Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 8 - Harmonic Expansion | J. Anthony Allen | Skillshare

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Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 8 - Harmonic Expansion

teacher avatar J. Anthony Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Welcome & Overview


    • 2.



    • 3.

      Review: Worksheets


    • 4.

      Master Example File


    • 5.

      What Is A Cadential 6/4 Chord?


    • 6.

      Chord Function


    • 7.

      Dominant Expansion


    • 8.

      My Country Tis Of Thee Example


    • 9.

      Writing Cadential 6/4 Chords


    • 10.

      The Neighbor 6/4 Chord


    • 11.

      Properties Of Neighbor the 6/4


    • 12.

      Using Neighboring 6/4 on the Dominant


    • 13.

      Writing Neighboring 6/4 Chords


    • 14.

      The Arpeggiating 6/4 Chord


    • 15.

      My Country Tis of Thee with Arpeggiating 6/4


    • 16.

      The Passing 6/4


    • 17.

      Using The Passing 6/4 on Other Chords


    • 18.

      Writing Passing 6/4 Chords


    • 19.

      6/4 Chord Wrap Up


    • 20.

      Other Expansion Ideas


    • 21.

      Shenkerian Analysis


    • 22.



    • 23.

      Rules For Subdominant Function


    • 24.

      New Notations


    • 25.

      The V7 As Tonic Expansion


    • 26.

      Other V7 Expansions


    • 27.

      The Double Neighbor V7 Expansion


    • 28.

      SubMediant Expansions


    • 29.

      Thoughts On Extensions


    • 30.

      What Next?


    • 31.



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About This Class

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These classes I'm making for Skillshare use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

Recently I was named as a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year award because of my in-person university classes. Now I'm taking those classes to Skillshare in an online format in order to reach more students and give them the joy of Music Theory.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own.

This class is a Comprehensive class - it will have many parts, going through my entire annual curriculum.

This class is Part 8: Harmonic Expansion, and it continues what would be the second semester of a college music theory class (according to the typical American academic system for learning music theory).

Throughout this class, I'll be providing you with many worksheets for you to practice the concepts on. If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. Also in this class, I have several complete analysis projects that we will complete together - just like in my college classes.

In this class, we will cover:

  • Tools of Music Theory
  • The Cadential 6/4
  • Chord Function
  • Writing Cadential 6/4 Chords
  • Neighboring 6/4 Chords
  • Pedal 6/4 Chords
  • Writing Neighboring 6/4 Chords
  • The Arpeggiating 6/4 Chord
  • Parallelism in Music
  • New Analysis Notations
  • The V7 as a Tonic Expansion
  • Other V7 Expansions
  • The Double-Neighbor V7 Expansion
  • Submediant Expansions
  • ...and much, much more!

And of course, once you sign up for Part 8 - Harmonic Expansion you automatically get huge discounts to all the upcoming parts of this class.

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. 

Dr. Jason Allen is an Ableton Certified Trainer and a Ph.D. in Music Composition and master of Electronic Sounds. His music has been heard internationally in film, radio, video games, and industrial sound, as well as the concert hall and theater. His 2015 album, Aniscorcia, reaching the CMJ Top200 Charts and radio broadcasts nationwide. In 2014 he was named a semi-finalist for the Grammy Music Educator Award.

He currently is a professor at Augsburg University and the CEO of Slam Academy in Minneapolis.

Praise for classes by Dr. Jason Allen:

"Without a doubt the best explanation and east of use that one can get. It leaves you enough room to go explore. The classes go by quickly, so you can be on your way to being proficient. What are you waiting for!"

"Amazing - Seriously Loved It! I took all his courses and have to say I'm so happy! Learned loads! Jason is an awesome teacher!"

"I have never had any formal training in music at all. Trying to learn all the notes and how everything translated was a serious challenge. After going through this class, Dr. J has totally brought down the barriers. The content was very useful and was easy to grasp for me."

"I like these courses because you can get up and running quickly without having to spend hours of time wading through TMI (too much information!). Jason hits the high points but shows you what you need to know. Thanks!"

"I've watched many other videos on scales and chords before, however, this one has been the best. I now understand minor scales and chords and even how to analyze songs. It really gave me the confidence to start producing music because I feel like I have some structure and guidelines to follow. AWESOME!"

"Clear and Informative - Jason has a clear uncluttered style (with the important dashes of humor) of presentation that is focused on the important key aspects of this course. Recommended for those starting out!"

"Dr. Allen does it again with his music theory series. This course really opened up everything I learned from the 1st section, and now I understand more about the composition side of things for music. I highly highly recommend this course to anyone!!! Really opened my eyes to many things I wasn't aware of."

"The Best Teacher Ever, who makes you understand the ins & outs of Music Theory by all means without giving what you don't want to know."

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

J. Anthony Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


Dr. J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen tea... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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1. Welcome & Overview: by treating with notes of the tonic chord as passing, which is kind of a head scratcher. Totally get it. Um, weird. But what we've done here is and we have a one court again. Okay, So obviously what I'm concerned with is this different court, because this is all one. So what's happening here? F E flat D. So if you put all those notes in order, we would have a spot in contact. One of those are creating 64 Remember what you're looking for here with baseline to start moving up by court times, right to just walk up its own. So let's hear it. And then this'll is one that results from doing something else. It's kind of the byproduct of another kind of. So let's take a little bit of a step back toe. Everyone, Welcome to music theory part eat. If you've been following on along in this sequence of classes, you know, basically what we're up to here, we're going through my whole college level curriculum. Um and we're nearing the end of what would be the second semester topics covered in second semester with this class. So if you stick with all of these classes, you will go through my entire four semester college curriculum as long as I keep on I plan on key by making so in this heart in part, we're gonna be focusing on expansion of tonic in particular thing, this goofy 64 chords. We're gonna be working a lot with potential. 64 It's called a wide Is this weird little cord get its entire own class. And it's because this cord has the unique properties of undoing some things that already I know that's frustrating, but it'll all make sense. What you once you get inside, um, this course I'm not gonna lie. This is the hardest one so far. We're gonna get into some exceptions some, uh, some new rules some different ways that things that you already know work. So it's really important course. If you're trying to really understand music theory, it's vital that you get through this course and you really understand these topics that we're talking about. Because as we move forward into more music theory, um, you're gonna need to understand how some of this stuff works. So I hope you decided to join us in this class. There's a bunch of worksheets, a bunch of examples, a bunch of things for you to play around with in the class. So please join me on the inside and let's get started right away. 2. Tools: Okay, let's get started with tools that we will need in this course Now, if ah, this is part eight of this course that I've made this same video every time the tools have not changed. So if you've seen me do this skip to the next video, basically Ah, here's the short and long of it. We're going to use this program called Mu Score. I'm going to use this program called Muse Score. Um, that's what we're looking at here. You don't have to use this program at all. Ah, this is a program that lets me put in notes and change them, Play them back. It's basically a text editor like Microsoft Word, but from music notes, you can use whatever you want. I've gotten a lot of questions about people wanting to use other programs, and that's just fine. Um, this isn't a class really on how to use music or eso. We're not gonna go into the details of how this program works, although it's fairly easy to learn. There are a lot of other programs out there, like finale Sebelius. Ah, there's a new one called Dori Co. Um, which has a lot of good potential. And a lot of people have asked me if they can use notion. I think that's Ah ipad. Only thing, um and totally. Yeah, totally. Just use something that lets you put in notes. And then here, here, what you put in, that's all. And you don't even need to do that if you just want to follow along and learn how to do this stuff. Ah, you don't have to, but I'm gonna be using this program called Muse Score. It's a free program. You can get it from you score dot org's if you're interested in doing it, the other tool we're gonna need is some good old fashioned paper and pencil. But not just any paper we want to use staff paper. Um, that is the paper that has this, you know, the five lines on it. It's called staff. Um, would you probably know by now if you're in part eight, So in the next little segment, I'll give you a piece of staff paper. And let me just say that, um, a lot of you know that I recently took this trip to the Arctic and I was on a ship for two weeks, and what I did on that ship for two weeks is I brought some really nice, a new pad of staff paper and a couple of brand new pencils. And I sat on the ship when I wasn't like hiking around glaciers and things. I sat on the ship and I wrote music and I wrote a ton of music. I was so productive. It was great. But all I had pencil and paper, No computer, no nothing. Um, it was awesome. It felt so good to be doing that again, just away from all technology. And it's funny because I'm a super technology technology nerd. That's what I do, you know? I mean, I make online classes, but there's something about just writing with pencil and paper that's really liberating. You don't have to do that. But, um, if you're going to jot down notes for this class, if you're gonna be listening to what I'm saying, and then maybe you want Teoh read a couple things down, it's really handy to do it on staff paper, because it's just easier, because you might want to write down something about Accord know Tate that chord. Okay, so those are the tools that you're gonna need for this class. I'm gonna give you a piece of staff paper in the next segment. Download that print off five or six copies and keep it by your computer or your phone or your device or whatever you're watching this on so that you can take notes. That's it for tools. Um, okay, let's go on. 3. Review: Worksheets: okay, review stuff. So in previous classes, I've done some review sessions, and then the last one. I didn't really do a review session to go over the things you need, because there's just so much at this point we've kind of been pushing this snowball down a hill, and now that snowball is pretty huge. If you've been following along through all parts of this class now we're on part eight and you know a lot about music theory. So we're getting pretty deep into the weeds now. There's no single thing I can point you to to do a review. But if you're still hesitant on any particular topic, go back and look at the worksheets that I've been giving you in the other sections. Those will help bring you up to speed kind of test where you are. If you're having problems, see if you can find out exactly what is giving you problems. If there's a particular thing, um, and drill that, do some of those worksheets post a question, Um, in either this class or the previous class. I check them all every day. So post question. Figure out what's giving you problems, and I will jump in and see if I can help you out, which I probably can so review those worksheets. Make sure you're comfortable with everything before you move on. If you're not like getting 100% on the worksheets, this is a question I've been getting. Um that's okay. I mean, everybody makes mistakes here and there. But, um, make sure you at least our understanding why you're making those mistakes. Once you look at the correct answers. So review those, make sure you're ready to continue, and then we will continue. I think that's all I really need to say about that. Let's move forward. 4. Master Example File: Okay. Last thing before we dive into the rial content of the class. Sort of the last will warm up thing we need to dio just wanted to remind you about this Muse score file. So I'm going to once again make all my examples throughout the class and a single muse score file. In fact, let's set that up right now. New. Let's call this theory. Come pre and sieve part eight, you can skip the rest of that. Um, let's set up a grand staff in the key of C major finish. All right, there we are. So I'm gonna be adding everything to this file kind of sequentially. So if you want, you can download this file and, um, follow along with what I'm doing so well have, like, the first couple things will be in the first couple bars. The next couple things will be in the next couple of ours. I usually leave a couple bars empty in between each thing so you can follow along with this . Now, I'll be posting that music or file, Um, right after this one. So once I'm done making the entire class, I'll jump back and post it in the next segment, so download that if you're using you score And if you're not using music or I'll also posted as a PdF. So if using you score or you just want to follow along as a PdF, you can download those and then you'll have all my examples kind of typeset in, um, actual notation. Okay, uh, I think it's handy. I've been doing it for the last couple videos, and I've heard good responses to it, so I'm gonna keep doing it. If you don't want to do that, don't do it. It's totally fine. Okay, let's dive in. 5. What Is A Cadential 6/4 Chord?: Okay, so we're gonna start off talking about credential 64 chords. And in fact, a lot of this court class is going to be about the credential. 64 No. Why would I have a whole class about one bloody cord? And it's because it's pretty weird. Um, and you might find this a little frustrating. So we're at the point in music theory where things are not always as they seem and in particular, what that means is that, um, the notes alone might not tell us the correct analysis for ah cord. And we need to look at the context a little bit. Let me give you an example. Here's a little ditty that I just whipped up. Um, this is just kind of a nothing thing, but I want to focus on this cadence that's happening right here. Okay, Little half cadence. So let's analyze this. Let me get some text up. Okay, so we're in the key of D major. We have to trouble cliffs here, so we have d a de in a at first and then an f in a. So we're still on d major in all four of these notes here we have a D in an A and f sharp sorry of Sharp and an F sharp. So this first to beats is all d major. So let's call this. It's called this one. Okay, here we have g e and there's another e There's a B so g e and B e b d e e e. Okay, so off. Eight of these notes here basically are g e and B. So what court is that? E g B would spell it in third. So that's a two chord E g b. Okay, so let's take this but here and call it a to court. OK, now let's look at what's happening here. So the notes we have on this down b r a d e and F sharp. Okay, so that's a one chord, right? D f a notes we have here are C and E, so we only while in a right cause a is still continuing on. So a c e is the five chord, right? So we ended on a five chord here, so that means it's 1/2 cadence, which is nice. Okay, so here we are, a little half cadence. It's nice to pretty. It's unresolved. That's how half Kansas work. But what if I was to tell you that this is not a one chord? It's not. That is not a one chord, even though the notes in the one chord key of D r D f sharp in A and what we have here is de have sharp and a it is not a one court, it's not. It's called a credential 64 and it's kind of a five chord, actually, Um, now there are debates. I've seen different ways of teaching music theory, and some people teach it as calling this a 164 and some people teach it, calling it a 564 we're gonna call it a 564 because that seems to be the most common. I think calling it a 164 is getting to be kind of rare. So, um, but really, at the end of the day, their boat, everyone's calling it a credential. 64 Um and so here's what that means. Here's how you would label it. You do it like this, and then you would go like this. This is our inversion, so I want to make that a little bit smaller. So we call this 64 as the inversion. And you're like, That's not a 564 right? That doesn't make any sense, cause why, this is clearly a one. But hold your horses here. 6453 And then we would draw a little line between them, which I don't think I could easily dio. So here we have 56453 Meaning that we're going to treat this whole thing like a five chord that's going 6453 Um, it's resolving to ah, 553 which is a root position. Five chord, right that a is on the bottom. So this is what we're dealing with here. This credential. 64 business. Is it a one? Is it a five? Well, we have to look at the context and let's dive into that first. And let's talk about the cord function. Let's do that in a new video. So if this doesn't make sense, why this is a 564 chord, don't worry about it. We're gonna figure out all of that as we continue. So what? I'm I guess what I'm saying here is Ah, Why is this a 564 chord? Hold on and we're gonna learn why we call it that and then a whole bunch of uses for it. So let's talk about function next. 6. Chord Function: Okay, So one new thing we have to start considering now and we look at a piece of music is how Accord is functioning on what that means is kind of like what it's what is its role. What is it doing in context? So let's hear this one more time and then we'll talk about it. Okay, So in the context of this little ditty, is this functioning like a one court meaning tonic? Remember, Tonic is home. It's where we can stop. So if I play this and stop here, does it feel like tonic? Does it feel like the end? Try it. Does that feel like the end? It kind of doesn't. It doesn't to me. Even though it is a tonic chord. It's a tonic chord in a 64 inversion, which is not entirely settling because we have a five in the base, so it's functioning like a five chord. Even though all the notes are correct to be a tonic chord, it feels like a five, and then it resolves to a five, so that really makes it feel like it's functioning like a five. So this idea of function is it's a bit subjective, right? Um, I could hear it one way. You could hear it another way. And this is where this is where theory starts to get open to some interpretation. These are the kinds of things that you argue about in graduate school. You say, Well, it's, Ah, tonic 64 according someone else says No, it's a one chord, and you both might be right. Um, not really, not really in that example, because that example can be pretty clear. And there's not much to argue about. Once you get more into more advanced stuff, things become debatable, right? And this is kind of our first foray into that. Ah, into looking at music theory from a more subjective lens like what is going on around it? What is the context? So in this context, this D f sharp a business is functioning like a five chord. It's it's doing the job of a five chord. Ah, and we call that cord function right. This d f sharp A is functioning like a one chord, right, because it feels like tonic, right? That could be the end. And that's totally okay. It would be a very, very, very, very very short piece, but it could be the end. That's tonic and it feels like tonic, and it's acting like tonic. But this one of the end that all feels like a five chord and is acting like a five chord. So that's function. We're going to talk more about function as we get into ah, this class a little bit more. Um, so this is just kind of an introduction on it. Let's continue to talk a little bit more about this 564 business. 7. Dominant Expansion: Okay, so let's look at this another way. So same thing, Just different perspective. In previous classes, we talked about tonic, dominant, pre dominant tonic shapes. Right? This in process of doing that, we also talked about ways of expanding the tonic area, ways of expanding the predominant area and ways of expanding the dominant area. Right. So check it out. What we're really doing here is this is another way to expand the dominant, and the way we've done it is by treating the notes of the tonic chord as passing tones, which is kind of a head scratcher. A totally get it. Um, it's weird, but what we've done here is these two notes feel like, ah, passing tone. They feel temporary in this context. Listen to it again and think about Let's just focus on this, this f sharp. I've sharp Teoh, right? Think about this f sharp when it happens and think, Does it feel stable, or does it feel like we're on our way to something else? Is it a passing tone or not way right. It feels like a passing tone to me. That's what we've done on this on this, um, could intial 64 treats the tonic notes like a passing tone. It's really interesting. Now. You'll also find that when people play these, um, like, if I was playing this on piano, I'd lean into these two notes. Actually, this whole cord just a little bit. I put a little extra emphasis on it and then a little quieter on these two notes, Right, because you want to lean into these 64 chords and give him a little emphasis, and then you pull back. That helps it feel like a passing tone. It's like going Dad, it added at a Dadu Dahdouh, you know, use push on it. Sorry for my crappy singing, but that really helps it feel like a passing tone. But at the end of the day were back to what we were talking about before expansion of the dominant area. That's what this is is. It's making the dominant two chords long by incorporating this 164 chord, resolving it to 153 and then calling the whole bloody thing a five chord. It's weird, right? 8. My Country Tis Of Thee Example: Okay, let's look at a real world example here. So I've downloaded from you Score. Um, a version that somebody made of my country. Tis of thee. Um quick reminder. If you go to the Muse score website, you can download new score files for just tons of stuff, so you can just type in my country. Tis of thee if you want and find files that people have made of this of whatever you want. Um, there's a ton of music here, so I downloaded this file from there. This is someone's arrangement of my country. Tis of thee. Let's hear it just the first bit just up to hear of the icing just up to there. And there are two potential six fours in here in this little part that we're going to hear , so see if you can spot them. Okay, So, um, one of the problems with just downloading a file like this is that it's not always perfect . And we can hear there's some weirdness happening with the rhythms here. Let's figure out what that is. Actually, this is a theory class. These should be the same. Um, should this one not have a doubt Or should this one have a dot My con treat tis of thee. This one should have a dot. Okay, so I I went through and I fixed these rhythms really quick. Um, that kind of screwed up my page formatting, but, um, I had to re type in the words here is actually to delete the whole measure to fix that on and then reenter it. So let's hear it again. Okay, that's all we're gonna be concerned with. Now, let's find our to potential. Six fours here. So here we enter in the key of f. So, um, let's just go right to the 1st 1 The 1st 1 is gonna be right here. What is this chord? C f A. That's a one chord, right? So if this is going to be a consensual 64 than it must resolve to Ah, five. Well, okay. So two things must happen if we're going to call this a credential. 641 is that it has to be a second inversion. One chord. So that means the fifth of the chord f a c. The C has to be in the base on dit is K. So our first thing is true that the fifth of the court is in the base. The other thing that has to happen is it has to resolve to a root position five court. So let's look at that. So that means that the sea in the base has to stay a C. That's that's the only way that can work. So if this is a C, then because it's the five of our tonic chord it has, that also means it's the five of the key. And so it has to be the note in the base of the resolution Court. So that note has to stay the same. In other words, Now you'll notice here it's an octave here on Dhere. It goes down to 1/7. That's okay. That's totally okay, because check it out. What we have here is a potential 64 with 1/7 in it. Where the There's ah five chord is a 57 That's totally allowed. Um, So what are our notes here? What they should be is the five chord and F, which is C. So see, e g. And then we have the 57 in there. Also, f we're sorry B flat. Totally. Okay, let's remember the key singer B flat. So that means what we would call this. Even though this is a one chord, we can call this five and then we would call it if we just call it a five without any other text. We are wrong. 64 but well, let's stick with that for a second. So 564 Yeah, resolving Teoh 53 But that's not the entire picture in this particular case, right? Because we have the seventh. So what we really need to say here is resolves to 753 Which means we can't say 64753 we if we have three numbers here, we have to have three numbers here. So because we're showing the resolution, the six moves to five. The four moves to three. So I have to put something up here that says what moves to the seven, right? Well, let's look at how we did it. See? So that's the tonic. Sorry, that's the five of the cord moves to the seventh. So in this case, that would be eight. Because remember, these numbers are not reflecting a tonic chord. There reflecting a five chord. So on a five chord C is eight and it moves down to seven. So 5864753 and we would call this whole thing. Ah, credential. 64 court. There's one more. It's a couple chords away on the word the Okay, so let's look up here. We have our notes R, C, A, C and F. So we have are one chord which would be spelled F A c and then another See in the base. So we have a seat in the base. So we need that right. That's one of our things. The other thing we need is our next court to be a five in route position. So our base note will stay the same, which it does. And is this a five chord are five Chord is C. So we need to see E and A G c and another C. So no seventh this time. So here we would call this oh of five, not 864 but just 64 cause there's no seventh in our next chord. And then here we would put 53 Now, why don't I do this? Why don't I write? 564553 Other than being kind of a mouthful, Um, that's not exactly accurate, right? Because what we're doing here is we have a five chord that were extending, so we don't really want to say that it's another court by putting the Roman numeral there. What we're saying is, this is a 564 that's resulting 253 That's resolving. Yet Teoh 53 So it's really all one big cord is what this is saying. Crazy, right? Weird voodoo stuff. 9. Writing Cadential 6/4 Chords: Okay, let's go back to our master example file and talk a little bit about writing these. Now I sort of Taurel do the formula, which is, you know, these kind of two main things were looking for We're looking for a tonic Ah, chord in 64 inversion followed by a route position five chord eso The bass note is the same and you can see here are based on is the same because this a holds through Teoh here. So let's talk about a couple other tips for writing them When you're writing these, you should try to And this isn't like a really strict rule. It just sounds good and is, I don't know, maybe kind of ah, soft rule. Let's call it, um, approached them from a predominant harmony. So four to something like that, uh, tends to work best. So kind of like what we have here. We have a two and then our credential. 64 Put it on. Ah, strong beat eso start your credential 64 on a strong beat whenever possible. So the downbeat um possibly the third beat foreign 44 Something like that. Strong beats are good for starting it always resolved down. This is Ah, this is one where you know, in other lessons we've talked about, you could resolve up or down or these other things 99.9% of the time we resolve a tonic, a credential. 64 down. So here what we're doing here is the third resolves down to the fifth, and the tonic resolves down to the third of the next chord on and our fifth resolves by not moving to the tonic of our five chord. So we resolved down. That's how we do this. It's just kind of the sound of the credential. 64 is a downward resolution, so you don't want to do it up. And when it comes to making good voice leading, you're gonna have a hard time doing it going up anyway, um, it would not work very well. So don't even try, do it going down. So that's kind of it, um, for my tips on that, now we're gonna look at a couple other kinds of 64 cords coming up. Um, some things you can dio some special properties of the 64 chord. So we're gonna move on to neighbouring 64 chords. And but before that, let's throw in a little worksheet so you can practice writing some of these things. 10. The Neighbor 6/4 Chord: All right, let's look at another example. This is just ah, little Diddy that I cooked up and is not a thing from anything, but it will get us through a, um, nice example of showing us this next topic. So let's just listen to it first. Ah, way. So here we have two chords we have So we're in the key of F. We have a one chord, a one chord, a one chord. Here we have a different chord, and then we have a one court again. Okay, So obviously what I'm concerned with is this different court, because this is all one. So what's happening here? F B flat D. So if you put all those notes in order, we would have, in order of thirds anyway, B d f B flat, D f So be flat. D f in the key of f is a four record, right? Correct. I'm just gonna tell myself that I'm correct. So four courts, we have 11141 Right. But let's think about this. Does this behave like a four chord? Is its function of four chord or is its function purely an extension of tonic? If it's purely an extension of tonic. Then let's call it what it is. Um, let's call it. Let's call all of this a tonic chord and this a little, ah, distraction from tonic brief. A brief little distraction from Tonic. Let's hear it again and think about that. Is this a tonic extension or truly a four chord? I think this is an extension of tonic. Were just I could just as easily keep going with tonic through this measure, and it would be slightly less interesting, but it wouldn't fundamentally change anything. So what do we call this thing then? We're gonna call it another type of a 64 not a kid intial. 64 We're going to call this a neighboring 64 meaning we're going to go to a 64 chord again . We're not going to change the base note. That's key here. Bass note stays the same, but we're going to shift our number two notes up to notes this time, and that's gonna make a 464 chord that we're going to call a neighboring 64 cause. All that happened was our third and fifth went up to a 64 and then come right back down. Just like what we saw in neighbor tones before, remember, we saw neighbor tones and neighbor tones were non chord tones that just went up in depth. You know, it was like no big deal. Still in key. Um, but just little notes toe add color to something. Ah, that just stepped outside of the court. And then right back in a neighbor, it's like going over asking for some sugar coming back. That's exactly what's happening here. This is asking for sugar and they were coming back home one more time. Okay, let's go to a new video. Let's talk about the rules for neighbor 64 cords. 11. Properties Of Neighbor the 6/4: Okay, So what we have here is Well, let's actually, um, notated first with our text. So here, we're gonna call this a one chord, and we're going to call this whole thing of one chord. But what we're going to do as we're going to call this of 53 and we should make that a little smaller to be accurate. Okay, we're gonna call us a one 53 264 and we're not done yet to 53 to show that its neighboring I got to show it going back, and then we're gonna connect it. So really should be doing is using a line like this. It's hard to do in Muse score. So but I'm gonna do it like that there. So we have a 1536453 So this shows that this is a neighboring 64 chord because the five goes to six goes to five, the three goes to four, goes to three. And that's how these neighboring 64 chords work. Now there's one other wrinkle to this that we sometimes also called this a peddle 64 of the reason for the word pedal six fours. We know what pedals are by this point, right? We've talked about pedals. I think, Ah, pedal is repeating note that goes throughout a number of chords. Um, we get the term from Oregon pedals just laying a big bass note down and then that continuing on for a long time, it doesn't always have to be in the base, but it often is. And the reason we would call this a pedal 64 is because this note just keeps on trucking all the way through. Just like a pedal Would, um, we could sustain this effort if we wanted to. All the way. I just have a voice that just kept playing in f over and over and over. In fact, let's do it. Watch this. Um, we could do this. Ah, there. We could do that if we wanted. And now we'd really have a pedal, right? We don't have to do this in order for it to be considered a pedal. This repeated note is enough, right? Let's see what this sounds like. Just for fun. Way could keep hitting that f over and over and over. If we wanted to really emphasize it is essentially what we're doing already, right? We're already doing that with this. Let's hear that just for fun, right? It totally works. Um, it's a little heavy handed, though, so let's not do it. But we don't have to for this to be considered a pedal 64 more So Neighbor 64 Neighboring 64 and pedal 64 are almost always the same thing. You could do a neighbouring 64 without a pedal 64 but it would be pretty rare. I can't think of how an example of that would work. I've told my head. So, um, I think it's safe to think of them as the same thing. A neighboring 64 and a pedal 64 I prefer the term neighboring 64 Um, because it's more clearly showing what's happening here and not just talking about the bass note. Now, unlike our previous example over here, what this one was doing was embellishing or extending the dominant. Right Now, what we're doing is using that 64 to embellish or extend the tonic right, and that's okay, so we would never call this a credential 64 because it has no credential properties There's nothing about this that means that it's a kittens, whereas this is what we use. Four. A cadence. So this is credential. This is just neighboring. It's a neighboring 64 extending tonic. Okay, now, let's talk about, um, things that you should note in order to write some yourself and then we'll do it. 12. Using Neighboring 6/4 on the Dominant: actually, one more thing before we get into Ah, the details of writing them. I want to point out one other thing. What we've done here is extended tonic, like I just said, But you could use a neighboring 64 to embellish or extend a dominant chord. Let's look at what that would look like. Um, let's do something like this. Let's go. Let's do it here, Actually, on a switch to, ah, continuous view here here we go down to deal with returns there and let's do something. Let's do a five chord. So we're still in the key of F. So let's actually start on Teoh. See? So we want to do a five chord in route position to start. So let's make a big old see and then we'll do. Then we'll do it. That's doing half notes. E and G. Let's do it. Incorrect voices. So now we've got our five chord. Now let's do a 64 on that. So in order to do it, we're actually going to make here is a 164 by going up hoops going to go up and then back down, okay? And then we want this again. So what did we just make? So you are not c e d. So we're on a five chord now. We have C A f so spelled in order f a c So we have a one chord, but it's a 164 Right, So same deal is over here, right? Cause this was a 164 and then we're back to our five. Good. So what we have here is not a credential. 64 like this, because credential 64 results downward. Whereas this one were moving up to the 64 then back to the five. All we're doing here is extending five by adding this 64 court. So the way we would analyze this would be and we would call this a five, 53 64 53 And then we would use our lines like that. So 5536453 So this idea of the neighboring 64 chord could be used to extend the five as well as the tonic. Cool. Cool. Okay, Now, let's get into some talk about, uh, things we need to know if we're gonna be writing them 13. Writing Neighboring 6/4 Chords: Okay, So if we're going to be writing these chords a couple things to be thinking about, um, and kind of a review of kind of the rules, a good way to do it is to first right the cord that you want to extend. Either Thomet. I will said Tom in int tonic or dominant, right? It twice in route position. So right at once here in route position and then leave some space and write it again in route position. That's one way you can do it. Um, that wouldn't have exactly worked in this case, but, um, basically, we need to start with the cord in route position. Ah, Then for the in between, fill in the upper two notes. If for going up. Ah, which I guess we're always going up. Ah, on the neighbor. Um, I don't think you could do a neighbor going down because you would end up with a credential . 64 So right. Our other two notes going up, keep your bass note the same going through and that it be sure that you resolve back down to the the cord that you started with in the same voicing. So we couldn't have done something like, you know, like if we wanted to have a new voicing but still resulted in a five chord. Think that's against the rules you have todo You have to resolve it to the same voicing we go. 536453 A lift up and a drop down. And that gets us our credential are sorry, our neighboring 64 court quote. Now there are a ton of other types of 64 chords and we're going to stick with these suckers because they can be confusing. If you're confused, you might be thinking, How do I spot one of these things? Why do I know that this is a 164 and not a 464 Stick with me a little longer. We're gonna work on ways of spotting them. Um and ah, lot of this, to be honest, has to do with where you are in music theory. Like, if you were in ah freshman music theory class in your very first semester and I gave you this, I would expect you to write 464 here, to be honest, because it's what it is. That's fine. But if you were in a more advanced music theory class like you are now in this music theory class, I would expect you to call that a neighbor 64 court. Because you now know what that is. So you kind of spot it as an extension of tonic. Right? So, um, get used to seeing these going forward. Cool. Let's press on. 14. The Arpeggiating 6/4 Chord: Okay. Next, let's talk about the arpeggio hating 64 chord. Um, this one's a little different, Um, and in a way, a bit easier. So when we talk about our Pesci ating 64 we're not talking about like this is a 64 chord that is arpeggio hated, right? And arpeggio is playing the notes of the chord one by one. Um, and that is kind of what we're talking about, but this is quite a bit different than arpeggio hitting a 64 chord. This is a 64 chord that results from our pay Jiating the Triad. That sounds confusing, but let's look at an example. It's actually quite simple. Let's go here and see what Kerry and F. Let's just stay in f just fine. Uh, so let's do it on a one core Joey in a sea, right? So let's keep this going. Let's go F a c like So Okay, here's what's happened here. We have a one chord root position, right? Let's let's label these as we go one and this is a 53 So let's just leave it at calling it a one for now. This one we have a one. What, 16? Because our third is now in the base. And, yes, we are missing a note. We're missing our route, but that's OK from context. It's still going to sound like an f chord and here way, have what we have. A one six. So this is a 64 chord that has occurred because we have arpeggio hated base. So, unlike the other ones, this is one that's focused on motion in the base. The other ones that we've looked at so far have been focused on motion in the upper voices and the base staying the same. This one is opposite, right? Upper voices, air staying the same. The base is moving. This is more common than you would think. Um ah, lot of the time when you're just trying to extend a tonic court, start moving up like this, um, just to give it some flavor to feel like something's changing. Um, let's hear. Ah, right. It almost feels like it's going down like this was accorded. This Felt like it was higher than that core than this felt like it was lower than that chord. I wonder why That's something in the computer the way it's playing it back. But what we've created here is an arpeggio hated 64 So what we would, how we would really label this is without these 1664 We don't really need the lines here like we did here, because we're not showing that the 53 moves to six moves to 64 It's not that kind of motion , right? That showing directly that these two notes are moving up and then moving down 565343 shows the motion of those notes. This is just showing that root position court happened and then a six happened and then a 64 happened all along the same route, all as an extension of tonic. Okay, so let's look at an example of this Ah, in the real world in a song that you probably know because we've already looked at it. But we're gonna look at a different spot 15. My Country Tis of Thee with Arpeggiating 6/4: Okay. Now that we know what this is, let's see if you can spot it in our friend. My country tis of thee. All right, um, maybe I'll speed this up. Just a hair. I think we were listening to it really slow. Okay, we're gonna hear these horrible midi voices. Oh, my gosh. I hate that sound. Um, there's nothing worse than, like midi choir low. Anyway, um, see if you can spot in context one of those arpeggio hating 64 chords. Remember what you're looking for here for the baseline to start moving up by chord tones, right to just walk up its own cord. Uh, so let's hear it and then way. Mm. Okay, let's stop it there. Because this file gets crazy like that. What is that note? At least I think that makes sense. Uh, anyway, doesn't matter. We just passed it anyway. Um, so right here, Right. Land of the Here we have a C, g and B. So what chord would we call that? Probably call that a 57 chord. So we're in the key of F. So C e is he is missing here, But see, e g B flat as our seventh right. So here's 57 and then our base note. Who is going to step up through the cord creating here that are Pesci ated? 64 chord Because we have a G on the base. It's a 64 court. Cool. Let's hear just just that bar extra extra note. But that's OK. Um, are melody. Voices are upper voices. They stayed the same. We have it again here, right here. This one's a little harder to see uh, because I think there's some wrong notes in it. Totally wrong. Those in it. It's what it should be. So this is what it's supposed to be. And when it's like this, you can see the AARP radiated 64 right there. Um, he's not stay the same. Thats stays the same, but we walk up through our base note, creating the arpeggio hated 64 Now, when you have one of these 64 chords, they're usually quite temporary. Um, and we moved back either to a resolution or to the original cord pretty quick. In this case, we moved back to the five chord, so we're saying a root position. Five chord. So 55656453553 Um, root position is what we're back to here. Ah, here we have one. Who won 6164 And what ought to be a one f a c? Yes. Ah, one. So in both cases here, we've stayed on the same core, but moved back to a root position at the end of it. So thes 64 chords are quite temporary. They kind of happen quick and in passing. Um, not in passing. That's the wrong word, cause we're going talk about passing six fours in just a second. Um, but they are created through an arpeggio. They don't hang around a long time, but there were being able to spot them also, Unlike the other ones, they don't change the cord. You know this you would spot as a 164 chord anyway, right? That's what you were taught to call that already. This isn't giving an old court a new name. This is just another use of the 64 chord that is important to know, right? These 64 chords are weird little buggers. So we have some extra little things we have to think about with them. And this is one of them. Okay, let's move on to the passing. 64 16. The Passing 6/4: okay, up next. Let's talk about the passing 64 record. Now this one's a little more complicated. It's Ah, this is one that results from doing something else. It's kind of the byproduct of another kind of motion. So let's take a little bit of a step back to walk through this. Let's which keys? Back to the major trouble base. Cool. Okay, so let's say you're trying to embellish your tonic chord, and you want to do it in a fairly typical way of moving to a 16 court. So check it out. We can go like this S O. This is our tonic chord. We go up 1/3 to a 16 court. So it's just fill these in. Let's do it in our good old four voices. And I did it backwards already. Awesome. So in doing this, we're going to create a voice exchange. I think we've gone over voice exchanges in the past, but let's do a quick little review on what a voice exchange is. Okay, so here, let's label this This is a one chord and then a 16 Okay, so what we've done here is we've expanded the tonic chord by moving to a 16 chord. So we're still totally on a tonic chord. We've effectively just created some motion by moving up. Now, in order to do that, this voice exchange happen. And what that means is we didn't change any notes here, right? Like all the notes are the same D f sharp a d. And here we have d f sharp a d right. All the notes are the same. They're just ordered slightly different, mostly on the top and the bottom. So the voice exchange here is that the bass note in the soprano notes swapped. Basically. So this D moved here essentially, and this f sharp moved here. We swapped notes so nobody changed notes except for those two just traded notes in a way that's called a voice exchange. Okay, it's okay. In this context, it's OK. It can get you into trouble in certain voice leading things. And I think we talked about that in this species counterpoint as a dangerous thing to watch out for. But in moving to a 16 chord, it's okay. Let's just hear what this sounds like. Ah, right. Not a huge motion not a big dramatic motion, but a motion. So that's our voice exchange. No. What if we wanted to be a little more dramatic about her voice exchange and fill in some notes? We might step up to this right here. We might go way might add a passing tone here, right? D E f. That sounds nice. Let's hear. Okay, that sounds good. It's a typical motion. It's when we do a lot. Now, if we want to go one step further, we might add, Ah, passing note here, going down to finish out the voice exchange. Ah, OK, That makes a big old active right there. And that's OK because it's not a parallel active because this is it's being approached by contrary motion, Right? This is going up. This is going down so that octave doesn't necessarily break a rule. It's not really pretty, though. So what if we filled it in? What if we added some notes to it? Way took whoopsie. We took this D on. We just fully harmonized this cord in the most logical possible way. Thistles. How you would do it. It's just like that now. Ah, OK, so now we've harmonized the passing tone in between the one and the 16 So what did we do? What core did we make here? Let's look at our notes. We have an A e and a c so and another So putting those in order. We have a C A ce is our a c sharp. Sorry is a major in the key of D. That's five. Okay. And look at what's on the base. The five. So we have 564 Okay, So our court here is this, but is it really so we have now? We need to put this here because we moved away cords. Okay, so here's exactly what we have. But how is this functioning? Is this functioning like an extension of tonic, or is it functioning like are true? Five chord. Ah. Now, the honest answer to that is that it's really impossible to tell in a short example like this. Um, this does kind of feel like 151 because we're playing it slow and it's out of context. But in most normal cases, in a piece of music, if you encountered this one toe 16 with a 564 in between you would say that is all tonic, baby, and you would do that. You wouldn't need this and we would call this a passing 64 It's quick, it's going by. It's an extension of tonic. Okay, so it results from a voice exchange that happened between the soprano and the base. There's the voice exchange, passing tones on the top in the bottom and then harmonizing that passing tone makes Ah, five chord second inversion makes a passing 64 chord. 17. Using The Passing 6/4 on Other Chords: now, the passing 64 is not only for your tonic it could be used on other chords as well. In particular the four and the five. It works particularly well on. So I've added here another one. Um, what we got were still in D. It's an extension of the previous one, So Ah, we have our baby and then her passing 64 and another d chord. And look at what I did here. Way Go from this after up to this g a So how can I spot it? How can I spot that? This is Ah ah are the the middle cord is a passing 64 chord. Well, let's start by labeling each chord. So this looks awfully like a four core, doesn't it? Uh, g b the We're sorry g d b g. So it's a G. So root position four chord here we have d f sharp A on a in the base, so that looks awfully like a one chord, actually. But in a 64 inversion what it is on then. Here we have a G, b, A, D and B in the bass. So now we're back to a 16 We're sorry of 46 back to our G chord. Okay, So if we analyzed each chord individually, this is what we end up with 416446 So when you spot that, you can say, Ah, this is probably a passing 64 chord. So then a better way to analyze it would be like this. That's all you need. Same is here. So you analyze that you find Accord and then a six of accord on the other side of it. And then on the weak beat, you see a 64 chord. The chances are it's a passing six forecourt. Cool. So keep an eye out for that passing. 64 Accord to be on the weak beat. Ah, sandwiched in between two of the same chord one and root position and the other one in first inversion. 18. Writing Passing 6/4 Chords: Okay. Quick summary of the passing 64 chord. Um, could be used to prolong the tonic, dominant or sub dominant. And in some weird cases, you can use it in some other situations. But those are our main ones that we wanna keep an eye out for. Ah, it is sandwiched between a root position in the first inversion cord, Um, of the same harmony. And keep an eye out for that voice exchange. Remember that voice exchange is when we have something like this G and G and B and B, right? So there's this kind of big X going through the middle. Then you fill in the base in soprano voices with the passing tone, which will be an octave. And then from that you fill in the cords. They're filling the notes to make the rest of the court. All the notes will connect by a common tone, Um, or by a step So you shouldn't have any big leaps in doing this. Here is a common tone. Here's a step. Um, no leaps should be required to make this motion, and it sounds really nice, you know? I like it. I like, um, this motion by. I mean, we've gone through six notes, but we've only used to courts. Really? You know, it's it's nice. It's a nice feeling. Um, this sounds a little jerky because I had to go up and active on my soprano voice because my tenor had to get so high. Had a voice crossing here without going up the octave. But let's hear the whole thing way. It's nice, right? It sounds a little bit nicer going fast. They feel a bit more passing. Ah, sounds like three blind mice. Okay, so that is the the big part of the four ah, 64 chords that I want to talk about next. Let's do kind of a quick summary on all four of them. And then we're gonna move on to additional things we can do with them how to use them. How to spot them a little bit more 19. 6/4 Chord Wrap Up: Okay, So, going forward, um, you should be able to identify any 64 chord that comes up as one of these four types. So credential 64 a neighboring 64 or a pedal 64 Same thing passing 64 or an arpeggio hitting 64 Very extremely. Rarely will you have a cord that a 64 chord, a second inversion cord that you cannot put one of those four labels on. Ah, one voice leading thing to consider. We didn't talk about voice leading too much when we were doing this, but, um, when you're writing these and four voiced harmony double the base of the court, that will be the fifth. Right? Um, for the first court and all types, Um, typically, we don't like to double the fifth, but in these 64 cases, the fifth is what is on the bottom. So Ah, it's typically what we do. Let's see if we have an example that that that we did here, it's kind of so Keilar we in here f So? So we doubled the fifth of the 64 chord. That's what I mean. So here's the 64 chord. It's these four notes and what's doubled is the fifth, which is the base. Remember, we do like to double the base. So when you're in four voice harmony, double the fifth on the 64 chord, Um, it will be the base note. You don't have to do it like this. It could be that you're doubling is in a higher voice. It doesn't always have to be the case and tenor voice, but make sure the fifth is the one doubled. Okay, so those there are four types of 64 chords. Now let's talk about using them to expand the tonic area. But before that, let's do a quick worksheet, Um, just to drive this home. And then we'll talk about expanding the tonic area. Some things we can do with 64 chords and some other tricks for expanding the tonic area. 20. Other Expansion Ideas: okay up next, we're going to talk about other expansions of the tonic. Other things you can do that. Draw off what we've, um, been working on so far. So we've been looking at how to use the 64 chord to expand tonic. There are other ideas, right? There are other ways we can do it. There are tons of other ways, and we've looked at a handful of other ways that we can do it. So some of these that we're going to look at our, like, variations of what we've seen with 64 chord that don't necessarily use the 64 court. Some of them do. Some of them don't, um, for example, we're gonna look at just doing a neighbor cord. Ah, that maybe isn't the 64 where we go from 1 to 4 to one. Ah, just right back and forth. And we can call that an expansion of the tonic. Ah, if we obey certain certain rules, But, ah, before that, I thought maybe we just kind of jumped out of sequence. Just a hair. And I want to talk about the existence of two other things. Not in a ton of detail, but I think these are things that will shed a little bit of light on what we're doing. Um, so let's treat the next couple videos. Is a bit of them aside? Um, it's important stuff or else I wouldn't be telling it to you. But it's also, um ah, not in sequence. This is both of these things. I just want to introduce to you and we're gonna talk more about thes in greater detail in future classes are more advanced topics, but just so that you know that they exist. I think they'll help give us a little bit of perspective on what we're doing here. So let's jump into those now. 21. Shenkerian Analysis: Okay, So one of the things that might be going through your head that you're maybe feeling a little frustration towards is that the rules are becoming a little more ambivalent. Um, are many ambivalence. Wrong word me vague is a better word. Um, what was a five chord now? It could be called a one chord, even though it has all the notes of the five court. Right? Like, what's up? And we talked already a little bit about the context matters in the function of the cord matters. Um, I want to show you what this looks like when you go to extremes. There is a style of analysis called Shang Cherian analysis, and what that means is that it's kind of the same idea that we're working with where you know a core does not accord. It's all about the function. What we're doing is were considering the function of chords on a small scale. But if you do that on a big scale, like you look at a whole piece and you say this piece is just one big five chord, you know there's something like that. That's what Shane Cherian analysis is. So, um, this is what this is how you spell that if you want to look it up. Um, nice to see what ah says really quick. It's It was invented by this guy Shankar. The goal of shank eerie analysis is to interpret the underlying structure of atonal work. Ah, and to help reading the score. According to that structure, the theory is, basic tenants can be viewed as a way of defying tonality and music. OK, I'm not going to read you the entire Wikipedia. Um, basically, what this is saying is, um its goal is to figure out the structure of a piece of tonal music. So tonal music means what we're looking at. It means, um, traditional music. Let's to say, um and the structure, what it's talking about here is the kind of larger scale. Imagine a building. So you look at a building and you see all the intricate work of the building. But imagine you stripped away all the intricate stuff and said, I just want to see the structure like the framing the main pillars that are holding that thing up, up, right. That's what Shane carry analysis is looking for. The main things holding the piece together. So this is what a shame carrying analysis looks like. This is just an example I found online. I'm not sure what piece this is. Um, but here is the piece in the top two lines, some piano music. Right. And here is the analysis. This is what the's look like And you can see that traditional analysis would say This is one. This is a 64 is probably, ah five court. It's been analyzed as a 164 back to five here 2151 diminished seven chord and 1256453 Okay , so that's nice. We know what these things are. That's great. But here's how Shankar would look at it. It would see one all the way and then five. So all of this stuff, it would just call one. And they have this interesting notation system here. It's way of kind of notated ing key notes and key moments says more of that kind of main things holding it up. But these are not so influential that they change the fact that this is all one big tonic chord. Right? We have a passing tone, a neighbor tone and then into this transition into five. So this Conso and and I'm not sure what that means anymore. I'm shaky on my shank. Erion analysis. That's almost upon, um, I haven't studied Shankar analysis in a long time, and we're probably not gonna look at Yankee analysis. Actually, in this class, that's a whole other can of worms. Typically, what we do in a college music theory courses, you get all the way to the end of the music theory sequence. And then if you want to continue on, you take some more specific courses. And one of those specific courses might be ashamed. Carrying analysis. Course. I took one in college forever ago. Um, but but actually, I didn't really care for it. Um, I I feel as a composer, I feel like this is kind of insulting to the finesse that we've put into all of this. Um, and maybe it's just me being, you know, some kind of ego driven composer guy, but, um, I don't actually care for it. Um, but the reason I'm pointing it out to, you know, is because I want you to see that when we do it here and we say this is not actually a five court anymore. This is a 164 chord. Um, it's not that weird compared to how weird it could get. Um, when you look at ocean carrying analysis, it gets really bloody weird. So bear with me while we kind of re learned some of these cords, um, based on their function. And just remember that Incheon Kerry analysis it's way worse. So that's what Shakira analysis is. I know a lot of people have heard this word Shankar or shank Erion analysis. Um, because I get asked about it a lot. That's what it is. Um, so if anyone asks you about Shankar, it's kind of one of those fun things that not fun. I find it not. I find it decidedly not fun actually to do she and carry analysis. But it's one of those words that a lot of people know early on in theory, but don't know what it means. So that's what that is. Okay, so let's move on and talk about one other thing. Um, and then we'll get back Teoh kind of the curriculum that I have designed 22. Parallelism: Okay, so, um, I want to talk about parallelism really quick. So what we're going to see as we look at other ways of expanding the tonic area is ways of doing things like going from 12 foreign back really quickly, right? Like we've basically seen that, um, let's do it really quick. So see, we're still in the key of D major. So let's just go. The three f a. So then four of D would be G sort of make good voice leading. We would go. Ah, and I'm not gonna do four part Harmony X. I just want to put this in quick. Um, so we go one, 141 Right? And we can call that an expansion of tonic because, essentially, we're just bumping up to four than coming right back down. Right. But, um, what if we did it? Chromatic Lee. Here's what I mean. And then we went up to what's to say, a root position for okay and then back down. What does that sound like? It sounds a little more juvenile, but what if we did this? Now I'm going to go one, 234 and then I'm gonna go back down. Okay, so now we're just going up and down the court. Progression in route position, right? Nothing fancy here thing. Now I'm gonna make one more change. This is a major chord. Three e f sharp A. I'm gonna make this a major. I'm just gonna move major records all the way up. I'm gonna make that a g sharp e g b f sharp a sharp c sharp. And then at the four chord, we're gonna leave this G b d Sergi Natural moving back down after a sharp c sharp e g sharp b on d f sharp a natural. Okay, so now I'm just moving major chords up and down, right? So I'm totally gone out of key. But I'm just essentially taking a major chord, sliding it up and sliding it down, right? Let's look it. That imagine that was a little bit faster. We don't have to imagine it. Weaken Just dio, right? What a crazy weird sound. This general idea was called parallelism, and it's a way to essentially the same thing. It's a way to kind of expand tonic, but it gets really chromatic really fast. Um, it's not something we're gonna look in this class until we get two more really more advanced stuff. But I wanted to introduce it as just kind of a fun aside and a way to expand tonic that, um, is a little bit different. This is a technique that became really popular right around the turn of the century around 1900 in particularly with a gentleman known as wc um, in context of a piece. So this is not just doing it as root position. Cord is the way I was just doing it. This is finessing it a little bit more to make it more musical. Uh, this is kind of what it sounds like, - huh ? Right, So it gets very dreamy, right? Very. Um, I don't know. Dreamy is the best word that I can think of. Ah, to describe it. But it's really beautiful. It's really a great sound. Um, I encourage you to check out WC. Um, he was really, really into this. That's not to say everything he wrote uses parallelism, but quite a bit of it does, um, you can find it and other composers, you can find it in tons of people. Um but especially in that era, um ah, lot of the French composers were really into it. WC Rivelle and many others. So another kind of offbeat way of expanding tonic. Now, if you do this in any kind of theory assignment, you will be all kinds of wrong. Eso don't do this, but I thought it would be fun just to introduce it and show you something different. That's kind of way down the road of what we're heading towards. Okay, so with that being said, let's get back on track. And let's talk about expanding the tonic area. And let's start with using the sub dominant like what we've kind of been talking about here by going from D to G. D. But let's do it in a much more functional harmony kind of way. 23. Rules For Subdominant Function: Okay, Here's a new rule for us. So, um, this is something I want you to be thinking about when you do analysis going forward. The rule is for the sub dominant to the four chord. Right? The rule is well, before I say the rule. Let me explain why the rule exists. Remember the function of the sub dominant. The function of the sub dominant is to lead us to the dominant. Um, that is what it is. That is what we expect it to do. Remember way early on, we talked about expectation chords, right, chords that we expect to go somewhere. We like the four to lead us to five in some way or another, maybe with something in between. But the four leads us to five. If the four does not lead us to five than it is not functioning, um, in the way we expect. So the rule is ah. When we see a sub dominant sandwiched in between two tonic chords like we have here tonic, sub, dominant tonic. And that sub dominant is in any inversion. Any inversion doesn't need to be a 64 could be in any inversion, but it's sandwiched between two tonic chords that is not functioning like a sub dominant. So remember our discussion earlier of kind of our three main areas. Tonic, predominant and dominant right? The four is a predominant area, and in this case it is not functioning as a predominant right. It is functioning as an expansion of the tonic. Think about those three areas and which one this core best fits into in this context, right, right? Does that fit best into a predominant area like No, that doesn't feel like a predominant area. That's tonic area. So regardless of the inversion, even if we didn't Theo, is this a pre dominant area? Still no. Right. What if we did it slower? Still no. Right. It's still not feeling like a pre dominant because it's just going right back to time. So we're going to call this still in the tonic area. What if we were in a minor key? Okay, we're now in f minor. Still the same, right? Still not predominant back, less goofy inversion, right that even more so feels to me like an expansion of tonic. So when we're thinking about these expansions, think about how an individual chord is functioning. Given those three options tonic, predominant or dominant, Which one is it functioning in, Right. So in this case, in this case, this is really functioning as an expansion of tonic because it's definitely not a predominant, and it's definitely not a dominant, so we should label it as such. Now let's talk about how we can label things going forward because we're getting into cords having multiple names. Ah, we did deal with that over here where we called this one 64 instead of a five. But now I want to introduce kind of a different way of notated stuff to keep things ah, for this particular situation in situations like it. So let's go on to a new video and let's talk about some new notation things we can do for analysis. 24. New Notations: Okay, so we're going to start labeling some chords multiple ways at the same time. So let's first know Tate what this actually is. So this is a one for one. And if we want to be really nit picky about it, which we dio, we're going to call this. We're gonna label the inversion also by doing this, and I'm gonna shrink that down. Maybe not that far for 641 Okay, that is exactly what we have here now, what we can also do, and you don't have to always do this, and you don't want to always do this. But in this particular case, we can do this underneath our analysis, weaken right t. And then a line going all the way across means tonic. So we're in the tonic area all the way across. Okay, so you'll see me doing this sometimes to say that this is functioning as tonic. So I've notated it as a 464 Because this is different than this, because this is still a four chord. It's just functioning as a tonic chord. This five cord is actually a 164 court. So this is confusing, But let's just call this a convention that's happening here. What we're doing here is traditionally in this particular case, where we have these dominant 64 chords functioning as an extension of tonic. We call them 164 That's just the way it is, the way most theory books teach it. So we call that a 564 That's a special case here. We wouldn't call this 164 Um, because 164 Is that right? That's a five chord. The notes of a five chord written as a 164 here we would still call it if someone said, What's the name of this cord? We would say it's, Ah, it's a 464 but we would say it's serving a tonic function. Okay, so that's the difference. Um, everything other than the 164 which is the notes of five, um, are a credential 64 in that case gets its actual name, but we can notated as having the role of tonic. So just to make things hair more confusing, we might also do this. We might also just say this is one. This is getting a little more shank. Aryan But we say the second level of analysis here is saying all of this is one. As we get into more advanced stuff, we might do this rather than saying tonic, um, to show what this court is expanding now, Like I said before, you don't always have to do this extra layer. Um, it makes sense here because that's what we're talking about. Um and well, let me put it this way. If I was giving an exam, ah, theory exam and I had this written, this one bar written and I said Analyze that the correct answer for me would be this to write that someone wrote that that would be the right answer if the question was analyzed that bar, Um, if I said analyze that bar and show its function, the answer would be this or this. Both of those I would accept. So that's kind of what it comes down to at the end of the day. Um, if I was giving an exam and said analyze it, this would be the right answer, this top line. If I said analyze it and give its function, you would need both of those things if I said Just give its function. This is all you would need. Okay, so cord analysis, first line, second line function analysis. Cool. So I start doing that for the rest of this class when appropriate. Court groovy. Ah, let's keep moving on. 25. The V7 As Tonic Expansion: Okay, so let's look at another case. Kind of like this. Um, except for this one, I want to go back to four voiced harmony. Let's stick to the key of D. Um, and let's just write ourselves a D accord and let's use half notes now, so let's G o Okay, so I'm on layer one, so get top. They're too. Okay. What did it right? Okay, so here's a d chord, right, d major chord d f sharp A and D Cool. Now, what if I used a 57 chord to expand tonic? You can do it. You can do it. You might think that doesn't make any sense because we know that the 57 chord has such a tendency to lead back toe one. How could it be that it would function as an expansion of tonic? Right. Um, because it definitely feels like the dominant area, no matter what you do. But there is a way. Um, it's the 543 inversion. If you use the 543 inversion, it really can feel like an expansion of tonic area. And it works really well. Um, with our species counterpoint rules, let's check it out. So the notes we need of a five chord our a c sharp e And if we're gonna add the seventh, we need a G. So let's get RG here so f sharp is going to go up to G. And then let's go right back down to F sharp. Okay, so we're gonna go right back down to our one. Let's have this a stand and all the way through and to get our 43 we needed e in the bass. Oops. I need to switch my voices. I am not. I did that backwards. Okay, so we need an e in the bass there. So that's just a step and go back and put my a in in the correct voices isn't all ugly. And then the d we're going to go down to a C sharp and back to a deep. Now, let's look at what we have here in terms of voice leading. We have a stem up, uh, in the base and tenor. We have a consistent note in the alto. We have a step up. And in the soprano, we have a step down. No. Where is our seventh? It's right there, right? Does our seventh resolve correctly remember our seventh? According Teoh, our voice leading rules should resolve downward, which it does, and to the third D of Sharp. So it does, actually. So everything resolves correctly here. So the question is going to be Does this feel like we moved to the dominant area? Or does it feel like an expansion of the tonic area that's here? Ah, it pretty much feels like we moved to the dominant area to me. But, um, the rules say no. The rules say that this is an expansion of tonic eso. Let's look at why The main reason why is that we have essentially a double neighbor tone happening here. This is our neighbor up and back down and up and back down. So these two neighbor tones here, the only other thing that's changing its or D is dropping by 1/2 step back up. So this double neighbor tone gets us the ability to call this a 543 neighbouring. So the way I wouldn't analyze this is one five one. Because, remember, this isn't a credential 64 situation, so I wouldn't it still gets the name five to me. But here, we're gonna call it a 43 143 And then it's also going to get oops one of these to show that it's an expansion of tonic. And if I want to get even a little fancier, I would do this. I would throw a little text is not great in this program. I would throw a little end right down there to show that this is a neighboring 543 Let's do this one other way. Let's take both these measures and copy them. Put them here. Okay, I'm gonna get rid of all of this stuff for a minute. And let's change something. Let's change the resolution here and see if we can make it feel a little more. Um, well, let's actually not do it as a neighbor, Tone. Let's do it as a passing situation. So I need to rearrange my notes. Ah, hair. In order for passing toe work. Eso I'm still going to do the same 151 with a 5/4 record, but e to make it so that this is a passing. Okay, Uh, okay, so now what we're doing is we're passing through the one for three. So our analysis now still 151 Still 1543 But we have 16 here because we have our f sharp in the base. So we're not going back to the root position tonic. We're ending up in a 43 And now these are not neighbor tones, right? We're going instead of That's a neighbor tone. Also in our soprano going 123 rather than 171 Right, So let's hear this. Ah, that to me feels much more tonic expansion because we're really just pushing right through that resolution. Right now. Let's find our core portal. Seventh. It's right here, Right? And does it resolve down to the third? It absolutely doesn't note. This is, um, an exception to the rule. This is allowed, actually in counterpoint. Ah, you can do this. It works because we're going to a 16 and we're going to call this a passing chord. So let's let's be an A plus student here and throw a P underneath that right there That works. So 1543 passing toe 16 We just went right in between two tonic chords, but we passed through it because we didn't end up in the same spot. If we ended up in the exact same spot, exact same inversion, it would be neighboring. Okay, So weird. Right? We're getting deep now, man. We're getting really deep into some of this stuff, but this is the, um this is advanced theory, you know? So this particular case is allowed, and it's an expansion of the tonic area. 26. Other V7 Expansions: Now, there are some other ways we can do this. Also, um, let's look at ah to other ways now. So I'm just gonna pace this back in here. Take this down. Now, what's going to separate these is that so far, we've been, um, focusing on stepwise motion, right? Everything is by step, but we can get away with a couple leaps here. So let me go back to the way my inversion before. Okay? Now, what I could do is make ah five to remember. To means the seventh is in the base. It's gonna be a G, right, So I can have a g a. I'm gonna have a second in the base. It's gonna potentially get a little muddy, but okay, let me adjust the rest of my notes. Teoh sense here. Okay, that works. So now my G results down to the third, so let's hear this. Ah, right. It's still more or less. Sounds like 151 But what we're getting here is our 151 where our inversion is for two and we end on a six. And we can get away with this because of this skip in the baseline. so it's not the smoothest voice leading, so this is not a great to do, but it does work as an expansion of tonic or sandwiched in between tonic chords. We end up on a 16 It's not exactly passing because we're not going in one fluid direction like that. We're going. So we wouldn't call it passing. We wouldn't call it neighboring. That actually just doesn't get any special term. So let's get rid of that passing. It is just an expansion of tonic that can work. There's another one similar to this. That's a little hairier. Um, but let's give it a shot. So I need to start on a different version for this one toe work. Start on a 16 What's this one doesn't work. Okay, we're going to go to our five way. Okay, Well, and like that, the trick to this one's gonna be in the base. Dio drop down to a C sharp. Essentially this one backwards. So what we're gonna do is 151 Line these up a little bit better where we have start on a 16 go to a 565 and land on a one atomic. Now here's what we don't like about this one. We're dropping from an F sharp down to a C sharp, so that's a big leap. Um, well, it's on a big leap. It is a leap. It's a leap on and we try to avoid leaps. We have two leaps here, right? So, is that a leap? So did we create a parallel here? That's problematic. We didn't know because this is 1/6 on. There's 1/6 parallel. Sixes are OK. However, it's a bit jumpy. Eso it's not a normal thing, But if you're looking for an expansion of tonic, it can work. Um, let's listen to it again this time. Really think about the baseline. Focus your here on this base line. Okay. Ah, so it does feel pretty five, but it does work as an expansion of the tonic area. Okay, so why is this OK? Why is the sleep OK? Check it out. This is the actual answer. And, um, it might drive you insane because it drives me a little insane. But the reason that this is okay is because there's an implied step connection. Meaning if this cord would have been in route position. Ah, there it would have been a step so and that would have been OK. It wasn't in room, but because it was not en route position are here. Still hears it kind of in route position. And that's kind of OK, Um, it's not good if this was on the spectrum of, Ah, 10 is something that is perfectly awesome. Invoice leading and zero is something that is totally against the rules. I would put this around a three. It's not against. I mean, it's against the rules, but it's acceptable. Um, invoice leading. But, um, take voice leading out of the picture. Just think about it. From the perspective of an expansion of tonic 1656501 can work to expand tonic. Same deal. A one of five for two to a 16 can work to expand tonic, right? All of these can wrote to expand tonic 27. The Double Neighbor V7 Expansion: Okay, If this is getting complicated and frustrating, then you're really gonna hate this one. Um, this is the last one. I'm gonna go over on this topic, but I just wanted to show you one just really bizarre one. Um, this one uses a double neighbor, so check it out. I'm gonna do the same thing again. So we have the same starting place, pull everything down, because is that quite yet? Okay. For this one, Um, let's start in rue position. Our route doubled. Okay. I'm just gonna input this and then I'll talk about it in a second. Well, we will talk about it. I guess we're gonna go to a five 43 So we're gonna go to a 57 chord. You see there. See sharp. Now we're going to go to Ah, 565 and you can see our double neighbor popping up, and okay, let me just copy this and put this here. And now we're gonna finally hit our resolution back Teoh a one chord and we're actually gonna position. Okay, so what kind of monstrosity have we created here? We have a 15 one and we started on tonic we went thio of five groups. We went to a 543 in, then 565 So five, 5154365 and then back toe one that we're gonna label this as a double neighbor. And let's just put it right in between those two. And we're going to call this an expansion of tonic all the way through. Okay, so what did we do here? Where's my double neighbor? Here's my d n a D way. Go up by a step. We go down by a skip back to one. Remember, that's a double neighbor way. Also have it here. Okay, so it's not parallel octaves, because I didn't actually do any parallel. So here's my E. If anything, it's close to a voice exchange that's happening there. Um, we might be able to call that a voice exchange, actually, because these two voices air swapping in order to get us from the 43 to the 65 and then we end up back on the tonic. So let's hear. So it kind of feels like we're we're still swimming around in this five for a second before we end up on one. So because this is essentially a 151 with with an extra inversion in there, we still call it a five sandwich between two ones. A double neighbor, and we can call it an expansion of tonic. Weird, Right? Like I said, a lot of this starts to get a little subjective, right? I think I said that right at the beginning of this class that were in an area of theory. Now that becomes a bit of a matter of opinion, some of it on the function of the court. Okay, so let's move on. Let's talk about a couple more things. Ah, in this kind of deeper expansion of tonic. 28. SubMediant Expansions: Okay, one more. But this time we're gonna leave tonic and talk about the sub BD in for a minute. That's the six. So let's go back to our same thing here. But this time, let's play around with six a little bit. See how we can use that to expand tongue. So we have one chord here. No, the six in the key of D is going to be be minor, right? So what are the notes in common with D? There are two actually write. D and F Sharp are in B minor, so it only takes one note to switch. So it's a very easy one to excuse to expand eso. Let's go up. So we're starting this on a 16 Let's play with That's fine s That's right. Actually, the same exact court hoops. It's gonna copy the core. Ah, so I have the same court three times a 16 Okay, so what I could do here is find my a a a just has to go to be That's it. Right here. We have a neighbor tone right? And hard to argue that that is not an expansion of tonic. Ah, right. Super simple. Let's do it. Well, let's label this first. Um, Actually, there's two ways we could label this. We could label this 161 We should put a six here. Show the inversion and one oops. Here to show the inversion. And what is my inversion here? The BDF. So this is a 64 Inversions, not 1/7 chord. Okay? And we would clearly call that tonic all the way through. There's another way we can label the same thing. Okay, so let's add the same thing again here. But we could label this in a similar way to the conventional 64 with my inversion. I could write 65 and then here, Right, 64 And then I'd want to show that five going to the fore. So in this case, I wouldn't need this, and I would move this over so I don't have to label that six if I can show the five going to it like that. So the five is going to a four, and I don't need to label the six. Um, that's a little bit tricky in this inversion. Let's do that again in route position. Um, and it will be a little more clear. Let's take this one. Let's just rearrange it so that it's in route position. Ah, so di Okay, sharpened a d that works thing here in our a b c O. Okay, so now in this case, we could call it one. And then our inversion of the six here is we have B in the bass, and that is the third. So we're just gonna call that a six and then one an atomic expansion. That would be inappropriate. Label another way that we could do this. However, they will do this. And well, now, let's just do it like this. I could do this. Take my six out of five here so that I can show the direction of the five at a line that connected so I can show that five is going to the six. Just like that. So one to something toe won the five. The fifth of one is moving to a six and then back. So we don't even need to label this as a six chord. Were just showing the five is a passing tone moving up or a neighbor tone. In this case, it's moving up and down. That's all that's happening. So it's such a subtle motion that we can get away with just writing 56 If we wanted Teoh, we would consider both of those correct whether we labeled the six or not. In this case, both are acceptable answers. Cool. Okay, let's move on. 29. Thoughts On Extensions: Okay, Um, that's it for this expansion idea. For now, Um, this is some hard stuff. Ah, we're getting into some pretty advanced things, and it's getting tricky. So stick with me. Stick with it. Here. Um, we're going to be seeing these mawr and in context, you'll start to see how this idea of tonic expansion or dominant expansion, um, or predominant expansion makes more sense. Um, this is just a lot of rules to remember and don't think of these specifically as rules. Think of these more as, um, exceptions or even just oddities. Things you can do tricks. Think of them as tricks you can do to expand the tonic area. Things to watch out for a couple key points to remember. Remember that. Not when you see ah five and then followed by a one chord. That's not always a cadence. Right up till now, up till this class, If we saw 51 we would say that is a cadence. And then it just be a matter of figuring out what kind of Keynes it is that that's not always true. You could have a 151 where that five was not serving as a cadence, but serving as an extension or an expansion of the tonic area. Depending on the treatment of that five and the function of the five, it might just be an expansion, and it might not be a cadence, so that's the kind of main thing we need to keep our eye out for. So whenever you see a five going forward, you should think. Is this the cadence or is this an expansion of tonic? So with that, let's wrap up this section of the class. I have a couple more things for you, and then we'll move on to the next big part. 30. What Next?: OK, moving on the next big thing is gonna be part nine. Ah, Part nine is coming soon. I'm gonna be working on it right away. Um, it's the next thing on my list to get done. So we're gonna die right into part nine. And what we're going to see in part nine is Mawr core progression ideas, um, variations and adaptations of core progressions. We're going to see descending fifth progressions, descending third progressions, um, medium and minor dominant progressions. And what that means is like a descending fifth progression is gonna be a progression where we keep moving down by fifth. It's almost like playing through the circle of fifths. It has a really interesting sound. There's some special things to keep in mind, and it's actually going to get us a little bit into this discussion on parallelism that we talked about up here. Um, so hopefully we get a chance to talk about some WC when we get in there or some Rivelle or something else French and beautiful. Um, So there's a lot of core progressions like that, not just the descending fifth progression, but, um, similar things that that will talk about jumping off that. So I'm really looking forward to getting into that class. We're going to get more into music and less into the math. This class that you're just finishing, you know, we got a lot. We got kind of Mathey. I feel like there was a lot of numbers. Um, but we had to get it done. We had to get it out of the way. Um, now that's done. Ah. And hopefully in the next section, we can be a little more focused on Just what if things sound like and just talking about beautiful music again. So stick with me. Let's get into part nine and let's have a good time. 31. SkillshareFinalLectureV2: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.