Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 9 - New Progressions | Jason Allen | Skillshare

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Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 9 - New Progressions

teacher avatar Jason Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
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Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Welcome & Overview


    • 2.

      Tools you will need for this class


    • 3.



    • 4.

      Master Example File


    • 5.

      Typical Progression Groups


    • 6.

      The Descending Fifth And Ascending Fourth


    • 7.

      Going Farther Down The Staircase


    • 8.

      Descending Fifths In Minor


    • 9.

      Other Fifth Related Progressions


    • 10.

      Using A Fifth Progression For A Quick Key Change


    • 11.

      Part Writing Descending Fifths


    • 12.

      The Descending Third Sequence


    • 13.

      Descending Thirds in Minor


    • 14.

      Ascending Third Progressions


    • 15.

      Progressions By Seconds


    • 16.

      4-Voiced Progressions By Second


    • 17.

      Why Do We Care About This?


    • 18.

      Analysis: Canon In D


    • 19.

      Lets Do Some Analysis!


    • 20.

      Cello Suite No. 1


    • 21.

      Finding Chords In Monophonic Music


    • 22.

      Modulating Keys


    • 23.

      Chord functions (First Section)


    • 24.

      More Analysis


    • 25.

      Another Key Change?


    • 26.

      Chord Function Second Section


    • 27.



    • 28.

      Review Of Concept: Secondary Dominant


    • 29.

      Review of Concept: Tonicization


    • 30.

      Review Of Concept: Modulation


    • 31.

      What Next?


    • 32.

      Thanks & Bye!


    • 33.

      SkillshareFinalLectureV2 (2)


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About This Class

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These classes I'm making use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

Recently I was named as a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year award because of my in-person university classes. Now I'm taking those classes online in a new format in order to reach more students, and give them the joy of Music Theory.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own.

This class is a Comprehensive class - it will have many parts, going through my entire annual curriculum.

This class is Part 9: New Progressions, and it continues what would be the second semester of a college music theory class (according to the typical American academic system for learning music theory).

Throughout this class, I'll be providing you with many worksheets for you to practice the concepts on. If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. Also in this class, I have several complete analysis projects that we will complete together - just like in my college classes.

In this class, we will cover:

  • Tools of Music Theory
  • Chord Progression Sequences
  • Descending Fifth Progressions
  • Descending Sequences in Minor
  • Other Fifth Related Sequences
  • Making a Quick Key Change 
  • Part-Writing with Descending Fifth Sequences
  • Descending Third Sequences
  • Descending Thirds in Minor
  • Ascending Third Progressions
  • Progressions by Second
  • 4-Voiced Progressions by Second
  • Analysis: Canon in D
  • Analysis: Bach, Cello Suite No. 1
  • Finding Chords in Monophonic Music
  • Finding Chord Function in Bach
  • Secondary Dominant
  • Toniciziation
  • Key Modulation
  • Changing Keys
  • ...and much, much more!

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. 

Dr. Jason Allen is an Ableton Certified Trainer and a Ph.D. in Music Composition and master of Electronic Sounds. His music has been heard internationally in film, radio, video games, and industrial sound, as well as the concert hall and theater. His 2015 album, Aniscorcia, reaching the CMJ Top200 Charts and radio broadcasts nationwide. In 2014 he was named a semi-finalist for the Grammy Music Educator Award.

He currently is a professor at Augsburg University and the CEO of Slam Academy in Minneapolis.

Praise for classes by Dr. Jason Allen:

"Without a doubt the best explanation and east of use that one can get. It leaves you enough room to go explore. The classes go by quickly, so you can be on your way to being proficient. What are you waiting for!"

"Amazing - Seriously Loved It! I took all his courses and have to say I'm so happy! Learned loads! Jason is an awesome teacher!"

"I have never had any formal training in music at all. Trying to learn all the notes and how everything translated was a serious challenge. After going through this class, Dr. J has totally brought down the barriers. The content was very useful and was easy to grasp for me."

"I like these courses because you can get up and running quickly without having to spend hours of time wading through TMI (too much information!). Jason hits the high points but shows you what you need to know. Thanks!"

"I've watched many other videos on scales and chords before, however, this one has been the best. I now understand minor scales and chords and even how to analyze songs. It really gave me the confidence to start producing music because I feel like I have some structure and guidelines to follow. AWESOME!"

"Clear and Informative - Jason has a clear uncluttered style (with the important dashes of humor) of presentation that is focused on the important key aspects of this course. Recommended for those starting out!"

"Dr. Allen does it again with his music theory series. This course really opened up everything I learned from the 1st section, and now I understand more about the composition side of things for music. I highly highly recommend this course to anyone!!! Really opened my eyes to many things I wasn't aware of."

"The Best Teacher Ever, who makes you understand the ins & outs of Music Theory by all means without giving what you don't want to know."

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jason Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen teaches... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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1. Welcome & Overview: Okay, so some of these that come up most often So what I'm talking about now is inside of any core progression. Just imagine any average song on these fifth relationships that you're likely to see most often are one of the wedding in the US I don't know if this is true Elsewhere. You have heard this piece of music before. It has a very nice core progression. It's great for us to analyze. So let's listen to this arrangement that I just downloaded from new score. It's fairly short. And then let's look at what's look at Peace way. See Jean. That's a tricky one, because that does not make 1/3 in any possible way. See, e G would. But de Bach cello suite number one Now a little tiny bit of background about this piece. Okay, here we are. Holy smokes, You guys, We are in part nine. You've made it all the way to music theory. Part nine. In this class, we are going to talk about new kinds of core progressions. That would be we're gonna look at core progressions that our relationships of 5th 3rd at a couple others seconds, for example, and What that means is that we're going to start trying to notice patterns in core progressions as they come, The analogy I always like to use and will use later in class. But I'll just tell you know, is that when you're learning to read, you learn Teoh, identify letters, sound out letters, and eventually you get good enough at sounding out letters that you just start to see words right? So you kind of take one step back and you're like, OK, now I can just spot the whole word and I don't have to sound out the letters anymore. That's what we're trying to get to with music theory in this class by looking at these bigger sequences. So what that means is that instead of figuring out all the notes in the chords, what we're going to start to do is try to identify groups of like, three or four chords, and we're like, Okay, I know what's going on here because I see that there's thes four chords in a row. They're all third related chords. That must mean this kind of thing is happening. So that's what we're gonna be looking at here and then we're going to start talking about key changing, changing keys by something called monetization. Something called Secondary Dominance. And we're gonna do a big, big, big analysis of some Bach music. Cello suite number one. So I hope you decide to take the class. I hope you enroll. And I had a great time making this class. It was tons of fun, just like all of these music theory classes are, I'm gonna keep making them as long as people keep taking them. So please sign up and we'll see you on the inside. 2. Tools you will need for this class: Okay, let's dive into the tools you will need for this class. Now, Like I say, every time, um, I'm going to go through the tools we're gonna need. If you've watched all nine parts of my music theory class, then just skip through. This one is not going to say anything new, but just in case this is the first class that you're joining us for. Ah, I want to go over the tools that I'm gonna use so real quick. Two main things that you need One is a notation program. Ah, and you don't need this necessarily, but ah, highly recommended. What you're seeing on the screen here is, ah, program that I'll be using throughout the class is called Muse. Score. This is a free program. Um, you can get it at muse score dot Organ. It's a notation program. And what that lets us do is we can put in notes like I can enter some notes and play them back, and it's neat, right? So that is handy for hearing what we're working on. Um, you can use any program you want. This is Muse. Score. This isn't a class on how to use muse score. So I'm not gonna be going over the finer points of using it. I'm just gonna be using it for my examples. I recommend it so that you can hear what you're doing a little bit better. You can also use one of the other ones, like finale is another one Sebelius as another one? There's a new one on the market called Noriko that's looking pretty promising. Ah, there's also ones like Notion, I think is a iPad specific one, I believe. Ah, and that's looking pretty good. Anything that just lets you put in notes and play them back, that's all. Um, so get a program that can do that. Um, this one's free, so I like using it. The other thing I want you to have handy is some staff paper. Ah, staff paper is just normal paper with staff lines on it. So the five lines staff, um, keep print out a couple copies of this or I mean, you could go on Amazon or whatever and buy some nice staff paper, or if you don't want to do that, you can just print out some. I'm going to give you a sheet of staff paper and the next segment. I'll give you a pdf to download print all five or six copies of that just so that you have some staff paper. Ah, next to your desk or phone or whatever while you're watching these, it'll be handy for just jotting things down as we talk about them. So have some staff paper and a good pencil handy for taking notes, that's all. So a notation program and some staff paper. So in the next segment, I'm going to give you some staff paper, just one sheet of blank staff papers just gonna look like a plain white piece of paper with a bunch of groups of lines on it. Print that off on, get yourself a couple copies of it and then you'll be all set to go. Okay, so that's coming up the next segment. After that, we're gonna talk about some review stuff 3. Review!: okay. Things that you could review to get you back up to speed. If you've taken a little break from these music theory classes and you want to make sure that you're getting the most out of this class, um, like I've said in the last couple classes, go back and review the worksheets. Um, in particular, the things you're gonna want to focus on for this class are going to be the diatonic chord progression. Make sure you're back up to speed with how that works and, ah, part writing. So we're still gonna be doing a lot of part writing in this class, and we're also gonna be experimenting with some new core progressions. So, um, you want to be really comfortable with the diatonic chord progression because we're going to start toe, break it, we're going to start to go outside of it, and you should be comfortable with, um knowing the rules so that when we break them, it becomes obvious that we've broken them. I also don't want you to think that these broken rules are the actual rules. More on that later. Um, but review that stuff. Be sure you're comfortable with that before you get too deep into this course because that's gonna be important to know eso. I guess that's all I want to say about that. So just do a little review, make sure that you are up to speed on those things. 4. Master Example File: Okay. Last thing for just started, general. Kind of set up stuff. And that is Ah, word about the Master Mu score file. So something. I started doing two or three classes ago. Ah, and it seems so. I've worked out well, and people seem to like it, so I'm gonna keep doing it. Um, this is something you can choose to use or you can not use. If you don't want to use it, just totally ignore it. But here's I'm going to do. I'm gonna make all my examples in one muse score file eso It's gonna be one big file that has all my examples in it. What we're looking at here is everything from part eight, So Ah, this was something we did in class. This was the next thing we did. This was the next thing we did. This was the next thing we did, etcetera. So you can follow along with all my examples. You can play them back. You congrats around with them. You can change some notes and see what happens. Um, and it really fun. So I'm gonna give you that file in the next segment. Um, so I don't have it yet to show you? Because I'm gonna make it over the course of this class. Fact, let's make it right now. So new file and we're going to call this theory, Come pre comprehensive. Parton nine. Leave everything else blank. Give ourselves a grand staff. See, Major finish. There we are. So now the file exists. I'm gonna fill it up throughout the class, but then I'll come back and put it in the next segment so you can download it and follow along in the whole class, and I'll put it as a pdf as well. So if you don't have new score, you can ah, still look at it as a pdf. Cool. So that'll be the next thing, and then we'll jump into the class. 5. Typical Progression Groups: Okay, so we've seen a bunch of different core progressions so far, but we could take all of them and put them into kind of three big camps. So you can go from one court to any chord. But typically, the most typical progressions go from either a relationship of 1/5 a third or a second. Okay, So for example, let me just switch over to continuous view here and zoom in a little bit. So here's a progression that we know. Well, I'm just going to do it on a single staff on in route position this route position for a minute. So in the key of C major, this is what, 5 to 1, right? Ah G chord to a C chord, 51 So that's a relationship of 1/5 because the route is 1/5 away, right? This is the tonic, and this is the fifth of it, right? So it's 1/5 relationship between these cords. Their roots are fifth away, so that's one. The other one is 1/3 third relationship. Where have we seen third relationships before? How bout between one and the relative minor? So this is 1 to 6 in this key, and that's going to actually be the relationship of 1/3 1 to 6 is a relationship of 1/3 because the root of the one chord and the root of the six chord is 1/3 away. Okay, relationship of 1/3. Another core progression that's actually fairly common is something like this. Still in the key of C major, this would be a four chord to a two chord. We see 42 turnarounds all the time, where we're using a four chord and then followed by a two chord. This is the relationship of 1/3 thes air third related chords. Okay, because they're the roots are 1/3 apart, right? Uh, the last one that I mentioned was the relationship of a second. We see that in cases like a two to a one, which we sometimes see, seems to be a minor to to a major one. Not terribly uncommon, but the most common relationship of the two is probably five groups. 5 to 4, right? Put a one at the end just for fun. So 541 right, so relationship of a second. So that's kind of what we're talking about right now is chord relationships. Relationship of 1/5 a third or a second. Most of our most common core progressions fall into one of those three things. And that doesn't mean that you should make sure all your core progressions can be ah identified as one of those three relationships. No, all it means is that those are our most typical core progressions. Now, what we're gonna do going forward is we're gonna look at some more ways we can use these three things and we're gonna focus particularly for now on the fifth relationships. So, for example, what happens if I go down 1/5 between two chords, like G to see? And then I go down another fifth? Like, what if I went accord, that was or a chord progression that was G. C. So related by 1/5. And then I treated see as the fifth, which would be F and it would go like that. So I just kept going down by another fifth right now. What would happen if I did it with reasonably interesting voice leading, So I'm just gonna do some inversions here to make this a little smoother. This one's gonna end up in route position. So now let's hear it right. That might sound a little familiar. You might have heard that before. This is not all that strange, even though the way we see it now is totally inverted. These air still fifth related chords. Thean version doesn't show it. It makes it harder to see. But this is a G chord. This is a Psi Corps. This is an f chord. Thes are all fifth related because their roots are 1/5 apart. Okay, so that's the main concept that we're working with now. So let's jump in and talk about, Ah, this kind of falling down and going a little farther like we did here, but we can you go even farther than that. 6. The Descending Fifth And Ascending Fourth: Okay. Rule number one about this. The reason we like fifth relationships is because if you're trying to establish a key, the best way to do it is with the descending fifth. It's the strongest relationship we have in music. So of between two chords descending fifth, it'll it always emphasize tonic. Not us ending Fifth us Sending fifth just doesn't work nearly as well. Um, but ascending fourth does. Let me explain why. So let's look at again. A descending fit. Yeah. Okay, so here's our descending fifth. That's always going to emphasize tonic or the second cord. A relationship of Fifth is always gonna emphasize the second cord. If I did it the other way, it does not have the same power. It's still good, but it's not nearly as strong as a descending fifth. This feels like 51 and it's the end. Or it's some how establishing this as one. This doesn't feel that way that strong, but if we did 14 I've just made this court all weird. Let's just get rid of that cord. 14 ascending. Going up can be a strong progression. Uh, not as strong as a descending fifth, but us sending forth is pretty darn close. And the reason is that is just a descending fifth inverted cause Check it out. This is 51 right? And this if f was one, this is 51 Also 51 in f would be C G would be 51 So we've just inverted it. 51 right? So it's not as good as the descending fifth, but the US sending forth is just almost as good. It's like a hair less good, Um, in terms of establishing that second chord as tonic. So remember the ascending fifth. It's not the one you want. You want the ascending fourth because that's the inversion of the descending fifth. Okay, um, now, for the most part, as we go through all of this stuff on descending fits, you can kind of interchange ascending fourths and think that's gonna be pretty good, but not as great as the descending fifth. Um, but you can do all these core progressions as us sending forth if you want. I'm gonna focus on descending fists, though, because it's a little bit stronger. Okay, so let's go in and start talking about this kind of stairs case idea 7. Going Farther Down The Staircase: Okay, so let's look at the big descending fifth core progression. Now I call it the Big One. I also call it the Stair Steps thing, cause imagine every step on a staircase is ah, the interval of 1/5 apart. And you have a very musical staircase. Ah, we're just gonna keep walking down the staircase and eventually you're getting it through all your cords. This actually cycles you through every chord in the diatonic chord progression in kind of a weird order. So let's just do it. So it's doing C major. So we're gonna start on one. I'm going to do it an octave higher because we're gonna be going down, down, down, down, down. Um, so see, e g. Now, if we go down 1/4 from here, we do not end up on G. Remember, over here I was starting on the fifth higher and going down to see, So if I want to go down 1/5 I actually end up on f Remember, same reason we did here. So see, 1/5 down is f OK, so that's our four chord F ah, fifth down. Just keep going. We're going to stay in key. So this is actually a diminished cord. Ah, I'm not gonna alter the key, So I'm just gonna go down by 1/5 in key. So that means down five notes. Right? So count F back backwards five. So f e would be to d would be three. See, Would be four b would be five. So that's how I'm getting to this beat. Okay, that ends. That puts me on my diminished seven chord, But it's cool. Let's keep going. So if I go down, one more, be a would be to g would be three f would be four and e would be five so I could jump down the trouble clef here. But I'm not going to I'm going to flip up, inactive and go e way appear so that we can keep going down and stay in the same staff. So that puts me on a three chord. I go down again, I'm going to get to the six chord. If I go down again, I'm going to get to the two chord. If I go down again from D, I'm gonna end up on the five chord. And what happens if I go down from the five chord. We're going to get to the one chord. Okay, so now notice what happened here. I went down from five G down by five puts me at sea, but instead, in order to keep it all in one staff and not go way down here I went up by 1/4. Still ended on C, right? This is very rudimentary stuff. We covered this. I think in, like theory, one inversions, right of intervals. So that got me through. All eight of my chords started on C Major. I ended on C major on. I went through every diatonic chord. Let's hear it real quick. Okay, Kind of weird. Ah, let's put it in better inversions. Okay, so let's take this f and put it up in Aachen and believe that a down there, let's put this be up an octave and this d up. Actually, let's put this f up inactive. Also, it's taking this be down and active. It's okay. That's okay. Let's take this D up and active. Just trying to generally get it's all in the same range. Yeah, we could go to a position here, just a productive then. See, I want to be in route position. But let's leave see like that so that it feels like a resolution. Now let's hear it right. It sounds like a nice core progression, says All Descending fifths. Let's label it. Let's label what are cords are here. So what we have is one, and then we have a four. Their second corps down. Then we have are diminished seven. And then we have our three when we have our six and then our to and then are five and then again are one. So that is what our diatonic chord progression looks like if we do it in a total fifth relationship. Cool, huh? Now that's not the end of the story. There's more to it. Um, before we keep playing around with this a little bit more, let's look at the same thing again. But in minor and how that looks 8. Descending Fifths In Minor: Okay, so if we do this in minor, we're gonna have essentially the same thing. Um, because of the fifth, relationships totally still apply. We're gonna end up with same chords, but they're gonna have different qualities, right? The majors and miners are gonna be different, so let's give it a shot. OK, so let's do this in C minor. So I wanted to leave an empty bar there, so I didn't collide. Okay? He really Okay, let's try this in C minor. So we're still gonna start on C E. G. And we're effectively going to have the same thing. So let's see if we can see what we're doing. Then we have our four f a c. Then we have our seven BDF now are seven. We could do two different ways. We could turn it major by adding this d sharp because we tend to do that in minor keys. Or we could leave it exactly as is, And it would be a major seven chord or sorry, not a major seven chord as in 1/7. But it would be 1/7 corps that is Major. Let's leave it As is for now, um, and see what happens? So then we would go to our three chord, then to our six chord. We went up 1/5 year. Totally. Okay, you're sorry. Up 1/4 year. It's totally okay. And then we'd have are two chord diminished in this case. And then our five chord and our one chord. So the same notes. Except I put a new key signature on it. And now things are a little different. Let's hear it. All right, so it sounds a little less resolved. Let's label it. I'll skip putting it in good inversions for now. So this is gonna be one, and this is gonna be four, and it's minor, and this is going to be seven, but it's a major seven. What we've done here because we have B flat d f remember, this is flat. So, um, we could raise that and make it a diminished chord. But let's leave it since be all natural with our natural minor here, we're gonna have three chord. It's gonna be major in this case here. We're gonna have our six chord, and it is also gonna be major hoops. I wrote for six here we're gonna have are naturally occurring, diminished chord are two diminished. And then here we have good old five. Now this is going to be a minor five if we're not raising our leading tones, right? Um, typically in this case, we might want to raise this leading tone. Let's actually try it both ways. So now we're back to one. So let's hear this as is. And then I want to raise that leading tone and hear it again. See, this doesn't feel as tonic. That's just a thing in minor keys. It's just the way it goes. But let's raise this to have being natural. Now let's hear it. So that helps a bit. We could raise that be here to if we wanted. It's just let's just raise all our leading tones and see what happens. We should do it here, too, which would make an augmented chord. Let's do it. What the heck? Yep, That augmented chord is a stinger, isn't it? I'm gonna leave those and just put that on there. So now we need to change that to a major five. So that's what it is in the minor key as well. You know what's cool about this is that you've heard this core progression before, probably. But more commonly, what this is showing us is very typical progressions, because you're seeing a whole bunch of five relationships all at once, like 62 to 5 to one. Obviously, we know 7 to 3 is 1/5 relationship that can be useful 1 to 4. These are all good things we could do 3262 to 5, 4 to 7. So let's look at some of these progressions just in the forms of two chords and just kind of popped them out as too little side to side cords that are really handy for us to use in court progressions. 9. Other Fifth Related Progressions: Okay, so some of these that come up the most often So what I'm talking about now is inside of any core progression. Just imagine any average song and these fifth relationships that you're likely to see most often are 1 to 4 or minor, 1 to 4. Both of those are equally as common. 622 is another one we see all the time. I like pointing out 6 to 2, because it's not obvious that it's 1/5 progression until you think about it for a minute, right, because there's nothing about six or two that screams five. But if you count up the scale 622 or a count down the scale is a descending fifth relationship or an ascending fourth relationship. Either way, you want to think about it. Um, so that is a very common one that we find in songs 2 to 5. So from here to here, 2 to 5 is a very common core progression. If if you're into jazz at all, you may have seen something called like a to 51 turn around. That would be your playing a song, and at the end of the song, you want to just get back to the beginning and you throw a 251 in there just to get you back to tonic, right? So 251 turnaround is like a jazz thing, kind of, but ah, it works anywhere in any style of music. So 2 to 5 is a very efficient and quick way to get us to five because of that fish fifth relationship. Ah, the last one that's the most common in any court progression is obviously 5 to 1. Ah, this is a core progression that you've already seen all over the place. And I don't need to reiterate that eso the same goes true for minor. Um, I talked about 1 to 4, 622 is less common because too is diminished. So it's less common just because we don't use that to court a whole lot. Um, in modern song writing, butting more classical stuff, we do 2 to 5. Same same issue here. We don't use that to a whole bunch, so it's less common in minor. Um, but it is a good five relationship. And then obviously 5 to 1 major, 5 to 1, I should say very common in minor keys. So watch out for those. So next I want to point out, um, just kind of a fun little key change trick now that we know. Or now that we were talking about this five relationship, there's a trick that will get you through any key change instantly. Let's go to a new video and talk about that. 10. Using A Fifth Progression For A Quick Key Change: Okay. This is a fun, little trick you can do. So let's say you have some music in a key, and you want to change keys to something totally well, no matter what key, you need to change, too. There is a quick way to get you there, so I'm gonna go back. This This was on example we did in part eight, the last class. I'm just gonna grab that. Or maybe I'll grip this. We were talking about those. Um, sure, let's grab that. So I'm just going to use that as some example. Music. Okay, I'm in the totally wrong key. What key were we And over here, De All right, so my left hand was in trouble class over there. Um, I could do that here, too, just for consistency sake. All right, so we're in the key of D. We have a long according to cord neat. Um, let's say I want to get I want to resolve this for some goofy reason. What's so what's the farthest core are key away from D that I can think of. Um well, if we went and looked at the circle of fifths, the farthest one away would be the one directly across from it. But let's just think of Ah, kee change. That would be hard to make. Let's say, um well, a tri tone away from D is a flat. So if I did in a flat chord here Yeah, so a flat C e flat. Let's put this, Um, let's put this all over. So that's a good voiced cord. Okay, Now I'm gonna play this and then we're gonna land here, okay? And it should sound not very good. Great, right? Partly because I missed in a flat there. Oh, have a c sharp. I need to see natural here because of my key signature. Okay, Okay, that does not sound very good. So here's my point about descending fifths. I can make that sound good. All I need to do is insert something before it. Let's put that in the second half of the measure. And in the first half of the measure, I'm going to do ah, fifth relationship away from it so that a flat chord sounds out of place. So let's insert ah, fifth above it to fall into it. So now I've got a 51 so I can go. So now these two chords back to back. See these sound good. So now I got to see if I can get from here into here. Not quite. I still have another jump here, so that's fine. What I can dio is insert another measure at 1/5 above this. So let's add a B flat, and we're just going to keep doing this until, ah, we get to something that's going to sound good. So be flat D f natural B flat de f natural. So now the question is, can I get from here to here? Not quite. Okay, let's keep going. I picked, like, the gnarliest key to do this in. Okay, so let's move my B flat chord there. Now, I need to go up from there and I need to get to an F so f and this is actually f natural. A see natural. A see natural. Okay, so does it work now? Not quite. I still need a couple more records. But if I added another couple cords, I would get to something that may this transition smooth. And then I could just cycle through these cords until I got to the fifth relationship that I wanted, so you can always make it work. Um, if you're not worried about a jarring key change, you can always go from any key to any other key by inserting 1/5 of the new key just before it. Um, it's going to sound jarring and fast, depending on how gnarly the key changes. But you can always make it work. And now I'm determined to find a way for this to work. Okay, so I think I found it with two more records. The rhythm changes quite a bit, so I think it's still a little jarring. But we're in the key of D, and I got it to where we end up on a G chord. So that's very comfortable in the key of D. So we go g and then we start stepping down Ah, by fifths. So we get to a C corps than an F core than a B flat chord than an e flat chord than are a flat chord. So we stop all the way down making this the new tonic. So this is the transition period here. So there you go. A transition from D Major to a flat, major, weirdest transition you'll ever encounter. But, ah, I think it proves my point. You can do it by just stepping around in fifth until you land where you need to land. 11. Part Writing Descending Fifths: Okay, So, um, let's really quick. Just talk about part writing when it comes to these descending fifth progressions. Now, this should be nothing new, because we've done descending fifths in part writing because it's just Ah, Kate mints, right? It's 51 Um, so there's a couple different ways we can do that. Now remember when we're doing these sequences and actually let me talk about that for just a minute. A sequence is a music term. We use it in music to me in a series of chords that follow a similar pattern. So a sequence convey be, um, a series of chords moving along by fifth. Ah, descending fifths. That could be a sequence. So a sequence like this is not necessarily a cadence, so we don't need to worry too much about if we wanted to be a perfect authentic cadence and in perfect cadence anything like that. However, if you want this thing to really hit home, if you want a descending fifth progression to really land, there's two rules that you want to follow. One is that you want to keep that common tone right? Every one of these has a common tone, so Let's go to Let's just keep this symbol and let's just go to see Major here and what we in four for. Good. So let's do a 51 in C major. So let's go. Oh, and I'm gonna do it with the right voicing. So I need to put you this D g and let's go g and be I don't know why I can't put in the right note on the first try today. And then let's go to our one keeping that common tone, which is the G in this case. Okay, so what we have here is a 51 G to C 5 to 1. Ah, the G stays the same, right? We keep that common tone as much as we can, and we have the other G giving us a good 51 So the two rules that I like think about if you're going to do a long sequence of these in part, writing is keep the common tone the same, and if you want, you don't have to. But if you want, give us a good route motion. Ah, 51 to really hit that home that we're doing a descending fifth sequence now sometimes is gonna be 51 Sometimes it's gonna be 14 because you're gonna have to go up, right? Ah, so let's do it. Actually, let's go to the next one. So the next one from see down to If we treat this see as five, the next chord is going to be f right. So what can we keep in common? It's gonna be the sea that we keep in common. So not this. See, we want this sea to go upto f this sea. Let's keep as a common tone. And then these two notes were just gonna move closest possible way so f and well, we could go f an f if we wanted. We could do that. Um, what do I have, FC? I'm missing an A. So I really should move that up to an a and then I'm gonna switch. My voice is here. Here we go. So that's okay. Um, I don't see any problems there. So now we've made it toe f right. We've kept that common tone. We've given ourselves a good route motion from 1 to 5, even though it's going up 1/4 but that's OK Let's do one more just for fun. If F is five, then one is going to be B flat. Now we're getting into getting ah little chromatic here. Ah, so this is actually kind of interesting. So if we're sticking to the key of C, it's gonna be But if we want to be totally chromatic about it, it would be be flat. But let's stick to the key of C So it BB so we b, d and F so f is going to stay the same there. So let's put that on layer to here. And then later one is gonna be f I need to get rid of that. Let's try that again. Okay, Actually, let's do this. Let's keep this f as our common tone. Thats one's gonna go down to be, and it has to be on layer to cats layer to the see what's gonna be our closest a note. Probably be so let's lower that to a be on Lear one. And then this f we're gonna keep is our common tone. We have bdf and what we're to for that And now this a could go up to be will be the closest note. But now I have be B f B. That's not great. So if I moved this be I'm missing a D. So if I move this up to D when I want to check is this is going up and this is going up. Did I make a parallel fifth or active? See to A is a six D to be is a six. So we're fine there. We have a prayer. Lost six. Totally. Okay, so now I have my sequence. Right. Um, my rule works because I have common tone between these two. And then I have common tone between these two. And then I have common tone between these two, and I keep having my 515151 pattern. Let's hear something is very wrong there. G b d g. So this is what happens when I take a break for a night and I come back, open the same file and start filming again? Um, something you probably all saw me doing, but I didn't notice it. And the way my computer set up, I can actually hear the notes being entered as I enter them. I know you can, but I can't. So I didn't notice that I was in trouble Cleft down here until I hit Play right there. So what I'm gonna dio is drop bass clef there. Let's drop it right there. And now I need to transpose these notes down, transposed down by interval. Perfect. Active down. You have to do that one more time goes down. Perfect. Active were the third low from doing that. So let's go like that. And okay, now we're back there. We go for watch your cliffs. I met the second home. I think I've done that in this Siris of classes. Um, it's just Ah, dumb thing. I should have noticed that while I was working, but sometimes you don't when you're working on programs like this. Okay, but now we have it. Right. Um, so 515151 Remember to give us a good base motion so that we really hear the 51 sequence and keep that common tone 12. The Descending Third Sequence: All right, let's talk about thirds. Um, we can build core progressions in thirds, and they have a totally different sound. Um, also, they could be done in a sequence just like the diatonic chord progression where, uh will cycle through all the cords in a keep. Let's take a look at what that looks like. Let's stick to see Major to make sure we're in trouble. And bass clef. That's lovely. And let's just do it. I'm just gonna stick to the trouble, cleft this time so that I stay out of trouble. Oops. Okay, C major. Now, one of the main differences in thirds is that we can go up or down. So we saw that in the fifth progressions we were doing descending fifths, right? And we talked about us sending fifths being just not very effective in third progressions, we could have descending third progressions or us sending through progressions, and they could be kind of equally as, um effective. So let's do a descending fifth progression. Our sorry, a descending third progression. So if we start, if we call C one and we go down by 1/3 our next court is going to be a which we would call six. Right then we go down by 1/3 we're gonna have half. Which we would call for, right? You know, my third we end up on D That gives us a to go down by third again We're gonna jump right over tonic and get to our seven are diminished chord. We were down by third again. We're gonna get to G, which we call our five. We go down by third again. It's gonna keep going with the heck, um, and keep going down rather than jump up Ah, from G with jump down a bass clef So this note is that note we're gonna get to e It was our third. And then we go down 1/3 from r E chord. We get back to tonic. Okay, So the patterns are being 164 to 7531 Let's just hear it. And then we'll play with our inversions a little bit, but it's kind of nice, right? Um let's try to make our inversions a little smoother here. It's trade that take this f up inactive. Um and this a a productive. You'll notice that once again, we have a common note in between the two chords. Let's try to keep that in place, DE. We actually have to common notes. So we have to common notes here. So it's really just this one note that changes. Okay, and then let's get rid of these. Tune will do him in trouble, cleft so that they stay kind of in the same ballpark here. Last two chords. Words in E. So let's go. Yay! Let's try to go up a little bit with it And then my last court was a one, so I want to do that. So we didn't end down a route position core, But that's OK. All right, let's hear this. Right. So, um, having those two notes in common makes it a really fairly smooth way to cycle through. All records could actually make it smoother. Noticed. I didn't keep this note in common, and then we could do this, which gets us even closer. So now it's going to sound like we're going up, even though we're not. I'm just using these common tones. We're still doing descending thirds, but by making good voice leading, I'm kind of giving it the feeling that it's going up in that highest note because they get to the closest note I'm going up. So it's gonna feel like it's kind of going up, even though we're going down by third, right descending thirds, but feels like it's going up. So that's our core progression. Um, let's label this so that you have it. So our cords here are one copy. That six is minor. Four is major. Teoh is minor. And here is our diminished seven. They were back to our five. Chord three is minor and back to tonic. Now you have it. The descending third sequence. So this obviously works in minor as well, so we could do this whole thing in minor. Um, let's take a quick look at what it looks like in minor. And then let's play around within us ending third sequence. 13. Descending Thirds in Minor: Okay, let's take a look at this in minor. So I'm gonna copy this. I'm going to add a bunch of measures. Let's add, like, 40 measures. We're gonna need a lot in this class, not right at this moment. But I'm gonna copy this here. Okay? So I'm gonna go through, and I'm just gonna flat my ah, the appropriate notes here, so I need to flat all my ease. So let's find all my ease. There's another one. I was gonna turn this into C minor. Oops. And I did it on the wrong one. I want to do it here. Okay, Flat. All my ease that all of them get on a flat, all my bees and I need to flat all my A's. That puts me in the key signature of seeing minor. Okay, I think we got it. Now, let's correct this because, um, my court names are all wrong now, so we could have minor one. We're gonna have major six. I have minor four. We're gonna have diminished too. And we're gonna have naturally occurring. We're gonna have a major seven. And remember, we can change that by giving the leading tone back we're gonna have five is actually gonna be minor. And we can change that, too. Three is going to be major than one is gonna be minor. So let's hear it as is, and then we'll go make these adjustments that we would typically make. Okay, let's make this, uh, a major five because that would be fairly typical to Dio. And But let's Lino, let's make this a major or a diminished Ah, seven chord. So now we have be natural d f So that is a good old diminished seventh chord. Now, this sequence makes are two diminished chords side by side, which is interesting. Let's take a listen. It is interesting, right? It's a little jarring right here. Um, but it really pushes us towards tonic again. So Ah, there we go. There it is in minor. Now, next, I want to look at how we can do this ascending and see. Um what? That results in 14. Ascending Third Progressions: Okay, let's make an us sending third. So something a little different. So let's go out here and let's do, um we're gonna go back to see Major here, so I didn't put a key signature on this. So we're still in the key signature of C major for notation purposes. Okay, so if we're going up, my next chord is going to be e because we're gonna go up by 1/3 right now. I can already tell I'm gonna get really high cause I'm just gonna go up by third and third and third, So I'm gonna transpose this down by an active just to get us started. Okay, so we're gonna start down a little bit lower here because we're going to get kind of high on the staff. Okay, so we went up by 1/3. We need to go up by another. Third is going to get us to a five, go up by another third. We get to 1/7. Now, this is interesting, right? Because what just happened in our route motion outlined our tonic triad with 1/7 even write c e g. Be. So this is really kind of outlining that triad, which is kind of fun. But now we're going to start moving away from it. Because if we go up 1/3 from our diminished seventh chord, we're going to get a two, and then we're going to get a four, and then we're gonna get a six, and then we're gonna get back toe one too active, higher. Okay, Let's hear it. Okay, Now, let's do it with not crazy voice leading. So I want to keep those two common tones the same Ah, every time possible. Be G and D. Okay, let's take our be down and R D down. And now we're going to. And so by doing this, we're going to kind of make it feel like we're sliding down again the opposite direction that we're actually going. I could make a leap here because I could go take this, be down to a or I could flip it up here. Ah, and the voice leading wouldn't be extremely weird, but let's just keep going. It would be better down here. Okay, so it z in this a on on the sea. Yeah, and the and the sea i e. It's kind of fun. Sound right. Last one, back to root position. See, E and G. Here we go. Okay, so now we have it. The inversions are going to make it feel like we're moving down even though we're moving up , right? Kind of interesting the way that works, right? Um, one thing that is worth pointing out is our inversion. So let's look at let's label are cords. And this time, let's also label the inversions because they're doing their own little sequence here. So what we have here is one. And then we have three, and then a five. And then if seven diminished and then, uh, to for six. And what? Okay, now? No, let's look at our inversion that we've created here. So we have 153 right route position? No, what we've done here. Now, remember, the inversion is just what I decided to do. But in order for this to make the smoothest voice leading that, I could make what I did. So we've made this pattern of root position 664 root position 664 Rue. Position six. And if we kept going, which we could do by just going back to this three chord and just keep going down the pattern. The easiest way would be to continue it. So our next three cord that would happen after this would be a sick would be the easiest inversion to make if we want to keep this sequence going right kind of fun the way that this pattern erupts from this now again, we could do the same thing. And minor, I don't think we need to walk through the minor. Um, because everything will be the same. All the notes will be the same. Will just change our B flat e flats and a flats, and we'll change our cord qualities. But the inversions would be the same. Excellent. 15. Progressions By Seconds: All right, let's talk about seconds. Um, route motion by seconds. This one has a little bit of ah, wrinkle to it. Now we can dio route motion by seconds. Ascending or descending. They could go either way. Us sending, however, is more common. So going up. Um, now, if we just laid them all out in the sequence like this, it would be really familiar, right? Because that's if we go up in seconds, let me do it with half notes the way I was doing it before. If we just go up Ah, by relationships of seconds, we're gonna just end up with the plain old diatonic chord progression. Right? Um, so if I go all the way up, it's gonna be the the pattern that you already know we've seen 100 times earlier the straight up diatonic chord progression in order because that's relationship of a second right, root motion by second. So instead of going through that whole thing cause we've done that 100 times, you know what that looks like? Let's focus on some of the most common Ah, two chord patterns that you see emerging in music. That would be something like a one chord to a two chord. Right? I'm gonna leave a gap here, X, we're going to come back. Another common one would be, ah, four chord to a five chord and back of five to a four. Um, another common one B one down to seven. That's something we see a lot particularly in cadences. Also the opposite of that seven. Up to one and five up to six. Remember, this gets us to the relative minor, so that's fairly nice. Okay, that's label these really quick. Ah, and then I want to talk about our our little wrinkle that happens here. So here, we're gonna call this one. And this would be to this would be four. And this would be five. This is just playing diatonic chord progression stuff. Nothing too weird here. It's gonna be one. This is going to be diminished. Seven. This is gonna be diminished. Seven. And this is gonna be one. And this is going to be five and six. Okay, So I did all of these in just root position. Here's the wrinkle with these, though. And that's that. Ah, this is exactly how we create parallel fifths and octaves right, Um, moving from one court to another. In all of these examples, there are parallel fists. There's 1/5. There's 1/5 parallel fifths. Um, so motion by second is the most dangerous in terms of creating parallels. Now, let me just mention this really quick before we go into how to avoid the parallels. Um, I've seen this question come up in these classes a lot. Like what if I like the sound of parallels? Right. Um, that's totally okay. Here's the deal. Um, I think I said this earlier, but I just want to reiterate it one more time. This idea of parallel fifths and octaves being bad, This is really, um, relegated to counterpoint and 18th 19th century harmony. Um, if you're running a pop song and you have parallel chords, that's totally fine. That's totally fine. Um, we don't care about parallelism in contemporary modern music nearly as much. It's not even a thing that most people can hear, especially, I mean when it's planning a guitar and you sliding bar records up and down. That's all parallel. If you're sliding a bar chord around on the guitar, you're playing hundreds of parallel Ah, fifths. inactives all over the place and they're all totally okay. So just remember that when we're really concerned about parallels here, what we're really concerned about is reading in a very specific style. And if you're doing more modern music, you don't have to worry about it so much. However, in music theory, we do like to focus on this particular style and knowing what's happening. Ah, with our parallels. So I want to play through or I want to work through how to right these particular key progressions. Ah, and avoid parallels. Let's hear what we got first. Okay, I just needed to hear that one at the end to resolve all of that. Okay, let's go to a new video and let's talk about, um, part writing for these things and how we can make them avoid those nasty parallels that we only sometimes care about. 16. 4-Voiced Progressions By Second: Okay, so let's start with our 1 to 2 court. How could we do this in four voices in a void? Parallels. The main thing we're going to be looking for here is contrary motion. We really want to focus on contrary motion. So let me just start with putting this in and pay attention to what voices I'm in. Gonna make sure I have a bass clef down here. Don't want to do that again, which I do. And I don't have a key signature, so we're all good. Okay, So here's a C chord. What I'm really looking for is that my bass note goes the opposite direction of both of my soprano notes in a case like this. So if I'm going to a two chord, I'm gonna go up to a two hoops, pay attention to your voices, gonna go up to a two here, but in all other voices, I'm going to go down. So d f and A are my notes. So what's my next closest note here? Going down. It's gonna be a here. It's gonna be d in here. It's gonna be Ah, I did. My voice is backwards. F and d Okay, so these went down D f A all moved down. So we had to move a bit of a leap here. Just 1/3. Not that bad. And then this went up. That should have avoided any parallels. Let's see. Ah, the sea to a G is 1/5 here, but it goes to an A and an F, which is 1/6. So that's totally okay. Okay, so we avoided it there. Let's see if we can do the same thing. Another one. Let's voice this one a little bit different to start. So here I have an f chord going to a G chord. Okay, so let's voice are cord this way and see if we can of, ah, make a clean transition to this G chord. So I have f a c f going up. Nice big gap here. Remember that when you're doing this, we like a big gap between the base and the tenor. That's nice toe. Have more. A little more than an active there is totally okay. But then we want less than inactive, uh, between everything else. So that's a nice sounding chord. Let's hear it right. Sounds good. Okay, let's go to a G and see if we can do it. Let's start with our ah, soprano. An alto voice is here So somewhere I'm gonna have to do a drop of 1/3 or a leap of 1/3. And I think it's gonna be here. So let's go f down to d because remember the court the notes were going to G B D and then we'll go down a step here. Here. Okay, so that looks OK. Now, if I want to stay consistent with what I was doing, I would go down with my tenner and up with my base. So can I go down to a note with my tenner? I can Someone a so I can go down to a G. Does that create any problems? Where's my fifth here? Cause there's gonna probably gonna be one A c ah f and C is 1/4. Okay, so that's what I'm looking for. So that's 1/4 and a parallel fourth isn't terrible. What? It's not good cause it's basically an inverted parallel fifth, but it resolves to it. It moves to 1/3 so it's OK, but if I went down with my f here. What's my next possible note? I could go to it would be D. Oops. Now, I definitely don't want to do this, but I just want to do it to point out what's gonna happen. First of all, F two d after D. That's creating parallel octaves, right? So that's a no go. Ah. Secondly, it's going to make a 64 record of 564 which is another can of worms that we know all about now. But if I go just up to G, I have contrary motion in my base. So I know my base isn't creating any parallels because it's going up and everything else is going down. So there's nothing that the base could be doing to be creating parallels because contrary motion. Right? Awesome. Uh, let's make sure my court is spelled well, so g g b d have all the notes I need. That's good. Okay, let's move on to this one. Let's just find a way to spell it. Let's spell this, See the same way we spelled it over here. I'm gonna go see see e and G. Okay. That's the same as the way we spelled it. over there. Now, how can I get to 1/7? Same principle. I'm going down here, However, though, so let's do the same panel emotion. But let's do it backwards. So let's go down to be to give us a route position. Ah, seven Diminished chord. Okay, Now I want to try to go up with everything else. So the notes I'm aiming for r d f in a so this c can go up to D. That's good. And this G can go up to a and this e can go upto f So that works. What did we create for parallel C and G two D and F our Sorry D in a, um no. Good. Right. This is the fifth. This is the fifth. We have parallel fifths here. Between those are base isn't contributing to the parallel fifths, but this one is. So what can we do to avoid this? We could go. We have a B D and well, where this a come from. That's probably our problem. There's no a in the court. Uh, stick that up to a beat. I was thinking D f A. For some reason, B, d and F is our cord. So now we fixed it cool. So the problem was that we had a wrong note in the court, which created a parallel us. We had two problems with that. Now that that notice fixed R C to G now goes to a D two piece, we have 1/5 going to 1/6. No parallel. Um, yeah, and that's good. No parallel here because it's going down. Great. You could pretty much probably do the same thing backwards here. But let's not Let's voice this the way we voiced the other ones. Let's go be be and yeah, de B D f Yes, except I did those backwards like I always do. De okay, b b d f b d f. So that's our seventh chord. Let's see if we can resolve it to a one. There were going up, so I want that contrary motion in the base. So let's go up in our base getting us to the root position. And now let's see if we can go down with everything else. So here's gonna be my third weep to get to the G, and then this d can go to a C and that African go to e. Where is my fifth so b d f So I'm looking for the B to the F. That's a diminished fifth, but I'm still gonna worry about that as a parallel fifth. So here be an F. But because we have that third in there resolving to a G and an E, that's okay. One more 5 to 6 going up. So let's make a G chord. Ah, let's do do something a little different here. Okay, A little bit different voicing G d B. It's fine voicing Ah, and let's see if we can go up to a so first thing I'm gonna dio just get this bass note taking care of now. Everything else we want to try to get to go down. Um, so a c e it's my closest note here. To that G, it's probably gonna be a going up, but I can't do that. That's gonna make a parallel octave, right. So e going down is going to be my leap of 1/3 de going down to see it's gonna work and be going down to a so I have a e c a. Have all my notes Cool Okay, let's hear this. This cycle of common cords just going coming cords separated by seconds. Ah, first and try out and then in, uh, four voices. All right, it's kind of interesting right in that, like here, we're going down like 1 to 7. But if you listen to it in with a good voice, leading, it can sound like it's going up. Maybe that wasn't the best example. Here's one that is going up, but it sounds like it's going down, you know, like it's weird how the direction works when you're in four voices. It's very subjective of mysterious. Right? Okay. So watch out for your parallels. Don't forget about contrary motion. 17. Why Do We Care About This?: Okay, So you might be thinking to yourself, Why do we care about this? Um, we're looking at fairly simple core progressions when we've just already done some fairly complicated things recently. And now we're back to simple core progressions. Well, here's why when we're looking at these core progressions, what we're trying to do is get a little comfortable spotting some of these patterns in a song. Because if we're looking at music and we see a progression, that's something like 1642 Then we can say that we know something deeper about the song, right? We We know that it's not just four chords, but we know that it's four chords that are actually related by a descending fifth pattern, and that can tell us a couple things, one that can tell us Ah, how we convey voice these cords to make it interesting. It can tell us tricks weaken due to put it into four voices. If we're used to seeing it, it can also tell us what the next chord probably is going to be if they stick to the sequence. Um ah, lot of things we will start to be able to recognize It's kind of like when you learn to read words, you recognize individual letters first, and then you start to sound those out. And then once you get good at reading, you don't pay attention to individual letters. You start to pay attention to individual words, so we're kind of taking one bigger step out now. We're not looking at individual chords right now. We're looking at whole sequences of chords, right? And so we're trying to get comfortable spotting some of those when we look at a piece of music. But even on a smaller scale, like like what we were doing here. When we see a 12 record back to back immediately, you might think there's gonna be parallels there. They're pretty much has to be. But you might be able to spot that. No, there's actually a very clear way to do it. Or when you see these two chords side by side, you might know. Oh, that's a one in a two chord. Even though it looks like it's going down, it's ah, actually a motion, a route motion by major, Second up is what it is. So we're starting to abstract a little bit and see some of these bigger concepts in music. So with that being said, let's actually look at a piece of music show, shall we? Um, it's always good to do, and we haven't done it yet in this class. So let's take a look at a piece of music and see if we can spot some of these patterns in the core progression. 18. Analysis: Canon In D: Okay, Um, if you've ever been to a wedding or at least a wedding in the US, I don't know if this is true Elsewhere. You have heard this piece of music before. Ah, it's Ah, it's a little It's not. I don't know what I should say about it. Um, it's kind of boring because most of us have heard it so many millions of times. It's probably a beautiful piece, but ah, you just get sick of hearing it at weddings. But it has a very nice core progression, and it's great for us to analyze. So let's listen to this arrangement that I just downloaded from you. Score. It's fairly short. Ah, and then let's look at let's look at the piece and do a quick analysis of it. Here we go. Okay, So what do we know about this piece? So it's called Canon in D, and it's by Pocket Bell. So what is a cannon? I think we talked about this before, but ah, cannon is a type of piece of music in which, um, there are multiple melodies that can kind of start and layer themselves on top of it. So what? We have here is a core progression that is thes 1st 4 bars. And then on top of that, there's there's other elements that kind of just build and build and build, and this piece gets played really weird. So what ends up happening with this piece all the time is we have the core progression, and the core progression is really kind of the peace. Because once you get out into this stuff, uh, I don't know anymore what the actual piece is. People kind of add whatever they feel like adding in this kind of stuff. And it gets a little improvisatory where you're just kind of improvising stuff. Not really. I mean, there is a melody and things in it, but, um, people take a lot of liberties with this piece. But when it comes to the actual core progression, it's really just these 1st 4 bars over and over. So let's take a look at what we've got. It's really spelled out clear for us here, so let me get some text up. So in the key of D, we know that for two reasons one is that ah, the key signature is telling us, d um, the other Is that the name of the pieces canon in D? That's a pretty good clue that were in the key of deep, so I can assume that this first court is probably a one. But let's look way have a d and then in the left hand of the piano have f sharp A de So that's a big old D major record. Cool. Moving on. We have an A in the base, so it doesn't necessarily mean it's a five chord. Let's look at what the notes are appear. Exit could be an inversion, so we have e a c sharp. So a c sharp, he would be them in order. So it actually is a five chord. So 15 No, we have a b de and then another be so b d f in the key of D is six. Now we have f c f A S o f A c So this is an F chord which in the key of D is three halfway there. Then we have a G b d. G. So we have a good old G chord, which, in the key of de a G is ah four record that we have a d chord a d efs were back to one chord g b d f back to a four chord and then a c e Okay, back to a five court And then we probably returned to a one chord here, de a d yes. So we're down to a one chord there and it starts over. So here is our full core progression. 1563 41 for five. Okay, so let's go back to where we just were. Let's look for 1563 Is there any pattern that we've looked at so far? That gets us close to a 1563? There isn't exactly. But, um, what we can tell from this is we're going 15 So we know that pattern because we've seen a 1 500 times. Then we have a five to a six, a progression that is going up by a second, right. We have a six to a three. So that would be, Let's count up. So three would be 1456 So that's a pattern of 1/4. Um, so that could be a descending fourth or ascending fifth. Could be the relationship between these two chords, depending on how we want to think about it. But then we have a three to a four. So that's an ascending 2nd 3 to a four and then ah, four down to one is 1/5 relationship cord, and then a one up to a four is 1/4 or 1/5 relationship court, and then a four to a five is a second relationship court. So a lot of different pieces of the things we've looked at here. One thing that I see, uh, kind of consistently here is an alteration between fifth related chords and second related chords. So here's 5th 2nd We could call this 1/4 related or 1/5 related cord and then a second and then 1/5. Related. Fifth related Second Related. So we have a bunch of fifth and second related chords here. Ah, and when I say fifth, I'm thinking of up by fourth down by fifth, depending on how you want to look at it. So that tells us something cool about this piece of music. That's kind of the sound that could define this piece of music. So if you're writing a piece of music, and you think I want to write something that sounds like talk about one of the things you might do is create a core progression that has this alternating, ah, fifth and fourth and second related chords. That's going to get you in the ballpark of creating this kind of music. This is something that I have to think about all the time when I'm working on, like, a film or a TV commercial or something. A lot of the times they'll give me music and they'll say We want it to sound just like this piece of music But we can't actually use this piece of music because that is his copy written, and we don't want to pay for the copyright. So they hire people like me to write something that sounds just like it, but nothing like it at all so that they can't get sued. Ah, and these are the kinds of things that I do. I look at the core progression and say, Well, there's fifth and second related chords all over the place, so let's do that. And that's one of the many tricks. So there we go, Um, that's what's kind of making a pocket belt. And if we go all the way, you know, over even into this stuff, we're gonna find the same core progression. Here's D. Here's a you know, it's just gonna go on. It's gonna be the same chords with just more notes above them and even all these notes, they're going to be in those cords or they're going to be passing tones. Right? So there you have it Canon in D packable. 19. Lets Do Some Analysis!: Okay. What I want to do in this next section is just some big analysis projects. We've done these little analysis projects, but I want to look at a couple whole pieces. Um, and we're gonna start with some Bach. In fact, we might do just Bach in this. We'll see what we find. Ah, for good analysis projects. But Bach is great. I am. I love just diving deep into Bok. Ah, it's just really great stuff. Um, So what we're gonna be looking for here is not on Lee what chords are happening, But also, what is the function of those cords? And what is the relationship of those chords? So So we're going to analyze it, looking at each individual court, and then we're gonna analyze it, looking at if it's tonic function, dominant function, predominant function. And then we're gonna look at and see if we can find some of these progressions that we've looked at earlier in this class, which is third related. Fifth related, um, second related. Ah, whatever it may be. So let's do some big analysis on some riel music, so we'll start with his Bach cello suite. Tell a sweet number one. You've You've maybe heard the opening couple measures of this before. Um, it's a popular piece that you you hear on occasion. It's beautiful piece, um, so let's dive in and let's do it. 20. Cello Suite No. 1: Okay. The Bach cello suite, number one. Prelude. Now, a little tiny bit of background about this piece. Um, back wrote a number of these sweets, and ah, he running for a couple different instruments. I'm familiar with the cello and the loot ones. Um, each suite has, I believe all have six movements to them. Um, usually, perhaps always. The first movement is a prelude. Ah, And then there are all dance forms. So, um, dance forms. Meaning, you know, baroque dance forms, which is, like beret gig, mini wet, things like that. Things that are not ways that we mostly dance anymore. You could You could go to a club and dance a jig if you wanted to. Um, you would be a big nerd, but, um, people have done it, and a lot of people do it when they're in grad school, and they learn what those are. I'm not going to say I have done it, but I have. Um So let's take a listen first. Um, so this is the first movement of the cello suite. This is the prelude. This is probably the most popular ah, snippet of music from any of the sweets So you may have heard this before, but let's just listen to the whole thing. It's not super long. Ah, and then we'll start our analysis. Ah, way, Way, Way. Okay, so that's the piece. That's what we're gonna look at now. There's some chromatic stuff in here, right? Like we see all these accidental is we're gonna have to deal with all of these throughout this. Um, And if you're wondering, why is music or showing some of these notes in red? I don't know. Actually, um, I think that's telling us that it's out of range for the instrument that it's set to. So it's worth pointing out here that this file that I downloaded appears to be an arrangement for violin. So we're looking at trouble class. So obviously tell a sweet number one. This is written for cello, but this is arranged for violence who are in trouble class violin. So I I thought this would this these red notes would mean that it's out of range, but these notes are certainly not out of range for a violin. Um, all of them are fine, so I don't know why it would be telling us that it looks like anything lower than an E or an af sharp. It's Colin. It's making red. So maybe this is set to a weird instrument. Let's check it out. Actually, to do that, we would go to at it and then instruments. It's set to violin, so it should be okay. So maybe those red notes being something different. I'm not sure it's not a layer thing, anyway, Not our problem. So ah, let's not worry about that for now. And let's dive into our analysis. 21. Finding Chords In Monophonic Music: Okay, So the first thing you might notice here is that when we're looking at music from a mono phonic instrument, meaning an instrument that can Onley typically play one note at a time, it gets a little bit harder to see the courts right, because they're not playing chords and what we're used to seeing like we do on the piano or the grand staff. There's one chord here, which is this one. And, you know, a violin or a cello can play multiple notes at once. Ah, but it's kind of it's ah, not I shouldn't say it's rare. It happens a lot, but typically there, playing one note at a time most of the time. Um, so we have to figure out what is accord and what is not a court. What we would do here is, let's actually go to continuous view here so that we can really get in here. There we go. So what do we want to call Accord? Let's listen to this first bar and see if we can decide what's accord. Ah, Okay, So what I'm hearing is this whole bar is one chord. Let's just look at the notes. Really quick. Then we'll go. We'll do deeper announces of this. We have d 1/2 right? So we could easily call that Ah d Major Triad. That's showing us the key of D major So d f sharp and a d major right This e we can call passing tone or even a neighbor tone. And then we have f a f a All in D, right? So everything in these 1st 2 beats is in D Major. Except for this e right, we go to the next two beats. We have the same thing, right? Everything's in d Major, except this e Let's go to the next bar. Now we have d B. Jeanne, can we make a triad out of that? We can G b d would be in thirds. So a G major triad, right this f we could either call a neighbor tone or we could actually call it 1/7. It's an f sharp. So be a major seventh. So we'll deal with that in a second. Um, but that shows us that well, let's go on to hear g b. G. Be right. So all the notes, except for this af and maybe the F, depending on if we want to call it 1/7 or not is in a G major triad, and then same deal here. So what we're seeing here is every bar has one chord in it. If we took all the notes in the cord and stacked them on top of each other, we would end up, are all the notes in the measure and stack them on top of each other. We would end up with a court, um, with a couple of passing tones. In fact, for this analysis, let's actually do that. So let's go to, um, instruments. And let's add the right hand of a keyboard underneath this. Here we go. Okay, this eight, by the way, it means play an active. Usually it means play an active higher. But, um, it should say eight v A or V B. The A means an active higher VB means an octave lower. I don't know what just eight by itself means it's going for a whole thing. I'm gonna get rid of that just to make it easier to read. See if it moved it. Yeah, Now we're up in active so that men inductive lower um I'm gonna leave it at this Higher active for now, because that's actually the way it's written. Ah, and that gives us more room. Okay, so what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna write each chord and I'm gonna do it in half notes, and then we'll analyze of that. It will be a little easier to see. So if we say are cord here is D F sharp. A Let's just right D f sharp a and then here it's still d f sharp. It. So what I'm saying when I do this is that this cord is everything for these 1st 2 beats. That's what I'm saying. Bye bye. Just writing it down. I'm trying to simplify what's happening up here by just writing it in whole notes. We have an E, but we're going to call that a neighbor tone here and just leave it out. Okay, so that's how we'll do this analysis. So let's. But while we're here, let's call this a one chord because we're probably in the key of D major. So it's a D one, okay? And we're still on a one chord here. If we go here, let's put in our notes, and we're going to call this a G chord G b D Oops. Somebody use half notes, G. I'm always just gonna write these in route position. Actually, maybe I shouldn't always write them in route position because this query clearly has a d at the bottom. So maybe I should write it like that. Give us a little chance to practice our inversions. Right? So that is going to be oops. Turman notes off a a g chord in the key of D is a four. Right? And that's actually going to be a 464 Okay. And in the same court here. Now, do we want to call this 1/7 or not? I'm going to say we don't want to call it 1/7 because I don't hear it functioning as 1/7. Um, mainly because of the pattern. Look at this. So we have this right, That neighbor tone? Yeah, that neighbor tones continues, So I feel like we've established a pattern in this first bar that says this is a neighbor tone. Right, because we went down and back. That is training are here already to treat this as a passing tone of some kind. So I think I'm already hearing this as a passing tone and not as a major seventh chord. So for now, I'm not saying that that's gonna be true for the whole piece. But for now, I'm gonna call that still a neighbor tone, and we'll continue on. So I'm gonna keep continuing on for the first chunk of the peace, and then we'll come back and we'll talk about cord function, but let's just figure out our chords first. 22. Modulating Keys: Okay, let's continue on our third chord. It's getting there a little bit better here. All right. What do we have here? The C g at the tricky one? Because that does not make 1/3 in any possible way. See, e g would. But D doesn't make us anything. Let's hear it. There's something a little fishy there like it's sounds minor. It sounds maybe like there's 1/7 in it. Okay, so let's just put our notes down here that we have. We have a D as our base. Note that above it, we have hoops A C, A G and F, which we can easily call a passing tone if we want than a C and A G c and A G. So a lot of seeing a lot of G D c g c g c dcd. Okay, so if we had an E, we could easily call that a C chord. Um, but we don't. So here's what I'm gonna do. I think we can call this, um, a c chord because there's so much cg c sharp. Sorry. Um, so that's gonna make this our seventh chord are diminished. Seventh chord. If we call it a see. Now, How do I explain that? De very easily. Um, let me get my text up here. I'm gonna call this are diminished seventh chord with a pedal tone So that D is becoming a pedal tone. Remember, a pedal tone is a note that just keeps going in the base. Right. We've had this d since the beginning. It made sense harmonically here. It made sense harmonically here. It doesn't here, but that's okay. If it's a pedal tone, it doesn't really have to. So let's just put that up there, and we're gonna say that's a pedal tone. It's just going to keep going and and slide underneath this cord. Otherwise, this is the leading tone seventh chord, because we have this c sharp g in there. Okay, I'm pretty okay with that. That means I'm gonna call this a C e g. Even though there's no e in it. It's implied because of the c sharp N g Cool. Okay, So same thing here with our next chord. Same notes. All right, let's move on. Here. We have d again. So that pedal continues, but it might make sense this time. The rule is with the pedal tone. If it does make sense in the court, you want to include it. If it doesn't make sense in the court, you don't have to. You can kind of there's a choice there, but right here we see a leap of ANOC tive. That's pretty strong indication that we might want to include that. So let's see what we've got here. We have d D f ah di ftf so really strong on the DF d d f DF DF DF. So everything in here says D, which is our tonic chord, right? Except for right here we have a seat, so we have no A. But that's OK. So let's call this a tonic chord. I think it's pretty safe to say that that is a tonic chord. Now, what about this? This I think we can call a passing chord because let me put this here. Well, I've got the same tool out. Let's listen for that. See, Let's listen to this measure and we'll go into the next measure. Listen for that note right there thing that is a passing tone. Not to this note, but to this note, right? It's just leading us down into that note. So that's a bit of a sneaky one. But we're going to find that box is full of sneaky stuff. So let's call this a Tunc and were in route position because he is at the bottom. Cool. Was I labeling the in between no good? Okay, so what we have here? We have a d. We have a B and we have an f Can we make that accord? B d f makes it triad B d f like so. But let's show that D is on the bottom. D is on the bottom. Is that what I said? So that gives us a six court of some kind. So what is a B chord in the key of D? That's our six chord, right? Um, okay, nothing weird about it. At least not on this first beat. So let's take that, go there and call this our six chord, and we ought to call it a 66 chord to show the inversion. So that holds true for this first beat. Now let's see what happens here. Remember the notes. We've accounted for it here R, B, D and F. So if I go here. F the sea de Okay, Not that bad, because this see, I can call up a neighbor tone in the same way that I was back here calling this a neighbor tone. Right? Easy enough. Okay, so I'm okay with that beat. Let's go on to the next beat. Okay? Do I still have a B, d and F on this beat B d passing tone? De. We can still call it that. What about here? Okay, now I have this totally out of keynote. That's G sharp. Um, I think I can still call it a B D f sharp. Because I have an f in a Well, it gets a little tricky here. I really have my key notes. Here are f sharp A an f sharp. This we could call a passing tone if everything else made sense around it. What would f sharp in a make in the key of D? It would make a one chord. It would be some kind of 16 chord leading here, So let's do that. So let's say right here. We're still on this. Be on the six chord, but here were on some kind of Ah, 16 Okay, so that's still true There, actually, let's put this here. But here we're on a 16 with a big old passing tone in it, right This g sharp, we're just passing through. It don't so much care that it's out of key for the moment. Um, but I do care that it's a passing tone. It's not in the court. Let's see what we've got now. Now we've got that g sharp is back. Now, that could tell us something. And this is something we haven't covered yet. Eso I'm not gonna go into a lot of detail on it, but, um, this will be coming up soon in a nearby class. But this g sharp tells me that we are changing. Keys were probably changing keys. So let's stay in the key of D for as long as we can. But sooner or later ah, it might be easier to switch toe analyzing this in a different key. And I can tell you what key it looks like we're transitioning to. It would be the key of a because usually when you see a single accidental popping up like we do here, it's showing you the new leading tone is what you're looking at. So this tells me we might be heading towards a Also A would make great sense, right? Because it's the five of D. It would be an easy modulation to make to that key. Okay, so let's do a few more chords here, So let's see what you've got here. G Sharp e and D That D is kind of functioning like a passing tone, but we get an awful lot of it, right? What could it be? We have a g sharp in the G Sharp, I think is pretty clearly in the chord here. So we're in the key of D major, so g sharp and e we could easily call that an e major. Let's see what that would look like. Oops would look like that. We're missing a B. We could also call it a C augmented court of some kind. Um, if see was the route. Let's see what he does for us here. If we call this e, that would be a major too right in the key of D major. We would call that to a major to so, too, is supposed to be minor right in this key. But it's now major because, you know, box a sneaky guy. Uh, let's roll with that for just a minute. So that means we're gonna call this d a passing tone. Okay, so hang on to that. So if that's our cord, we're missing a B. So let's put it in there on then. Let's do the same chord here because it's the same pattern. Okay? No. What's happening here? C sharp e a. And then here's our g sharp again. Let's hear that. Yeah. Okay, good. But let's hear both these two measures together. And what I want to listen for is, does this feel like tension? And this feels like a release. And otherwise, does this feel like tonic? Theo? I think it does. This feels like tonic, but it's not D. It's definitely not D major, right? A. To a c e. That's an a major. So I think we've modulated keys. So here's how we do that. Um, let's put in those notes just to show what we're looking at here and we have see, in the bottom we have a six chord. But let's call that what it is, which to me is 16 in a So what you can do now is you can step backwards if this is one. What is this? This is E Major, right? So what is E Major in the key of a It's five. So we can do this. Actually, we can go back here and say five. And with that D this is a 57 actually, if we want to call it that, so check it out. This is how you notated modulation, you say, in the key of whatever we were in. This is a major to cord, but you can also say underneath it in the key we are going to This is a 57 chord. And now we are in that key exclusively. This is called a pivot cord. We used it to pivot from one key to the next. Cool. Right. Um, we'll get a lot more into modulations later, but congratulations. This is our first modulation. So we're in a now. This is box, so we're might not stay in a for very long. We'll see what happens. Okay, so let's hear what we have so far. Um, And think about this modulation as it happens. Just listen for it didn't take very long to get us there, right? Pretty cool. We just modulated right through there. Let me just add this chord here because it felt weird without it. Okay? And there we have it. A modulation. Okay, let's take a little break and then we will Let's go through it next and add our court functions to this that we have so far. 23. Chord functions (First Section): Okay, now that we have the first section worked out, let's see if we can figure out how each of these is functioning. So tonic. Right? I'm just going to write. Ah, Instead of drawing all the lines across my screen here, I'm just gonna right tonic. I'm just gonna write Accord function underneath each chord. So remember, my options are tonic dominant or pre dominant, so it helps to get a little bit bigger. Picture here. So that's tonic. This. I mean, it's a forecourt so predominant would make a lot of sense. Right? Um, but it seems weird to go to pre dominant already. This, however, does seem like a dominant area. That's the seven. And we're leading back toe one. So I'm gonna continue to call this tonic. Actually, maybe I will do that. Lines all the way across. I'm gonna call this whole area tonic just because predominant seems too fast. Ah, And remember, this is a bit of a matter of opinion. This I definitely feel like is a dominant area, and then we're back to a tonic area at that one. Okay. Tonic area. Uh, here's six chord. I'm gonna call that a tonic area still now for this. What would we call this? This is a 57 but it's also that to court that major to cord, it's transition. It's our pivot cord, right? What do we want to call that? Well, remember what we're thinking about here? We're thinking about. Aside from the Roman numerals, how does this feel? Does it feel like a tonic area to the feel like a predominant area or what? Like what is the function of it? What is it actually doing? And when we think about that, it's heading here, right? So it really feels like a dominant area like it's a five chord. It's yeah, in the key were in. It's a two chord. It's a major to cord. It's weird, but it is working like a dominant chord to get us to there. So we're going to call that a, um, dominant chord down it functioning cord. And now we're here. We've made a key change, but this is functioning like a good old tonic chord. That is what it's doing cool. So there's our court functions so far, so even in a key change, these dominant tonic function areas still work right because here were a dominant function . No matter how you slice it, you can call this to you can call it 57 But, um, it's working like a dominant pretty clearly. Okay. Ah, let's continue going. Let's do some more. 24. More Analysis: Okay. Now, remember, we're in the key of a now, even though our key signature still shows us d were in the key of a Because that's what we've analogue analyzed it as. Okay, so moving forward. We're thinking a and we got to keep an eye out for that g sharp. Who's got to remember that it's there. So let's see what we've got here. B f sharp d maybe a c. And that's it for these 1st 2 beats. So what do we want to call that? Ah B d f sharp works. That would be ah, b minor chord. Let's put that down here. It's in route position. B D F sharp. No. In the key of a that is a two chord. It's a minor to nothing out a key. Everything. Seems we working fine. Yeah. Next chord. Yeah, same thing. Right? Okay, so let's put that down for both chords. Hey, how the screens jumps around like that. I don't know what's causing it. Does that when I'm really zoomed in. Okay, so we're gonna call this I to nothing weird about it. It's just straight up to Okay, let's go on to our next one. Okay, so now we have a bunch more passing tones here. Let's hear this. This measure. Okay, So what's happening here? Um, we have a lot of passing tones. Now. What we need to do is look for key moments. We need to figure out what notes are in the court and what are not in the court. Ah, One of the best ways to do that is to remember to think about strong beats and weak beats. Um, so as we do, these runs like this way think about strong beats. The odds are that this a and this f sharp are what's in key. But it's not always true. Eso Let's see what happens. Let's see what we've got here. Way. Have B g sharp A B k. So be is probably in our cord. Um, if f sharp in a If we called f sharp A. That could work because then we'd have be f sharp. A. We're skipping de, but that could be, um, a be some kind of be cord. We can't really call it f sharp A c. So I'm gonna go b f sharp with a missing d because I think that's the most likely scenario here. So let's call this B f sharp. I could call that a s seventh. But look, didn't we just have a B f sharp? A Ah, we did. So we're sorry a b d f sharp. So I think that seventh is unlikely. Ah, to be in the cord. But I think this is an extension of the previous court. Ah, the core did not change. Probably. So this is still a two chord? No. So let me just clarify. The reason I think it's to court is because we have a lot of be okay. We also have this A in this f sharp on strong beats that makes me think that one of them, at least if not both of them, is in the court. I'm questionable about that. A but this f sharp probably, um, because it is also on a strong beat. It is on, you know, the and of two. So it's halfway, um, and even more so. It's the cord we just had. So it makes sense that it would be an extension of the previous court. That makes me think even more so that it's a B D. F sharp court. Um, now this next one. Let's see, we have D c B a f sharp. We're sorry. A g sharp f sharp e d So does this. My first thing I want to think about is does this cord makes sense? D f sharp are sorry. B f sharp b d f sharp man. So I have d on a strong beat. I have be on a strong beat. I haven't a on a week beat g sharp on a strong beat f sharp e d So I do have a lot of b d f sharp. So I think it works. I think we're all to hear this whole passage, I think is a two chord. Let's hear it with my chords underneath. Yeah, Okay. I think that works. Um, this also could. This kind of feels like it's got a dominant quality to it. Let's see if this makes any sense as a five swing. The key of a So I'm looking for an e major court of some kind. Do you have that G major in there? And I havent e right there. I have a b here, and his d would make the seventh. So this actually does make sense as an e major chord. This less so. But what if we called this an E major like that? Let's play that again, these two measures and see if that feels good or not. I think it does. And I think that seventh is in there, too. I think that feels better. I think that seventh is in there like that. Ah is be actually the route our ah, in this voicing kind of Well, it kind of is at its lowest note of everything we've got, but we could also, but it's a little ambiguous. We could also call d the route. Let's leave it at B because it's the lowest note. Um Okay, so what we have here is still a two chord here, but here we have a 543 chord five in the 4th 3 inversion. Okay, so that means the odds are we're heading to We should be at an a court again because that 57 really wants to push us to a right. So let's see if this gives us an accord. So what I'm looking for is a C sharp and e some A's be passing Tone looks great. So we're going to call that in a major. Okay? Perfectly in key. Nothing funny. Here we have another one of these runs, but let's look at our strong beats are strong beats R A c and then D and B, so this first be looks a lot like a major A C and E here we have see an A on the week beats , but I think it's still okay to call this all a major because there's a lot of a major in there. Okay, so let's call this just a good old fashioned one in a major now. Boom. Does this tell us something? Does this tell us that maybe we're modulating again? It's possible, Um, does that tell us that we're monitoring dating again? It's possible. Doesn't tell us anything. Just throwing an accidental here there. But it's a clue that it might be coming. Do we see more of those? There's an A sharp not a lot, so it could just be a passing tone. Let's see. To run a one chord in a what do we have here? Super weird, right? Like really dissonant. Um, whatever it is, it's leading to this, right? This next chord, let's hear these two measures side by side, Theo. Right? Whatever this is is resolving to this. So let's see if we can figure it out. Let's skip this measure for just a moment and go to here, right? Because I think we're gonna find one of those five relations. So what do we have here? G be e an f sharp? A lot of the same. So what could we call that? Call that E g B? Um, that's probably the most likely, but we've lost our g sharp now. So we're back to G natural, which is interesting, right? So e g b is minor. It's our two. Indeed. This was our pivot cord before, except it was major in the key of a This is a minor five, right? That's weird. That's quite weird. So but let's call it what it is a minor five. The lower case Roman numeral five. It doesn't look like it in this front, but it is okay. So if, um, we want to try to find 1/5 relationship to this five, what would the above it? It will be some kind of be cord, right? If this was a B chord of some kind, it would resolve down to this minor five. So what I'm looking for is B d sharp f sharp. If we want a major B chord. So I have that d sharp b f sharp A That a does make sense. B d f a would be the seventh, which would help us even more. Get to this minor. Five. So here's a de Sharpie. So everything makes sense as a be major set major be dominant chord. So a major triad with 1/7 except for the sea. But it's okay. These all make sense. That all makes sense That doesn't that doesn't everything except those sees makes sense. So I'm going to say that's pretty good hypothesis. So that means this is ah b d Sharp F accord. So what would we call that thing in the key of a That would be a to a major, too. Seven. What? That's crazy talk, Bacchus. Such a sneaky little guy. Those would be a to seven major to seven. Okay. Ah, it can exist. I think we're gonna have the same thing here. I don't need that. There so that's possible. Ah, and that gives us that big fifth relationship to this five chord. Now, this is a minor five chord. So it certainly would appear that maybe we have modulated to the key of e minor. Um, that would make a lot of sense, because think about the key signature for E minor. It's one sharp, right? So we went from D Major, which is it has two Sharps to AKI of a major which has three Sharps, so only one accidental away to a key of e minor, which has one sharp. So again on Lee, one accident away from our original key of D major. So we might be an e major. But I can look forward and I can see this a sharp sorry e minor. This a sharp is not in the key of e minor. So I don't know if we're going to stay in e minor for very long. So let's leave it like this for now. And just call that a weird minor five chord. Um, let's put it here again because I believe that is true. Let's hear that bar. Okay, So what do we have here? So we got through another modulation, maybe. Um, we have yet to see if we've actually modulated or if we just kind of temporarily gone to this e minor for one, uh, brief little moment. Um, we have a word for that that we'll learn soon. May I mean, I'll tell you right now, the word for that is Tanase ization. That means that we've just briefly gone there and kind of treated that e minor as tonic for just a minute. But we're not gonna actually modulate their We'll cover that word more later in the future . Um, okay, let's take a little break and then we'll continue on. 25. Another Key Change?: okay, lets keep going. So let's do another couple measures and then we'll jump back and do the court functions. So here we have a sharp C sharp and then e c sharp. Same thing again. So we only have three different notes here, So we can probably account for all three. Have a sharp C sharp and E What does that make? Well, it would make in a c e chord. Um, except so if it was an A C e according to the key signature B a c sharp e So without this accidental, it would be an a major chord, which, in our key of a major is one right, however, have a little wrinkle that it's an a sharp C sharp e chord. Oh, man, this is getting hard. This was such a hard one to pick. Um, but I'm committed now, and so we're going to keep going. Okay, So a sharp c sharp e. So in the key of a this is totally bonkers because this is a sharp one, like a raised one chord. Um, because it's an a sharp, diminished chord. Um, so a sharp diminished What on earth do we want to call that. Well, let's think about it in. Okay, so the best way to analyze this is to think about it as a diminished chord. Okay, so let's call it question. Mark diminished. And we're going to solve this question mark right now, so it's a diminished chord. So what? Where can are diminished chord happen before in a major key are diminished. Court can only be a seven. So if this waas a seven diminished chord, that would mean that were in the key of B major. Okay, Does that make a lot of sense? Not a lot. Um, just looking quickly at the next bar. I see it being a d. So that could make sense that we're in we're heading to be, But it's not a de sharp, so it's not major, so that doesn't work really well. Um, diminished corn can also appear as to in a minor key. So if a sharp was too, we might call this, uh, in the key of G sharp minor, which is also super weird. This cord just doesn't really make any sense. Um, but it kind of does, because what we can call it is a temporary just leading tone chord. So I'm gonna call this. I'm just gonna call it lt. We can figure out what we want to call it and give it a Roman numeral if we really wanted to. But, um, this is functioning like a dominant chord leading to here. Listen to it, right. It's treating this like tonic. So even though this is not be major, but it's b minor were kind of pushing it over to the B. So I'm just gonna call us a leading tone chord. Meaning this a sharp is functioning as the leading tone. Were treating this like a seven diminished seven chord of this. Okay, we'll get mawr into how that works in the future. Um, but the way you would actually write it is, um, you would write that, and then you would right What that is in our key of a That's too. So and you have to write major, too. And then you would need one more piece of the puzzle here. You need a line like that. So you would say this cord is actually the seven of the two chord, right. So here comes the two chord, and I'm doing a seven of that to cord. That's the way you would know, Tate, that these are called secondary dominance. Um, we're making a dominant chord of not the dominant but of something else, um, and doesn't have to be a dominant chord, per se. It has to be a dominant function in cord, so a seven chord works. So let's leave it like that for now. Just so that you've learned something new, your learning a lot of new stuff in this analysis. So tough. Ah, this is weird. But I'm into it. We're just cruising along and just mastering all kinds of crazy things right now. Okay, 57 of two. So this is probably a to court, although it's minor. So we've gone deceptive on this a little bit because we prepared for a major, too. But we're giving ourselves a minor to Orbach gives us a minor to so b d. There's another d de some sees which we could count in there. D b de. So let's call this Ah, a minor to cord. Okay. And let's put that here is well, and that's a two chord in the key of a which we are maybe still in. But let's think about this for just a second. If we're in the key of D, we're not, but we what we're keeping our eye out for is a pivot cord. So if we were in the key of D, the two would be six right there. This be would be six. So that could be a pivot court leading us back, but unlikely because there's no accidental eso we're going to Ah, just keep truck in for a minute. Here. What do we have now? We've got a lot of this g a happening. That means there's probably 1/7 chord here, so c g a. If this was a seven chord, it would be with a in the route that would make sense with all the notes. We have a C. We don't have an E, but that makes g the seventh a ce. So in a seven chord again, a bit of a tricky one to analyze, because that is going to be in the key of a a 17 chord and see, e g g natural. Right? We're back to these g naturals. So we do actually have an accidental here. Um, and here. So I was wrong before when I said there's no accidental And here, technically, this has an accidental cause. We're in the key of a and this is a g natural. So that is, um not in key of a. This really looks like a pivot court to me. Um, but not back to d. Because when we see 1/7 chord, we're going to expect 1/5 relationship. Right? So we have an A see e g? Yeah, actually, back to D. Um, so this is probably leading us right back to D. Major is what's gonna happen here. So let's grab that repeated there, and we're gonna call this for now until we know what comes next. We're gonna call this a 17 chord that doesn't make a ton of sense, but we'll see if we get a d chord d f sharp c Ah, this would have been so easy if you just would have given us a straight up d major chord. We would have been back in D and everyone would have been happy. But what is this see natural doing here? Ah bok, you jerk. Okay, well, let's see what happens. D f sharp c bc. Okay, so we have that see a lot so clearly on a d chord d major, but with 1/7. So were if we're back in d were at a D a 17 again. So 17 in the new key. That doesn't make a ton of sense either. So we can't call this a modulation necessarily because this is a modulation to something else. Probably. Let's do that thing again where we skip this cord and go here. Let's just see if we can figure out where it's going. And then that might give us a clue as to what to call that and the one before it. So here we have D g be a Okay, so here we have pretty clearly a G major record. Okay, so let's put those notes down way haven't d in the base. So let's just do that for a minute, okay? Does this feel like tonic? Let's figure that out. Are we heading their thing? Could be. It could be that we're heading here, which is to G major, um, which is a lot like that e minor. We were almost in for just a second back here, right? So if we're heading to G major, this a seven on Lee serves to propel us to D, which then serves to propel us to A This is a lot like that example. I did, um, earlier in this class where I said, Here's a crazy key change and I'm just gonna keep inserting fifth related chords until I get to what I need to. This is exactly what's happening here. Um, we're doing a sequence of fifth related chords getting us to the key that we want to get. We think we don't know if it stops there yet, So let's call this see Natural, because that's what's happening here. So 17 Ah, we're still technically in the key of a So this d would be 47 i m, which then gets us to this G chord, which, in the key of a is a seven. But this is a gene natural cord in the key of a we would expect to be sharp record for our seventh, so we're probably not in the key of G. So lets her in the key of a anymore. So let's call this the key of G and a one chord. Now let's step back and let's call this key of G 57 I don't think we can step back any further to this one. Let's just leave that as a 17 What? We should actually call this if we want to go back to that secondary dominant thing we were just talking about. We should call this 57 of five. Ah, and then we use one of these with lines like we did here. Same thing we did here. Except what we're saying here is that this is a 57 chord of the five. So then that leads us to the five. And then this is a 57 chord in the new key, which gets us to hear. So it's just a cycle of fifth cords, fifth related chords, just like we did in the previous section that gets us from Ah A to the key of G. Cool, right? Man is a tricky one. Let's just finish this bar. So we're still in the key of G here. We're still in a one chord. Okay, Let's see how far we got here. We didn't get very far. We've got a lot more to go. Um, but this section is getting super long. So let's take a little break and let's go and do our court function. Um, and then we'll see where we're at. 26. Chord Function Second Section: Okay, let's look at our cord. Functional quick here. So we're in the key of a where we left off on a record function. Now we've got a two chord for a bit, moving to a five chord. I think I'm actually pretty comfortable here calling this a pre dominant area. And then this calling a dominant area because a 57 chord, it's hard to call, not call a dominant area. Although there are cases which we've learned recently Ah, in which that could be true So here we're on tonic and we get to a to seven chord. And I remember here, Will might be starting to modulate Things are starting to get a little hairy here, so But what is the function? It's 1/7 chord. So I'm gonna call this a pre dominant area. Nope. I take that back, I'm gonna call it a dominant area because it does feel dominant to me on that feels tonic to me. Remember, we're really focusing on what does it feel like here to me, that feels tonic. Okay, let's let's think about what this next court feels. Theo. Yeah. Okay. This feels dominant again to me, so I'm gonna say dominant here. This one feels tonic or predominant. I could go either way on that one, but I'm going to say tonic because that's my gut reaction, which tends to go well for these kinds of things. This one I can almost surely say is gonna be dominant. Right? So let's call that dominant and then dominant might stick around for a little while till we get to this G. In fact, I'm sure it will. So I think we're gonna be dominant all the way through here and then Teutonic again here. All right, let's hear this part. Okay, So remember these court functions air all about how it feels. 27. Homework: Okay, So here's what I think we should do. Ah, if we go back and look at page view here. So we see this laid out as a page conceive that we've gotten through about the first half. We're through here. It's just short of four pages were just short of two pages. So about halfway through pretty cool. Um, what I want to do for the rest of it is I want you to try to do it. Now, this is gonna be tough, right? Because there's some new stuff here. Keep an eye out for those accidental modulations. Um, things that might be coming And just chromatic phrases. For example, this bar here. Oh, it sounds like this. This'll you probably don't even want to analyze. But, um, I'll show you how I do it in the answers, but, um, you could just call this a chromatic passage, but, um, tell me about that for now. What I want you to do for homework for your your second worksheet, I guess eyes to finish this. Okay, So do as best you can if you don't know what chord. Just write a question mark under it and write whatever you can say I don't know what to call this cord, but I can call it a dominant function court or a six court or whatever. Um, try to write out whatever you can, um, ends. See what you come up with. So I'm going to give you that as your second worksheet is gonna be to finish this, and then I will give you my full analysis of this piece. Ah, and exactly the way we've been doing it, I'll just finish it up. And that will serve as the answer key for it. So you'll see that the way that I do it. And then, um, you can check it against yours. Cool. Okay, so all those files are coming in the next couple blips here, so download. Take a crack at it. And, um, good luck. 28. Review Of Concept: Secondary Dominant: Okay, So before we get to this homework before I set you loose to try to do this yourself, um, let's go over those three new concepts that we learned when we were just doing that analysis in a little more detail. Okay, so there's those three things that we learned where ah, secondary dominant tanase ization and modulation. And they kind of work in that border. Meaning a secondary dominant is a super brief little, um ah, distraction. Let's call it from the key that we're in. It's got a note. It's a chord that has a note out of key that leads us to another chord, which may or may not be in key, um, but eventually leads us back to what were our original key. So it's not a modulation to a new key. It's not anything like that. It's just a temporary ah distraction. I think distraction is ah is a good word for this. And then the 2nd 1 is Tanase ization. That is when we actually go to a new key. But we don't stay. There were only briefly there, and the third is modulation to a whole new key. So let's talk a little bit more about those three things before you dive into trying to do this on your own. So here we go. Secondary dominant. So I've set up here something. Let's just analyze this. Um, I'm back in our master example file, by the way, if you want to look at it So let's just take a look at this court. So we're in C major. So we're gonna call that a one court, right? See, Major, right? Nothing weird about it. Great. Now here is a D chord. It's got a raised third. So it's a deem major chord, and it has 1/7. So what would we call that? Well, the easy thing to call it would be a major to seven chord. That's literally what it iss, right. Okay, let's roll with that for just a second. Let's go on. So next we have this cord, if we look at it, we're going to see G b, d and F. Right? So that's just a good old 57 chord. Nothing weird about that. Okay. And then what do we have here? Tonic again? Okay, So can we come up with a way? Something better to say about this to seven chord other than to seven. Is there something that explains this a little bit better There is. What we could say is that this cord is actually a 57 of this court. So this is G. And this is D seven, right? So what this is doing is this cord is leading to this chord which is leading to this court . Okay. We're doing like a little like frog hopping between different lily pads. I'm just all over the analogies today, so we could call this a to seven. Let's throw that up there for a second. But we could also call it a 57 of five. This is what we saw in the Bach. And what we'll do here is let's make a little line. Okay? So it kind of looks like a fraction like that. 57 of five. Now, what that means is so we have a one chord, and then we have a cord that is 57 of the five in the key. So this lower one is in key. So if we didn't know anything else and we just saw this court out of context, we saw someone that said 57 to 5. What that would mean is we'd find what the five of the key is, which is G. And then we would play a 57 of that. So basically, we're gonna treat it, like were in this key for just a minute. So this tells us we're looking for a G. We're gonna pretend we're in G for just this one chord because of that five. And then we're gonna play a 57 chord as though we were in G for just this one court and that gets us this de seven chord. Okay, Now, nine times out of 10 maybe more. The next chord is going to be whatever was down here and there we have it, right? This doesn't need ah, fight to be a 57 of anything because it's a 57 of our key. It's effectively 57 of one, right? Same thing. This is 57 of one. But we would never write that. We would never write 57 of one because it's redundant. If we just write 57 that means 57 of one. This is 57 of five. So that's how a secondary dominant works means it's a dominant chord of a temporary little distraction, a temporary key. So, um, one more time we take the bottom cord and we pretend like we're in that key for just this cord, and we play what this says above it. Now you'll often see these as 57 of something. Um, five of 57 to 5 is the most common one to encounter, but sometimes you see, like 57 of four, um, 57 of six. That's pretty rare, but you see some of the other ones they can all exist. You sometimes see seven of five, meaning the diminished chord of five. So that would look like Let's go over here. And let's change this to so this. Now that doesn't work. This is now what we would call seven of five, right, because this f sharp A c e and we don't even need to have the seventh there. It could just be a seven of five without the seventh that's allowed. But this is a leading tone seven chord diminished seven chord of five of G because it's f sharp, right? So we could have that. Also, those are the two most common is 5 75 and 77 of five that you see in leading tone or in secondary dominant, uh, cords. So we'll see more of these in the future. But I wanted to introduce them now because we hit a couple in that ah Bok analysis. So what a great thing to ah, take a minute to learn. Okay, now let's move on and talk about a tanase ization. 29. Review of Concept: Tonicization: Okay. Next, let's talk about Thomas ization. That means is a temporary change in the key. I'm looking at the Bach here to see if we had a tanase ization. I don't know that we actually did. We had modulations. Um, it could be that over here, I think we were toying with ah, calling this area atomization. The thing about Thomas ization is you can think of it just like a key change, but one that doesn't stick. It's like you tried to change keys. Um, but ah, it fell back to the original key, right? So the question that everyone always asks is, how long does the Tanase ization need to be in order to be considered a key change? And there's not a good answer for that. Unfortunately, um, atomization can happen for one bar, two bars, three bars, um, four bars. It all depends on the context. If it was longer than eight bars, I'd say you've probably modulated. You've probably modulated to a new key. Um, but it's a matter of opinion whether something is a Thomas ization or a modulation. If it's short, if it's long, if it's very clearly a significant part of the piece that you've switched keys to then it's almost certainly a modulation, and there's not much debate to that. But if it's short, um, then I would call it a tanase ization. It just means we've temporarily treated a We've temporarily Tana sized a new key. Think of it like when you're a kid and you go visit like the sheriff and they give you like , a badge and they say we're gonna deputize you and like you're a deputy now because they just gave you a batch. Um, but then you leave, but and you're like, you're not really like a cop. That's kind of the same thing. So deputize ation. We're basically going to deputize a key and say you're now tonic. And then, like a few minutes later, we're gonna be like No, but not really. Because not really so this would actually not be one, because we started in D. We moved to a here. Ah, and then we stay in a up until here. We moved to G um, so that I would call that a modulation cause we didn't go back to D. Um, and we stayed there for a good looks like I don't know. Eight bars or so maybe even more. Um, now it's looking like this G is going to be atomization. It kind of looks like Doesn't look like we're going to stay in G for really long because ah , right here. And I see c sharps. So I think we're moving back out of G already. Right here. If that's true, once we analyze this, then I would call this a tanase ization because we've really just been in G for two bars, maybe three. We could call this, um ah, g So even so, three bars is not really enough in this contacts for me to call it a modulation. I would call this a Thomas ization if we're I think we're really moving back to either d or a or anywhere else. Really, Um, we were here for such a brief amount of time that we're probably not going to call it a full key change. And it's definitely not a secondary dominant. Um, this is a secondary dominant, but ah, secondary dominant just means a single cord. It doesn't mean an area. Um Tanase ization and modulation refer to whole areas. That's monetization. Let's now talk about modulation 30. Review Of Concept: Modulation: okay. Last but not least is modulation. So modulation means we've moved to a new key. We can also call modulation. Just a key change. It's a change in key. Now, be careful when you think about it as a key change because a lot of time what a lot of people will look for if they're looking for a key change is literally the key signature to change. And that doesn't happen all the time. Didn't happen here, right? The key signature didn't change. We just start to see more accidental. So when you see accidental is in a piece of music like this, you can kind of tell that something is changing with the key. Right? Um, I can tell right here that we're probably in a because we have a g sharp in an a a leading tone that accidentally usually clues you in by giving you the leading tone. Usually not always. Um so in a modulation, we're going to stay in the new key for significant amount of time. Um, at least a phrase worth or two phrases of the peace. That's why it's hard to say like it has to be a certain number of measures because we don't really know what the phrase is. Um, a phrase could be one measure. It could be 20 meters. Um, another thing that we often see in a modulation is is some pivot cords happening, Some chords that that work in both keys. We see that in Tanase ization as well. Um, but more so in modulation when we're really modulating, you see a good length of time where we might be playing around in two key areas at once like this where we can call this a 47 or we can call it a 57 in a new key. So a lot of time when you find a modulation, you have to analyze it by the old key and then go back. Once you realize we've moved to a new key and find the pivot cords and kind of move backwards and forwards a little bit like we did when we were analyzing this block no so modulation. There's no, um, real strict definition here. It's It's a key change. We look for pivot cords. We look for accidental. Um, we do look for changes in the key signature, but we don't always get them, so Ah, and we don't always need it. Sometimes it's just, um, Mawr accidental that we get. So those are the three things. Three things to watch out for when you're doing a full analysis of a piece of music like this. Okay, now I will leave you to the Bach. So up next, I'm gonna give you the worksheets for the Bach. Um and that's gonna be this that you're going to finish. I'll give it to you as a pdf file and as the music or file. Welcome to you as a pdf file and as the music or file. And then I'll give you my full analysis in the next segment. After that. Cool. Good luck. 31. What Next?: Okay, we have reached the end. So couple wrapped up rapid wrapped up a couple things to wrap us up. That would be, um, first of all, what's coming next? Um, Mawr with modulation more with key changes, these secondary dominance and similar chords. There's a couple other things. Ah, that we're gonna talk about that have a little bit to do with secondary dominance. Another thing that's gonna be coming up is I want to do more analysis like this. I really like looking at riel pieces of music, real examples. Um, so we're going to be doing more big chunks like this of just analyzing real music. I think we know enough music theory now toe where we can really dive into some some music and really examine it. And Bach is great for that. You know, there's so much interesting stuff happening in box all the time. Um, that you could you could analyze Bach music for the rest of your life and there would still be some that you didn't get to. Probably. So that's gonna be what's coming up next. More with, ah modulation more with key changes. And ah, lot of analysis. If you were in a normal college class, you would do an analysis like this, probably every week. You would have these types of analyses to do, so I'd like to do more of it. Um, practice makes perfect, and we gotta practice doing it, so look forward to that. 32. Thanks & Bye!: Okay, this is the end of part nine. Can you believe I've made nine parts to music theory? If I would have I told myself that, you know, 10 years ago I would find myself making an insane amount of music theory videos. I would have laughed at myself because I was not a huge fan of music theory. I learned music theory and studied music theory, but as a composer, I kind of always wanted to kind of go against music theory. Um, but here we are, and I'm having a great time doing it. And I hope you're having a good time watching them. If you are. Ah, you know, tell your friends to take these classes. Um, and I will keep making them As long as people keep taking them, I will keep making them. So Ah, thanks for taking this class and any and all of my other classes that you've taken. I appreciate it. There are a lot of fun. Like I said, So stick around for one more thing. Ah, you might have another little bonus section at the end here, and that will get you some goodies to go into some of my other classes inexpensively, So please take advantage of that. Keep an eye out for other classes from me. Keep an eye out for part 10. It'll be here sooner or later. And, um, that's it. Thanks. A bunch. Thanks for being awesome. See you in the next class. 33. SkillshareFinalLectureV2 (2): Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.