Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 7 - Harmonization | Jason Allen | Skillshare

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Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 7 - Harmonization

teacher avatar Jason Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Welcome & Overview


    • 2.



    • 3.



    • 4.

      Inversion Names


    • 5.

      Triads 6 & 6/4


    • 6.

      7th Inversions


    • 7.

      The Chordal 7th


    • 8.

      Root Position V7 Resolutions


    • 9.

      Resolving Inversions of V7


    • 10.



    • 11.

      Doubling Problems


    • 12.

      What is Figured Bass?


    • 13.

      How Figured Bass Works


    • 14.

      Figured Bass & Roman Numerals


    • 15.

      Realizing Figured Bass


    • 16.

      Bach: Example With Melody


    • 17.

      Bach's Realization


    • 18.

      6 Basic Rules


    • 19.

      Back To Phrasing


    • 20.

      The Pre-Dominant


    • 21.

      Using ii and IV as Pre-dominants


    • 22.

      Major Key Example


    • 23.

      Minor Key Example


    • 24.

      Moving From Root Position IV to V


    • 25.

      Doubling in Diminished Chords


    • 26.

      Predominant 7th Chords


    • 27.

      Method For Harmonization


    • 28.

      Finding Cadences


    • 29.

      What About T-PD-D-T?


    • 30.

      Outline The Harmony


    • 31.

      Add a Bass Line


    • 32.

      Complete Inner Voices


    • 33.

      Harmonization 2: Mary Had A Little Lamb


    • 34.

      Harmonization 2: Finding Cadences


    • 35.

      Harmonization 2: Outline the Harmony


    • 36.

      Harmonization 2: Add Bass Line


    • 37.

      Harmonization 2: Complete Inner Voices


    • 38.

      Proof Listen


    • 39.

      Think Musically


    • 40.

      Voice Leading


    • 41.

      Worksheets And Practice


    • 42.



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About This Class

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These classes I'm making for skillshare use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

Recently I was named as a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year award because of my in-person university classes. Now I'm taking those classes to skillshare in an online format in order to reach more students and give them the joy of Music Theory.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own.

This class is a Comprehensive class - it will have many parts, going through my entire annual curriculum.

This class is Part 7: Harmonization, and it continues what would be the second semester of a college music theory class (according to the typical American academic system for learning music theory).

Throughout this class, I'll be providing you with many worksheets for you to practice the concepts on. If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. Also in this class, I have several complete analysis projects that we will complete together - just like in my college classes.

In this class, we will cover:

  • Tools of Counterpoint
  • How Inversion Names Work
  • 7th Chord Inversion Names
  • The Chordal 7th
  • Root Position V7 - I Resolutions in SATB Voicing
  • Inversions of V7 - I Resolutions in SATB Voicing
  • Exceptions to Voice Leading
  • Doubling Concerns in 7th Chords
  • Figured Bass
  • Figured Bass and Roman Numerals
  • Studying with Bach
  • "Realizing" Figured Bass
  • The Pre-Dominant Phrasing Area
  • Moving from Root Position IV to V Without Parallels
  • Predominant 7th Chords
  • Harmonization Steps
  • Finding Cadences
  • Finding the Right Chord Progression
  • Finding the Right Inversions
  • Practicing Harmonization
  • Melodies for Practice
  • Worksheets and Music for Practice
  • ...and much, much more!

And of course, once you sign up for Part 7 - Harmonization you automatically get huge discounts to all the upcoming parts of this class.

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. 

Dr. Jason Allen is an Ableton Certified Trainer and a Ph.D. in Music Composition and master of Electronic Sounds. His music has been heard internationally in film, radio, video games, and industrial sound, as well as the concert hall and theater. His 2015 album, Aniscorcia, reaching the CMJ Top200 Charts and radio broadcasts nationwide. In 2014 he was named a semi-finalist for the Grammy Music Educator Award.

He currently is a professor at Augsburg University and the CEO of Slam Academy in Minneapolis.

Praise for classes by Dr. Jason Allen:

  • "Without a doubt the best explanation and east of use that one can get. It leaves you enough room to go explore. The classes go by quickly, so you can be on your way to being proficient. What are you waiting for!"

  • "Amazing - Seriously Loved It! I took all his courses and have to say I'm so happy! Learned loads! Jason is an awesome teacher!"

  • "I have never had any formal training in music at all. Trying to learn all the notes and how everything translated was a serious challenge. After going through this class, Dr. J has totally brought down the barriers. The content was very useful and was easy to grasp for me."

  • "I like these courses because you can get up and running quickly without having to spend hours of time wading through TMI (too much information!). Jason hits the high points but shows you what you need to know. Thanks!"

  • "I've watched many other videos on scales and chords before, however, this one has been the best. I now understand minor scales and chords and even how to analyze songs. It really gave me the confidence to start producing music because I feel like I have some structure and guidelines to follow. AWESOME!"

  • "Clear and Informative - Jason has a clear uncluttered style (with the important dashes of humor) of presentation that is focused on the important key aspects of this course. Recommended for those starting out!"

  • "Dr. Allen does it again with his music theory series. This course really opened up everything I learned from the 1st section, and now I understand more about the composition side of things for music. I highly highly recommend this course to anyone!!! Really opened my eyes to many things I wasn't aware of."

  • "The Best Teacher Ever, who makes you understand the ins & outs of Music Theory by all means without giving what you don't want to know."

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jason Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen teaches... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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1. Welcome & Overview: do you? You a root position? Cord built on D, But it's gonna have a raise. Third, it's what that sharp is telling us. Way have a root position g chord here. It's going to seem minor, but root position a 64 So this is a second inversion core. So let's point out a couple things here. He'd use the same note he doubled up on the same note in the same octave. Remember? That's okay. We can do that. Um, also here might have tripped you up. So what happens here is the melody goes to an eighth. Okay, so let's take figured bass and kind of distill it down to six basic rules. Um Okay, so here we have, uh, if there's an accident, elects to a number, raise or lower, that pitch by one's a sense of drama that we're trying to create here. So we're gonna hear tonic, a whole bunch. We're gonna establish tonic. Then we're gonna move to this pre dominant area. We're gonna feel like we're away from tonic, but we're not as far away as we can go position now. I'm repeating the phrase here. So what? I like to dio issues the same quarters I used over here. The notes are the same, right? So let's use the same harmony that tends to feel really good. Everyone welcome to, uh, music theory, Part seven harmonization. So what we're gonna do in this one is it's It's actually really cool how we've got to set up so way are going, Teoh. First, we're going to review our inversion names because we're gonna need that. It's all gonna build on everything. We're gonna reviewer inversion names. We're gonna talk about inversion resolutions. Then we're gonna talk about figured bass figured bass is a thing that it's hard to explain in one sentence, but basically, it's kind of another notation system that we used in the Baroque period and a little bit later, I think, to allow the keyboardist to sort of invent ah, harmonization after we learned figured bass, we're gonna go through and we're gonna talk about this phrasing thing that we started talking about in the last class. But we're gonna build on a little bit. Um, we're gonna add a new element to it, and then we're going to get to harmonizing corral melodies, so we're gonna use all of those things. We're gonna put them all together in order to make the harmonisation process a little easier. Because if you think about it, what harmonization means is we've got a melody and we're gonna add cords and everything to it. That's what harmonization is. So with a given melody, you could literally put any cord you can imagine with any note. So how do we know what chords to put with what note we're gonna use? Figured bass. We're going to use what we know about phrasing. We're going to use all of that in order to make it much more logical and easier to understand. What chords Congar where? So everything we do in this class is gonna kind of culminate in that harmonization section And then we're going Teoh harmonize a couple melodies, play around it's a little bit, work with it, and then I'll give you a ton of stuff to practice with at the end. It's gonna be a lot of fun. I hope you enjoy it. We'll see you on the inside 2. Tools: Okay, lets start off talking about tools for part seven. So I've done the same lecture seven times. Now, where I talk about the tools we're going to use in this class on and I talked about the same two tools every time. If you're getting sick of me hearing this, let me just tell you right now in this video, I am not going to say anything new that I haven't said in the same lecture and the other ones. But I have to do it because there are some people that just want to jump into part seven or do is out of order or something like that. And I want to be sure that we're all on the same page. So if you've heard me do this lecture or this video before on the tools we're going to use in this class, just hit the next button and jump right over it because I'm going to talk about the same stuff I've talked about in the other theory classes. Four tools. Okay. I'm gonna assume everyone who hasn't o. R. Has already heard this information has skipped ahead. So now let's talk about the tools we're going to need. There are two. Um, the first is some good old fashioned staff paper. That is paper that looks like this that we have on the screen. It has staff lines on it. You're going to need to draw the clefts and things, but, um, you can get this paper a number of places. Amazon has good staff paper. Um ah. Lot of stores have good staff. Paper. I like a good, hearty piece of staff paper. A little thickness to it. I'm kind of a nerd about the quality of my staff paper. If you're looking to buy some nice staff paper, I like the archives brand. That's always good. But if you don't want to buy any staff paper, don't worry about it, because in the next video or not video but the next segment, I'm going to give you a pdf that is a blank sheet of staff paper. And what I want you to do is download that Ah, print out. I don't know five or 10 sheets of it. And keep it handy. Keep it near you while you're taking this class so that you can jot down notes on it. Sometimes Maybe you've taken an online class before, Where you just want a piece of paper to scribble notes will save you a lot of time to do that with staff paper for this class. Because ah, you might want to write down a chord are something like that. So ah, print out a couple sheets of this and keep it handy. The second thing you're gonna need for this class, um, which you don't need deed, but, um, it's handy. It's very helpful. Is this program called muse Score? Everything I do in this class, we're going to be looking at muse score. So this is a notation program. Ah, it lets us put notes in we can build cords and I can play it back. This is gonna sound crazy. Um, so we can put notes in and we can play it back. It's great way to test what we're writing. Test these concepts. Um, also something new that I started doing in part six is I'm going to throughout this course , be putting all our examples into one big file, and then ah, I will give you that whole big file so you can play with it if you want all of my, um, all of the projects that I talk through in this class. So, um, if you have access to a computer, get this muse score program. It is a free program. It does not cost anything. Go to muse score dot ord, um, and download it. Give him a donation if you like. Um, I believe it exists for Mac and PC. So, um, no excuse not to get it. If you have access to a computer that you can install stuff on, um, then get this program three. It's nice. It's easy to use. Um, and it's ah notation program. Okay, that's it. That's all you need for tools. So I gave you two tools, and they're both free. Ah, they both cost you nothing. So ah, let's move on. So in the next thing, I'm gonna give you that staff paper to use, and then, um, we'll talk about what we're going to do this time for review. 3. Review: okay for review this time. Now, at the beginning of all of our different theory classes here, I've started with a little bit of review on the previous stuff. Here's what I want you to do for review this time, something a little different. Um, go back and go through some of those worksheets again. Um, just double check that your comfortable that you're feeling good with everything. Um, it's hard in this particular class to say organists especially focus on, you know, voice leading. So, um, let's review voice leading this particular class is going to kind of use everything that we've done so far. So there's not one specific thing that I could say. Go back and practice that. Make sure you're up to speed cause you're gonna need that going forward. You're gonna kind of need to be pretty comfortable with everything we've done so far. So, um, the best way to do that is to review the worksheets. Think about anything that you're still kind of not totally getting, and if you're not totally getting it, go back to the previous ah, parts of this whole big theory curriculum thing and review those Make sure you're up to speed on that. If you're still not getting it, then post a question. Um, I will jump in and answer it as quickly as possible. Okay, So review for this class, it's kind of on your own. Um, I'm just going to kind of trust that you are pretty comfortable with everything that we're doing so far. Um, and if you're not, figure out what that is. What element of music theory thus far is kind of stressing you out, go back and review that if you're still having problems with it, Post question, I will jump in and help you out. So with that Ah, let's carry on and get into inversion names. 4. Inversion Names: Okay, so let's start off by talking about our inversion names. Now, this is something that we've kind of hinted at a little bit, but we haven't really kind of focused in on defining the inversion names and why we call them that. Inversion names are named by a number. And so what we're going to see is something like, um you know, Ah, 164 chord. You know, So that 64 is what tells us the inversion name that's telling us the inversion that 64 isn't telling us anything about the notes in the cord. It's only telling us about the order of the court. Now, this is one of the really important things. Teoh, wrap your head around here. So let me get something Text up here. Okay, So when we know, take the inversion. It looks kind of like this. Let me zoom in on this a little bit here. Okay. So 164 That tells us it's a one chord in a six for inversion. I'll tell you what, how to make the six for inversion in just a second. So this kind of notation goes with Roman numerals, does not go with chord names fighting this si 64 totally different. That means something completely separate. That means Ah, si with a six in it and having a four underneath. It just kind of doesn't make sense. It would more. It might look like this or something like that, in which case we would have a C with a six in it, which would be in a and a four in it, which would be an F. That would be a super weird court. So we use this 64 with Roman numerals, but not with chord names. So if you see a number after a cord name, it's telling you what notes to put in it. If you see a number after a Roman numeral, it's telling you how toe order those notes. So why does this matter? It matters because pretty soon in this very class, we're going to be start talking about figured bass and in figured bass. Sometimes all you get is the inversion, and you have to figure out what court it is. Um, it's it's ah, kind of a lost art, this figured bass stuff. We'll talk about it when we get there. Um, figure basis Tricky, but it's something that, like every music theory, student has to go through and learn how to do. Um, and to be honest, it wasn't my favorite part of music theory ever, but, ah, we're gonna learn how to do it. We're not going to spend Aton and Tana time on it because, like I said, it's kind of a lost art, but it is important. Um, so just remember that that is how our inversion names work. Now let's talk about, ah, what this 64 means and how we derive it. So let's go to a new video and let's talk about the how we name the three inversions of our of a Triad. 5. Triads 6 & 6/4: Okay, let's actually go up here. Let's just do this on one staff just to keep it. Kind of simple. Okay, so we're gonna talk about triads first, so triads can be ordered three different ways without changing any notes. So we have this way. Let's do a C major. Right? So we call that route position. You know this already. Then we call first inversion be like this that has the third in the base, and then we have second version has the fifth in the base. Okay. All three of these C major triads. Just different inversions. Nothing fancy. This 1164 is actually this one. So why do we call it won 64? The reason is the six in the four come from the distance to the lowest note. Not the route. The lowest note. So check it out. Lowest note. We go up to our next interval and this cord, and it's 1/4 away G to see is 1/4. OK, so that's our four way go up to the next one. It's a six. Away from the lowest note of the court. G T E is a six. So that makes a c e g r c major triad. But the order of the intervals is 1/4 and then a six. So that gets us 64 Now, why don't we call it a 146? I don't know. Ah, we just always It's just called a 164 Trust me, it's the way it works. Ah, 164 is that one? Okay, let me, um Let's do this one. Okay. So what would we call this one? I'm gonna leave this over here for now. What would we call this one? By the same logic, our first interval is a three right E. T g is 1/3. Our next interval e to see is a six. Now, be careful about what I just said. I just said something a little confusing. I said our next interval. Don't be confused by going from the second note to the third note. It's always to the lowest note. So lowest note to the second note and then lowest note to the top note. Okay, So this one, we could call by the same logic. We have 1/3 and then a six. We could call 63 but we don't, um We kind of dio when we have, ah, three in a triad. Because there are so many thirds and triads, we tend to just leave it off as a shorthand. So we call it 16 is what we call this one. The third is kind of assumed that it's there. So when you see 16 that means the third of the cord is the lowest note. And it's our which is our first inversion. So 16 means first inversion 164 means second version. Because we have this fourth. And in the sixth, this one, we have that third, which we use kind of a short hand and leave off the three from our inversion name and then the sixth, which we do put into our immersion name. What about this one? How would I know? Take that. It's in route position. There is a way. Sort of. Okay, So here's our one. What we could do, We get this again, you know? Okay, let's put this down here so I don't get confused. Let's use the same logic to figure out a name for our route position. So we have 1/3 and then 1/5 right 135 That's how we make courts. So we could call this a 53 That actually would be accurate. Except that again, the shorthand thing. We don't need to put any of that in there. 153 means the same as one with nothing. Okay, so five. So if you see no inversion name, then it's assumed, were in route position. If, But sometimes you might see a 53 in a case like this. Okay, sometimes you might see something like this. What that means is that we have a 164 chord that is going to then move to a 53 That's kind of tricky to do the way I did it here. But let's try it, Okay? It's not super elegant, but it's technically correct. There are other cases when this is, ah, more clear. So in this case, all we really did was not reprint with one 164 down to a 53 So in this case, we do want to use the 53 because we want to show that the 64 is moving to a 53 It's kind of a rare case where we need to define the root position. Uh, well, don't worry about this for now. We'll see examples of this when we get into figured bass when this will be much more clear Why you would want to do that. So, for now, don't worry about it. Um, just remember, that one is technically a 153 because of this fifth and the Mr Ah, first inversion is 16 Second version is 164 So that only covers us for Triad. So let's talk about seventh chords. Um, seven chords. Let's go to a new video and talk about seventh chords and inversions. 6. 7th Inversions: Okay, next, let's talk about seventh chords. And this is true for all seventh chords, regardless of what kind of chord it is. And let me just before we move off of triads. Use that to say one more thing about this, which is? These inversion names do not care whether we're a major or minor. Like if this was a minor triad, let's make it one. There we go Now it's a minor, a C minor chord. If it's a one chord, we're going to do this. But the six is unaffected. It's still in first inversion, so the inversion doesn't change at all if it's Major Meyer. Okay, so let's go over here and let's do through the same thing with C. Okay, so there is my route position. Seventh chord. If we're in the key of C, which we are, ah, then this is a major seventh chord. That's fine. Minor seventh chord dominant seventh chord. It's not gonna matter. Ah, in terms of inversions. So let's spell out all our inversions here. Put Thesis e up there. The next one we put the G on the bottom. Oops, get to know. And then the seventh on the bottom. Okay, so there are four now that we have, Ah, four notes. Right. There are four possible inversions Whose air all see major in there. See, Major seven in. It's four possible inversions. Okay, so let me grab this Norman creature Here, Grab this. Okay, so this one same deal weaken right one on it. But we have to somehow indicate this seven. So the way we would do that is just with a seven. So if we saw 17 like that, that means root position. Because for the same reason is before our biggest interval is a seven from the lowest note to the highest note. It is the seventh inside of it. We have 1/5 and then 1/3. So kind of like this being 35 we leave off that 35 because we don't need to see it. It's assumed so. This is technically 753 But we leave off that 53 and we just say 17 Route position, seventh chord. Okay, let's go to our next one. What is this one? So our highest interval from E to see is actually a six, right? And then what do we have a five and then a three. But we're not just gonna call this 16 right, Because if we just called it 16 that doesn't tell me that to me, 16 means this, right? But we're on 1/7 court here, so 16 doesn't work. I need to know more than that. So in this case, because we need to know more than that. We're gonna call it a 65 because here's the sixth. Here's a five, and then a three. We already know that. So we're gonna include the five this time because we need to a little more information than just the six on this kind of a case. Because we need to know it's 1/7 chord, right? It's going to our next one one. And what are we gonna call this one? So our biggest interval his g t ease. So another six, our second biggest interval is before, so g to see, So we have 64 But again, we don't want to call it a 64 because that means this right? And then we have a three. So what we could call this is a 643 That would be technically correct. But, ah, that would be like that. But that's a little cumbersome. So instead, let's call it a 43 Let's leave that six off and just call it a 43 So we just call that one of 43 And that tells us to seventh chord. You know, there's a clue here in that whenever you see two numbers that are one digit apart 6543 you can tell that it's 1/7 Corps because that's the only possible way that can happen. Is that if this is 1/7 chord, there's gonna be two notes, um, 1/2 or whole step apart. Depending on the quality of the court. Let's look at our next one. Our last one. Okay, what do we have here? This one's Donald Goofy. So our lowest note to our highest note to be to G. So another six and then four b t e. And then to so 642 again, we could do that, but at the little cumbersome. So let's do like what we did before and cut off our six. Now we're left with a 42 and what's interesting here. Is that this too? Is that the Onley inversion that has a two in it? Right For 3657 646 And nothing even this nothing would be 53 So no other inversion has a two in it. So for shorthand, why not just use that to? And in fact, that's what we do. So when you see a two on a Roman numeral, it means seventh chord. Um, with these seventh in the base S O, this is a C major chord with the seventh as the lowest note. Probably the rarest one you find, but not very rare. Actually. You know, it's all over the place. We'll see it. Um, so those are our inversion names. How we named them, why they're called that. So how it should work is let's say I did this. Let's say I gave you this 143 and I said, We're in the key of D Major. You should know exactly what notes to put in here, and they would be in the key of D major. You could just start off by drawing to write writing out your your d major Triad. But let's actually do that and it's a 43 So we actually need 1/7 just going to see Sharp. Okay, so it's not that Let's do our next inversion have sharp a c sharp de. It's not that. Let's do one more a c sharp d f sharp. So that is the correct answer. So in the key of D 143 is that okay? So that's basically what figured bases that we'll be talking about shortly is that you're going to get the symbol in the numbers and you gotta figure the rest out on your own. It's kind of tricky, but I'll show you how to do it. Don't worry. Okay, so now that we're all squared away with inversion names, let's move on to talking about, um, the 57 inversions and resolving those inversions. Because when we are working with inversions like this, our tendency tones end up in weird spots. So we're gonna go back to our S a. T B situation and talk about resolving these seventh, uh, correctly 7. The Chordal 7th: okay, Switching years. We're going back. Teoh s A T B voicings. Now we're gonna be working in S a. T B in this next section. And the thing that we're gonna be talking about in this section is resolutions of 57 Now, you may be thinking we've already done resolutions of 57 We did this a long time ago. Um, we did, but not in S a t. V. And there's a couple other things you need to think about. Um, and actually, now that I know that I say that I'm not positive we did resolutions of 57 We had a whole bunch of resolutions from 5 to 1. Um, and I think that's it yet 5 to 1. Um, but now we're looking at 57 And when we add that seventh in there, especially when we've got four voices moving, we've got something new that we have to deal with. Actually, a few new things we have to deal with Ah, one is that we have two big tendency tones that need to go in the correct direction. Always. That is, from 57 If we're going from 5721 we have Ah, leading tone in the 57 that needs to resolve by step up to one. So let's do through this with half notes. Let's stay in the key of C here. So let's see here. See? Um Oh, I need them on five for 75 to 1. Go, G de Oops. Don't forget about our layers. G de b f. Okay, G b D f. There's air 57 route position. Now let's take it to one. Now I need to be thinking about the leading tone, which is that be leading tone of the key. This always seemed to step upto one. And now we have a new wrinkle, which is the something called the Kordell Seventh. Kordell Seventh is the seventh of this cord, and it needs to resolve down by step two. Leading tone is resolved up quartile. Seven things resolve down like that. Okay, so we're gonna get into this morning just second, but that's something we need to consider. There's those two tendency tones now that that always need to go in a certain direction. Kordell Seventh, which is ah, four going to a three. So in the key of C f going down to e or it's the seventh of this cord resolving down to the third of the next chord. Um, that's the Kordell Seventh. So the coral seven things resolved correctly, the leading tone needs to resolve correctly. Another little wrinkle that happens here is if we have a 57 here and we have a one here. How many notes do I have Have four notes here in three notes here, right. But I always have to have all four voices for what we're doing right now. So that means in this chord, something's gonna need to land on a doubling. I'm gonna have see e g here, but I'm gonna have to of one of those notes. So we got to go back to what we learned in the last class about doubling. So, um, those are the new kind of wrinkles that we have with this 57 business in this quartile seventh stuff. So let's go to a new video and what's walk through route position 571 in S a. T B. Because it's actually one of the more tricky ones, cause there's kind of no good way to do it. So let's go to a new video in Walk through that and I will do the inversions 8. Root Position V7 Resolutions: Okay. What? Switched keys here. Just keep it interesting sometimes. Working and see Ah, for long periods of time just gets kind of boring. So let's go over to the key of D. So I'm in d major. So my five chord my 57 chord, I should say, is going to be a seven, right? So let's do a seven and root position. That's what I've got here in the key of d mind the key signature. So I spelled it a e g C case. So now I know my two tendency tones. So let's find our leading tone first in the key of D See is my leading tone. So let's resolve that. So that has to go up. That's got to go up to a d. And then my Kordell Seventh, which is the seventh of this cord is G. And that's got to go down. So you can think of this as the resolution here is, um, the seventh goes up a step and the quartile seventh. Sorry. Let me try that again. The leading tone goes up with step the quartile. Seventh goes down a step now the words step in this case what I mean, is a step in key. So this is gonna go see is technically this is 1/2 step C sharp to D. But if you want, you don't even have to think about that. Really. You could just say this one's got to go up to the nearest possible note. So the next note up, this one has to go down by a step in key. We like to say that means it may be 1/2 step. It may be a whole step is only I'm staying and key doesn't matter. I'm just gonna go up to the next note and down to the next note anyway. So there are my two resolutions, my leading tone in my quartile seventh. Now let's see what I could do with the rest of this for these two. Let's follow kind of our path of least resistance bottle here. So our e let's just drop that down to a D because it's very close and our A we want to keep this in route position for this example. So let's take this a down to a D, which is what it has to be to be in route position, right because it's a D major court. Okay, so what did I do here? My resolution all works. My tendency tones work. I've got a small path there. I've got, uh, route notes base. Um, I don't have any big parallels or anything like that, but what's wrong with this? Let's spell r d accord way Have a d We have a D you have enough sharp. I have a d. We have three D's, and then we have 1/3 and we have no fifth so kind of, no matter how you spell your 57 chord here, you're gonna end up with this kind of a situation if you resolve everything correctly. So what do you do? Ah, nothing. We just allow it because that's the way it goes. Um, that's the best way for things to sound good. If you cheated and sent this f up to an A, that wouldn't sound very good, cause this resolution would be goofy. Um, if you kept this on an A, it's not en route position anymore, so that wouldn't really work very well. So, um, when you're going from root position 57 to a root position tonic chord, you're gonna end up with a tonic chord that's got a missing fifth and that's OK. Remember that if we're gonna leave off a note, the fifth is you know it's an OK one to leave off. We can live without the fifth. The third is more problematic. Um, let's look at it another way that this could happen. Well, let's just hear this really quick. There you go. It sounds like a nice resolution, right? You barely noticed that. It's got a missing fifth. Sounds good. Let's do it one other way, which is to spell our 57 chord a little weird. Okay, here's my 57 chord now in route position. Now what did I do? Remember, it's an A seven chord. The same court Is this just spelled a little bit differently. So what I did is or not spelled differently, but, um, arranged a little bit differently. What I did here is I have a in the base, so it's a seven chord. That's totally okay. So it's still root position, so the next note would be C A C E. I left off the E and then went to my seventh. So again I've left off the fifth, but this time I left the fifth off in the 57 court, so you'll notice that this we haven't seen this before. But this means that the base and the tenor are on the same note, and that's OK. You can do that. Um, it's not a voice crossing if they're on the same note, so this is allowed. So I left off the fifth of my 57 chord. But what does that do for my resolution? The resolution on in the tent trouble clef is gonna be the same. So let's fill that in. So my leading tone goes up to tonic my quartile. Seventh goes down to that third. I can leave my, um, tenor voice on the A and drop my bass voice down to the D. So now I have a full triad spelled nicely and arranged nicely. But I've left off the fifth here in order to make it resolve correctly so two different ways you can do it. Let's hear this one. So this chord sounds a little thinner, right? Let's hear all of them back to back, right? You know, in this contacts, it's barely hard. You can barely tell the difference. Let's slow it down. Okay? A little bit slower. See if we can hear the difference. It's pretty minuscule, you know. It's pretty tiny, but that is Ah, some of the funky things you have to do if you want your resolutions to work correctly, which you do. Ah, in Ah 57 to 1 situation in S A T v voicing. OK, now let's look at some of the inversions. Let's see that in a new video. 9. Resolving Inversions of V7: Okay, Next, let's look at some of our inversions. Um, and let's actually go through all the inversions here because actually work a little bit better. Okay, so what inversion do I have here? Remember, my cord is a seven. So what? Notice in the base, we have seen the base. We have 1/3 in the base. So with the seventh chord, would we call that we call that a 565 is what that's called. So 565 going toe, one relatively smooth, actually. So let's follow our steps. So let's find our leading tone. So that's gonna be a c right there. So our quartile seventh is in our base. We're sorry. Not our quartile. Seventh are leading. Tone is in the base, so we're gonna push that up till one. Now, let's find our quartile Seventh, which is RG, and that needs to go down toe f. Okay, easy enough. Now let's see what we can do for the other two. E. Let's take down to D because it's the closest cord tone to where I am. This a Let's stay right on a Let's see how we did hear d a f d we have all our notes. So nice and easy. My resolutions are correct. My voice leading works really nicely on. Everything's happy on a 565 Ruby. Let's try five. Well, I'm not gonna tell you. You gotta figure it out. You got forgot the name of my inversion here. All right, What do we call this? We haven't e in the bass, so record is a seven. So a c e. That is our fifth in the base. So we call that what we call that A 543 So let's do our resolutions. So are leading. Tone is at the top here. There's Air Sea. We gotta take that to a D. Let's find our quartile. Seventh right there, G. It's got to go down to an F. Okay, now let's resolve everything else, and I do want these to be in route position, so I'm gonna take this down to a D and this We're gonna stay right on a again, right? Cause whenever possible, you want tones or notes within two adjacent chords. They don't have to move. If they're common tones between the two chords, you want them to stay the same If possible. Um, the reason it didn't work back here was because our resolution screwed it up, so we couldn't do it. But here we can't. So 54321 nice voice leading. Our resolutions are correct. No problem. Let's do another one. What's my Ah, the only inversion I have left in a 57 chord that we haven't talked about yet. Okay, what do we call that? So I still have an a seven chord. A c e g. I have the G in the base, so the seventh is in the base. So what do we call that? One call that five to cord to me is for that second interval of a second. Right there. Okay, so let's resolve this sucker. So where's our leading tone? Right there. See? So let's take that up to a deep. Where is our quartile? Seventh. That is in the base. So this one, there's no way I can get to root position here. Right, Because this resolution has to go down. And if it goes down, hold on. Let me put that in the right voice. Go. If that goes down, I am now in first inversion right, cause my third is in the base. So there's really no way to get from a 42 five to cord to a root position tonic chord without breaking the your resolutions. There's really just no way to do it. So we're gonna call us a 16 We're gonna live with it. That's okay. Let's resolve are a Let's keep it right on a again because we can. And this E Let's take it down to D woops in the right voice If you don't remember what I'm doing with voicing up here, By the way, um, I spent a good amount of time on this in the last class. If we want our stems toe automatically go down, we do it on voice two for one or stems that automatically go up. We do it on voice one. You can review that in the previous class if you like. Okay, so this one makes a little bit of something different when we go from a five to cord. We can't get to a root position tonic chord just because of that quartile. Seven pass to resolve correctly. But that's okay. We can live with it. That's just how it goes. 16 Court is a nice sounding chord. It's not root position. Let's hear all these. So remember, this is 5652154321 and five to tow 16 Here we go. Hey, all very nice sounding resolutions. So everything pretty much works now. There are a couple cases one in particular that I want to talk about that are exceptions to resolving a resolution. Let's go to a new video and talk about that one exception. 10. Exception!: okay. I want to look at a situation that, um you might come across and let me just let me just put it on the screen, and then we'll walk through what we're looking at here. Okay, here's our 57 A C e g. Okay. Nothing too weird about that. Let me put the resolution up here and okay, what's happening here? Let's find our Kordell 7th 1st hoops. So are cordial. Seventh is Is G going down toe f. That's correct, right? Nothing funny about that. We have root position 57 to route position one. Okay, so we know that I had to cheat somewhere because d f a d I have all the notes. So two videos ago, I told you the only way to do this was to cheat and this cheats. So let's find our leading tone. Here's our leading tone. It's in the alto, but it and it resolves up to this soprano voice. I switched voices here, right, Technically within the voice. This alto note resolves incorrectly because it goes down to an A. That's wrong. Can't do that. And the soprano voice goes from e down to D that by itself would be okay, but it's not resolving its avoiding me resolving to see up to D. So why am I doing this? The reason is this is OK in one situation it is okay when you're in a cadence when you're in a cadence and it's like the end of a piece. And you just wanted to sound like a good old 51 route position Everything. You can kind of get away it with this because to the ear, this is basically going seven Teutonic, right? We would hear that as seven Teutonic. More or less. It's not perfect, but it's going to get superseded by our route Position 51 So our ears gonna latch onto this mawr than it will This voice exchange it is called a voice exchange or were switching voices. You're not supposed to do it, but it could be Okay. Let's hear it right. It's fine. It's okay. Uh, it's allowed Onley in a cadence. So you're doing a perfect authentic cadence. You need that route Position 51 in there. This convey your way around it. Okay. Otherwise you couldn't really come up with a 51 cadence in a perfect authentic cadence doing this. So this is a way to cheat. Do a little voice exchange. It's allowed. Okay, so, um, watch out for those we don't. We normally can't resolve using a voice exchange like that, but, ah, in this one case, we're going to allow it to keep an eye out for that. 11. Doubling Problems: Okay. Another thing to keep in mind as we're working on this kind of a thing is doubling problems . Let's look at ah to situations you could get yourself into. Ah, in which you will have problems. Okay, so let's do another 51 Indy 571 Sorry. Voice one. So I'm going to stack my cord like this. Okay, so a c e g. Now what I've done here is a C. I left off the fifth and did another see, So I doubled the third g. Not terrible. That's okay. We can live with that. Um, Now, let's resolve it into a perfect authentic cadence. So I have to go down to one. I have to go down to tonic, and then let me just fill in the rest of this. Okay. So what happened here? Remember, my leading tone has to go up to tonic, right? My Kordell seventh has to go down to my new third, so I've resolved correctly. But where else Where did I go wrong? I went wrong in this doubling because now I've got the leading tone is doubled. Its not on Lee that I doubled the third of this cord that by itself isn't a deal breaker. But in this particular case, that's the leading tone of my resolution. So now I've resolved this correctly, and I've resolved this leading tone correctly. But that made parallel octaves, right C and C going to d and parallel octaves. So if you set up accord this way a 57 chord this way and then try to resolve it to a perfect authentic Hayden's, you're going to have ah, this problem of parallel octaves in your leading tone. So don't double your leading tone in your 57 chord is a good rule of thumb. How could we fix this? I take one of those seas and get it into an E. What if I did this? Okay, now I have a C e g all the notes, my seventh chord. And now let's see my C goes up to a D. My e goes down to a D. My G still goes down to an F. This is a parallel six, which is okay. Nothing wrong with that. Ah, Did I make any other problems here? I don't think so. I think that works. Let's hear it so that one works we go back to how we had this. Oops, I think this is what itwas right. Yeah. So let's just hear this one. This is what the parallel octaves now this'll is the wrong way. But I want to hear it. It's so subtle. It's so subtle. But, ah, if we are trying to do music theory perfectly Ah, this is a no No, because it's parallel octaves. Let's look at one more. It's got to here. So I'm going to set up my I'm gonna write a 57 chord. Okay, so the same voicing in my 57 chord. But let's find another way to resolve it. So here's that same 57 chord resolved bad, right? Because we have this double leading tone. Let's try the same 57 court again, the same voicing of it. But let's try to resolve it in a slightly different way and see if we can do any better. Let's try going a de, uh, dupes, Uh, d And okay, let's see what went wrong here. Well, first of all, my leading tone does not go up, does not resolve correctly that way. My quartile seventh does. That's fine. My leading tone here does resolve correctly. Ah, and we have our route. Position 51 So this doesn't work either. What we did here is we let one of our leading tones resolve correctly and the other one not resolved correctly, Uh, also doesn't work. So in both cases, if we have a double leading tone, it doesn't work. Um, the only way to fix this is to do what I did before and get rid of the doubled leading tone and then do the resolution and you'll be just fine. So, uh, thing to keep in mind here is don't double your leading tone in your 57 chord because you're going Teoh, draw yourself into a corner and there's no way out of it. Um, so don't do that easy enough, right? Um, okay, let's move on 12. What is Figured Bass?: okay, Next, we're going to get into figured bass Now figured bass is something that we study in music theory. It's not everyone's favorite thing in music theory, and I only say that because it's definitely not mine. Um, I remember learning this and just being like, Why does Why would anyone make music this way? Um and now I know. And I get it. There was a very good reason for this. The reason was that were kind of firmly in the Baroque period here and in the Baroque period. What people started really doing was putting more of an emphasis on horizontal line than vertical line. And what that means is vertical lines would be like chords and horizontal lines would be like melodies. Now, that doesn't mean that we stopped paying attention to cords. It means that when it came to the cords, there started to be a little more flexibility, and composer started to say, Okay, I want something like this and not notated ing every single little note, and they just kind of said, you know, um, play me something like this and it was more like you had an accompaniment ist someone whose job it was to come up with the accompaniment, and that's this term that we're gonna talk about in a minute called realizing Figured Bass . So what we have in figured bass is a Siris of symbols that tell the accompaniment player, usually a keyboard player, harpsichord player or something like that tells them what to play without writing out all the notes. It just says, Here's what I want you to play using a kind of strange system of symbols and these symbols , most of which we've seen before. Um, because they're largely thean version names, but they get a little bit more complicated. Ah, but they're all based on those inversion names. The 664432 stuff like that. Um, so they're all based on that. And basically, what we get in this notation system is I'm gonna give you one note, and it's going to be the baseline that I'm going to give you the inversion and you need to figure out what all the other notes are. And keyboardists in the Baroque period. Got really good at doing this. And there are keyboardists still that are really good at doing this. There are a lot of people that are really good at doing it. Um, we don't really use it much anymore, other than a theory exercise. But it is good to know it does have some value in understanding this music a little bit better. So we're gonna do a section on figured bass. Um, I I especially like, I think, the kind of historic significance of it, you know, to know that, like in the Baroque, this is how people made music. Ah, you would show up to a gig and get this. You know, Ah, sheet of music with these symbols on it in your job was just to look at it and say OK and know exactly what to play. Kind of bizarre. Um, so it's really interesting. Okay, so let's go in next into, Ah, broad strokes, how this works and what it looks like 13. How Figured Bass Works: Okay, I found this like a nice explanation on YouTube of someone walking through what figured bases. So let's watch that. And then, um, I'm gonna talk a little bit more about it and kind of fill in some gaps. Teoh clarify a couple more things. So here we go. Figured Bass is a system of shorthand. It's a way of notated harmony. In some ways, figured Bass is an analog to lead sheet symbols, which is another shorthand way of indicating cords that are supposed to be performed. Figured Bass is a bit older, figure based. We see a lot of music from the 18th and 19th centuries, and figured Bass consists of two parts. One part is the bass part. It's a just a baseline and notated baseline written out the way we do expect to see it, and that baseline is usually read by somebody on a keyboard or perhaps on a low string instrument. And then what are called the figures? The figures are written below the baseline, and they tell a musician what cord goes above each bass note guys a figured bass. Some. It's a shorthand system of notated harmony and figured bass has two parts. It has a baseline which is written out and then a set of figures that go beneath the baseline to tell you what cords go with. The bass note here is a nice short example of what some figured bass might look like. Some figured bass in E minor. We have a baseline written out in our base gruff staff. And then we have, ah bunch of figures below. Now, what do these figures tell us? Well, some of them are numbers and the numbers indicate indicate an interval above the base note . But the numbers are abbreviated, and we're gonna be using similar numbers to the ones we've been using. T signify inversions on Roman numerals. We might remember the term based position symbols that are textbook liked, and we're gonna be using the same ones. And so a quick reminder on how those air going toe work We remember that, just like with our Roman numerals, if we have no numbers that indicates a Tryon in route position, we have the number six were indicating a first inversion try at try A that has a pitch 1/6 above the base Note. It also has an pitcher third above the base note. But lazy musicians don't write it out, and 64 will indicate second inversion triads, triads, which have a pitches sixth above the base note and 1/4 above the base note. All of these numbers indicate the intervals above the base. We can see Accidental Z, and they'll be applied to whatever number that they are next to applied to the pitch that is that interval above the base. And if we have an accidental without any number than it's going to apply to the pitch of third above the base, OK, so most of this works in a way very similar to what we're used to with Trot with Roman numerals. We just got a couple of wrinkles here with the accidental we can translate our figured bass into Roman numerals will be doing that quite a bit when we look at a figured bass and so we can start by looking at this one. Our first note in the base E has no figures underneath it. That means it's a root position. Try it and anarchy of e minor. We're gonna harmonize that with the tonic triad. When we look at the next beat in F sharp. We see some figures. Money. First we see a six six tells us that we have a first inversion triad. And so, if f sharp is the root of that cord than we're going to have some sort of D accord, we're going to have some sort of seven chord. But not just that. We have a sharp on the six. The sharp tells us that we need to add a sharp to the pitch 1/6 above the base. Okay, so are based notice f sharp. I'm gonna cut myself up f sharp. G A B C D. That means we're gonna need to sharp the d. Okay, We're gonna have a cord with D sharp f sharp and a and that in the key of e minor is our seven diminished six chord. That's right. We needed that sharp to raise the leading tone for a seven diminished six scored. Right now, almost all the accidental is we see in our figure, bases will be for the leading tone and minor. It's going to be the most common when we see this semester. But going forward, we're gonna as we introduce more chromatic chords and future semesters will seem or accidental is in our figures. Let's keep going. We see a six on the next court. What does that mean? First inversion. And so if G is the third of our court, I can cut down 1/3 and figure out the route, which is E. This is an e chord and first inversion that means 16 Very simple. Next, we have another chord with no figures. When we see no figures beneath, that means a root position. Triads. And so if a is the root of this court, it's going to be our four chord minor for in the minor key. Finally, we see a big 64 on that Be the 64 there tells us we have a triad and second inversion with B as the fifth. And so for B is the fifth of our court. I need to figure out what the route is going to be be. That would be e 1/5 down in e chord once again, a tonic triad here in 64 position. This is going to be our 164 chord. There it is 164 and we have 1/7 chord to wrap up that number seven telling us that we have a root position seventh chord and we have a sharp floating beneath it. Whenever we see those accidental is without any number. Whenever we see that it's going to apply to the third of the court again, lazy musicians can't even be bothered to write out three. So this is what we would see. More typically, that means we've got a B seven chord with a D sharpening B D sharp f sharp A. This is our 57 chord. And of course we need that accidental to raise the leading tone and minor something that we are always trying to be more conscious off. And that is indeed or credential. 64 by the way, 164 resolving to 57 here and we finish on the tonic triad. Here are all the Roman numerals implied by our figured bass. Okay, we looked at the figures. They told us what chords we would need above the given bass note. The figures helped us figure out what accidental is We need helped us figure out what intervals above the base we're looking for and we translated that into Roman numerals. At this point, we would be ready to create a realization of the figured bass would be ready to take this from Justin Abbreviation and to turn it into some actual music. This is a full realization of a thing that figure based we looked at. This is one version. There are obviously many ways we could realise those particular chords in many different voicings. We could use many different ways, but this is one way using good voice, leading using the notes that have been implied by that figure to base. And this is what a performer might play if they saw that figured. Bass. Let's take a listen to this realization that I wrote for us. Yeah, that was really fast. Okay, a couple of little details and then we'll be wrapping it up. One thing I want to point out is the note. Different notations in terms of raising a note in the figuration I just showed you. I used a sharp sign, and that's a really common one. But this was again like lead sheets, symbols, something that was used very often by practical musicians. And so there exists in multiple ways that we could have that sharp. You might see a sharp six that would indicate to raise the pitch 1/6 above the note in the base. But it's also common to see a plus sign right that would tell us the same thing. We want to raise the note 1/6 above the base by 1/2 step. Another thing we might see is this. Slash right This slash would tell us also to raise the note 1/6 above the base by 1/2 step . All of these are different variants of a similar thing. They're all telling us to raise a particular pitch. And so if we see them in our figured bass, we don't wanna freak out just different ways to say the same thing again. This is a system that somebody didn't write the book of figure based notation, and then everybody all used it. It's a system that arose from musicians, and so there came different solutions to the same needs of the system. So different ways to raise a note. Don't worry too much about it. And just as a reminder figured based for seventh chords, we are not going to be doing a lot of part writing with seventh chords this semester. But in case you need it for later, or just to point it out to you, we remember seven indicates a root position. Triads 65 indicates the first inversion. Try at 43 a second inversion Triad and 4 to 1/3 inversion. Try it. Okay, just a refresher on the different based position symbols for seventh chords. Again, we're gonna be focusing on writing with triads and working with those, so these probably aren't going to be coming up in the last couple weeks of the semester. But down the line, you will see them 100%. Did you want to be ready for that? That's it, guys. That's figured bass figured bass, a system of notation, a system of shorthand to abbreviate, writing out chords. If you've learned anything in theory one. It's that musicians are lazy and hate writing things out and will do whatever they can to try to shorthand it. This is another system uses a baseline, uses thes different figures below to indicate the cords above. Okay, we're will be doing figured bass. We will be realising, figured based. It's gonna become a big part of our part writing exercises. We're gonna be using these figures based notations and so we want to be familiar with it. Draws on a lot of things we already know from our knowledge of Roman numerals, and so that's gonna be helpful. Please bring your questions to class next time and come ready to do some figured bass. Until then, I'll see you guys next time. Bye. 14. Figured Bass & Roman Numerals: Okay, So some great info in that little video, A nice explanation of how it works. Let's take a crack at it. Okay, So I'm going to switch our keys here. I'm gonna put us in C minor. And let's look at an example that has this actually going to do this and whole notes, So we're gonna have a D in the base. And then this kind of figured bass is kind of tricky to do in new score. Not not Teoh. Make it just to do this symbols. Okay. Okay. So I have a natural and a six on a D. Now, here's the biggest mistake that people make with figured bass. They assumed that the bass note is the root of the cord, and we want you to build a six. Ah, an inversion of a six. So a first inversion cord on D? No, that's not correct. What we actually have here is D is the bass note in this case, not the root of the cord. So you have to figure out what the root of the court is based on this information, which is enough just enough information to figure it out. So let's do this in Roman numerals first. Okay, so if if we have a first inversion court, let's just ignore this natural for a minute. Let's pretend that's not there. So if we have a first inversion cord, so that means I'm gonna have 1/6 above it. And then there's gonna be 1/3 in there because as the guy we just listened to likes to say , we're a lazy musicians. Don't know if I like that. I wouldn't consider myself lazy. Um, but, ah, that there's that missing three in there. So 63 is really what we're looking at here. Okay, so now this is our actual cord. So what is the root of this court? It's actually a g chord, because G b d. If I move this up inactive, we have a root position. Triads. Okay, so when it says d six, it means a root position cord. We're sorry. It means ah D is the bass note of a first inversion cord, but it's not a D chord. In fact, when you look at it, if it says D, and then there's a six underneath that, the one thing that you know for sure is that it is not a d chord. Um, that's definitely what it's not If there's a number underneath it, Okay, now let's throw this natural back into the mix here. That means that the sixth, which the sixth is a six above the base note. That's gonna be this note. It wants to be natural, So we're going to raise that to unnatural. So now we have d g be natural. Okay, so in Roman numerals, what is that? Typically, we write Roman numerals underneath figure base when we write them. So we're in the key of C minor Uh, de G b Natural. So that's a G major in the key of C. That's gonna be ah, what last my text That is going to be a major five court, right? Because that sixth is raising our leading tone be in the key of C to make that the major five core just like what we saw in the video, because normally if we didn't raise that, we would have a minor five chord in the key of C minor. But we've raised that to give us a major five court. Okay, lets try another one. Let's do Let's do a g with ah floating natural underneath it and nothing else. They were still in. Ah, C minor. Okay. And we've got this kind of floating natural underneath. Now, remember what we learned from that video? If there's a floating accidental like this not attached to any number, that means it's attached to the third, not the third of the cord, third above the base. So we're gonna put a third above the base, and that's gonna be natural. Okay? And then we're gonna fill out the court, and we have G b D. Another five chord major. Five chord. Right. So the thing to remember is that it doesn't tell you the root of the cord is not what you're getting in the base. Note. The bass note is not telling you. The root of the court based on is literally the bass note. Um, you will see bass notes written out. Um, like a good old normal baseline. You know, it's not just whole notes. Um, and then your job will be to put this all together. In fact, let me pull up. Ah, piece of sheet music written with figured bass. Okay, so here's kind of a random image I found online of using figured bass. So what we have here is a normal old baseline. You know, this is like a melodic bassline. It's, ah to a nice piece of music. I'm sure what we have here is, um we can look at it quickly and kind of figure out based on the key signature que were in the key of probably a major. Um, also possible would be f sharp minor. So here we have an E and no numbers underneath it. So that's gonna be a root position cord. And then here in between We're still using that e. But now the root position is going to switch to ah, 64 with e in the bass, which is gonna be a totally different chord. And then e 53 So back to a root position cord. We put that 53 there because we came from a 64 We want to show that it's going back to a 53 I think I talked about that when we're talking about inversions shortly ago. Okay, Now we have a B. That's gonna be the base note of a first inversion cord. Then a B in route position than a sea en route position that an F in route position cause there's nothing here than a G Ah, in first inversion be in first inversion, an E en route position and a in first inversion and F in route position. A B in second inversion, then a B in route position and then an e en route position. So that's kind of more kind of a more practical thing of how this looks. But it can get a lot more complicated than this. You can see a piece of music, which is nothing but numbers and people in the broke. We're really good at reading this stuff. They could just sit down with this and just improvise all of the other notes that needed to happen. And it's kind of mind blowing, actually. Okay, so let's go back to our example here and let's do a full realization of these two chords in the next video 15. Realizing Figured Bass: Okay, so we use this word realize to talk about figure based. So when we realize figured bass, what we're gonna do is actually write it all out in four part harmony. We didn't really realize the figured bass here because we just figured out what the cords were. So I'm gonna go back and delete these notes to get us back. Remember these air? Just both G cords. So let's fully realize this. So I need I can actually do whatever I want above here. As long as I do the correct chord in the correct inversion. I've obeyed the rules so I don't have to stack things in any particular order. I just have to obey everything that we know about voice leading already, right? So I'm gonna put my be natural here, my g here and a d Here. So what did I do here? I doubled the root note, which is which is good. Our Sorry, I doubled the bass note, which is good. Um, here's my third and my tonic. So in this case, I doubled the fifth, which is not great, but because it's the root note. That's, uh, okay to do it. That way. Um, and I have to double something here because I don't have 1/7 chord. You know, 1/7 court is not indicated by the figured bass. So in order to get four voices, something has to be doubled. Okay, so let's look at another one. Now, these air to G cords in a row, these aren't meant to be sequential. Meaning this doesn't have to resolve to this one. Um, we're just doing two chords separately. So this one I can do, actually, I could probably do the same if I did the same here. What got doubled g The root of the cord, which in this case happens to also be the baseline is what got doubled. I need to raise that third because that's indicated by this natural floating underneath it . But then everything else works. So when you're realizing figured bass, you have to make sure that the inversion is correct and the cord is correct. And then the way you order notes above the baseline, you have quite a bit of flexibility on as long as you don't create any parallel actives or fifths or do were double ings or break any of the other rules that we've already talked about when it comes to voice leading. So now you're thinking holy smokes. That's a lot to keep track of. While I have to play my way through this, if you're a keyboard player and you would be right, That's why this is kind of fascinating. Um, is that people learn to just improvise this way. It's a lot to keep track of, you know, like it's tricky. Um, anyway, I find it fascinating. Okay, let's go to another video and let's just go through a couple of examples and do some realizations. 16. Bach: Example With Melody: Okay, so we have kind of a fun example here. Ah, what I have is a couple bars of a Bach harmonisation. Um, and this is the figured bass with melody, which very often happens. And we also have the way Bach realized this particular one. So let's look at it really quick, and then we'll look at how Bach realized it. What's this year? Okay, one more time. Let's not jump all over the place. Okay? So let's just look through really quick and see what we have here. So we're in g minor. Often. When you see this, it means, Hey, this is in G minor. Uh, which is not entirely clear from this key signature, so it's handy to know. So, what we have here? We have a floating natural, So that means this is going to be a root position. Cord root position, cord built on d. But it's gonna have a raise. Third, what that sharp is telling us. Then we have a root position. G chord here. It's gonna jean minor, but root position a 64 So this is a second inversion chord with a sharp six on it. But the four is left alone. Here we have a first inversion chord with B in the bass and then a root position chord with G in the base or a G root position court. Here we have a 65 So that's gonna be 1/7 chord. Okay, so we'll come back to that a second. When we look at how Bach did it, Then we have a root position, G chord, and then a d chord with a raised third. Now what do we do with the melody? Pretty much nothing We just have to or make sure our arrangement stays out of the way of the melody Or our realization, I should say, stays out of the way of the melody. So we want this to be the soprano voice. So what we basically have to work with here is the alto in the tenor voices to realize the figured bass. We can't change the melody. And none of the notes in the melody should conflict with the figured bass. If we're doing it right, the notes in the melody will be in the figured bass, for example. Let's look at this one says this is gonna be a root position G chord. Ah. Which means this note ought to be in a root position. G chord somewhere. Ah, and it is so g b and D are my notes. And this is a B flat, actually. Um, but that's totally in the court. Cool. Um, so here's what I think would be a good thing for you to do. Ah, After I'm done talking here, pause this and see if you can realize this. See if you can figure out the Roman numerals and I'll give you a clue on that. It's a whole bunch of one in five and then see if you can do a realization of it. Okay, So pause the video. Ah, take your your staff paper that I know you have handy there and try to figure this out. And then we'll look at in the next video. We'll look at how Bach did it, and you can compare yours against hiss. Now, remember that when we do that, yours can be different. That's totally okay. Um, your Roman numeral should be the same, though. Your Roman numerals would be the same, but the way you stack notes in between, there's a lot of different ways you could do it and they could all be correct. So Okay, so jot this down. Do this. Ah, And then the next video, we'll look at how Bach did it. 17. Bach's Realization: Okay, here we go. Let's add in box realization. Now, in order to do this in new score, this ugly thing happened. What I did is I selected all the notes, and then I put them on the second voice. Ah, and that added all these rests on the first voice. So we're going to get rid of these Rests as we add our notes. So ignore them for just a second. Okay, So this first chord, what would Bock do? He did this. And oops. Do that. Okay, he did this. So we have a d major. Okay, I'm gonna go through an ad in ah, box stuff, and then we'll look at the Roman numerals after that. So here we have a root position cord. Let's see how Bach voiced it. He put you didn't like that. And then, actually, it's to be faster if I just went through one voice at a time. We doubled up on a note there. Interesting. We'll talk about all of this in just a second. Okay, let's go down here. Well, that is a very boring tenor part. Okay, so let's point out a couple things here. He'd use the same note, he doubled up on the same note in the same octave. Remember? That's okay. We can do that. Um, also here might have tripped you up. So what happens here is the melody goes to an eighth note. The accompaniment does not, and that's okay. Um, you could have done it both ways. Actually, the as long as whatever you did here didn't change the cord. Like if this move to another chord tone and this move to another chord tone, you could have added a harmony here, but you don't need to a xlat. But if you did add one, it needs to be this ah d major accord. You can't have anything other than D major because it's not indicated here. And there's no bass note to tell us anything different. So if you did add something on the end of one here, it needs to be d major, but you could have done it typically. Ah, in this case, we wouldn't because the melody moves on its own, but there's no new base information and numbered figured. Bass is all about base and figures, So if there's no base and there's no figures, we're not gonna do anything there. Okay, let's look at the analysis. So what we have here is we have a big old major five, and then here we have a minor one. Here we have a five, 64 I'm just going to write it with slashes like that, which we sometimes dio. So 564 Here we have a minor. 16 Here we have a root position. One miner. And here we have a 565 and another minor one and a root position. Major five. So all these accidental is really are just for five, raising our leading tone of five. There are all on F Sharps, right? So even though they look like they're moving around in weird spots because there's nothing on this one, there's a six on this one. There's nothing on this one through all of Sharps. Interesting. So that's how Bach did it. Let's hear it. Okay, let's hear it a little slower. Okay. Cool. Um, okay, let's do one more video on this topic and just kind of ripped through some of the basic rules on, and then we'll do a worksheet on it. 18. 6 Basic Rules: Okay, so let's take figured bass and kind of distill it down to six basic rules. Um, okay, so here we go. Uh, if there's an accident, elects to a number, raise or lower that pitch by 1/2 step chromatic Lee. So no matter what the pitch is, go up 1/2 step. If there's an accident, if there's a sharp on it, if there's a flat, you go down by 1/2 step. Sometimes you'll see that written as a slash through a number like we saw in that video. Slash means raise. Okay, Number two. If there's an accidental by itself, raise or lower the third above the base. So in a case like this, this means the third above the base, not the third of the cord. Um, which in this particular case, happens to be the same, but it means 1/3 above the base gets raised. Okay, when building number three one, building the cord above the base, put stuff in appropriate active for the voices that you're using, so just make sure that everything is within the range. So the soprano part isn't too high. The tender partisan too low and all that stuff, But you do have some flexibility. In where? How you put together those chords. If there is no accidental on something, it means you're in key. Keep that in mind. So for example, this one, we have no numbers, but we also have no accident. ALS. So that means that all the notes are in key whether or not it's major or minor. We don't really care about to some extent because we just know that we're gonna obey the key signature is what that tells us here. We know this is a first inversion cord with B in the bass. The rest of the notes are in key. That's all we really care about. So you don't have to think about if it's major minor. Just remember that unless otherwise told with an accidental you stay in key. Okay, Number five, when you see accidental is like this floating by themselves. I know we already talked about this, but I want to point this out separately. Um, it applies to the third and this one. It's attached to the six. It applies to the sixth, not to the six. And to the four. Remember that accident ALS affect one note only, um, I see a lot of the time when people are learning this, a mistake they might make is they see a sharp like this. They assume that means all notes are sharp, which is entirely not true. Um, and in a case like this, they might assume both the six and the four are sharp. Also not true. The accidental applies wants to one number only. So this is a sharp six, not a sharp six and a sharp four. If it was a sharp six and a sharp for it would look like this, that would be a sharp six and a sharp for, So don't make that mistake. Um, I see people make that all the time that they assume the sharp or the flat or the natural applies to all the notes when it only applies to one. Okay. And rule number six follow all voice leading and doubling rules that you already know. Um, we have a good amount of flexibility in the notes that we can put together and how this sounds. Ah, but at the same time, we have a lot of rules we need to follow because all everything we know about part writing an essay, TB, part writing. All of that stuff still applies, so we still need to resolve correctly. We still need to do all that stuff. Okay, great. So let's do a worksheet on figured bass will give you a couple things to try out. Ah, and then we'll get back to our discussion on ah, phrasing and this whole tonic, dominant tonic thing that we started in the last ah, class. 19. Back To Phrasing: all right, shifting years. We're gonna go back to this conversation we started in the previous class. The music theory. Six. Class, about phrasing and just to refresh our memory. Let's let's pretend this is one piece of music. Okay, this is all part of a piece of music. Let's just pretend for a minute. We're talking about phrasing. We're not zooming in on each individual chord, but we're kind of zooming out, and we're saying this is all tonic area. This is all dominant area, and this is all tonic area now. That's not exactly true in this particular music that we're looking at right now. I'm just doing that as example. So we zoom out a little bit farther and we say, Okay, well, what we said so far in the previous class was in a good phrase, we have some stuff in a tonic area, and we talked about how to kind of solidify that tonic area, and then we move away from the tonic area, toe what we're going to call the dominant area, and we have some stuff that happens around there that really solidifies the dominant area, and then we move back to the tonic area and we solidify tonic area. And that's a good phrase. Traditionally speaking, when it comes to this style of music, that's what we like. We want something that goes from one and hovers around one, establishes one and then moves away from 1 to 5 area establishes five and the moves back that could be over the course of the whole piece. That could be over the course of ah, a single phrase like a single section of the music or something else. So we call this phrasing. So, for example, right here we see. 51511515 If this was the end of the piece, I could call this all tonic area. Even though there's all this five stuff in here, there's a lot of tonic, and this five is always going back to one very rapidly. 51511515 Let's assume there's another one there where, as if this was a something like a dominant area of five area, we wouldn't see these ones would see five something else. Five. Something else. We'd see a lot of hanging on five. Not back to one. This is constantly pushing us back to one. All these fives are just saying are just emphasizing one so we could combat a tonic area. So that's what we've done so far. Tonic, dominant tonic, T d t is what we call that. We're gonna mix it up a little bit more now and get a little fancier with it. And we're gonna add another letter to that T d t. Actually another two letters because we're gonna have something called the pre dominant area. So instead of a good phrase being tonic, dominant tonic now ah, good phrase is going to be tonic predominant, then dominant, then back to tonic. So we're adding one little step in there that pushes us into dominant and then dominant pushes us back to tonic. So, um, that's where we are with phrasing. So let's go to a new video and let's talk about this whole predominant thing and what that is 20. The Pre-Dominant: Okay, so I'm gonna go back to see Major here. Let's zoom in a little bit. Okay? So let's look at let's just put on the screen. A tonic, dominant tonic and legal gap there. Um and I'm just gonna do it in triads. So tonic dominant. There's our five. And here's our tonic. So imagine one is 11 is happy being just where it is. But we moved to five to get away from that. We can't have one all the time, right? We gotta change. We gotta have create some drama, so we change and go away from one. The five area is a good place to be. The five wants to lead back toe one. This cord has a tendency to feel like it goes back. Toe one. Now, what we're gonna insert is something that feels like it has a tendency to go to five. Maybe it will make this move a little less dramatic. Right? So let's do this. Let's take that away. And let's change this cord to that. Now, let's put our five back and are one back. Okay? Where we have now we have a tonic. We have ah four record a pre dominant chord. Four is a great predominant court. The motion from 1 to 4 is a little less dramatic than it is from 1 to 5. Right? So it's a good thing to go in between. So we're gonna have a four area. We're gonna call that a pre dominant area for 25 it less dramatic, but 5 to 1 is still justice, dramatic as it was before, because we like that. Um, And when I say we I'm talking about Ah, you and me as if we are in the 18th and 19th century, early 19th century, mostly the 18th century. So this we're gonna call the pre dominant area, and then we're gonna do like what I said back here, we're gonna zoom out. We're going to say, if this is all tonic, this might be all pretty dominant and then all dominant and then back to some kind of tonic area. So we're gonna kind of abstract this a little bit, but four is a good tonic air. Sorry, pre dominant area. But there are others, and I'm gonna talk about that in just a second. So let's explore what's in this four chord or sorry, what's in our predominant area and what we can do to expand the predominant area. Because, remember, when we looked at the dominant area, for example, we don't have just a five chord. We have a couple of the things we can do their, but in that case it's mostly the five. But in a one chord weaken, do one, we can do a little bit of five consistently emphasize one. We can do a six chord. There's a couple things we can do that just kind of help expand the tonic area, right? So let's look at what we can do to expand the pre dominant area. 21. Using ii and IV as Pre-dominants: Okay, let's get rid of this and this. So we're still in C major, but I want to look at this four chord. F A. C is our four chord, right? So what else can we do that will kind of hover around this area like the area of the four? The thing we're calling the pre dominant? Well, check it out. What if I could keep some notes The same? Okay, two of the same note to take this top one. Move down to the bottom. Let's do that. It's only one note different, right? So what is that going to give us? What is D F and A In the key of C major? It's too cord, right? It's a minor to cord, and this is a major four cord. It's kind of how it works. So to cord is another great place to be for your pre dominant area. Two and four are kind of your go to chords in the predominant area. There's kind of one more that is a popular one, very kind of easy one to be in in the predominant area, Um, but it's just an inversion of our two chord. If we did a to six chord like that. That's another great place to be, because that really feels having that f in the base. That four in the base. Ah, fourth scale degree in the base really kind of makes it feel like a variation of our four chord because it's only one note different. Look at him side by side. See, so two and four work really well together. Um, anytime, actually. But also to help establish this kind of, um, predominant area. And both these cords lead really well to the tonic chord are sorry to the dominant chord. So let's look at how this cord how this to cord could move to the dominant. Let's just look at our voice leading. Ah, and kind of this kind of not in s a t B. Ah, but just using a single staff here. So what's our path of least resistance to get to a five chord? Well, this deacon stay the same. So my 26 do you can go to d Achon go up to be and f Congar Oh, up t right. So really tight cord there like very simple voice leading. We've got a note in common. We've got this third that just moves up by a step. So this leads nicely, too. The dominant Harmony 27 four leads a little more tricky. Ah, because that's just put a four out here again. F a c. The whole triad could move up a whole step, but that gives you all kinds of parallel octaves and fifths, right? Eso root position for the root position five, uh, is going to give you there's a parallel fifth rate right here. It's, you know, dangerous. So we're gonna have to look at how to deal with that in part, writing a little bit. Um, there's some easy ways around it. Just using some inversions. Um, going from 46 to a tonic Farrah root Position five and things like that. We'll talk about that in just a minute. Um, so let's look at some typical core progressions in major keys that use this tonic predominant, dominant tonic outline 22. Major Key Example: you know, before we do this next part, I just want to point out one quick and maybe interesting thing interesting to me is that hopefully you're starting to see here. How, as we're building up our knowledge of music theory and we're starting to get more into what feels like a song, Um and we're starting to look at phrasing. Before, we just went kind of 151 and our phrasing. But now we're expanding that. Now we're going 1451 or 1251 And you see the phrasing getting a little more complex as we keep going were kind of just moving through the decades now, right? So music, it's more and more complicated. And it's going to start to Ah, well, it is constantly evolving into what we know now of music, because now music now is kind of the result of centuries of this kind of stuff. So as we take tonic, dominant tonic and expand it to tonic pretty dominant dominant tonic. Ah, the music got just a little more complex, just a little more interesting. So we're gonna keep expanding these things until ah, we get Teoh insanely complicated. music, and then we're going to kind of scale it back again because that's just what happened in history. And then we're gonna end up Ah, in the modern day, it's kind of fascinating to follow, so hopefully you're with me. Okay, So, uh, in this video, I just want to point out one quick thing. Uh, so let's say we have something in a tonic area. Let's stick to see Major. So a song might be doing this kind of a thing. Okay, so let's say for let's say, for four bars, it's hovering around C. Major. So there's a bunch of stuff happening in the music, but at the core of it, if we zoomed out real far, we're going to see a whole bunch of C major. Okay, then maybe in the next four bars, we're going to get to this pretty dominant area. What we're going to see here is maybe some two chords, maybe some to six boards, maybe some four records, hoops, maybe some, maybe a 46 chord. Let's do that. All of this would be pre dominant area, right? And then, for let's say, the next four bars, we're going to get to something in a five area. Right, So maybe we've got a five chord. We've got a 57 chord, right? It's also a good one. Maybe we've got I don't know, 56 chord, another 57 chord. Okay, let's add some bars, okay? And then we're gonna go back to our tonic chord, our tonic area, right? We're really gonna hover around tonic. Okay, now, I just kind of arbitrarily chose four bars here, but let me outline what that is. So let's take some text and say tonic area. Let's just do this. Let's go all the way to here. Okay, here we have pre dominant area. 1234 So that ends actually here. Four bars of that. Now we have this dominant area. 1234 OK, and then we're back to tonic area. All right, so check this out. I want to hear this. This is not gonna be super compelling music, But keep in mind the path that we're going in this sense of drama that we're trying to create here. So we're gonna hear tonic, a whole bunch. We're gonna establish Tomic. Okay, then we're gonna move to this pretty dominant area. We're gonna feel like we're away from tonic. But we're not as far away as we can go after the predominant area, We're going to go farther away, and we're gonna go to this dominant area. We're gonna sit there for a minute, and then after that, we're going to feel that we went all the way back home. And this is kind of our basic song structure for this kind of music. Okay, let's hear it. - Okay , so that's kind of how this works. No, Within this con, fine. We can write music. So let's look at how this works one more time. But let's do it in a minor key, because it's a tad different. 23. Minor Key Example: Okay, so for a minor key, I'm gonna copy this whole thing and put it over here. OK, but let's put it in a minor key now. And let's not change the key signature. Let's just manually do it. It's good practice, right? So how do I make c minor? I need an E flat. So are one area is all gonna still be centered around one, but it's gonna be a minor one. Our pre dominant area is going to be around to, but to in a minor key is diminished by having a flat in the key of C minor D f A. So it's gonna be a two diminished chord. That's okay. Nearly always. When we do this, we're going to use a diminished six. Ah, this one that just flows better into the five actually flows really nice into the five. Uh, but we'll see that when we work on part writing. So are four. Chord is gonna be minor also. So here's our minor four chord, and here's our minor for six. Chord are five. Chord should be minor, but we're actually going to leave it, major. So this is minor. But most of the time we're going to raise that. The third of our five chord to make it major right. Same thing with our 57 chord. So we're gonna leave this be natural, even though in this key, it should be flat, But we're gonna raise it, and then we're gonna go back to our C minor. Okay, So let's go back here and grab this stuff just so we can see it while we work. Que atomic area. Pre dominant area, Dominant area and talk area. All right, let's zoom outs. We can see that whole thing. Okay, so here it is in a minor key. So the main to differences in a minor key is that are two cord is diminished and are five chord we're gonna push. We gotta change to make it major. That's just here. 24. Moving From Root Position IV to V: Okay, let's get back to part writing now. And let's address this 4 to 5 route position thing that we have to do. Um, we're gonna encounter this where we want to go from root position for the root position five. And we don't want to create a whole bunch. Parallels. So, um, the secret to it is just using some careful contrary motion. So let's go back to see Major, I suppose. And let's make a four chord in C major. Okay, that's gonna be f a c, - like So. Okay, so here is Ah, the way I've put this together is f A C F O k. Nothing fancy. Now we know if we're going to go route position for which this is to root. Position five. We know that this bass note has to be right there. Okay, so let's make everything else move the opposite direction. So let's have this f move down if it can to the nearest possible cord tone. Okay, so we're gonna resolve it like this. So what's happening here is my f in the base is going up to G. My A is going down. Everything else is going down. While the base goes up, everything else goes down. So we've got a whole bunch of contrary motion. F goes up to G, but a goes down to G. So we're doubling this G, which is the root note, which is totally fine, right? Everything else I want to go down to be contrary to this motion up. So this f up here is not gonna go up to G, even though g would be the closest court tone that would make parallel octaves. Right. So we're gonna pull this down to the nearest cord tone, which is D and the C down to the nearest court tone, which is B Okay, that gives me the G B deep. I'm doubling root note, which is fine. That's here, right? And then it sets us up to go toe one. So the best way to avoid parallels when going from five or from 4 to 5 in route position if you need to do that, which sometimes you will is to let the base move up from 4 to 5 and then have everything else moving contrary motion to it. So everything else moves in the opposite direction of the base and that will avoid parallels between four and five 25. Doubling in Diminished Chords: Okay, We got one other thing that I want to put a little, um, emphasis on when it comes to part writing and that is this diminished to cord in minor keys . So let's let's throw. Ah c minor key signature up here. So now we're in C minor. So let's look at this two chord. Ah, and lets Mellott. Let's use our part writing here because we have a doubling problem with this to diminish court. Let's do it in route position and then we'll talk about that. Let's go. D whoops could do that and later to. And these layers are so hard to keep track of De and then So it's D f a flat. So let's do an f there and a there. And then we What are we gonna double? Let's try doubling the route. Okay, Problems. So the dissonant interval in a diminished chord is this Fifth diminished fits right, so we don't want to emphasize that. So the biggest way that I have emphasized that here accidentally is by doubling one of those two notes right there, Right. So what we want to do is when we voice a diminished to cord or really any kind of diminished court. We don't want to double that route because it emphasises that dissonant interval. And we don't want to double the fifth because it also emphasizes that interval. Ah, we want a double the third in a ah, uh, in a diminished to part. So d f f a. That's a better way to do it. Um, another thing that comes about is, once we move on to resolving, this will find that route position in This is fairly uncommon. Uh, this diminished to cord. It's just doesn't sound great in route position, mostly because we're doubling the third, So why not put the third in the base? Right? Um, s 026 is much more common. I could dio that. Let me do my We go back. Okay, Let's just do it from scratch again right next to it. So let's put the third in the base. Let's do f. And then maybe we could do are a flat next, and then I still want to double this F but I need a c in it now. Okay, that's okay. So here I have the third in the base, which is doubled, which is what we want on a diminished chord. And then I have the A and the C, which is a different, dissonant interval. But that's okay. Let's hear the two of these side by side and see if we can tell which sounds better. Thats one's pretty crunchy, right? So I think this one sounds a little bit better. Um, and the only real difference between these two now is that this one is in first inversion. First inversion diminished chords are just, uh, just generally sound better. So when you're facing a diminished chord, throw it into, ah, six inversion or a first inversion, and that will that will sound a little bit better. It will be a little bit easier to deal with. Okay, let's move on and talk about ah, pre dominant seventh chords. 26. Predominant 7th Chords: okay, So far we've looked at seventh chords. We've really only seen 57 appear, but there are other seventh chords that have other special powers. So let's look at him. Let's go to just let's go to the key of F in Let's do F major. Okay, so a to seven chord, let's see what that would look like. So if we're in a predominant area and we had a two chord so in the key of F, that's gonna be a G minor chord, right? Let's do, Let's write it. That soup art reading. I'm going to do it as a six. Okay, So what do we have here? You have g be de f right? So we just went up another stuff when we got that, What kind of core does that make? It's gonna be a to 65 It's a minor chord with what kind of seven? My route is G, and my seventh is F. So it's a minor seventh chords. Okay, so it's a minor seventh chord. No big deal, right? Uh, it's technically what I've spelled out here is a to 65 Now we have no seventh chords resolved to five but this is not a five earth. We know that seventh chords resolved toe one, but that's only 57 chords. What about 27 chords? Um, a to seven chord can resolve to five, actually, quite nicely. So let's put a resolution to it. Here. Oops. Voices backwards. Okay, so now we resolved it to a root position. Five chord, Kiev F. Right, So see, E g c. So let's see what happened. The root of my two chord, which is my g was able to stay the same. So that's nice. My third My be went up. Ah, half step, actually. Ah, whole step because B flat my fifth went down the hole Step in my seventh fell down. Ah, 1/2 step. So a nice transition. Let's hear that. Uh, right. It's a nice sound. So 27 are 265 more commonly, which is what we have here does occur can happen. Ah, let's look at what would happen if we were in a minor key. So let's just get weird and flip over to f minor. Okay? What happens now? Okay, so let's build my cord. Okay. What do we have now? We have a two chord. So it's a minor to cord and it's gonna be diminished, right? So so we're in a minor key, so it's got to be diminished to cord. Let's confirm that. So we're in F. So our route is G G B flat minor, third D flat minor. Third again between be flattened D flat. That means it's diminished. Chord go. What's our seventh f? So is that a major seventh or a minor seventh from G? It's a minor seventh. This gives us what we call. So once we get into D diminished seventh chords, we can start to find this. This is actually a whole new chord for us. This is called Ah, half diminished chord. It's a diminished chord with the minor seventh on it. It's not a diminished seventh. That's the difference here. So if this was F flat, we would have a fully diminished chord. And you're like, Hey, there's no such thing as F flat. Oh, there will be you just wait. We will find a flat sooner or later. Um, I'll leave you in suspense on what that looks like, but for now we would call this 1/2 diminished chord Let's hear it right. That's 1/2 diminished chord diminished Seventh Triad with a minor seventh on top to seventh court. Let's resolve it. Now we're going to resolve this to a five chord and that five chord we're gonna make, Major, because in a minor key, we like our five chords to be major. It is all of it. Pretty much the same way. We're gonna let this interval color of 1/5 diminished fifth actually collapse. Gonna keep a common tone and let this d fall down to a C. Let's hear that resolution, right? It's little unexpected, right? Let's hear these two side by side. Uh oh, You know why? It's a little unexpected. Ah, I forgot to make this major. There we go. Let's try that again. That's what I was hoping for. I was like, Wow, that sounds really unexpected. Okay, so let's hear these side by side, Major and minor with the major one. We have a minor seventh chord essentially, and here we have a diminished seventh chord. Let's try it. Okay, so that is another thing that you may encounter in this pre dominant area. Is this to diminish to seven, uh, creeping up into 1/2 diminished court. Okay, with that, uh, let's go into a worksheet and, ah, test what we know on that. If you do well in the worksheet, continue on. If you struggle with the work shed a little bit that maybe we watch some of this and, um Ah, and then try the worksheet again. That's what they're there for. And then we'll move on to harmonizing melodies. 27. Method For Harmonization: Okay, Eso next. What we're gonna do is look at harmonizing Corral melodies. Now, this is a major part of music theory. What this means is that we're gonna take a melody like Mary had a lamb or your favorite holiday song or patriotic song or any song that you know, and we are going to harmonize it, which means we are going Teoh find cords that work for it. So we're gonna find a core progression that works with the melody were also going to find something that is musically interesting from beginning to end. Um, meaning it's got a good phrasing and things like that. Ah, it's also gonna have good cadences and at the same time is all of that. We're going to do it in four part Harmony s a T B harmony. So that's what we're gonna do. The way we're going to do this is we're gonna divide it up in the kind of three steps. First we're going Teoh, identify our cadences. Now, you might think that seems like something you do last because a cadence comes at the end, right? But, um, it's really useful to look at your cadences first, so we're going to look at our open or are closing cadence. And then we're gonna jump to the beginning and look at our opening harmony and that will tell us what key were in first of all. Most importantly, and it'll also kind of give us a destination. So we'll know as we're writing our, ah, four part Harmony will already know what the end looks like. Right? So what we can do, then, is it's kind of like we've got a target that we're aiming for and we're not just kind of zooming around. It helps keep it much more grounded. You don't have to do it that way, but that's the way I like to do it. So that's the way I'm gonna do it here. So step two is we're going to figure out all our cords just using Roman numerals. We're gonna go through it and put in all our courts and then step three is we're gonna add the baseline and in the baseline we're gonna look for contrary motion. We're gonna look for a nice contour, and then the last thing we're gonna do is fill in all our the rest of our voices But at that point, it should be pretty easy, right, Because we know what the beginning in the end looks like we know what chords were using. We know what our baseline is, and we will know what our soprano line is, because that's gonna be the melody that we start with almost always when you're given a melody to harmonize you put the melody in the soprano Um, you can do it differently. But for what we're doing now that's that's how we're going to do it. It's easiest to hear a melody when it's in the soprano. It just jumps out more being at the top of everything. So that's what we're gonna do it. Okay, so I guess it's kind of four steps because the fourth step is to fill in all our other harmony. But, you know, at that point, um, nearly everything's done. We just got a kind of keep our eye out for some breaking any counterpoint rules. But all the heavy lifting will be done at that point. Okay, so that's what harmonizing is. This is a great skill toe. Have. This is something that if you are a pianist, um, a lot of the time. I see pianist get really good at this where they can just improvise their way through a melody just by looking at the melody and just, you know, doing what falls into their hands because they know how to do this so well that they just know how to improvise. Ah, full harmonisation of that melody. So let's dive in. Um, let's find a melody. We'll start with a short one and let's go through this process. Okay, so here we go. 28. Finding Cadences: Okay, So here's the melody that we're gonna work with just something nice and short to get started. This is a melody that Bach harmonized. A couple of times I'm gonna kind of do it along with what Bach did. Um, but let's start by just hearing this short little melody. Okay, so what key are we in? Let's just kind of use are here to figure that out. Um, are key signature is telling us g major or e minor, right? We don't have any accidental is here. So the odds are that were, uh, in something indicated by the key signature. If we saw a bunch of accidental is, we might say we shouldn't trust the key signature, but there are no accidental. So let's assume g major or the minor. What's the more likely culprit here? We start on a be, which is 1/3 of G major, but 1/5 of E minor, right? So that might lead me to think Ah, that e minor makes a lot of sense. Um, because we like 51 relationships, right, But, ah, let's go to the end. We end on a G, uh, and let's hear how we fall into that G. Look at this. 4321 Right, Just right in there. So so g really feels like the end because we walk right down the scale, actually, all the way from here. 54321 Walking right down the scale right into that G. So I think G major, it's a pretty safe bet. So what do we want to do for cadences? So we obviously want a one here, right? So let's just let's just label this for now. Actually, let's not Let's put in all the notes for this last cord. So let's let's see if we can make a perfect authentic cadence, right? I'm not positive we can, but let's try it. So I need a G in the base and I have a G in the Soprano. So that already is gonna tell us that the G is gonna be doubled in this if it's gonna be a perfect authentic cadence and that's okay because it's the route. Ah, and that's perfectly fine. Note to double. So let's do G. Let's put a B all the way up here. Oops, I'm screwing up. My voice is already okay. So G down there. Put a be up here. And what are we missing? A D. So let's put a d right there. Okay. G b d g g major. So that's our one chord. Now, if this is a perfect authentic cadence, we need a five chord right before it. So what are we gonna do here? Can we use this A To make a five chord. So the five quart of g is d major the notes in D Major R D f sharp and a So, yes, we can note that we're in 34 here, so we have 12 and then an empty space. We could put accord on that empty space. Or we could put a cord right here. Typically, when we're doing this kind of thing, we do one chord per quarter note. Ah, regardless of the melody. So we should have a cord on beat three here. And if this is gonna be a perfect authentic cadence, that has to be our five court. Right, cause that five chord root position five court has to come right before the one chord. So actually need to not use this a because I need to put a five chord here, so let's see if we can do it. I'm just gonna put Oops. It's gonna put a random note. Oops. I'm gonna make those rests in just a second because I'm trying to put a chord here on the third beat. So, de now, what are my voice leading rules here? My five has to go down to one, which we have my Kordell Third, This is my f Sharp has to go up to G. So that's gonna be we're going to do the same thing again here. It's gonna have to be right there, right? This f sharp goes up to G. Okay, so that actually has to be in the soprano voice, get a low soprano voice here. Groups that causes a problem, doesn't it? Because I can't add another soprano voice because my soprano voice is holding that a And I can't change that because that's the melody. So I'm gonna have to do a little bit of cheating to get this court on beat three, which I have to do if this is gonna be a perfect authentic cadence. So what am I missing here? I have d f in A Okay, so here is my five chord. The little bit of a cheat there because this f technically doesn't go up to G. This a goes down to G and F goes down to D because the voices, right, this is a soprano. This is the alto. Let's leave that for now. We'll come back to it and look at it. Um, once we get all the rest of our notes in there and see if we're OK with that, if we can make that work, Okay, Now let's go to our opening chord. We have a B. So can we make a tonic chord work? That's kind of our first thing to do is on the opening chord is to say, does tonic work. And in the key of g B is the third. I think that works just fine. So let's go down here and let's do a G court G go a little Oops. Gotta get it on. Beat three again and amuse score. It doesn't let me just jump right to beat three. I got I, like, put these arrests in and then delete him. Kind of weird on Let's do D g D and B So what do I want? A double here. All the easiest and safest would be that G right? Let's put it right there. Okay, so that is a very fine way to start now. One thing that's worth noting here is you'll notice that have a huge gap right here and a smaller gap right there. I think we talked about this earlier, but let me just point it out one more time. This is nice. This is a nice ah, way to voice accord we like there to be. If there's gonna be a big gap anywhere in your cord, put it between the base and the tenor. Um, that makes a really nice sound that that makes the tenor alto and soprano fairly close together and a big gap before the base. We like that. That's a good sound that's here. That's awfully faster than it. Let's try slowing that down. Alright, let's try that. Okay, so now we've got our cadences. We've got a tonic chord here, and it's not part of the cadence. It's just one. But I kind of included in this step. And then we've got a perfect authentic cadence. 51 at the end. Now let's move on to our second step, which is to identify what we're going to do for the harmony for the rest of this. 29. What About T-PD-D-T?: before we figure out the rest of our harmony, let's jump back really quick and talk about that tonic, predominant dominant tonic, phrasing situation. Because we're going to need to have a clear picture of that before we figure out our harmonies. Right. So here's what we gonna do. Um, I am going to use some text here. Where did my text to go? There it is. And for every chord, I'm gonna put in where we are Now, this is a really short little thing. Um, a short little melody that we're gonna harmonize. But even in this short little melody, this tonic, predominant dominant tonic Ah, situation works so in this is gonna be some kind of tonic chord. We already know that, right? It is, in fact, tonic for this cord. We're goingto stay in this tonic area. And remember, there's gonna be three chords in this because we typically want one chord for every quarter note. Okay, let's move these up a little bit higher, cause I'm gonna need to put my Roman numerals down there. Okay, so these are all going to be tonic area cords to make this a tonic area cord. Not this one, I'm gonna bake my pre dominant chord, this one. I'm going to make my dominant core because it is a dominant chord. And this one my tonic chord, Let me explain why. So what I'm doing here is tonic, predominant, dominant tonic and the reason I'm thinking that way and this, you know, you could do it differently. You could move it around. But the reason I'm thinking that way is that because this is so short, I think we can hold off, hold onto our tonic area for quite a ways. For most of it, we could be tonic area. Now. It doesn't mean I'm not going to use a five chord, because I can kind of see that this is going to be right to use a five chord. But remember in as were prolonging tonic, we can use the five chord so tonic area stuff and then to get to the end, I'm gonna pull us away with the predominant that I'm gonna pull us far away with a dominant and then I'm gonna land us right back to tonic so that it feels nice rewarding that Danek that dominant to tonic motion. Right? But if I didn't have this predominant in there. Tonic to dominant would be a little bit jarring. So I'm gonna try to get a predominant court in here. Remember, That's four or two. So we'll see if I can make that work with this A Once we get into figuring out our Roman numerals, which hey, we're gonna do that right now anyway, So Ah, let's do that. Let's figure out a Roman numerals, I guess. Let's jump to another video. Um, and we'll do. We'll figure out what Roman numerals were are gonna work. 30. Outline The Harmony: okay. Just to keep things a little bit neater, I'm gonna move this to the top. All my tonic, dominant stuff Because we're gonna put these Roman numerals in there, and it's gonna get Messi. Okay, so now my first chord. First of all, I'm gonna analyze this in the key of G. So I'm gonna put G corn Meaning G major capital. G G major is what we're analyzing this in. So what is this first chord? First chord in G major is one root position. No inversion needed. Perfect. Right? Great. Now let's look at this next chord. What can I put on the downbeat of this court? I could put? Well, we have a d, right? So let's think about there are gonna be three chords that have a d. Let's zoom out here for a second and just think about that, okay? If I'm just looking at triads, I can make this d b the route. In which case I would build a try and above it. I couldn't let me do it in quarter notes. Okay. So d can be the root. De could be the third case. I'd have one note above it on but note below it or D could be the fifth. Do you could also be the seventh, But let's leave that off for now. Okay, So what are my three chords here? This is D F sharp. A. So that's a five chord B D f in the key of G. That's a three chord. So it's gonna be a minor three chord or G B D. That's a one court. Okay, so what's gonna be my favorite to use of those three? My options are five court, a three chord or a one chord. Let's eliminate the one chord. Here's why. Um, I went a big one here. I want toe give a sense of motion a little bit. I want to get up, Get off of one. That doesn't mean I don't want to leave the tonic area, but I do want to give a sense that something is happening. I'm not just playing the same court over and over, right, cause that's not a very interesting harmonisation. So let's eliminate the one chord as a possibility. The three chord could work, but I'm not going to use the three chord and for a kind of strange reason but check it out . What I'm going to try to do here is use one chord to cover this whole measure and kind of a strange way. So I want d and I want this C two. Maybe if I'm lucky, I could get that see to fit into the court as well. So if I went up one more note on my five court here, what would I have? See d f A. C that makes a 57 chord. Oh, when that worked great. Right there, Right. I don't have to do that. I could put different chords and every beat, but I can make all the notes of the melody in this one bar fit in one chord by using a 57 court. Even though I'm still in this tonic prolongation, I can use a five chord. That's okay. And it's actually only going to be a seven chord on this last beat when the sea comes in. So check it out. Trust me. Um, so I'm going to use some kind of five chord here, and then here it's gonna be some kind of 57 court. All right, we'll figure out the inversions later as after we write in the baseline, but I think that will work. I could make a five chord work for that whole bar. Now, I've been telling you, we want one chord per quarter note, right? We can use the same chord over and over. We're gonna put a passing tone in that baseline. Just hold on to that idea for a minute. We'll come back to what we're going to do here, and it'll be cool. Trust me. Let's look at the rest here. Now, After some five stuff, I'm still prolonging tonic. So it be really good to go back to tonic. Can I make this be work in tonic? Ah, I sure can. Actually, because I did it right there. So let's call this a one again. Some kind of one might be an inversion. Who knows? No, this predominant cord. What are my two main predominant cords that I like to use? Four and two, Right? So let's try four first does a four work I have in a So I need accord that's got on a Let's just figure out what are three chords of a are so it could be a could be the root oops to be that a could be the third or they could be the fifth. Okay, so if a is the root in the key of G, that's a two chord. Hey, that worked. Ah, let's see what the others are, anyway, in F sharp, chord in the key of G is the leading tone. That's a diminished chord, so let's not use that one, because that is definitely not a predominant cord. Our third option is a D F A, which is itself, Ah, five court, which is definitely not predominant either. It is dominant, so I can't get a forecourt out of that. A. But I can get a two chord, right? So let's make this a two chord. It will be minor. And this, we already know, is a five chord. We already built that, and then this is a one chord. Okay, so that's what we'll do here. So let me just fill this spot in saying, Could I left this out? But that's going to be five chord tunes. We're gonna 55571 Maybe we'll change the inversion here because we kind of have to do something different. Um, here so the inversion will probably change. But we'll see. We'll see what we can do. Okay, so that's how I'm gonna harmonize it. Now, remember, when you're harmonizing stuff, you could harmonize this differently. You could harmonize it very differently, and it could be totally correct. So it's really hard, especially in an online class like this. For me to say I'm right, you're wrong because, ah, this is artistic interpretation we're doing here, right? So you could do something totally different and it would be perfectly right. There's a lot of correct answers to this. So keep that in mind that I'm only doing it one way. You could do it a totally different way. Okay? Our next step in the process is Let's write out our baselines. 31. Add a Bass Line: Okay, so our baseline, we're going to start here on a G. Now my next note for this five chord. Remember, I want to have a nice baseline that has a nice arc in a nice line to it, right? So let's just see if we can start by finding the closest possible note in our 57 court or just are five court. Sorry. Let's look at the notes in our five chord D F in a. So that's this cord. There's a five chord D F in a So what's going to be my closest note to G? It's gonna be F actually f sharp. That's my closest possible note, and it goes down by 1/2 step. It's totally cool. Let's put that in. Okay, so now I'm going down by 1/2 step now. That changed my Roman numeral little bit, right, because this is now no longer a root position five court. This is now a 56 chord kept. It's totally okay now what's gonna happen on the next note? It's another five chord is what I want to do, but I don't want to step up to the next note, so I don't want to step up to an A that be going here? I could. Well, let's try it. Let's try going toe on a there. That's gonna make this a 564 chord. And then what am I going to do on this 57? Can't really stay on the same notes. I want to make this nice line. Could go up to the sea. Although what would happen if I went up to the sea of the 57? I'm doubling the seven. Right. I've got two of the seven. That's the dissonant. That's the tendency tone. I don't want to double my seventh, so I'm gonna do something a little different. I'm gonna take this to the A and I'm gonna take this to a G. Why? Why do Aggie? Aggie is not in a five court. Hold on to that for just a second. Let's change this one, because this is no longer a five chord. But this is a five. Do you remember what we call that inversion? We call that a 43 543 chord now, and this bass note we're going to call. That's a P. T. Remember what P. T. Stands for passing tone. So in order to make a nice melody in the baseline, we're gonna have a passing tone risk a step right through G. That's totally okay. You conduce that. Still gonna maintain this as a five chord? All right, trust me. Let's move on. You'll see how this comes together. When we finish out, fill out the harmony. So we have this. 543 That totally works. Listen to my baseline. Wouldn't it be great if I could just go up the scale? One more note to ah be here. That would be so fantastic. Oops. Does that work? G B D. It sure does, but changes my inversion 216 Just totally, totally. Okay. Remember, when we make the Roman numerals, don't worry too much about the inversions until we put the baseline in. So now I have this nice baseline. Uh, it would be so cool if I could keep going right, If I could get up to that. See, Will that see? Work? What's my cord G? It's an A a C e. It does work right. That puts my third in the base. That makes me on another six chord. Okay, That's a to six. Here. I have de in the base, so I just continued right on even farther. Isn't that awesome? And then down to one. So now I have this awesome baseline that right? Steps right up. We can totally get away with that with this core progression. Ah, with one little passing tone of a cheat so that baseline works. I don't know why this note turned gray on me. Uh huh. It's weird. Okay, well, let's hear what we have so far. Nice, right? All right. Now, for the last up fill in our inner voices shouldn't be too hard because we kind of know everything we need to know, right? Let's go to it. 32. Complete Inner Voices: Okay, so let's start on this 56 court here because our one court is already done. So I'm gonna go here, and I gotta make this second. No. Okay, so what? No do I need? I have an f and a D to make that five chord. The notes are D f and A So I need in a So let's put that in the alto, because that's gonna be nice. Voice leading from here. Okay. And then let's think line by line. Just for a minute. Here, what could go here underneath this 543 chord, this could step down to an F to fill out this 543 right? Because D f a c So now I've got the f there. That leaves. So all my notes of the 56 are now covered F a D. So now I need to double something. So let's try doubling the deep. Because look at that voice leading just stays right on the same note. No problem there. In fact, how long can we stay on the same note groups? No, I screwed up my voices. So can I stay on a D one more time? Does that fill out this corner. Remember, this court is 1/7 chord, so it has four different notes. So I got to be careful here, So I have Let's count up from D D F sharp. A I see. Perfect. Okay, now what happened here? What I have here is ah, passing tone in the base and everything else sustained. So when I said yes, you have to change are you should have a cord for every beat for every quarter note. Ah, Sometimes the melody just implies that you don't need one, and we technically do. Here. We're adding a note. It's a passing tone. We're not going to try to figure out some goofy cord out of it. We're just gonna call it a nice passing tone, keeps the motion going, and I'm pretty happy with it. So let's just hear what we've got so far before we do this last measure, right? This one. It doesn't feel like it needs anything else here. We could change these notes and come up with another chord. But why bother? Ah, that sounds nice. And plus Ah, this is what Bach did. I'm kind of re putting together box harmonization here. So if you want to put a chord here, it's a Okay. You can do that if you want. Um, that's totally fine. Okay, let's look at this 16 So what am I missing here? I have a B and a G. It's our Sorry, I have to bees. So I need a G and a dif. Let's look at our voice leading. Wouldn't it be great if this one just stayed on a D? It sure would. So let's do exactly that De there and then up here. Let's see if we can get this one up to a G causes on an f sharp lutes so f sharp up to G so that Kordell third resolved our seventh resolved down to a B. So that resolved correctly. And I'm going to do this as 1/2 note right here because a that's what Bach did. And it fills out that measure really nice. G f. Right. So we're just gonna let this sustain into that A. And that's going to make my two chord a little different, isn't it? Because what is my to court? We're in the key of G. So a c e what if we went up one more and added 1/7 under it, that would be g. So right here. We added, By letting this sustain, we technically added 1/7 to this too, right? We just saw that we just saw cases where that happens. And in that case, we gotta change our inversion again because now it's a 265 because it has 1/7 in it. This G is going to sustain right into it. It's gonna sound sweet. Trust me. We got one more note to fill out here. What? No Do we need On a two chord, we have C Ah, what is our two chord? It is a So we have a c were missing e and then we have the g of the seventh. So will this easily go to Anne? It sure will. Let's just step that right on up to an E. All right, now we've hit our cadence and this That's pretty nice. Actually, that is more of what I want, but will approach that. We'll deal with that in just a second. This is less knifes. That's a big gap. So what can I do to avoid that gap This is a five chord, so I have d f Oops. Sorry. So I have d af a and A so that a is doubled, right? Because this is sustaining into here. So I could maybe not do this. What if I did that? That's nicer. But now I've got a bit not a big leap from D to a urbi of 1/3. Here's what Bach did. It kind of cheated here a little bit. Bach did that 20 Harmonize this so to make nicer voice leading you D c b. So he snuck 1/3 in there on the latter, 1/7 in there on the last eighth note and let it resolve right back down. Pretty cool, right? So what we would do here if we want until, like, get our inversions just right, we would go like this. I would say this is a five and I want to show that the seven happens right here. So what I would do is I would go like this. That means five route position because of an eight that resolved. That's that. And that resolves down to a seven. Which is that? So it's saying five eights goes down to a seven, and then we resolve toe one. So there you go. That's how Bach harmonized this. Let's hear it. Nice. Right, Gorgeous. Okay, um, once you do this a bunch of times, you'll start to kind of internalize this, um, and not make it so complicated. I feel like what we just walked through was ah, felt more complicated than that. It needs to be. So let's do another one. Um, and let's do another one. Ah, and let's try to simplify it a little bit. 33. Harmonization 2: Mary Had A Little Lamb: Okay, let's do a whole nother harmonization here. And this time, let's do one to a familiar melody that we all know. Let's do. Mary had a little lamb, so if we were going to do, we're gonna write out Mary had a little lamb in four part harmony. Uh, let's just do it. Why not? Right. Um, remember, there's a couple different ways you could do this. The cords that you come up with and definitely the voicings for those chords. Um, you could come up with a number of different things. That sounded pretty good. So what I'm gonna try to do here is come up with something that's a little bit, um the more expected thing to dio it might be fun to actually do it twice and once do it. Kind of expected in the other time. Do it like, really kind of weird, But in a way, that still sounds good. Maybe we'll do that. We'll see. Um, OK, so I'm going to start by reading out the melody. Alright, so I've got ah, in 44 c major. So let's just do Oops. So we just do that much, Or should we keep going Let's do. Let's more. Why not? Okay, you know what? This is out here. Let's get rid of that. Okay, so now I have the whole melody. Mary had a little lamb, little lamb and lamb. Mary had a little lamb whose seat was white as snow. Great. Um, okay, so let's go through the same process that we did with the Bach. Ah, a minute ago. So we're gonna start with what We'll start with finding our cadences. Right? So we're gonna figure out where are Keynes's are now. In our case here, there might be more than one. And I think there will be, um because we're gonna have a Keynes of the end. Obviously, we might also have a cadence here between this and this because this is the end of a phrase . This is the start of a phrase, so we could put a cadence here if we wanted to. And we'll also figure out what our first court is. Case. Let's go to a new video and figure all that out. 34. Harmonization 2: Finding Cadences: So when it comes to figuring out our cadences, first thing I want to do is figure out what key we're in. Right? So let's just listen to this and let's just try to do this by year and see what sounds like Ah, tonic. Okay, let's take a guess on Tomic. Does that feel atomic? Not quite. No, Not quite. That one, either. Kind of. Probably that one. Right. It's probably. See, Major, um could also be a minor, given our key signature. But, um, for one, we don't have a single A in this, we resolve on C. At the end, we start on 1/3 of C, which would be 1/5 of the A minor. But again, we don't have any AIDS. Isn't that the way the previous one started to? Yeah, we were in G, and we started out and be weird. Um, just a coincidence on that. It's not always that you start in the third, so let's Okay, so we're in the key of C major. Right? Let's figure out our last, um, cadence first. Okay, So what do we want to do here? Um, can we do a 51? So here's a one and the five of C major would be G right? So does the melody note fit into a G chord The notes of G, R, g, B and D. So, yes, it does. So we can make a 51 here. We can make a perfect authentic cadence here, actually. Ah, let's do it. So in our base, we're going to have Okay, so I've gotten this all ugly and filled with rests. But that's what we have to do. Ah, for now, we'll clean that up later. So in our base, we're gonna need to have a G here and then a c here. Let's do that as a whole. Note through on a perfect, authentic cadence that has to be G seeks. He's both have to be rude position. Now let's add our tenor. Let's just fill this whole court out. Well, we're here, so G b and D. So that would be up here. And D. So what's another? What could we double? We could add our seventh here. Let's have her seventh hoops. So if we add the seventh, it's going to be the F g, B, D and F is gonna make our 57 chord That's seven has to resolve down cause that's our Kordell certain right to our quartile. Seventh I mean to the third of the next court, so this looks awfully parallel to me. But it's not because this is a parallel sixth that we have here after d e to see parallel sixes are okay. We can do that. Um, so now we have a C e. C. Now, I got a little bit of a problem here, right, Because that means I need a G here. And if this is not gonna go smoothly to a G, this be could jump down to a G. It's not great. So this Africa go up to a G, But then I don't have the correct resolution of my seventh chord, so that kind of has to stay there. This has to stay there because it is the melody. So Okay, let's try this. Let's take this note and up to a G and this new away up to an F that's pretty high. But that's OK. So now this canaries solve to a G, this can resolve correctly to an e. Okay, let's see if that works. So I still have my route position. My seventh is resolving to that third. That's what I need. G stays A g d goes onto a see. That leaves me with C e. G. C. Does that work? Everything's moved. Well, the soprano and tenor are moving down. The alto doesn't move. And here we move up. So we do have nice contrary motion. I think that works. It sounds good. Okay, I think we got it. So I guess. Nice seventh chord and to Ah, very correct resolution here. Wonderful. Okay, lets go back. Go back to here. This is are other Keynes. Let me just play this for you. So you can hear why I think this is a Cade's cadence and then it kind of start over, right? Let's hear it with our funding cadence at the end. It'll sound funny, cause out of context, it's kind of funny. Anyway, um OK, so I think we could put a kittens here. Now, do we want to do it on four on the fourth beat? Like we did in the previous example, we could put it on four and then a one here, or we could put it on to our Sorry the third beat resolving to one But I'm gonna try to do something on every beat here, so let's actually try So we have g and then e so we can do our tonic chord here Let's just make a tonic chord right here Let's try for another perfect authentic cadence and see if we can do it So we're gonna go see Let's try, try another, See And then I'm gonna need a G here K C c e g So I have all my notes have doubled the route Totally fine. Now, on my fourth beat in the base, I'm gonna have to put a G. I want that to be a perfect, authentic cadence and this G is holding through. So I'm not gonna be able to make this 1/7 court, right, Because I can't change this. Known. I can't add a note here, So we've got a g here and a G here. That means two of my notes are you G is doubled already. Um, so I can't make this 1/7 court, but that's OK. I could put a b here, would make nice voice leading up by a step up I step now? I don't have contrary motion with the base some a little dangerous. So I have g b. I really need a de and these pretty far away from this one. You know, I could go down so I've got myself in a little bit of trouble here again. Let's try this. Let's move my tenner up to a D. So it goes down to a C Now though, I need G. I need a B that could work. Oh, you know we can do Let's do that same trick that Bok did. Check it out. Let's try this. So I've got a B right here. That's what I need. Now this be to this G isn't awesome. Voice leading, but it's not terrible. It's a jump of 1/3. Right? But here's that thing that Bok did right. I'm gonna go g passing tone through her. Sorry. Be passing tone through a and then to G. That's gonna make super nice voice leading right there. Okay, um just remind you what I'm talking about right here. We had this step of 1/3 and we just bopped right through the seventh in this case. But what? We're gonna dio is we're gonna step just right through. This isn't the seventh who is in a This is actually a two, but we're just going to call it a passing tone and walk right through it. Okay, Uh, let's hear how that works. It's kind of a weird canes. I don't think we can really call that a perfect, authentic cadence, but it's close. Um, we could probably all that and imperfecta authenticates, but I kind of like it. It kind of works. Okay, so let's figure out our first chord, and then we'll be done with this part of it. All right, Well, we want to start a big old C major court and that e will work. So let's go with C in the base, uh, and then already have its e up here. So let's double the sea in the tenor. And then what am I missing? Ce e g Put a G right there. Okay, Now this the way I voice this is gonna be setting me up for a bunch more, and I somehow got to connect this g to this be all the way over here. So what I mean by that is the range that this is in. I'm gonna to make good voice lead and kind of have to stick around there. Same thing with the tenor note. Right? And the bass note, actually. So where I put these first notes kind of set me up. You. Sometimes you get all the way to the next Met measure and you have to step back to the beginning because it's just not working. But hopefully we don't have to do that. Okay, uh, next, let's outline the harmony. 35. Harmonization 2: Outline the Harmony: Okay, So to figure out our cords, let's zoom out a little bit. And let's first think about our tonic, predominant dominant tonic and let's do it backwards. Trust me. Um, OK, so here we're back to the tonic. Right? Let's do let's do our letters here. Okay, so we're back to tonic here. Here. We're on a dominant. We already know that. And where does our pre dominant come in? Possibly here. But this e actually doesn't work on a predominant. That could still be our tonic area. These D's do work as are predominant, though, So let's call that predominant this one. Let's see if we can tie that to the dominant texture. I've got kind of idea of a way that we're going to do that. Um, so just hold on now, with these, I could do the same thing here. I could treat this as two different phrases where this is going to go. We're gonna have some kind of pre dominant around here. Dominant tonic again. Um, or I could treat it as one long phrase and try to treat this all as tonic area stuff. Um, what's gonna be better? I don't know. Let's try it as two phrases. So let's call here predominant here, predominant here, predominant. The reason I'm doing that is because this D is gonna work in a two or a four chord e. Let's go. Dominant. Let's call that dominant pounds called that dominant area, and then here were back Teoh tonic area. Okay, so this is all going to sound nice around a tonic area and same thing back here. Okay? I think I've labeled everything right. Okay, so we've got tonic, pre dominant, dominant tonic and then starting over atomic predominant, dominant tonic. Okay, so let's figure out what I want to do for courts. And remember, I'm not gonna worry too much about inversions just yet. Um, so we're gonna have a one chord. A D? What chord can I make out of a D? Should we do our experiment again to see what notes are in a D? That I already do that over here? Yeah, that's what this oneness. Okay, so I can if I treat d as the one chord or if I treat d as the root of the cord it gives me in this key, remember? We're using C major key here. It gives me a two chord. If I treat it as the third of Accord, it can give me the seven corn. So the diminished chord, So probably gonna leave that one off for now, but we won't use it later. We'll see. Um, And if I treated as the fifth of the chord, we have a nice, dominant port, so I could do a five here, Could do a five, or I could do it, too. What's gonna be better? Well, I don't like following two with, uh, I don't like following one with two, because that's going to create a lot of parallels. It's not a great motion. So let's do a five court here. Remember, we're in the tonic area, but we can do a five chord. So let's just call this five of some type here. We could go back to a tonic chord because it's see, let's do that. That goes well after five. Here we're back to another D so we could do another five chord five or to really? So let's do a five chord and we'll do some kind of inversion there. We'll see e gets us back to a tonic chord. We just did a five course. We really should do a one chord here. Now. I got these repeated notes. What I wanted. What do I want to do on the repeated notes? Do I want to do one over and over? Well, let's let's think about if it sounds like the core, if it feels like the court should move there, I don't think it should. But we got to do something new, right? So let's just label these as one, and we will do some kind of inversion thing here to keep things moving. Okay, and now I need something on this beat four. And here I do want to change it because I want to do something that helps us lead into this pre dominant area. So e, what chords work with E. Go out here and figure out what we can do. So if he is my route, I can do a three a minor three. If it's my third, I can dio major one. Or if it's my fifth, oops, I can do a miner who that could be nice. It's the relative minor, right? I don't want to do tonic. I don't think I want to do three because again, following one with three isn't an awesome sound. Change that. So let's do the A minor. So that's six. That's gonna be the minor six. Okay, And then we get to this. D notices are predominant area. So we wanted hover around two and four here if we can. Ah, does to work here d c d Yeah, that's our to court if we treat this as tonic. So let's do two here and again, just like here will do some kind of inversion with this to make it feel like we're moving through this section. And then here at the end of that last beat, let's switch to our other one. That's switch to a four chord, and then we have this dominant area now with the E with the pitch E, we just did over here. Can we get a dominant chord? The key of C, the five g. Ah, we can't get a G major chord with an E in it. So I get a little bit of problem there. We can get a tonic, though, so let's put a tonic court here. But you know what I'm gonna do I'm gonna do a 16 So I'm gonna do a tonic chord with actually 64 with a G in the base that has a feeling of a five chord. Even though it's a tonic court. Come back and tidy that up later. And then this G let's dio just straight up. Five chord, straight up, five chord And then here we've already got Hey, five chord. Okay? They were back to here where we already have a tonic court in route position. Now I'm repeating the phrase here. So what? I like to dio issues the same corns I used over here. The notes are the same, right? So let's use the same harmony That tends to feel really good. So it's called a five. Call that a one and let's call that a five. Okay, now, here I did 111 and then six. But now I have a note here, but that's OK, Let's do 1116 Okay, 1116 Now, this kind of parallels This. So listen. And here the cords could be kind of similar. Um, but I guess they're a bit different, so it's not a perfect um I I Actually, I take that back. I don't think the court, they're gonna work together. We already have a five here. So let's label that. And we have a one here. So we have pre dominant dominant one. Okay. So I can't do a dominant chord on an E, right? Or with an e in it. See, over here, I had to do a 164 to make that work. So I'm in the same thing here. So we're gonna make this some kind of 164 And then here, Aiken Dio just a couple of four chords. Actually, if I wanted to get kind of fancy here, do a two chord and then a four chord, it's have a little fun with it. That might sound weird, but let's give it a shot. So for my big Keynes at the end, I mean have to 41645 one. All right, this is actually a 57 All right, So there's all my court is. No, Let's try it. Lets you know we're gonna try to fill this out and see if we can make it work. Maybe we can't. Maybe we have to go back to the drawing board with some of this, but, um, I think it will work. Uh, who knows? Let's try it. So our next step is to write out the baseline, so let's do that next. 36. Harmonization 2: Add Bass Line: All right, Let's see if we could make this baseline work. So we've got one now for our next note. We have a five. Remember? We don't have to be in a position. Um, for this and in some cases, it's better off if we're not like when we're trying to extend the dominant or sorry. The tonic area. Um, so our five courses G g b de. So what's going? What's the closest note for? See? It's actually gonna be to go to be, um, again, this is paralleling that Bach one, isn't it? Yeah. Where we went down at first and then up. I think we're probably do the same thing. Um, yeah, because for one, we might as well go up. Right? Um, that's cool. Now, I don't want to go down again to this, because because that's not very interesting. Do you do? Do do. It's gonna sound like jaws. So let's jump up to this. E, um g b d o. That isn't there. Uh, this d works, though. Does that make sense? So C B c d. Yeah. Great. Nice little baseline. So now we're on a one court again. So my closest note in my one chord is going to be E if I want to keep going. Um, that's tricky one, because that's gonna double the third. Ah, which weaken Dio, Uh, we've said to be careful about it, so we'll have toe pay attention to that when we fill out the cord. But that's OK now I've got these three ones in a row and I want to make sure the baseline moves I might keep One of my inner voice is to be the same same note all the way through, like how this is. But I want the baseline to step down, so I'm gonna go through the court, e see down to G and then for this six chord will go up to a That'll be nice. So these are These are bigger leaps, but they're just walking through the cord, and I think it will be okay. It's not the smoothest voice leading, but it'll be kind of fun. I should be labeling my harmonies here, So labeling my inversion that should say so. Here we have one tonic. Here we have a 16 or 56 I mean, here we have one route position here we have a one Six for the fifth is in the base here. We have 1/3 in the base. So that's a one six, huh? Tonic and then 64 it's Pull it down there, then a root position. Six chord is in the base. Get through the next measure. So I'm gonna do the same thing of stepping down through the cord, the little arpeggio with this to cord. But I'm getting pretty low, so that might be tricky. Maybe we can step up so our two chord is D F and A So I'm on and a what if I jumped up to a D and then I step and then I went through the cord backwards D A f that works the big jump here, But we've got a really jumpy baseline, so I can kind of work. And then I got my four chord, which I'm on an f. So I want to change that note to something different. Staying on enough would be great, but, um because F is the root of that four. Let's try staying on that now. That might feel, um, not very satisfying to have the same note there, but the chord changes. So a lot of the inner voices they're gonna change, So it might be OK, we'll see. And the main reason I want to do that is because next, if I do a 164 here, this note has to be G so that F to G is nice Voice leading. So now I've got a five chord, so check this out. Here's 164 with the G two notes later. I've got five Chord, which we do want in route position. So I could just stay on a G for these two in between notes. Right? That would totally work, but it would also be totally boring. So let's try, uh, my notes of the 5/4 G, B and D. So let's do be and deep, let's go right up through him. So that means that I have Let's go back to label my inversions. So here is a two chord with D in the base. That's route position with the fifth in the base. That's a 64 chord here. Here we have a two chord with the third in the base. That's gonna be ah, six. Here we have four chord root position. A 164 chord. That's right. That not goofy. 164 five chord just G bu. So we got the third in the base, so that means it is first inversion. Now we've got it with six in the base, 64 And now we've got root position 51 okay. Or Cruz in interesting baseline happening here. So now let's try to parallel what we did before, right? So what happens here? Same is what happened here, actually, the next two bars. So let's see if I can just do the exact same thing. Uh, I think I can't label my inversions. Right. So I'm gonna have a 561 and then 564 and then a 16 than ah, one route position and then a 164 Pull that down a little bit and then a root position. Six court. All right, so for this for this to cord, let's see what we can do here. So are two. Cord is D f and a I'm on in a Let's see if we can walk back. Words. If this Well, yes. Oh, I don't want to stay on an X I do want this toe. Have some motion here so I could jump all the way up to a D, which I think I'm going to you. I know this is going to be kind of a jerky baseline, but I think it will still be kind of melodic. So d and then So that makes a root position to cord four chord. A root position would be f in the base, but I could also do a 464 and step that down. This 164 needs to be a g. So it have to do that. So because these two notes are the same What if I did this? I took this note. Eso I went d d g g c. I think that would have a nice sound to it. It's jumpy, but I think will really push home the harmony by doing that. And that gets us through the whole thing. So that means that's one route position. This four is actually Oh, that doesn't work. This has to go down to a C cause this is f A c. So that has to go down to a C. That's too bad. That's okay. I still think that'll sound nice. So now, But this that means this is 464 and then 164 Let's put the right kind of stuff on that. 57 and one root position. OK, we did it, man. This is tedious stuff, isn't it? Is white. People go to college for this. Okay, Let's hear what we've got with our baseline, our melody and our couple of cadences. All right, here we go. Uh huh. Okay. Party. Interesting. The only part I didn't like was right in here. We used all this, too, When I really feel like it feels four. You know, it kind of sounded weird here because I think we're really feeling off some kind of four harmony here. Especially when it got down to this to let me just hear that part again. Yeah. This these two notes. If this was a four chord, it would be f A and C. Well, it's mostly the same. It's really only one no different. So let's leave it. Let's harmonize it. We'll see what happens. I feel like this bar just got oddly dark, you know, it was like, Wait a minute. This is not. Mary had a little lamb. This is something scary and weird, but let's keep rolling with it. RAM Fund. Okay, Next thing is to finish it out with all our inner voices. Let's go to a new video and do that. 37. Harmonization 2: Complete Inner Voices: all right. Last step in the process is to finish out these harmonies. So I'm going to zoom in this. I kind of equate to, like, painting by number. If you ever did, like paint by number when you were kids where you know like it's the drawing is all done. What colors go in? What spots is all done. There's just a number and there, and so it says. Number four. Then you look at number four is yellow, so you paint the number four yellow. It's just kind of like wrote stuff. I kind of feel like that's where we get with this. Everything's pretty much all done. We still have some amount of creativity and decision making that goes into how these noise these notes are put together, but not a ton. So let's go through and do it. Okay, so we've got a 56 chord up first. Let's start with my tenner. So the notes of my 56 court R G. B and D. So I have a D and A B. So I need a G. Actually, my altos best for that. So my tenner probably well, not a bee, actually, because if I go down to a B. I've got parallel octaves, so this has to go up to a d. Um, so now I'm doubling the fifth, which is not awesome, but that's OK. And then here we will, uh, keep smooth voice leading there. In fact, as this goes back to one that could stay on G and to fight again that can stay on G Lovely and even going to the next bar that could stay on G. It's 1641 I'm sorry. 16164 one. Um, this could stand you the whole way into this. A. It needs to go. So this six court is an A minor. So that's a C E. Let's go to an A there. So that's nice. Um, on this one, we can go back down to a C uh, oops. Wrong voice. So we could go back down to a seat or we could go up to an E. It might be kind of nice to go up to an e. Does that cause any problems? I don't think so. Okay. And then are five chord is G B and D. I'm missing a B, so I really want to get a B in here. That's an important note. That's gonna be a big leap down. So that makes me think. Let's step backwards. Go to this note on Have them go down to that. See, because that makes that much smoother. Voice leading. Shoot. That's okay. All right, then. Back to a one. Cords, we have a, C, E and G. Everything's covered here. Back up to a sees. We double the route. Now let's see if we can make a moving note here. It's gonna be hard, but so see, E g See, e G. Is what I need here to. I have see E and G. So I have everything covered. I guess it's stay on sea all the way through here. That's okay. And then here we have a and A and e. So I need a C Oh, look at that. Perfect. We're already on it. Okay, So for my two chord the notes in the to court r d f and A. So I have to tease. So I need these two to cover f in a. So there's an a right there. So let's grab a now. I'm stepping downwards again, so I can just keep this a Okay. Now let's go down here. So now I definitely need this to be an f ish. Could be a big jump in either direction. De d a. Well, let's let him do it. I could maybe walk him down to because here I have a a d and needs to stay on f here. I could walk this down. D f could walk down to a D. Okay, stick with me here, then here I could walk down to a So this is walking down the arpeggio in the same way that this is this. Now groups could go back up to my alto and do the same thing. Mm hmm. Have that one. Cover the F right here. So now I have d f in A and D doubled and then here I m f So here's my d half an A. On my fifth doubled. I could take that one all the way down there. It kind of works. It's kind of fun. So now everything is stepping down by arpeggios. Except for my melody. That will be It will be interesting to see if that's more interesting than this one where the same thing happened pretty much, but everything stayed the same. I think this would be more interesting. And remember, I don't really love this measure to begin with the harmony that we chose. So maybe that'll spruce it up, or it might make it sound even darker. That's OK too. Okay. Oh, I gotta do this court here. My four chord. So the notes of a 4/4 R f A and C So what's my path of least resistance? Here he's on a So let's see if we can keep that on in a So now I have and f A I need to see Ooh, that's nice. This one can walk just right down to a C. Here we go. Let's move on. So 164 So that C E and G, I need a couple sees here. That's good for C And then this our tenor. So C, E and G, everything's covered. But this one could go down to a G, recovering the bass note, which is 1/5. But that's okay in this case. Now, one thing I'm noticing here is I have too big of a gap here between my soprano and alto. We want that to be less than an active. It's OK for now, but I gotta I gotta deal with getting my alto back up higher. The sea has to get to this. Be sooner or later. That's a leap of inactive. So that's making me second guess this note. Step backwards. I need that. See right there. So what if I took this? See G. So C E and G. There's G, G, C and E. I need someone to cover that. See? But what I could dio So this is a huge leap, right? It's a whole active, so that's terrible Voice leading. But sometimes just a octave leap is doesn't sound terribly jarring because it's an active. Like if this was 1/7 it would be terrible, but an octave. Sometimes we can get away with it, so I'm gonna try right there. So now I'm still on C and now for my next note on this five chord. So my five chord is G B and D. I can go down to be double the bass note. What do I need in my tenor? I have G and B and A B So I need a D here. That's gonna be a big jump. So let's swap these. So let's go here up to a be hope I can't go to a B If I go to a B in my tenner, I've got parallel octaves G two b g two b. So let's take this down to a D. That's gonna be That's a big jump. This one's getting weird. So hold on tight. This is getting weird. Um, it's thes Are these arpeggios there is killing me. That's really hard to make. Good voice leading is because of this arpeggio thing we did. But let's roll with that. And then we've got another five, so g b d take that up to a G cause then it's at least are going root fifth active. And then this constabulary be and then it goes be again a dove. Okay, that's gonna be a tough one, But we'll see. Okay, No, we can kind of repeat what we did at the beginning. So g, I'm just repeating this first measure because the melody is the same. And we generally like it when things repeat. Okay, The same thing on the next bar is going to work and going to voice, too. It's what it did, right? Yep. Okay. Last bar. Let's see if we can make this goofy thing work. So I've got a two chord the notes of the two court R D f and A So I've got to tease already . So I needed f in a There's in a but this one's gonna have a big leap to get Teoh in f and I really want that f So the better thing is gonna be if this one steps down to that f even though a would be better voice leading, I need somebody to cover that f and then this Congar Oh, up to a D And at least this one has good voice leading. This is only a small leap. That's okay, my four chord F A and C. So hopefully this can stand and 1/2 for f A C. Now what's that d doing here? Let's deal with that a second. So see if that could be a see, it would be great doubling the sea, which is the base note. So I hear I have an f c. I don't have an A, which is the fifth. Maybe I can live without it. Um, but I got a D in here. Why did I put a forecourt on a D? You guys probably all saw that earlier, but we can make this work. I think this will. This will sound okay. Um, because we're gonna call this d Just kind of a passing tone through this four chord. But as I said that, I noticed my parallel octaves right here. Data C d to see. So that doesn't work. So let's take this up too. And f So now I have an f in A and a D. That's actually just a two chord, but I have a c in the base. Mm. Tricky. The problem with calling this a passing tone is that it's going to really feel like a two chord, and this base is going to sound like a wrong note. But let's try it. Maybe it won't. The only thing making this a forecourt is that bass note. So and I feel like we're gonna feel it as a two chord because we just heard a two chord. But let's see what happens. Okay. Last chord. We have a tonic court 164 So C, E and G Can this go down to a C E g e? That means I need a C. Let's take this down to a C and this to a G. Okay, so we've got some jumpiness here, but what I have to do is kind of the ah situation. I got myself in If I needed If I wanted to cover that, see? All right, let's hear it. This is going to be a little weird. Yeah, uh, I worked out much better than I was expecting. Um, this core that we were just looking at didn't bother me at all. Let's hear it from right here and keep your ear on that chord. It didn't bother me at all. Ah, the baseline really helps. So it does feel like a 464 chord with the passing tone in the melody. Good job, us good job class with your overtime. Yeah. Uh, 38. Proof Listen: Okay, We've done too big harmonization projects now, and I want to kind of wrap up this section and actually the whole this part of the whole class. Ah, with just some general tips and things to think about while you're doing this. So first Ah, don't forget to proof. Read. Right. Um, when I say that what I mean is, go go through your work and check for errors. Now, sometimes the best way to proof read is, Ah, with your ear. It's like proof. Listen, kind of. If that was a thing, maybe it is the thing. Let's invent it. Let's let's let's say that's a thing proof listening. So we're gonna listen for errors. Is is what we're gonna do. So sometimes the easiest way to hear him is to play it through on a piano. Um, sometimes you can just play it through with your software or whatever, but actually, there is something to be said for playing us through on a piano. Even if you're not a pianist, plunk your way through it, finding each note when you do that a lot of the time. Ah, some of those errors pop out. You'll be like Oh, I just moved in parallel octaves. I can see that now, when it wasn't so obvious on the page. So I highly encourage you to proof read by playing it through in the piano. I remember doing this when I was a student in college. Um, I'd work on a counterpoint. I think I had it perfect. And I'd sit down at the piano being the world's worst pianist, and it would take me an hour to plunk my way through every chord. But in doing that, I would always find more errors. I'm like they just never stopped. There's always something. Um and yeah, you're probably right. Um, there always is something somewhere. So listen to it. Play it through on keyboard Sometimes it's really good. If you're just gonna listen to it, try to focus your ear on something each time. So for example, say this time through, I'm Onley gonna listen for parallel octaves and see if you can just hear the any parallel octaves in there like focus on that Or this time Onley gonna listen for, like, tendency tones and they're correct resolution. That's all I'm going to focus on this time. So you can kind of go through all the things that you could do wrong and just focus your ear on those, see if you can find them. So the reason I say this is that in that last video as we were playing through this, I heard a parallel active, and I was like, Oh, um, it happens. You know, everyone makes mistakes. I'm not gonna, you know, say I'm perfect by any means. Ah, if you can spot it if you've already spotted it, you're you're awesome. Gold star for you. There's a parallel active in here. There might be a few, actually, but I heard it's right near the beginning. Yeah, we've already gone past it. That's already there. Ah, it's right here. D c d see. Yuck. Um, see, it sticks out to me because I've done this a lot. Um, and I have I've been doing this a lot. After you practice it a lot, it'll start to stick out to you too. So I should go through and fix that. Um, maybe since I'm gonna give you all this file if you want it, I'll just label it so you can see what it is. Parallel active. Well, now you can't tell where it iss. Well, what we often do with that is go like this. This is often the short and meaning. Hey, there's a parallel active there. I mean, like two straight lines, like parallel and then eight for active. I'll just put it right there. Parallel active. It's there. Okay. Um so proof your work by listening to it. It's invaluable to do. 39. Think Musically: Okay, A couple more things. I want to talk about Justus kind of general guidelines and things to keep in mind While you're doing this, The next one is Don't forget to be a musician about this. And when I say that what I mean is right musically make it sound interesting. That means avoid just playing a court over and over, like, you know, like, um here our melody was just this just this e We could have just played a tonic chord with no motion. Just four times we could have done that and it would have been just fine, but it would have been just boring. So we can't just be, you know, super boring. We got to be a musician about this. We've got to keep it interesting. We want the music to be interesting. We don't want the music to be boring. That's the goal, right? So don't forget that you're a musician and you want to make this music interesting. And that means don't just repeat chords over and over without an emotion. That's one of the ways that we like to keep things interesting. But also, you know, fine little things that you can do. Like we found this nice little emotion. We could add those in all over the place. We could connect things. You know, we could Dio if we really wanted Teoh watch this. We wanted to get really ah, kind of goofy here with it. Uh uh uh uh uh ah, uh you know, we could add in all of these notes in between stuff just to have some fun, you know? And I I'm sorry to say that I meant that to be funny, but I really like, um I'm gonna undo that so that this file I give you within all goofy, but because I will be confusing. But find little notes you can tie together. Why not be a musician? Um, keep it artistically interesting. And think about your melodies. Um, in this case, we didn't write the melody. This melody itself, Mary had a little lamb is not the most interesting melody in the world. But if you are writing the melodies keep them musically interesting. Um, that goes for the baseline. Though We did want to find musically interesting baselines, right? So we thought about that. Ah, lot cause that does stick out. So I guess there's some of this up by saying, Don't be a slave to the rules. Think musically. 40. Voice Leading: all right. Your next big tip to keep in mind as we move forward is about voice leading. Um, just don't forget to think of how voice leading, uh, think about how notes move from one to the other. Um, and this kind of goes into another thing I wanted to talk about really quick, which is the independence of each line. Imagine that each of these lines, like the tenor part, for example, is its own piece of music, right? And that's the way it should work. And it should be interesting. So imagine you are singing just this tender line. It's kind of boring. Uh huh. Right. It ends kind of unresolved, but we want that to be as interesting as the melody. And in this case, I think it is because our melody isn't extremely interesting. The alto part. Let's just listen to the ELT apart. I got place e at the end. Um, yes. So the alto part here is not terribly interesting. Um, it's a little boring, and that's okay, but, um, it's not great. We might want to revisit that alto line and make it a little more exciting, Especially in all this stuff. I mean, there's good voice leading. And then there's, like, boring music. Uh, if everything had the most ideal and perfect voice leading, no notes would ever change and it would be really boring. So, um, there's a balance to be made there. So don't forget to, uh, make as nice of voice leading as possible without being too boring. That's kind of the main ah, thesis of this video. Um, find a balance in there. 41. Worksheets And Practice: Okay, everyone, we're getting near the end. I just want to tell you what's coming up in the next couple things here. So after this video, we're gonna have worksheet number three. So some stuff for you to practice on. And then after that, I'm going to give you, um, a file that has just a bunch of melodies on it that you can harmonize. So they're just a bunch of melodies to practice on. Um, remember, there's tons of different ways you can harmonize each one of these. So But I just want to give you something that you can practice with. Eso you don't have to, like, dig around and find melodies and stuff like that. So use these to practice and just have fun with. Okay, so that's what is in the next two segments. And then we'll be back. And I will talk to you a little bit more with some kind of closing thoughts. 42. SkillshareFinalLectureV2: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.