Music Theory Fundamentals - Beginner | Mathew James | Skillshare

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Music Theory Fundamentals - Beginner

teacher avatar Mathew James, Teaching Music

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.



    • 2.

      Scales and pitches the white keys


    • 3.

      Black Keys and a new scale


    • 4.

      Bonus Lesson - A lesson in listening


    • 5.

      Intervals of the major scale


    • 6.

      The minor scale


    • 7.

      Bonus lesson Major vs Minor


    • 8.

      Intervals of the minor scale


    • 9.

      Basics of Rhythm and Meter Review


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About This Class

What is this class?

This class will introduce you to the theory of music, providing the skills needed to read and write standard music notation, as well as to understand, analyse, and introduce some basics of listening.

It will cover material such:

  • Pitches 
  • Major scales
  • Minor scales
  • Intervals
  • Clefs
  • Rhythm
  • Meter
  • Introduction to listening
  • Difference of major and minor in music

Throughout the class there will be a few projects and worksheets which will be important for helping you establish the foundation of your own understanding of music theory.

You will want to get MUSESCORE (which is a free notation software) which is the program I will be using when teaching. I will make all the lesson examples available for you to review and to serve as reference for concepts.

Why should you care about music theory?

I get that we don't all want to be "composers" but having a basic understanding of music theory will help you understand what you are hearing. If you write music, or produce it, having this knowledge about how to create certain impressions, or emotions, in a clear way can help raise your work to the next level.

Why do I think theory matters?

Throughout my studies I was always fascinated with music theory and its application. Since completing my post-graduate certificate in music I have been active as a performer, teacher, and arranging and composing. I use theory in all aspects of my work and teach it to all my students. 

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Mathew James

Teaching Music


P.Cert, M.Mus, B.Mus

Hello, I'm Mathew. I am professional musician in Calgary, Alberta. I serve as the Artistic Director and solo horn for Timepoint Ensemble and served as the fourth horn for the Saskatoon Symphony for the 2015-2016 season. Around town I perform as a freelance and have performed with groups such as the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra, the Edmonton Symphony, Theatre Calgary, and many more.

Beyond performance I spend a great deal of time as an educator working with students from various backgrounds in the skills that make up music. 

I completed my training at DePaul University in Chicago (Post Graduate Certificate in Performance, and a Masters of Music with Distinction) and did my undergraduate work at the University of Calgary (B.Mus).

My ... See full profile

Level: Beginner

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1. Introduction: I want to thank you for taking a moment to watch this video and to think about taking this class, and I encourage you to take this class in this class. I'll be teaching you the basics of music theory. You'll then use these skills to create an enhance your own work in understanding. So first, I think it's important to understand who I am, since I will be the person teaching you the money is Matthew James. I'm a professional musician in Calgary, and I serve is the artistic director and solo horn for Time Point Ensemble. Formerly I served as fourth Horn with the Saskatoon Symphony, and around town here I performed professionally with groups such as the Calgary Philharmonic in the Edmonton Symphony Theatre, Calgary, the Banff Centre and more but beyond performance. I spend a great deal of my time as an educator, working with students from various backgrounds and skills that make up music. I completed my training at DePaul University in Chicago, where I did a postgraduate certificate and performance in the Masters and music with distinction, and I did my undergraduate work at the University of Calgary. My passion is new music and I also love to teach and share the skills and abilities that we need to understand music. So now, back to this course specifically so this classes for beginners. You don't need any prior musical experience, though, if you do have experienced, this is a complete review of the elements that make up the basics of music theory. If you feel like you have that well under control, maybe consider a more advanced class. But this is also a great review. So this class is great for anyone who wants to develop their understanding of music, whether it's producers or players, or if you just want to be able to connect with your favorite songs and music that you listen to. This class can help facilitate that by giving you the skills to understand and communicate about. So you can use these skills in a lot of different ways, whether it's song writing, music, listening or just improving your ability to share and collaborate with others. By the end of this class, you'll be able to read music. You understand the various key elements that make it up in how those elements impact the experience. That listener there's a breakdown of what this class covers below as well as the video titles. So take a quick look through them. Make sure this is what you're looking for. Yeah, Thank you for considering. And if you go for this course, congratulations on starting to build a more complex understanding of music. 2. Scales and pitches the white keys: All right, so we're here today to talk about pitches and basic scales. So what we're going to do is we're gonna look at that pitch is here the pitches, see where they fall in the staff that understand and keep understanding how the staff works . So to do this, I've set us a tempo from set to 76. In the first pitch or note, I want to introduce Middle C. So what you could do right now is if you look at the pdf that came with this lesson I recommend have that opens the press pause and open up the pdf that's called the Staffs. Okay. It's going to give you some more information about how these staffs work and how to remember them. All right, So you press pause ness Now that you're back, let's do a real quick rundown together. So up here is the treble clef. Down here is the bass clef. The treble clef is how we know take higher sounds. The bass clef is how we know Take the lower sounds. Right. So this note right here is really special. It's called middle C. We caught Middle C because on the piano it's It's the very center. It's the middle C of the piano. Um, I think must be Let's let me turn on my piano keyboard. Right? So this note right here is see one right there. That's middle. So this is an important note because this is the pivot between the two staffs and that will make more sense as we go. But for right now, what's important for you to know is this pitch, as you can hear it, is the same Aziz this pitch even though they're notated on trouble, keep doing it right. The trouble in the bass clef and these are our middle C, right? Let's just pull that down here. Okay, so that's the 1st 1 Let's just listen to it middle C Beautiful, right? So I think the easiest way that we're going to do this, we're gonna focus on the trouble cleft first, and then we'll explore it in half. So as we go up the next, don't we encounter? Do it. Happens is a D remembers. You can salt the pdf that comes with it. It has ways to help remember the note names. So here's e here's F and here's G next is a followed by B, and then we make our way back to the sea. All right, so what we have right there? Grab a staff test is way. Want to happen at all his r c major scale? All right, so let's just take a listen to that sort middle c. Beautiful, Right? So, again, familiarize yourself with these notes first. So the next thing I want to do is I want to actually break down this scale, right? So So one of the beautiful parts of a theory is, once we understand how it works, it's very easy to build scales because it's it's a formula, right? And for that, let's look down here to our keyboard. We're gonna pull us right up so we can see it in here. Yes, we put up our keyboard. We're gonna listen more time. And what you'll notice on the keyboard is the pitch sounding lights up. Remember, this is middle. See? Right here. All right. That's our middle C, which is the same as that. No. So let's take a listen to our scale one more time. Cool. So the next step to understand Scousers, I was no other constructive. And we're gonna look at this keyboard really quick, right? So if you follow my cursor, which is right here floating on middle C, each step here represents a semi tone or 1/2 step and within a scale, we have 12 C 123456789 10 11 12 And we get back to the sea. Right? So if we play them, we think 123456789 10 11 12 They were returned to see. So another easy, good way to learn note names is toe label a keyboard. So one that pdf as you notice there's gonna be a blank keyboard in there and just label it yourself right down. See, e g k c. Right? And that's all he needs to know that this idea about semi tones it's visual, so we'll work with that and we'll add pitches to it later. So a major scale is comprised of semi tones and whole tones. So if we go through the scale together, we can see when is it a whole tone and one is 1/2 from C. T. Is a whole tone, right? Two semi tones one whole toe. And if we look forward to e, we can see is another whole tones We get C. The 1st 3 notes of a major scale are three whole tones and that applies to any scale. Right? If we go toe f major scale so we just arbitrary that I'm gonna start on the f on the piano . We go, G k right whole tone. Okay, So back to see Major after r E. If we look at our musical staff, we see our next note is an f and those air right beside each other. So that's a semi tone, right? We're moving. Okay. One semi tone between the notes of us into that you can hear there's whole tone, whole tone, semi tone. Right. So the 1st 1234 notes of a major scale our whole whole semi starting out. And then we continue up scale after G is ah whole tone. G t A is a hall tone. A to B is a whole tone and then we see that one more time. Right? B two c is a semi tone perfect. So if you've labeled your white keys, C f G A B c. You see, you know all the way keys on the piano. Because any time you have a C, the pattern is always the same so that the next part of the lesson in this will be in two parts will be to introduce the black keys of top that one right. But the important parts walk away from this lesson with beyond. Knowing this is middle C. And that's what the staff splits in that C major of these pitches is this idea of the keyboard. Okay, so stop and take notes if you have to review it, and we're gonna keep moving on, All right. So what I want to do now is we're gonna scales go up and scales come down. So what we're gonna do here, Teoh extends into the bass clef Now extended the bass clef. We're gonna return to middle C. Remember, it's it's above the space Chlef with a little line through it. That's the sea. Same as this. See below the travel. Clever, flooded line through it right there. So that's our sea. And now we're gonna go down our scale, and we're going to do this slowly because I want you to to try to beat me. All right, so we're starting middle C, right? And we're gonna use the piano down here to understand what we're doing. Pretty switched 1/2 notes and we know where at middle C. And we know going up the scale right from B to C is a semi tone. So to descend, we take that same semi tone down to a B. Next we go down the whole tone to an A in another whole tone to a June right. If we look back up at our trouble clef or the piano keyboard, we know after G is another whole step t e as a semi tone. Then we get a whole tone. And then we finally arrived back at R C one octave lower than we started. So we've covered this rage we've gone from. See that? See? So we're gonna listen to that and and as Ugo, you know, right in the notes, get comfortable with um and just speak them out loud. That's a c e she a a de see returned to middle C see descending to be Okay, So these are pitches and basic scales that used only white keys, and that's always a great wave or out of us to start. So on the bottom of the pdf, Not only do you have the staffs and the note names, and you can fill in what it was, all are in there. Some some things we can use remember them in trouble. Cliff. We can remember the lines by thinking every good boy deserves fudge, so that's E G B D effort. Every good boy deserves fudge, and I always think face for the spaces f a ce. So for treble clef, it's the lines are every good boy deserves fudge in the spaces or face in the bass clef. You can remember the lines with Good boys deserve fudge. Always, and all cows eat grass are for the spaces. A C E G is all cows eat grass and then g b d f a. Or the lines are good. Boys deserve fudge. Always. So practice labeling those get comfortable with them. Then go to the second part, which is the blank piano keyboard. Except for the middle C, which is labeled and then fill in the names of the White Keys, which are the ones you filled out here right and really get a feel for that. And then I want you to go and review the part of the lesson that talked about how scales air built right in the semi tones and whole tones. Member. There's 12 semi tones in an octave. So from this, see to this see their 12 semi tones and the scale is constructed of a combination of whole and semi, and that's every scale. So you can use your piano roll to reference it. And I want you to go through it and identify in market from C to D is right. You know w t for whole tone. And then when you find your semi tone, you can write S t That's the steps right now labeling the staff, knowing how the scale works and knowing these pitches, and we're gonna go on from there. So I'm going to include this exercise this XML file so you can listen to it. You can think about it and consult it. Um and we'll sort of line it up this way. We'll do that. Here we go. Perfect. So until the next one, thank you. The next time we're going back on. We're gonna look at the Black Keys and what they are. We will introduce a new scale. 3. Black Keys and a new scale: all right. I want to welcome you back. Now to the second lesson in this lesson. As you see here, we're gonna be working with the black keys on the piano and one more scale. A little bit of preparation for this. We have to introduce two new elements to our notes. So it's going ahead, and I'm gonna make us if you remember back to our last lesson, we had Luke middle C right there. And we know middle C is right here on the piano when it falls on a white key. So what I want to do right now again reviewing what we talked before, We're gonna move up one semi toe to this Blackie right here. And to that, I'm just gonna hit the up arrow and we see the note over here changes right. And we see this the pound sign or hashtag or Octa. Thorpe, whatever you want to call, it shows up in front of the note. That is what we call a sharp music. All right. And what this sharp means is that we have raised the note by a semi tone again. Let's let's just go over that one more time and we're going to do it two times. We're gonna do it first with this visual example Here. Second will be down on the keyboard. So for now, let's just focus right here again. We're currently sitting on middle C. We want to raise the note by one semi tone. So we do that by pressing the up arrow amuse scored way. Get a sharp in front of the note. Now we have a c sharp And then just to really bring this and let's go into a visual example um, we have a seat right here, right there's that. See, we know in love if we want to go up So we ascend this way the piano. One semi tone. We go to that note right there. See sharp C two c sharp and again if we to How that's notated. It looks like that. Make that 1/4 notes. There's that CFC sharp. See, that's the C two c sharp waken. Listen back. Perfect. So now we're up on the Black Keys. Uh huh, right And what we need to know about the Black Keys. And first we're gonna do this ascending or using Sharps. So to find the note name. We start from the one before it and go up. So here we have a D. As we remember from the last lesson, and we raise it a semi tone to D sharp. Right? And if we come down here, we see our d becomes a d sharp, and we continue this process for each one that there is a note in front of sweet f f sharp , G two g sharp, a tow, a sharp, right, So using sharp keys. So these signs right here we have a C sharp d sharp, an f sharp, A g sharp, and in a sharp, This leads us to our next scale. And thats let's delete everything here and we're gonna start from nothing but a middle seat . And for a note entry today, we're gonna do down the piano so you can see it. So we have our middle C right now. We're gonna go up to the next black keys C sharp. We ascend one more semi tone to a D. And now from the d, we ascend one semi tone to a d shot, um, you might notice as we do this, you see other signs get entered. Don't worry about that. We're gonna explain that just in a moment. Right? So right. D sharp your e Yes. Up a semi tone. Have sharp if you know, it's for just moving by. Semi tones. Right now, remember, there's 12 semi tones in an octopus over at F sharp. We're gonna have to g g sharp to a to a sharp, a sharp to be one more semi tone to see. So we've just gone up one octave using 12 notes and then we return to the octo. Right? We talked about this last time. Briefly. So when we look at this here, all of the notes with the modified symbol that sharp in front of it are are sharp keys de sharp, sharp, g sharp, a sharp. Those were the black. He's ascending. Now. I want to cover one more part of it. We're going to start from C not really hit C. Okay, now we're gonna descend by semi tones in this time way. See that sun right there? See, it looks like a little B that's called a flat in music. That means we flatten the note or lower it by one semi tone So we have a B natural which we lower a semi tone to be flat and to see that on the keyboard we have a B natural and we lower it by one semi tone or flat in it. So we get a flat right now. Let's continue down the scales, right? R B flat. You go to a we flatten it or lower it. A semi tone toe, a flat. Here's a G. We lowered a semi toe G flat F T e flat two D, two d flat to see right. So as we've done this, you've noticed that at times we'll come down, for example, on this G here it came out a zone f sharp. So much like an lesson one where we had seized that were equivalent right, middle C. We can write an F which is raised right or we have a G, which is lowered and using our keyboard to visualize that we see. That's the same note, right? It's halfway between Haltom. We have our whole tone and we see the black key falls in between the two of them at a semi tone. So it could be written is either a G flat or an F sharp. And there's certain reasons we do that later and we'll explain more of it than but right now it's just important to know what those black keys are. Something quickly correct that g up here s have RG flat back, right? So let's take a listen to this. This is our new scale, right? Let's let's listen and then descending with flats we owe perfect. So what we see there is what we refer to as a chromatic scale. So it's a scale of semi tones, all right? And now what I want to do, but right here and we're going to do it really quick is we're going to write out the scale we learned unless someone which is C major. Right, So we go see e f g a. Okay, be. See, what I want to do is I'm gonna add So this is a new skill for when you're Lindholm, you score. As you see, I've run out of measures. What we're gonna do is go add measures. We're gonna penned measures to add to the end we're gonna add to because I know I need two more scales. Get down so you see, be a g f. All right. This is our C major scale. So this is a quick review of everything we've done and so you can watch the piano as it goes by. But we're gonna listen to a chromatic scale which makes use of the black notes. Remember those air they notes that fall in between. So they get their note name from the one that it comes from effort of sharp to geology flat . And then we're gonna listen to our C major scale in the C major scale. Again, it's a combination, as we learned last time of whole tones in semi tones with semi tones happening. And this is just worth reminding cause birth chromatic scales dealing purely with semi tones. We have eat f we have that same eat a f semi tone there and then we have our B two c. We have our b two c right there. These semi tones will become really important as we go on. So let's just take a listen to what we worked on today, which is this chromatic scale? Remember, it's a collection of semi tones utilizing the Black Keys. It's our new scale, and then we'll just remind ourselves of that. C major scale N f c major Perfect. So that's today. That's this lesson. What I'd encourage you to do is to practice writing these out on staff paper in the treble clef and the bass clef. Maybe start from this, see right here in to send down to see and then to continue this scale down into the bass clef just to keep reinforcing and learning these note names. Because once you've done that and you control, have this under your control, we have it all, and we just build from that. 4. Bonus Lesson - A lesson in listening: So we're back now for that. We're here for 1/3 lesson. And before we started, I wanted to just play place. Short excerpts. Um, by Johann Sebastian Bach, the president, number one in C. Major from the well tempered Clavier. The reason for this is we've been talking a lot of C major and we do get to see things modified pitches. So we're gonna play short, extra been, listen to it. And then we're gonna move on to today's lesson topic, which is intervals. Let's just listen to a little moment, - okay ? So when there's could be part one, we're gonna listen again. And now I know what music theory part of what we're trying to here has learned to read music. And this is where um, you score is a great tool for us because it does have that playing bar, right? That's scrolls along. So what? I want you to follow along this time, and we're we're sort of working on our ears here, too, because part of music theories building up our ears is I want you to watch this baseline that starts in the sea and goes up to the E. So try to follow that along and we'll listen to a short example. Then we're gonna listen again and listen other parts. So again, follow the scrolling bar along and let's listen to the baseline. - So now we're gonna look back again. We're gonna listen one more time. And now I want you to focus on this upper part that's were listening to those and this is all setting our ears up to start talking about intervals. But we're also just improving our ability to hear individual voices. So we've listened to the bottom. Now we're gonna listen to the top, so try to hear the top voice this time. All right? So I stopped it early because it significantly easier to hear the upper part. It's it's a melodic, it has shape and it moves quickly. Write the notes happen faster, and there's more. We we call shape to it. This rising action. So these are sort of the beginning elements of things like melody and phrase and groupings . So we're gonna listen to now is I want you to try to here all the notes in one big line. So it's this we're listening for, Uh, so you're going to hear just try to listen to this. Totally horrors on tow line. And don't don't try to just hear the base, but don't ignore it here. How they all connect together. 5. Intervals of the major scale: All right, so welcome, toe Lesson three. I hope you enjoyed that sub lesson. We did what we sort of just explored a little more in detail will be working. Watch a C major and then just slightly changing tones. And also starting to hear bigger intervals and starting to be able to tell our year what toe listen to again. That's something we have to practice a lot and don't feel free to go back and listen that listen a few times to hear it. So the big thing we're gonna talk about today and we're going to do this one will do it in trouble. Cliff is intervals. That's our topic today. So if we think back to that box thing we heard, we heard lots of intervals. Sort middle C. And for today, we're going to do everything in C major. So we're gonna work with the intervals we find in the major scale. Right? So we're building on this idea. Remember, you have information on what a scale is made out of how many semi tones air there, so you can use that to understand what these intervals are. So the first interval we're gonna talk about. We're going to start with simple major, second C to D, right? We're starting here because this is what you've been working with with scales, right? It's the first scale degrees, right? That is our major. Second, we're gonna close this stuff down. Grab that. That is our major second. All right, So major second consists of two semi toes and we've gone over this before, so you could just think back. We know there's to C to d. There's a c sharp in the middle and then we go to demon. We can visualize the piano race. We've see C Sharp D says a major. Second is what we call that or a whole tone moving on the next interval to introduce that's in our major scale is a major third. So let's take a listen to that, and we're gonna label it too. So it's labeled that this is our major third, so major thirds and important, and it's gonna be one of the first intervals we learned to change to play around with. So let's listen that Major, the major third is made up of four semi swimmer. See that we have one semi tone two semi tones, three semi tones for semi tones which makes major third. So let's listen to those two together. The major second in the majors, two and now four semi tones. Uh, all right, so our next interval is gonna be a perfect fourth. See toe f. So why we call this a perfect fourth? It's just it's how we name this interval. There are other versions of it out there will learn about them later. So that's from C F. If we count semi tones, we get 1234 So it's five semi tones away. One more semi tone. Theun the major third. And if we think back to our scale, there's that semi tone, right? So let's take a listen and we're gonna speed this up a bit so we can hear this. So let's listen toe major second or major, third in our perfect fourth major, third, uh, and five semi tones to form a perfect fourth. Excellent. So our next interval we're going to see is the perfect fifth. We look at the perfect Fifth way, assign it its name, so it's the perfect fifth. And if we look back at our keyboard being countless semi tones in CNG. Right? There's 1234567 or two more than the fourth since we've passed that semi tones. So we know we're in two step intervals, so you can think ahead really quick to know. Well, if it's in two semi tone intervals in between our semi tones, there's gonna be five, seven, nine. Right, So we get 11234567 semi close. A perfect fifth. And now let's sort of fill this out as we go. Since we now understand how this works, we're going from a C to an A. Now major sixth more. Label these after then we're going to go see to be natural, which is the seventh scale degree. And then we get the octave. And again we went last time. We need to add a measure to the ends. You go measures insert. We can just depend One measure. Let me know. We have C c. And now let's go through these and labeled on really quick. So you have the right names. So we have Ah, major sixth, we have a major seventh, and then finally, we have a perfect octave. So we have two classes of intervals in a major scale. We have major intervals which are are second and third, our sixth and seventh. And we have our perfect neutrals, which are the fourth and the fifth and the octave. Let's take a listen to those starting from middle C on the piano. You all right? So the biggest thing you can do now, this is all we're going to start with. Just keeping it in. C major, um, is to begin to drill these to practice them. There are a lot of great APS out there where you can identify intervals. I would find one that works for you that you find that works and start practicing at the end of their sort of there'll be a couple of worksheets I attached. But theory is one of those things were just though the more you do it, the quicker you get at it, the better. So this is intervals on the major scale. The next one will look at is we're going to start looking at the other intervals, and we're going to learn the next scale after that, 6. The minor scale: All right. So welcome back. This next lesson here, we're gonna introduce the minor scale. In addition, we're going to supplement it with talking about time signatures. I've pre generated something right here for us. Um, and what we see right here, I've highlighted this 3/4 in this for four of what we call time signatures. Up until now, everything we've done has been in 44 time. All right, let's make a 44 here, and I want to explain what that means. What we have. These are quarter notes legit, reusing right within 44 time. It means that there's 4/4 notes in each measure. So the top number in this state's how many of those notes are for being quarter notes. So if we go to a 34 measure, it says there's gonna be 3/4 notes. So 123 same thing could be said in 24 Time to to and we could do something different, like Rome would call 64 times, which means guess there'll be six Corneau's. So we're quickly gonna take a listen in part of what time singers do is it gives music certain feels right if you think of waltzes there in 34 time, beat up, beat up Teoh up. Sort of Walter's. Like that, right? Um, four fours, largely one of the most basic we see, especially in popular music. We'll take a listen and what I'm gonna do to make this really obvious. We're gonna add some articulations. So these here called accents. What they do when you see that in music is it gives an emphasis to it. It's like when we speak, we have certain words. Emphasis. So what I'm doing is I'm just trying to bring out the Gogic accent, which is just sort of the feeling of the division of the measures. Let's just listen. Here's the 44 you can sort of hear. There's this natural pulse and we can make it even more obvious. Not that way by put in some harmony on the down beats. So what we're doing right now is I'm just adding major courts on the down beats and then just in octave in the middle measure. So we're just doing this so we can hear more naturally what it sounds like, and it's all again. We're staying in our favorite C major. So take a listen that we'll even hear the division more, right? You can sort of hear there's this emphasis of strong, weak, sort of strong, sweet, strong, weak, weak, strong, weak, strong, weak, weak, sort of strong week week. And that's what gives Mu gives music sort of its feel. All right, so what I want to do now, we're gonna delete all these and we're gonna work in 34 time again. Remembering that 34 time is what Walter's happened to be in gorgeous music that has the 123123 kind of feel and what I want to introduce now is minor scales. That's that's our next step here. So what we're gonna do first is we're gonna hear the difference between Major and Minor Do it from Middle C S O. That first measure is major scale, right? We know that's whole tone, whole tone. Whole time where a minor scale differs from a major scale is where the semi tones happen. So we're going to start with C Major read of C minor on that third note is lowered. So let's take a listen really quickly. So this is the 1st 3 right? Here is the 1st 3 notes of C Major and right here is the 1st 3 notes of C minor and again the difference. We have a whole tone between D and E and a semi tone between D and E flat. Remember, there's are flat sign we learned about, which means the E has been lowered. One semi, Tony, We can visualize it up here quickly. So see, Major C Ah, whole tone between the two notes as we know. And then the minor scale has a semi tone. So see e flat. So just take a listen one more time now looking at the sheet music down here. So let's look right there. The younger guys so perfect. So we're looking right there at scale degree one through three. And then after that, we're going to keep working our way up to scale, and we're going to deal with for first what we call the natural minor. So what I want to do first is we're gonna keep building. We're gonna build a star major scale. That's that's C major, which we know and love the right and then right here in this measure, we're going to start building the minor scales. We know it's C t and then the e is lowered a semi tone. We continue up the scale two f to G to a flat to be flat and then we finish on seat. So let's listen first and then we'll talk about a little bit. So this is C major and then the sea natural minor scale. I want a label that here we get So that's the sea natural Minor. Now see natural minor those air the major and minor. And if we compare them to the seem major scale, we see that the third scale degree the sixth scale degree in the seventh scale drear all lowered by one semi tone. Right, So we've done this this way so you can see See how it compares the next. What I want to do for everyone here is what we call the harmonic minor scales. Right. So we're gonna have our c r d e, which is lowered f the G reached a again. And as we know from the natural minor scale that a is lowered a semi tone and now here's where it's different. We play the B as it occurs in the C major scale or we raise it a semi tone from the minor scale. In doing this, we created different sounds. Was listen to the two of these back to back. And let's label it first, take a listen of C natural minor and now the harmonic minor with the raised seven. So the harmonic minor is gonna be one you encounter quite often as well as the natural minor. And the next one we're gonna look at this so there's one more minor scale we need to know, and it's called the Minor melodic scale. So we're gonna build that right from here, starting with our scene. So going up the melodic scale way see the same normal notes with an A and B r as they occur in the normal scale. Right. If we look up to our C major, another way we can think about it is that on the way up of the natural minor scale, we raise the sixth and the seventh seriously. We have a natural be natural, as opposed to a minor where it's a flat and B flat. So again, in the melodic minor scale we raise scale Degree six and seven from the natural minor and then coming down this scale. What we're going to dio is we're gonna lower the seventh lower the sixth, and then finish scale the way we would. So this is what we call the melodic minor scale. Here we go again. We're gonna let's listen to all of them together and we're going to review the differences . And then that's that for minor scales. And you can apply this to any scale now, the natural minor. The harmonic Meyer with the raised seven e of the melodic minor scale. Excellent. So what's gonna be important to notice in this scale is where our semi tones happen, right? So in the the first scale you're gonna want to get comfortable with is just the natural minor scale. In that scale, we have whole semi tone and then we have another whole tone, the whole tone, a semi tone, whole tone, whole town. So what I would do first learned the differences between the major scale and the natural minor scale. When you're comfortable with that, look at the harmonic minor scale and get note. The difference is on scale. Degree seven in the harmonic minor scale with seven is raised. Finally, once you have that figured out and you're comfortable with it, look at the melodic minor scale, which is sensibly a major scale with a lowered third on the way up. And then it's our natural scale on the way down. So it's this up here, but just descending. 7. Bonus lesson Major vs Minor: So we're back now with little bit of a bonus lesson. At the end of our last lesson, we talked a little bit about your training. And since we've now completed talking about major scales and minor scales, I thought it could be fun. Sort of show them off together. So what I did is I wrote a couple chord progressions right here and right here they really straightforward progressions. There's nothing fancy. And what I did was I have it in major. And then I set the same progression in minor. So if you look at the two, you see the differences and we're in C major. As usual, you can look and say to be a e flats. We see B flats, we see an A flat. So this all of the information we have here, we sort of go, Oh, this looks like C minor, right? And then the same. Down here we see another progression set in a major key that we can see. And then over here we start seeing the's A flats thes be flights in the Z flats. And as we learned before, we know those belong. It's a minor. So we're gonna listen and again, Remember, you're the only difference between this one, and this one is that the second is in a minor key. Same thing here. It's exact same progression. The only difference is that the second time you hear it, it'll be minor. That's for both. So here's the major now the same progression. Minor. Okay, no major and now minor. Awesome. So this is again an example of just sort of hearing things in major and minor keys. And this goes a lot into our be like music appreciation of music. Listening is sort of going, Oh, that's major. That's minor and just sort of having a little bit more of a grasp on that. If you want to learn more about being able to write progressions in part writing that that's gonna be something we do in a later courses, it's a lot more involved. There's more steps to it and for science, deal with analysis and understanding different cords and how the functions of those work. But for right now, for this beginner course, it's just this sort of idea of hearing, and we're gonna make it a little quicker. We're gonna listen one more time, and then they will be the end one more time from the top, now a little quicker 8. Intervals of the minor scale: All right. So we're back now to look at the intervals of the minor scale and and in the process of review, what I want to point out right away is there's only three new intervals to introduce, so we can think back to our major scale. You know, we have, ah, major second between the sea and the D. We know that our force, the CD F, is a perfect fourth. It also that CDG is a perfect fifth. And then the final, when we see is the active, which we remember from our major scale is the perfect octave. So what this means is in the minor scale, we get three intervals introduced that are related to the intervals. It hurts the first thing I want to do. We're just gonna listen straight across and hear how all of these interval sound by themselves, just against from a C. - All right, so we have this intervals in the year. It's not What we want to do is we're gonna name these interests. So if we think back to our major key CD is a major third and what we learned last lesson about the major scale is that in all forms of the minor scale and right now we're using the natural minor. Third is lowered one semi tone and when we lowered 1/3 what we end up calling that is a minor third We look up here floating by the piano. Here's our major third see Teoh, right? We know it consists of 1234 semi tones. So the minor third consists of three semi tones. Right? We have are seeing that we have 123 and that's our minor Third, you think of it that the minor interval. So if you have a major third in a minor third, the minor third is one semi tone smaller than the major interval and that applies to all them. So we go to our seat a right we know in the major scale seed A because our major interval would be certain. See we go. 123456789 semi tones with a natural in the minor scale. We know we lower scale degrees six making it one less So. 12345678 Makes it eight semi tones. And we call that what we just learned is a minor sixth in the same as me for this minor seven. We know since it's a whole tone, apart from a minor sixth right with a flat two p flat, we know that there's two semi tones and that's our minor seventh. So it's two semi tones away from the sixth, which we know so we can do some simple math or we can count up to know how many semi tones in a minor interval. 123456789 10 10 semi tones between a C and B flat giving us are minor. Seventh. So these are all the intervals we need to know in the minor scale and because you already know the other various intervals that happen. If this were to be our harmonic scale, we know we would raise scaled every seven to be natural, making it a major seven. And then we can apply the same information to the melodic minor scale where you have a raise. Six in a race, seven on the way up, making major and major and then minor on the way down. So these are new intervals that we learned. There's the minor. Third, the minor six in the minor. Seventh. All right, so that's gonna be part one of this exercise. What I want to do now is we've been largely dealing with intervals horizontally, so we'll hear one pitch, and then we hear both So, what I want to do to work on our ears here, we're gonna stand today in this pattern and will play to see first. And then we're gonna play the interval of the scale Eso here a c and a D. Well, here, See, we're seeing R e flat. We're gonna hear, See and Ari Natural R C and our f r c and RG what you can see as I'm building all of the intervals we've learned a flats in the minor, a natural from the melodic minor B flat from the minor scales be natural from the major scale, or either the harmonic or melodic Meyer. And then finally, the Octopus. Now we're gonna hear some unison intervals. Remember? I said along the way, we're going to start here training. This is a great way to hear train sort of. Do it. We did before. Listen to them side by side and then listen to them together. That simple or compound a simple interval is when you hear one note and we hear the next one compound as we hear them together. So let's just take a listen about what these sound like when we hear them together. We won't do it now, but you could do it yourself in your score is Remember, we learned the chromatic scale. We could do the exact same thing here, and we can fill all of those intervals in and hear them together is an important part of your training and sort of learning the color and sound of all these intervals, and it will help you identify them in music you listen to. So that includes the intervals of the minor scale, plus a review of the intervals from the major scale. 9. Basics of Rhythm and Meter Review: Okay, so we're back for what the final lesson is. And that's the basics of rhythm and meter review. And I want to start with reviewing meter in spending a little more time explaining how this meter works. So to do that, we're gonna pull up this right here. So as you can see, we have time signature, which were used to him. We're used to seeing 44 which is in this line. Here is, is where it would be. Everything here is in three, and then you can see there's 248 16. The most common you'll see will be four or eight, followed by two 16 much less often. So let's break down the meter and how we understand it. So we see our time signature, which is 3/4. If we go to our next column, we look a beat. Durations. The beat duration relates to the bottom of the numbers, so you see 34 So the four is equal to quarter notes because 1/4 note gets one beat, so there's four beats, so we got 34 and then the beat duration for being for the quarter. Note the quarter notes worth a singular beat. And the top number represents the number of beats in that measure, which is three. So we see here and we're gonna introduce and talk about these beat durations first. So first we see 1/2 note, it gets two beats to the name. So we put a veteran alone overthinking That's our Metrodome. They would go like this. A b half, Uh uh. Half you can hear. I'm just saying the word half because that's the name of the note and it gets to beats. And now if we go down to quarters so bright below it right here, if we get the same thing, we would get quarter quarter, quarter porter. Quarter quarter Each beat gets one click, and then after that, we see eight for eighth notes and an eighth. There is 2/8 notes to everyone. Quarter note. So it be ate, ate, ate, ate, ate, ate, ate big and then 16th. Therefore 16th to every quarter. Note. City. Takata tha tha. That's one way to understand it The second way. If we look at this graph here, this half note being our top, there's two. There's 2/4 and 1/2 There's 2/8 sent 1/4 and there's 2/16 and an eighth, and we could just expand that upwards So we can say there's two weights in 1/4 and 4/8 and 1/2. Note. We can say there's 2/16 emanates. Note. 4/16 in the quarter. Notes. 8th 16th and 1/2 note. It just keeps multiplying out by that and finally, is the top of the time signature, which is the number of beats. So in a three to measure, will have 3/2 notes in each measure. So 32 So we have 3/2 notes and 34 We know there's 3/4 notes. 3/8 we can see there's 3/8 notes and 3/16 is 3/16 notes and we're gonna start in 44 even though we just talked about 34 time, we're going to do this in here, and we're just gonna give it a pitch middle C. Since that someone were used to All right, so what we're gonna do is we're gonna start by introducing one more. No, this is called a whole note. Whole note has four beats in it. So 4/4 notes or It has 2/2 notes, 4/4 notes, eight it's notes and 16 16th notes. So what we see on the top line we're gonna listen to it is beat divisions within 44 from biggest to smallest. And what's worth knowing is how they're grouped is thes are grouped in quarter notes, right, So there's 1/4 note to quarter notes recorded, 4/4 notes And what I'm gonna do that to make that obvious for you is in the bass clef here . We're gonna put in quarter s. So the bottom line right here is gonna be our metro. No, we're gonna call it in. Each one of those sees is 1/4. Remember, there's 4/4 notes and measure and then the top. It's going to be these divisions. So we have these divisions, and I'm going to this right now is I'm gonna label what these notes are called. You have our whole notes. We have our half note. We have our We have 1/4 note. We have our eighth notes. Let me have our 16th. Let's take a listen. And again, this is our Metrodome line of quarters. Awesome. So that right there is the basics of rhythm those air our basic building blocks and then we can combine them into four beat patterns. Right. So let's let's do that here. Let's build a few rhythms, and what I want to do is I want to keep this Metrodome going just cause it gives us some good ground. All right, so we're going to start with, mm. Doing something like this, and we're gonna sort of introduce all of the notes we've worked on in somewhat of a random esque border. I'm gonna tell you what some of these air called. All right? We have our rhythms there. So we're gonna do is we're gonna start with one measure for nothing when we just hear this Metrodome going, and then we're gonna hear our rhythm. So another rhythm element I've shown you guys in here is called Syncopations, which we see there, and to extent we see here. And just what that means is that we're moving the notes to the off beat. If we look back up here these quarter notes, we can see all of these notes happened right on the beat. But if you go over the next measure, we see that every other eighth notes happens after the quarter. Note downbeat, Right? So just listen to those two measures. We can hear that yes, we have on the beats and then he's off the beats. Let's make it more obvious. And let's actually delete the down beats when there's now we're gonna hear on the beat and off the beat with All right, So what a sink a patient is is actually this right here. So what I've done right here this is called a tie. And when we tie notes together, we we add the values up. So this rhythm right here is the exact same as this rhythm here because we can see that we have eighth notes 1/4 noted an eighth note, knowing that this quarter note has the value of 2/8 notes in it. When you see this tie, you know you're gonna play the first note, but hold it for that duration, making it the same. So let's listen now with the sinker patients, right? Such is another element of sort of basic rhythm. Is sink a painting or moving something toe off the beat. And we could do that where we actually just get rid of the down beats and then we have a Syncopation that starts off the beat. And then we have the same thing there, and that would be the same as if we got rid of that note against this rhythm is gonna be the exact same. Is that rhythm? Unless you But that sounds like from on the beat off the beaten way. So these are the basic building blocks. We're not talking about triplets yet, and we're not talking about any other way of obscuring where the beat is, other than emphasizing the off beat which we've done here. So this is a basic introduction to rhythm. So what that is going to mean for you as you move honest that when you hear songs and you you hear notes going quicker, we know they're going to be coming from this part of the spectrum. And if you're notated things or trying to write a what you hear, if you have a sense of the pulse that's going on and you hear things you can sort of figure out is it off the beaten on the beat? Yeah, So that's just sort of the basics of rhythm. We did introduce 32 right here, so I'm gonna get this is called cut time. 44 is called common time again. Common time is 44 Cut time is basically to too. So if we look back at our sheet, if we're to turn this top number two it too, we would know there's 2/2 notes teach measure. And that's what this sea is that seeming to cut time. Since I have 1234 you get one to one two. So the half note becomes the beat, and we would just see it like this. So we change our Metrodome and two measures of that. And then finally, let's add one measure to the end, and we're gonna introduce 68 So going back to our sheet, we can see 38 So this is gonna be where 68 lens And again, the top number is the number of beats. So we know there's six in 68 eighth notes for beat durations or maybe 6/8 notes in that measure. So what I'm going to do, we're gonna delete a couple measures and we're going to start here and we're going to hear what happens to the main beat divisions in sort of how that impacts the sound. So we'll start from this measure right here that we've highlighted in 44 time. Then we'll go to cut time or two to time and then finish in 68 time. And this is dealing with groupings of beats. And then how that changes. Right now, I'm gonna do what we did the last time we talked about meter, and we'll just do it for these measures here. I'm gonna give us a little bit of harmony on the main beats that we hear right and the and the reason I'm doing it on the 2nd 1 here is I want us just to be able to hear the emphasis . So the full chords are the big emphasis in the real difference is going to be in thes mayors. Okay, so I've notated the weekends here. The emphasis start one before, and this is just in to be sort of versions of C majors so we can hear the emphasis of the meter way. All right, so you can sort of just here. It's sort of a very goofy way. The emphasis so That's the important part, um, and then sort of understanding how we divide this notes into all of its elements.