply it. Or rather I can define it in shadow. Now I also want to create a little bit of shadows here between as well. So now we're just going over the entire piece and looking where exactly would you like to have your shadows a bit darker? Yes, I can also place them here if you want to. That's totally up to us to decide. The amount of shadow against the light is again completely up to you. Okay, and now as a final step, you also have a midtone which we haven't touched just yet. So it's a mid-tone. It's still in the light, but it started to connect with the shadows a bit more. Now, these ones in the bag, so far I have defined them with the light only, but I want them to be a bit darker. So I separated them a bit more. There we go. Okay. And now the mid tones. So for example, in anti-aliasing, if you remember the lessons, Let's say I wanted to tell is this specific part of line. I can simply do it like that. And same goes here. So wherever I want to have a softer transition, I'm going to Anthony Alice at a little bit. And I'm not going to overuse this. It's really not needed all that much. But again, that one is totally up to. You, are looking for the bright areas, these light areas. And wherever you think you want to have a little bit of a softer shadows, you can just go in and anti-alias little bit. There you go. There's another place here perhaps I want to show the outlines in a different style and this top edge. Now we have the sphere underneath it. And if you have a clot over it, like you can mention a hood. If you are a mercenary or a thief or maybe an assassin. This is a nice way to introduce a bit of cast shadow. You can just follow along this specific color above. Let's say with something a bit smaller. There we go. You also have some cast shadow. So to conclude, when you are trying to create a fabric or a clot, for example, you definitely want to keep in mind two things. One are the folds. The thicker they are, the thicker the fabric and the less folds overall you should have in the overall fabric. And the number two, think of bigger shapes. Think of the cylinders. Think of the cones. Think of those basic shapes and think very exactly is their source. So in this example, I have given you a very simple example of a tablecloth, which doesn't really look the best. But you know that you have the source point and from that point, you will try to find your cone. This is usually whatever the material is being pinched. And you can see this right here. So let's say this is the cone and it's a bit angled. You can see this one cone as well. Okay? So however you try to define it, it's totally up to you because fabric, if you just drop it on the floor, is going to fall in so many different ways. And if you pick it up and throw it again, it's going to fall in completely different way. And when you advance a little bit, when you practice a bit more, try to think about which fall is going to have the priority. Like I have shown you in the previous example of this specific folder right here against these cones down here. So that's all for this video. I will see you in the next one where I will talk about clots style. Number two. 53. 34 Cloth Style 2: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create clot in style number two, and that is in cloth in the previous video, which was very long, I have shown you how to create a very thick clothing. And I have also covered the basic concepts which expand into no matter which type of fabric you are creating. In this case, I will simply focused on dealing out this fabric as I have talked about previously. What's most important is the thickness of this false. So these right here, if they are thick, the fabric is thick or thin, the fabric is going to be thin. So the first thing I'm gonna do is focused on this right here. Do you see how thick it is? It's due to three pixels tall. Let's cut it in half. So let's make the outrage like that. And for this one also, let's make the outer edge, perhaps. Let's make it like that as well. Let, let's say they connect here. And now I'm going to increase the shadow all the way here. And I'm also going to thin out this upper portion. There we go. I also want to reduce the amount of highlights just for now. In fact, it's going to be a bit easier to follow along if I simply erase the highlights. For now, I will bring those back later on. And let's say I can leave this one on top for free. So this is how it looks so far. Okay, there we go. Now when it comes to this cone-shaped things, those can be thinner because the clot is thinner, we can also make these things thinner as well. So let me give you an example. This right here. If we follow along this specific outline, Let's then everything out. Let's say it's two pixels here, but then only two pixels here. Then it starts to fall down. Maybe all the way up until this point. Then it's also started to curve back up again. Let's just erase this entire section just yet. Then it also starts to curve down. Perhaps this time around it's only one pixel thick. You see how many of these we have now? Previously we had only what, let's say one or two of these which start at the bottom before they curve upwards, right? And right now we have multiple of those. So we are definitely going to have to rework this entire section. So let's just remove this altogether. There we go. So now imagine all of those tiny little cones. We don't have to create too many of these in too many details. Now let us just introduce just a little bit of differences. There we go. And then we can play along with the shadow as well. And this time around because the clot is dinner, we also are able to create some harsher edges and more sharp angles when we're trying to shade something. Okay, here we go. And we can do the same thing here on the bottom as well. So instead of having only two of couple of these, let's say we have multiple of those. So we are going to immediately create some shadow here. Let's say this one is being cut in half right here as well. Some shadow on this one. There we go. Okay. This also means that this cone-shaped portion can be also a bit longer to indicate that. So right here, we can also make this just a bit longer, not necessarily thicker, just a bit longer. So I'm not thickening everything up like that. I'm simply extended it so you can see that it's definitely a bit thinner. Okay? I want to emphasize this is only one pixel thick. And now again, I can go back with the midtone and just soften edges up a little bit. I can take the highlights. Now. I can place them just a few places where I will show. It's very thin, very sharp. Okay. For these ones in the back, I have to use the midtone again, this time around. I'm just going to place it and you've places as a sort of a highlight. Let's see. There we go. And since this is a thinner fabric, I can allow myself to bring this pixel a bit to the inside. Doesn't have to fall out on the edge. So far away. There we go. Okay, Now let's take care of this upper section as well. Now suppose we have plenty of different creeks and crevices here and tiny little folds. Think of where exactly the shadow might be. And for this one you don't have to be precise. Let's say you have pinched it right here. So it's a tiny fault going away from it. Again, for this one, you don't have to be too precise. And let's say, now that we introduce a little bit of light. There we go. Perhaps a couple of highlights here and there. Again, within these light areas. That's all. Do you see how this can be pinched? Let's say right here. We can also create a pinch from which we can extend the shadows a little bit. Okay, perhaps down here as well. Let's say something of this nature. Again, I'm not being too precise, but you can essentially see how this clot definitely looks a bit thinner and more malleable, if you will, than this one. This one looks a bit more rigid if you are just starting out with clothing. I hope this couple of videos helped you out. But still I highly recommend that you look up at the reference images online of different fabrics and cloth and try to replicate those in real-life bit with traditional media or simply pixelate, but to try to identify the dose cones and folds and so on. And just play around with it and have fun. That's all for this video. I will see you in the next one. 54. 35 Ground: Welcome back. In this video, I will talk about ground or dirt, however you wanna call it. And as you might have noticed, is of course, in the brand colors. So we have a nice reverse C curve. There we go. So how am I gonna do this? Well, it's quite simple. Let's start from the lighter tones. And this time around, I want to extend my lights down a bit further away because I want this grant to be a bit softer but also have some roughness to it. And then we'll just keep on progressing with the tones all the way in the shadow. And for the outline, we can use this darker stone. I think for this type of style, I might want to change the outline style, but we'll see how it goes. And then finally, we have this shadow tone, which is going to be used very slightly in just a couple of places. There we go. So let's say this is our starting point. So when you think about dearth of ground, it's usually brown because if you have grass on top of it is going to be green. Obviously. If it's smart, it's also going to be a bit too wet. So this isn't going to be mad. It's not going to be wet, it's going to be dry land. So basically just normal ground. And these records you can show it is when you think about ground and dirt, it's a bit rough. There are plenty of different styles, very concrete. It's softer and a bit more smoother looking, but usually you will have it a bit rough. So that's what we'll go with today. Now, this way how you can indicate roughness is how with straight lines. So try to find specific types of patterns that are going to indicate something very sharp. So in this case, you can see this line completely straight and you can see these lines threat and this one would go on and 45-degree angles. If I were to finish this one, it would be a simple rectangle. Okay. But since I'm not going to finish it, so I'm not going to create it like that, do you certainly could. If you want to just soften up the edges a little bit to create a softer look. Then you can just erase few pixels just to break apart from that clear line. Okay? So that's how we get some roughness, but also bit of softness at the same time. And now I just skipped finding these types of patterns wherever I want to put them. Perhaps I can repeat them here. Let's say it's a little bit here as well. I can change it up ever so slightly. Perhaps I can extend this shadow tone even bit deeper inside. This one's up to you, but most of it is in the light. So that's where we're going to have a lot of fun creating some extras. Now when I go inside, I also want to create some kind of these patterns. Again, you can see that I'm usually extending the shadows either with straight lines under 90 degree angles, meaning horizontal or vertical, or it's undefined. The 45-degree angles. Just play around a little bit. And now I want to change the outline. I decided that I think it's going to look good. And then the shadow tone, it's again 1to1, darker than it was previously. The same thing would go here. All the way up until here. Outlines are, again, completely a matter of style preference. If you don't want it, don't use it. We're talking about the outlines. You might have noticed that this now looks softer because if you have black outlines, the object will stand out quite a lot. And usually ground isn't something that you want standing out. It's simply part of the working part, wider character goals and something like that. It's usually going to be a bit softer. Again, select, preference totally up to you. Now I'm going to extend this a light, a bit even more. I think this would be just fine. And I'm going to try to connect these lines. So if you think about how this line would perhaps extend, you'd see how they would connect. So this is one way to do it, or you can simply do the same thing I did here. And that is create these shapes. So either way will work just fine. So that one's going to be up to you. But you can see already in the preview how it started to take some basic shape. Okay, so there we go. Let's say this is a good starting point. Now let's take the brightest stone and this one will use to create some larger shapes. Here in the light. Perhaps I want to decrease the size of my brush just fine with more flexible. There we go. And I'm not creating very sharp edges like this one. Okay? So I'm not creating anything sharp like that. I'm trying to create something a bit more softer. So remember, because ground is generally speaking soft to some degree, but it's also a bit rough on the surface. You have all of those tiny imperfections. You have tiny stones and rocks. And perhaps some human advisor plants are. Perhaps even animals who knows. But generally speaking, it's very random. So I want to combine these two elements. I want to combine some of these straight lines from the shadows which are going to indicate some roughness. And I want to indicate in the light that it's also a bit soft. So you can measure this surface of the ground. And this is going to be a bit softer looking because especially if you walk on it, it gets to be a bit more compounded, a bit more smoother. But if you look here beneath, I want to indicate some roughness that this indeed on top is very much ground or dirt. Okay, now let's say I'm happy with this so far. Now it's time to have most of the fun. And this is where you can go completely wild, okay? Now, take some of these shadow tones. Let's say this one. Place it anywhere you want here in the light. Let's say I place it here. Now, extend some of these shadow tones a bit deeper. So it's okay if in cases like this, even brightest don't touch the shadow tones, It's totally fine because it's ground. You never know how many bumps in the ground you'll have. So that's all up to you. And let's keep on going. Let's just introduce them in a couple of different places. Now let's extend the edges a little bit as well, because we want to indicate it's a bit rough. We don't want to go overboard. I don't want to create some kind of giant spikes like this, for example. It's just meant to be a bit too much. If you look here in the preview, just adding, this is enough. So if you want to split it out, you split it out. And now you just flat out. Okay. There we go, some shadow tones. And by creating these patterns of these straight lines, you are indicating some rough texture on the material, okay. Especially here there, see if you remember folds in the clothing, how the folds would be like that roughly? Well, you can imagine something similar to it. So imagine that this side is on top and this side is below. So here is the top. We have some transition and this part of the ground is below it. So let's say this one is clustering a bit of shadow as well. So you can play around, be as random as you want. And trust me, you won't go too far and you won't be too wrong about it. The thing about the ground is that most of it's rough surface comes when you connect shadows to the light. So right here, let's see how this looks very smooth. And if I extend the shadow of the straight lines just a little bit, bit on the 45-degree angles are straight. The second refer it looks like. So this is the before. This is after. If you want something to be a bit more softer, you would use these giant a bit around the shapes. And that's all. This is it. This is a very simple grant to do. Again, if you want to render it a bit more, you can certainly do so. You can play around with this whole day to be honest. And still it wouldn't be necessarily death from. So if you want to add some lights here, you can certainly do so. And you can just keep on playing and playing and playing around. And I highly recommend you do that. But for now, I think this is enough. I think that's all for this video. I will see you in the next one. 55. 36 Gem: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create a gym. And it's going to be a very simple one and a quick one. Right here we have our mid-tone. This is our color palette. You can see we have a lot of bright saturated colors because our base color will be this red one in the middle. So I will paint this entire sphere into this color, and I will just leave the outset edges to perhaps we can just keep it in this darkest color, which is completely black. Just for now. We might change the outlets later on. So how do I want to start this? Well, when you think about the gems, if there are polished, they reflect the surroundings similarly to how the metal does. So what I wanna do is create some kind of reflection. Let's say we're after here should be just fine. And let's say I also want to create another reflection all the way here. So just imagine yourself drumming some kind of a falling star. So something like this, this kind of a shape. Now I want to be a bit more precise. So I'll go around this entire highlight. Perhaps extended just a little bit. There we go. Now that I've surrounded this highlight with this, Let's say transitioning tone. This tone will be the one that I will be using to create exactly this. And I also want some of the highlight to have here on this side as well. You can think of it as a sort of a tail, so to speak. There we go. And now again, I'm going to surround this one with this nice light on. So you can imagine this being a nice highlight which indicates the spherical shape of our gym. And all I'm looking right now is that the curvature should kinda fit. So if you see here, if I take another color, I want this curve to be as smooth as possible, at least within the normal time-frame that we are creating this video for. Now that we've covered the highlights, Let's go and talk about the shadows. So if you imagine half of this sphere should be in the shadow. So let's just rough it out. Let's say about this should be fine. It's okay if the highlights overlap the shadows. That's how we'll curate that Jim effect. And now since this is the mid tone in the light, I want to take this lighter tone of this red, so it's not that much different. You can see it's a very small difference. I will select these sections and simply go over this top section, like so. So I'm trying to imagine that the light source is basically a lighting up with this upper half. We'll have our shadows down here. Now, let's talk about the metal. If you remember, this type of style will be recreated here. So I want to create a nice shadow, perhaps, like this. I think this looks quite nice. And within that, I want to create this black shadow tone. So you see how it creates this nice contrast. Enough to soften everything up these a way how we can do it is one, Let's take the outline and let's take this upper section and simply done by one color, so it's only once on brighter. Now let's go all the way down here and think about the reflections because we also need to have some reflected light will take this midtone and just eating Kate it down here. Like so that's should be just enough. If you really want to brighten it up, just ever so slightly. But don't overdo it. It definitely wouldn't look all that nice if I added perhaps this breadth of a highlight because this one is reserved for these ones on the top. Moving on. Now I will go over this entire section and wherever I think these two would connect. So do you see the Shelton and this one? I'm just going to take this midtone and soften the transition even a bit more. So only a few places. When it comes to this black color. I want to have this purple color surrounding it. So again, we have a smoother transition between this black color all the way to this midtone right here. Okay? And perhaps I want to make sure that this black color also has a little bit of breathing space because I also want to surround this purple color with this color which is 1to1 brighter again. You can see how this creates a nice smooth transition. It's basically just layering each of these stones on top of one another. And that's it. This is how you can very quickly create a very simple jump, but yet a nice-looking, of course, you can change these colors into something else that will be completely up to you. But the key takeaway is thinking about the material. Does it reflect light? Does the light pass through this, Jim, can you perhaps see-through the gym a little bit and so on. So that's all for this video. I will see you in the next one where I will jump to another material. 56. 37 Glass: Welcome back. In this video, I will show you how to create glass material. And this one is so simple, It's unbelievable. A lot of people have trouble with glass because they are trying to color the glass and whatever is behind the glasses at the same time. This really isn't the best approach. So this away here we can create glass is to keep in mind what is in the background. Well, let's say this color will do just fine. And let's say this is the background. This here is the outline of our spherical glass, let's say, and let's take these tones, color it in this way. So now you can immediately see that it definitely looks more like a glass or perhaps like a bubble, whichever the case might be. Both bubble and Glass who have a similar property. And that is, they are transparent. And if something is transparent while you can see through it, so you don't need to draw the glass in this way and then try to draw something inside of it. No, it's the opposite where you simply create the outline for the glass would be where you would have some reflections, but it would catch light. But here's where it gets interesting. Now, before I move on, I just want to add, let's say, one simple shadow down some of these edges. Let's say this should be just fine. Now let's create the highlight. For the highlights, we are going to use the background color and then just brighten it up. And that's all very simple and very easy to do. I'm not taking something in a green tone like this one because you see it won't look just right. So you have to take into consideration what is the color of the background? And since this is a sphere, I want my highlight to be spherical. And let's say it also catches just a little bit of highlight here as well. There we go. Perhaps I don't want it to be as sharp. I think this is just enough. Okay, now let's say this right here is a glass and very thin glass at that and very transparent. Or perhaps this could be a bubble. But if you are creating bubbles like soap bubbles, you would probably want these highlights to have a rainbow of colors because if you remember how the light reflects off of those thin, watery surfaces, you can create basically some kind of a rainbow of colors on top of all of these. And you can create that bubble effect, but we won't be doing that in this video. The main takeaway from the glasses are material is that it's transparent. So don't draw everything inside of the glass. Don't try to draw the glass first and then the background. But simply draw the background first and then outline where the glass is. Another properties of the glass is that it also distorts the image or the light around it. So this is called refraction, or when the light bounces inside of something, it changes its angle, it distorts the image. If you have ever been in a pool of water and you place your hand in the water because the refraction of the water, the angle is a bit different than the air. You'll notice that your hand looks a bit strange and this is exactly why that is. So perhaps we have something in the background, let's say some kind of wooden pole. And I'm going to draw it throughout this entire background just to save a little bit of time. Okay, there we go. So you can see right through it. But sunglasses, especially lenses have the property, especially if the glass is very thick, they can distorted the image inside of it. So perhaps this entire intersection would become a bit more thicker, let's say like So. Do you see the effect, how it distorts the image a little bit. Now this isn't something that you necessarily have to do. And it really depends on the glass or the lens and so on. But essentially, keep this property in mind. Number one, if you are making the glass transparent, simply throw the background and focused on the highlights. Because highlight and the edges are the only things that you need to imply that this is a glass. The background we'll tell the rest of the story. Okay? And when it comes to the refractive property, meaning how it distorts slide. You can use it or you don't have to eat really depends on your preferences. But usually it's not being used, but still I'm showing it to you in case you want to experiment a little bit and it can go the other way around. So if you remember lenses, sometimes they will expand whatever is behind and sometimes they would in fact thin it out. Now, if this resolution I don't think it would look all that well, but yeah, feel free to experience. Glass is very simple. That's all for this video. I will see you in the next one. 57. 38 Closing thoughts on materials: Welcome back. In this video, I will get my final thoughts about the material study section. And we started basically for foliage, all the way to rock, all the way to vote and metal and water, ice, snow, clouds, lava, clothing, dirty jumps, glass, you name it, and hopefully get a couple of things stick out. And if I were to try and just compress everything into a few simple messages of one would be color is very important in low resolution peaks, lot, especially. Second, the state of the material is also very important. If something is very solid, very hard, we want to use sharp edges and streetlights bit horizontal, vertical, or under 45-degree angles. If, on the other hand, something is a very soft or a liquid, then we want to indicate that by using curves and larger shapes. And the same thing applies and the overall surface. So the surface of the material is very soft to the touch. You can use larger volumes of light with curves. And if the surface is very rough like sandpaper, you want to introduce some of the distortions. Similarly, here we did on the dirt. So you want to introduce some of the straight lines. Those same principles apply. Third, when it comes to reflections and reflective light, we have talked about this a lot of in detail when it comes to metal, because whatever surface reflects something including water, we have to take into consideration what is the light around it. So if you have a high enough resolution of a sphere, let's say, or a surface bit, a mirror, then you can literally draw inside of it what is in the surrounding area. But for metals and all of the reflective surfaces, the easiest way how you can indicate that is by creating well these reflected lights and stating them and connected them all the way here where the light is. So those are tricks for reflective surfaces when we come to refraction. And something that distorts the object as you look through it. Perhaps some kind of a lens or a sphere or even water. We have to take those things into mind if you want to draw something realistic. And in big ****, we want to worry about more realistic approach only in high resolution. For low to mid resolution, you really don't want to worry too much about it because most of it is stylistic preference. And finally, light emission. Some of the materials will emit light like lava. So you want to take into consideration what is the color of the light and you want to make it influence the surrounding area around it. And the same thing would apply here on the metal. In this case. In case we had a fabric that I've explained the previous video that would go and reflect light from this, Let's say table all the way out to here. So you can think about a lighting as a whole, another topic, the lighting and how it functions. It's a bit more advanced topic, so I won't go into too many details. But hopefully these couple of basic tips throughout this material study healthy out. So that is all for this video. I will see you in the next one where I will give you a challenge. 58. 39 Challenge Material: Welcome back. In this video, I will give you a challenge for this section, and this one is quite simple and predictable. Create and study materials. Take only two materials for now. Pick any two that you like. It can be some of the ones that I have shown you previously. Or it can be something completely else that you find online or you think you want to make voter game and so on. That's completely up to you. So pick any two materials. But the second part of the challenge is a bit more tricky. Take those two materials and create each of those into styles. So if you remember wood, for example, I have created it in few different styles. So whichever material you decide to do, make at least two examples of it. And this will help your creativity because you will not lock your mind into one specific style, but rather you will expand your imagination further around. So that's all for this video. I hope to see your submission and I will see you in the future as well. Have fun creating.