Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 4 - Modes and Counterpoint | Jason Allen | Skillshare

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Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 4 - Modes and Counterpoint

teacher avatar Jason Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

Watch this class and thousands more

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      Welcome & Overview


    • 2.

      Tools We Need


    • 3.

      Review: Scales


    • 4.

      Review: Diatonic Chord Progressions


    • 5.

      Overview of Modes


    • 6.

      How Modes Work


    • 7.

      The History of Modes


    • 8.

      The Ionian Mode


    • 9.

      The Dorian Mode


    • 10.

      The Phrygian Mode


    • 11.

      The Lydian Mode


    • 12.

      The Mixolydian Mode


    • 13.

      The Aeolian Mode


    • 14.

      The Locrian Mode


    • 15.

      From Old To New Again


    • 16.

      Analysis: The Simpsons TV Theme Song


    • 17.

      Analysis: Choir Example


    • 18.

      Analysis: The Beetles: Eleanor Rigby


    • 19.

      Melodic and Harmonic Intervals


    • 20.

      Using Visual Landmarks


    • 21.

      Compound Intervals


    • 22.

      Major, Minor, and Perfect Intervals


    • 23.

      Rules of Inversion


    • 24.

      Summary of Intervals So Far


    • 25.

      Augmented and Diminished Intervals


    • 26.

      The Tritone


    • 27.

      Enharmonic Equivalence


    • 28.

      Consonance and Dissonance


    • 29.

      Rules of Resolution


    • 30.

      Interval Classes


    • 31.

      Analyzing Intervals


    • 32.

      What is Counterpoint?


    • 33.

      Different "Species"


    • 34.

      Connecting Melodic Intervals


    • 35.

      Rules of First Species Counterpoint


    • 36.

      Connecting Harmonic Intervals


    • 37.

      Types of Contrapuntal Motion


    • 38.

      Parallel Fifths and Octaves


    • 39.

      The Beginning and the End


    • 40.

      The Middle


    • 41.



    • 42.

      All The Rules


    • 43.

      What Next?


    • 44.

      Thats it! (For now...)


    • 45.



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About This Class

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These classes I'm making for Skillshare use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

Recently I was named as a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year award because of my in-person university classes. Now I'm taking those classes to Skillshare in an online format in order to reach more students and give them the joy of Music Theory.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own.

This class is a Comprehensive class - it will have many parts, going through my entire annual curriculum.

This class is Part 4: Modes (Musical Modes, AKA The Church Modes) and Counterpoint.

Throughout this class, I'll be providing you with many worksheets for you to practice the concepts on. If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. Also in this class, I have several complete analysis projects that we will complete together - just like in my college classes.

In this class, we will cover:

  • My approach to Music Theory
  • Tools you will need to learn Music Theory quickly and efficiently
  • How Modes Work
  • The History of Modes
  • Identifying the Musical Modes
  • Incorporating modes into popular music
  • Analysis of popular and classical music, including the Simpsons TV Theme Song, and the Beetles.
  • Interval Exploration
  • Compound Intervals
  • Rules for Inversion
  • Augmented Intervals
  • Diminished Intervals
  • Enharmonic Equivalence
  • Labeling Dissonance
  • Counterpoint in Species 
  • The Rules of Counterpoint
  • Compositing with Counterpoint
  • Types of Contrapuntal Motion
  • Creating music with Counterpoint
  • ...and much, much more!

And of course, once you sign up for Part 4 - Modes and Counterpoint you automatically get huge discounts to all the upcoming parts of this class.

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. Start here.

Dr. Jason Allen is an Ableton Certified Trainer and a Ph.D. in Music Composition and master of Electronic Sounds. His music has been heard internationally in film, radio, video games, and industrial sound, as well as the concert hall and theater. His 2015 album, Aniscorcia, reaching the CMJ Top200 Charts and radio broadcasts nationwide. In 2014 he was named a semi-finalist for the Grammy Music Educator Award.

He currently is a professor at Augsburg University and the CEO of Slam Academy in Minneapolis.

Praise for classes by Dr. Jason Allen:

  • "Without a doubt the best explanation and east of use that one can get. It leaves you enough room to go explore. The classes go by quickly, so you can be on your way to being proficient. What are you waiting for!"

  • "Amazing - Seriously Loved It! I took all his courses and have to say I'm so happy! Learned loads! Jason is an awesome teacher!"

  • "I have never had any formal training in music at all. Trying to learn all the notes and how everything translated was a serious challenge. After going through this class, Dr. J has totally brought down the barriers. The content was very useful and was easy to grasp for me."

  • "I like these courses because you can get up and running quickly without having to spend hours of time wading through TMI (too much information!). Jason hits the high points but shows you what you need to know. Thanks!"

  • "I've watched many other videos on scales and chords before, however, this one has been the best. I now understand minor scales and chords and even how to analyze songs. It really gave me the confidence to start producing music because I feel like I have some structure and guidelines to follow. AWESOME!"

  • "Clear and Informative - Jason has a clear uncluttered style (with the important dashes of humor) of presentation that is focused on the important key aspects of this course. Recommended for those starting out!"

  • "Dr. Allen does it again with his music theory series. This course really opened up everything I learned from the 1st section, and now I understand more about the composition side of things for music. I highly highly recommend this course to anyone!!! Really opened my eyes to many things I wasn't aware of."

  • "The Best Teacher Ever, who makes you understand the ins & outs of Music Theory by all means without giving what you don't want to know."

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

Jason Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen teaches... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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1. Welcome & Overview: - way now on the relative minor, right? But we have a fancy name for that, and it's called the alien mode. And the idea was, Fridge in was the mode for enthusiasm. It would fix what's physically wrong with you. There's a lot of stories about this kind of thing about how the modes affected people very directly in ways that you know, scales and music and different keys and motion. Things don't really affect us. Half Lydian mode 61 a G McSally tion mode, the 6th 1 and a alien even if you're writing a pop song. Contrary motion sounds good. So this is something that you can think about in any kind of music, your writing that if you have the opportunity to do contrary almost it tells all the rules put together. Tell us what's going to sound good, good in a very traditional sense now, like all rules of music theory, and you've heard me say this 100 times that if we follow all the rules exactly then we end up with kind of boring sounding music. But it's really good to know all these rules so that when we're writing our own music, we can choose which ones to ignore and break in order to make something. Ah, stunning, right? So knowing that Hey, everyone, welcome Teoh Music theory Part four modes encounter point In this class, we're going to be talking about a lot of different things in music theory. We're getting a bit advanced. This class gets you almost all the way to the end of what would be my first semester of college of music theory syllabus. So if you were taking in college class in music theory, by the end of this class, you should be pretty close to having completed all the material that would be given in the first semester. So that's a lot. You know. That's like, you know, at least three hours a week for four months of stuff, and I've kind of compressed it all into these 1st 4 classes. Maybe it'll dressed a little bit into the fifth class. I think it will, but that's okay. You're still really close to finishing a nearly full college level music theory curriculum in this class. We're gonna be talking about the modes we're going to start talking about, Ah, the modes and what the modes are how they work and a little bit of the mysticism around him . There's some things related to the planets and, uh, early our religion and Greek cities. It's very they have a very interesting history, but more importantly, we talk about how to make some music with them. And then after we get through with the modes, we're going to start talking about counterpoint. Counterpoint is something that if you look at the traditional composers like Bach, Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, all of these composers considered counterpoint to be one of the most fundamental concepts to writing music mawr so sometimes even than harmony. This was one of the key things that you had to master in order to be a great composer. So we're going to spend a lot of time in this class talking about the rules of counterpoint , how counterpoint works and how you can use it to make your music better, and also so that you can spot it in other music. So please join me in this class, it's gonna get real deep. We're gonna have a lot of fun in this class, but we're also gonna cover aton of stuff in this class, so I hope you're into it. I hope you decide to join us. And we will see you in our first lecture coming up right after this, Uh 2. Tools We Need: Okay, let's get started by talking about the tools that we're going to use now, if you've taken any of the others three music theory classes I have, um then this will be entirely familiar. But I got to keep doing it because, um, I kind of treat each of these classes as their own thing. So I don't want to assume that I You've already seen this lecture. So, uh, let me just say and I really would never say this about any other lecture. But if you've taken 12 and three, skip this lecture because I'm not gonna say anything new here. I'm gonna talk about me muse score, and I'm gonna talk about staff paper. Um, so the tools were gonna use Here are this piece of software called Muse Score. Um, you can get yourself copy of this program. It's a free program. Uh, and it lets us put in notes and hear them. We can move notes around. Um, we can add new notes. We can write music using this program and here it back. I can play this thing right, So I can hear it. Ah, what I'm doing. It's a really great tool for learning how all of this stuff works. There's a free program. You can get it. Ah, here at the oral. I'm showing you on screen. Uh, and it's really valuable. So poke around with how to use that. You might want to look at some tutorials. I've think I've said in every class that sometime I'm gonna make just like a free quick little class on the ins and outs of using you score. I haven't done it yet, but maybe by the time you watch this, it will exist. So search around and you might find it. You're not gonna know. Need to know. You know how to use this program at an expert level. What we're gonna need to know for this class is how to use it for riel. Basic stuff. Um, so you don't need to spend a lot of time mastering this program. We just really need to learn kind of how it works. Eso that's the first tool that is going to be important if you can't install it on the computer that you're working on. Ah, like if you're watching this on an iPad or an IOS device, that's just fine. Ah, you don't need it. Um, by any means for this class, it's just handy for practice, that's all. Um, because you can hear what you're doing. Ah, but you don't need it. It's just an extra little bonus, and it's free. So if you are working on a computer that you can get it, then you should do it. If you can't, you can't, and you'll be just fine. Thing number two. The second tool that we're gonna need is just some good old fashioned pencil and paper. Now, we don't want to use just normal paper. Um, because we're going to be talking about music and the staff, and what we use for that is staff paper. You can go to your local music shop probably and find some staff paper. Ah, some good staff paper is worth. It's money. Um, basically, we don't want to have to draw, you know, the five lines staff every time we want to write some notes. So we get paper that's already made to have the staff on it. Now you can go buy some good stuff if you want. Um, I enjoy some good high quality staff paper. Ah, and a good pencil or pen, depending on what your company is. But if you don't want to do that, you can just find a PdF of staff paper and printed out. So in the very next little segment of this class, there is going to be a pdf that you can download and print. This is just a blank piece of staff paper. So put yourself out. I don't know 20 copies of that. And keep it with you while you're taking this class so you can jot some notes down on staff paper. That'll be a nice free alternative to going and buying staff paper. Just print out this, pdf that I'm going to give you and you'll be good to go. And that's all you really need. Get a good pencil and be ready to take some notes and ah, experiment with the concepts that we're doing. Okay, great. So, uh, the next segment I'm gonna give you that Pdf of some staff paper, four use of download that and keep it so that you have it handy for printing and scribbling on. And then let's jump into two quick little review topics. Off we go 3. Review: Scales: Okay, let's do some super quick review now. We've done a lot of music theory so far. I'm assuming and probably will continue to assume for this whole class that you've taken either my 1st 3 music theory classes, Um, in this sequence, or you at least looked at them enough to know that you could skip ahead. So I'm gonna kind of assume you've been through that I'm gonna do to review videos right now. Now, even if you're comfortable with this stuff, humor me and watch these review videos because a little review never hurts. And these two topics I'm not going to review everything that we've done in the last, you know, 100 some videos of the other three classes. But I want to review to things that are going to be critical to us going forward in this class. And so, in this first review video, um, we're gonna talk about major and minor scales real quick because I want to get back into your head how we find those scales because a lot of what we're going to do in this class is going to be looking at some other scales and knowing how are major and minor is determined is going to help us to understand those other scales really well. So let's make a major scale on. Let's not make a C major scale. Let's do something different. Let's do a G major skin. Okay, so my first note of my scale, if I'm just gonna play all the notes in order, is going to be the one it's named after. So if I'm making a G major scale, the first notes gonna be deep. And now I have to go through this pattern, right? So do you remember the pattern? The pattern of this scale of a major scale is whole steps that's gonna be toe a Remember. It's a whole step because there's a note in between. I can put a G sharp or in a flat in between these two notes. If we're looking at a piano, in fact, let's do it. So here's the note I just played Here's RG and here's our A right G and A. There's a note in between G sharp or a flat, right? So that means sensors. And noting between that means the distance between these two is a whole step the distance between these two G and G sharp or a flat is 1/2 step on the distance between G sharp or a flat and A is 1/2 step. But Geeta A is a whole step. Yes, let's go through and get rid of these notes. Okay, so, g a whole step right? A to be is also a whole step, right? Because there is one in between. So another whole step and then 1/2 step. So our pattern so far, asshole. Step, whole step, half step. And this is 1/2 step because B two c, there's nothing in between. Okay, so then from C, it's another whole step and then t e which is another whole step and then from And then our next step is a whole step. Our next note is a whole step away. So e to ah, whole step higher. It's going to get us to an f sharp because we need one in between for to be a whole step. All right, so either f is only 1/2 step. There's nothing in between. So we have to go to f sharp for ah, whole step. So that note is the next in our pattern. And then our last one is 1/2 step. So the pattern is whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, whole step and then 1/2 step. And that gets us a major scale. Okay? Not taking a minor scale. Well, let's hear that first. Okay, good. Happy major scale. Let's do a minor scale. Okay? What minor scale should we do? Oh, let's stick with the theme and do an e minor scale. Now, why did I say we're going to stick with the theme and do an e minor scale? Hold on to that for a minute. We'll come back to that statement to second. So the pattern for an e minor scale there's a natural minor, by the way, remember, there's a couple different flavors of minor. This is natural minor. So our first note is a whole step away. If we start on E to get to a whole step, remember what we have to do to go to f Sharp. Because E is here. This is here. Toe f is only 1/2 step, so I have to go up one more to get to Ah whole step. Okay. And then from here we go half step, and then whole step and then whole step and then whole step, then whole step and then whole step, so that gets us back to e. So whole step, half step. A whole step. Whole step, half step. Whole step Holst up. That is our minor scale pattern. Let's hear it. Okay, so that's an e minor scale. Now, why did I say sticking to the same theme? Because we have one sharp here in F sharp, right? And in the key of G, we had one sharp Ah, in the key of G major, we had one sharp. So that means G major and a minor earth G major and e minor are what they are. Relative keys. Remember, we learned that word. So that means that they use the same key signature or the same number of accidental G major has an f sharp in it, which means it has no f natural in it, and e minor has an f sharp in it, which means it has no natural in it. They're all the same notes. If we started the scale here and went up to G we would just start. We would repeat E and F at F sharp at the top, and we have G major scale. So that's all the same notes just in a slightly different starting point. E minor G major relative keys. Remember that? Okay. Okay, so that's your quick review of Major and Minor. Next, let's review our diatonic chord progressions. I know you're sick to death of hearing about diatonic chord progressions, but it's gonna be worth it to do one quick review of it before we dive into Some of the fairly complex things were going to do with that sucker in this class. So let's do a quick review of that in the next video. 4. Review: Diatonic Chord Progressions: Okay, let's do some diatonic chord progressions. Now, remember what these are is this tells us all the cords in a key. So let's go back to G Major. Some is gonna make a D major scale first. Get now. I have a D major scale. Now, in order to make the diatonic chord progression, What I have to do is, well, I could do this in two ways. One is I can just remember the pattern. The pattern is major, minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished major. Knowing that pattern, I don't have to plug in all the notes. I can just go through here and say the cords that fit in this key are going to be a G major and a minor A B minor, A C major, A d major, e minor and F sharp diminished and a G major because I could just apply that pattern of major minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished major to the scale and no, all the possible chords in the key. If I don't want to do it that way, I want to do with the long handed way I can plug in all the notes. Let's do that really quick. So what I'm gonna do is I'm gonna take every other note of the scale. So this is gonna be my first note of my first chord. I'm gonna skip a note and then I'm gonna go to be so I'm gonna put a B here. I'm gonna go from B. I'm going to skip a note and I'm gonna get too deep. It's gonna put it there. Now that one's done. Now I'm going to go to the next chord. So this is a So I'm going to skip a note and go to see put one there, go back to see skipping note. I get to e and put that there So it's gonna keep skipping. Notes. C d skip e f sharp. There's my f sharp now to see skipping note to e skipping out. I get to G de skipping note. I get to f sharp, have sharp skip a note and I end up g. I have to go to the next. So it was on f sharp. I skipped G and I actually have to go to a so I'm gonna circle back around. Here's G A is the next note. So that's what goes there, but an octave higher e I'm gonna skip f sharp. I'm gonna go to G now sidebar. Why did the sharp disappear from this note? It's still enough short. Remember the rule on Sharps carrying over? So this note has a sharp on it now, which means all efs in this bar are sharp, so this one doesn't need a sharp symbol anymore. We just know that it's sharp because there's one earlier in the measure. So this sharp applies all efs. So just remember that so, g, I'm gonna go down here, g skip A and I'm at a B. So I'm gonna put a be up here f sharp in a skip G, and I'm gonna end up on a from circling back around. I'm going to skip B and end up on a C Then G let's go down here, Skip a end up on a be now I'm going to skip, see and end up on a d there. So now if I did this right, my first and last court should be the same g b and d go appear an octave higher g b and decided it the same. So Here's what that sounds like all records. So those are all the triads that work in G major, so we can now go back to our pattern, say, G major. These are all the notes of G Major, and the next one is minor. The next one is minor. The next one is major major, minor, diminished major. So all the notes and see Major are those. All the notes and d major are those because the pattern still works. OK, now let's look at it in a minor key. The pattern is slightly different. Let's go down to R E minor. Have sharp, remember? All right, now, let's not write out all the notes this time. Let's just use the pattern. So the pattern is minor diminished. Major, minor, minor, major, major, Minor. Okay, so if I'm in the key of e minor and I want to think what chords will work in a minor and e minor, uh, I want to build a chord on a a What's gonna What's that going to be? It's gonna be a minor court, So you're gonna wanna put an a minor chord in there because the fourth degree is a and That's a minor chord in the key of e minor. Okay, if you want to build a C chord in the key of e minor, are you going to make it a major or a minor chord? You are going to make it a major court because the six scale degree in the key of E minor is a major court. So you just apply the pattern to scale, and then you have the diatonic chord progression, which tells you all of the possible chords in that major or minor. Both work, but they have different patterns. Okay, I think that's all the review we need. Next up, we're going to dive into modes sometimes called the church modes really historically rich music and also relevant to modern music as well. So let's dive into those right now. 5. Overview of Modes: okay. In our first section here in this class, we're going to start talking about modes now. Modes are kind of a strange thing. So here's kind of the quick overview. So you know about the major scale and the minor scale? Those two things are in arrangements of notes in a way that produces a certain effect. Like the major scale has a certain sound to it. Kind of a happy sound. And the minor scale is kind of a sad sound, Right? I've said that before. Um, but what they are at the end of the day is an arrangement of half steps in whole steps. Right? That's all they are in the major scale. We have these whole steps and then 1/2 step here, etcetera. And the minor scale, the whole steps and half steps are a little bit different. Right? So what if we could have more? What if there were more options than just major and minor? What if we put the half step? Not right here, but right here as the 1st 2 notes, neither the major or the minor scale has the half step right here on the 1st 2 notes. So What if we did? We can do whatever we want, right? Well, what you end up with is a whole new Siris of stuff that's not major. And it's not minor. It's something totally different. Ah, and there are a lot of different ways. There are hundreds of different ways that we could arrange our half steps in whole steps. But the most common other arrangements are what we call the modes. The church modes. They're sometimes called church modes. I don't like that term, but in the old days we call them the church modes. And there's a reason we call in the church modes, which I'll get into in just a minute. But we really, in modern parlance, we just call them modes. Now what the modes do is I like to think of them as additional color in a way like we think of the major scale as being kind of happy in the minor scale, being kind of sad. But human beings have much more emotions than just happy and sad, right? What if we wanted one that sounded not quite sad, but more of like a contemplated right, like not sad, but I'm not happy but like, kind of a contemplated thing that's one of the modes to me has a very contemplated sound. It's a much more delicate emotion than just happy and said Right, It's like happy and sad or like like two hammers and what we want is, you know, a whole tool set. So that's what the modes give us. They give us more color, more, more sounds that we can work with. So that's kind of a quick overview. Up next, we're going to talk about how the modes work in kind of, Ah, there's kind of two different ways we can deal with modes, and that's what we're gonna look at next. So let's dive in and talk about how they work, and then we'll talk about a little bit of there kind of interesting history. 6. How Modes Work: Okay, So modes like I just said, modes are scales their scales that we can build chords on. We're going to use our same diatonic chord progressions with these scales, but they're different than scales we've seen so far because the pattern of whole steps in half steps are different than the major and minor scales. Now there's two ways that we can talk about modes there. There's two ways that we can identify modes. There's what's called the relative identification and the parallel way of identifying them . And it kind of simplifies that and to take that out of, you know, kind of fancy terms, um, the parallel identification would be to relate it to their nearest ah, major or minor scale. So, for example, I could say, Here's a C major scale. And if I wanted to convert this to a a c Lydian scale, what I would do is take a major scale because it's close because because the Lydian one is closest to a major scale, and I would alter it to fit the major scale. So I'm gonna start with the major scale and make it Lydian. I'm gonna raise the fourth scale degree now we're gonna go over all of these separately, so you don't need to remember that. But just remember that what I'm doing here, in this way of finding the notes in the Lydian scale, is I'm taking its nearest major scale, and I'm altering it in certain ways. So I'm giving it a raised fourth scale degree. That's what's gonna make the Lydian scale, right? So we can always say this one has a raised forth. This one has a flat six. You know, it's a it's a major scale with the flat six, or it's a minor scale with the flat six. So that's what we call the parallel identification, taking its nearest major a minor scale and altering it to make the new mode. So that's one way and for each of the modes, so there are seven modes, and for each of them, I'm going to go through how to find both the parallel and the relative moats. Now, what I just said isn't quite right. Let me rephrase that. I'm going to go through finding all the notes of the scale using boast, the parallel method and the relative method, both methods. If done right, we'll end up with the same notes of the scale. It's just two different ways of finding them Now. The relative method is unique to modes. This is not the same as the relative major and minor scales that we've talked about recently. This is something that the modes do that is different than any other kind of scale. We really encounter what you conduce to with the modes, as you can start with a single major scale and just kind of rotated, like looking at it through different angles almost and find all the modes is kind of how the modes were developed. For example, me fix them that and just get us, um, half without a symbol on it. Okay, So, for example, now, remember, this is gonna be complicated, but I'm gonna go through this in more detail in a minute. So here we have a C major scale. Nothing funny about it, right? Not a mode. Well, technically, we'll talk about that in a minute. Uh, just see, major, if I instead of thinking of this as from sea to sea, I thought about it as d two d. So let me add one note at the Top d. It's already there. So I just kind of reiterated this D So ignore this. See, for a minute, in fact, let's just delete it. Okay? Now we're looking at all the notes of C major. Okay, let's just see Major, But I'm gonna look at it as though d was the route. So I've just rotated the scale instead of it starting and ending on C I'm going to start in ended on D Still all the notes of C major. However, by doing that I've made what's called a D Dorian scale. That's a moat. So I just rotated C major so that I was looking at it from D two D. And now I've made adoree and scale. That's a mode. If I rotated again and go up to E. I've made the next mode. This is called an e fridge Ian scale all the notes of C major, but now it's called a fridge in scale. And remember what I said earlier. Check this out. There's 1/2 step in our 1st 2 notes. No other scale has that. That is what's called the fridge Ian scale. Okay, let's rotate it again. I can keep going and I'm gonna end up finding all seven of my modes this way if I go from F two f. I now have a Lydian scale Now. I talked about Lydian second ago. That's the one that I raised the fourth scale degree. Let's look at our pattern of whole steps in half steps. Whole step, whole step. What I should have here is 1/2 step if it was a major scale, but I don't I've ended up with a whole step. So that means this If this was an F major scale, this should be B flat if we were in F Major. But it's not to be natural, which means it's 1/2 step too high that puts us in a mode. A Lydian mode is the name of it. More on that. In a minute. Let's keep going. If I go from G to G, I end up in a mode called G Mix. O Lydian is the name of that one. If I go from a to a still using all the notes of See, I actually end up now on the relative minor right, But we have a fancy name for that and it's called the Alien mode, and we'll talk about that in a minute and why that's the same. But let's keep going for a minute. Be Toby. This is the weird one. Ah, that's called a low Korean mode, a B lo Korean mode. And if I go up one more, I end up back on a C major scale, which actually also has a fun name. If we're talking about modes, we would call that an Ionian scale more on that in just a second. So that's what's called the relative identification of modes. It means that we're using a single major scale to find all the modes that work based around that scale. So it's like we take a major scale. In our case, we took C Major and we just kind of started rotating What was the tonic of that scale? So if we lay out all the notes of C Major and we think of it as from sea to sea, it's just a major scale. But with those same notes, if you think about it as D two D, it's adoree in scale and e. T e. It's a fridge in scale. More on this as we go through each mode. But those are the two ways we can identify what the modes are. Okay, so if you're scratching your head on that, don't worry. There's much more to come on modes, and hopefully as we go through them, you'll get it in more detail. But next, let's talk a little bit about the history of Moz, cause it's quite interesting. 7. The History of Modes: Okay, let's talk about where modes come from. Now, this will be a little bit of a break from music theory since just kind of a little history lesson. But it's kind of fascinating to me on hopefully to you. So let's talk about it. The church modes are old, they go way back, they are older than the major. And the minor scales, um, we can trace them back to about 350 BC Ah, long, long time ago. So that's, you know, well, over almost 202,350 years ago. Uh, 360 years ago. Um, a long time ago. Their names. I already told you the names. Or Ionian. Dorian Fridge. Ian Lydian Mix led in Alien and Low Creon. Their names go back to the Greeks. You may have guessed that their Greek sounding names, I guess, on their named after a different regions or ethnic regions in inch agrees. Um, some of those places I believe still exist. I think I recently saw on a map, Uh, something with the name. Something like I own Ionia. Ionia? Yeah, I think that still exists, actually. Uh, geography is not my thing, but so let's move on now. Way back then, we get Plato and Aristotle actually writing a little bit about the church modes. They actually commented on these things and what they did. I gonna read you. One little quote here on this is from Aristotle's politics. The musical modes differ essentially from one another, and those who hear them are differently Affected by each, some of them make men sad, engrave like the so called mix of idiom, others in feeble the mind like the relaxed modes. Another again produces a moderate or settled temper, which appears to be the particular effect of the Dorian and the fridge in inspires enthusiasm. So really kind of what he's saying here is that the modes were used to directly affect people. So what would happen would be the modes were kind of, in a way like medicine. So if you were feeling lethargic, someone might might play for you. Fridge Ian And the idea was Fridge. Ian was the mode for enthusiasm. It would fix what's physically wrong with you. There's a lot of stories about this kind of thing about how the modes affected people very directly in ways that you know, scales and music and different keys and motion. Things don't really affect us anymore. Um, and, you know, maybe these stories are mythology, you know, some of them almost certainly are. There are all kinds of odd stories about how the modes were used to build pyramids and all these things that are, you know, really mythology. But some of them might be factual. One of my favorite stories about this affect with the modes is a story about there was a king who had his his army was about to go into battle. And he called up the court musician and said, We're about to go into battle. I want you to play. Um, probably. I do remember the exact moment about going to guess. Probably, uh, could be Fridge Ian, something that the mode for battle in war. There's one mode that's supposedly enrages you and gets you ready for about right. So the king says, I want you to play that that music in that mode for the troops to get them ready for battle . But musicians screwed up. So what he did, but the court musician did he accidently played music in a mode that was not intended for riling up the troops to send them in the war, but instead was intended for ah to be played for adults before certain adult activities. Let's just say, Ah, very amorous kind of mode. Who played that for the troops instead? My guess would be that would be Lydian, but so the truth didn't do so well, uh, they obviously lost the battle because they were preoccupied with something else, and it was a blood bath. This is just one of the many stories about how these modes affected people back then. Now, you might argue that could be true, that modes affected people that powerful e back then because they were much more sensitive to it because they weren't hearing music all the time. Like we are in our society. So in our society were, like, always hearing music. So, um, perhaps our senses towards these kinds of things have dulled. Quit of it. That's one argument for it. That's a whole other can of worms that we're not gonna go into anyway. Um, so ancient Greeks, uh, they have the modes now we don't really know. Historically, if what they called the modes is the same is what we now call the modes the names air probably kind of jumbled from where they were and what notes are what is probably a little different. There's some historic things that went different, but let's jump ahead about 400 years. And what's now happening in the early Christian Church is that all music and actually art in general. But music is being associated with different events in the Christian tradition, So there's music for this kind of service. There's music for that kind of service, and particularly in like a mass on things like that. So the modes get used to be kind of the thing that differentiates the different church services because all pretty much all music back in this time was run by the church. The church kind of had a monopoly on music making and definitely music writing. It's time. So we had music like this that you're seeing on the screen. This is chant on this music that you're hearing. This is kind of how it was notated. It kind of looks similar right to what we're looking at. There's only four lines, and there are these little squares, But you kind of see a flat symbol. You can see some other stuff. I'm not gonna go into how to read this. It's actually fairly complicated, but this is kind of an early predecessor to our kind of notation, and it uses modes. So what they're doing here is showing, yes, you're singing all of the pitches, which we could call for the sake of argument c major scale. But then this one is altered, and that gets you to a certain mode, something like that. Um, So the church kind of adopts all the Greek modes and makes them for specific events, which is why they get called the church modes. At that time, I believe they were. They were. They didn't use the Greek names they used just kind of They called them mode one mode to mode three, etcetera. Um, I don't know. What what point? We went back to using the Greek terms. Probably not until, like the 19 hundreds or so I would guess, like much, much later. But bring us a way forward into modern times. Around 19 forties and fifties, composers started of, like, orchestral music and chamber music started using the modes again in secular, non religious music because they like the sound of them. They like the difference of them as opposed to just the major and minor scale. There are more colorful, gave them more options. And so they really kind of came back. And now they're very common to hear in music of all types. So that's why they're still relevant to us. They're not just a historic relic from Gregorian chant, you know. But whenever you hear Gregorian chant, the odds are you are probably hearing them singing in a mode. So that's kind of the quick history lesson. One other interesting thing is that there is one mode, and I always like to tell this story because all my students kind of perk up when I say it . There's one mode that was considered kind of like the devil's mode. This is the bad one, the one you don't play. If you're in a church setting of the church modes, this is the one that got you burned at the stake. Or more commonly, I've read, um, your head chopped off for playing this mode. If you were a church musician and you accidentally played this mode, you were in big, big trouble. This is the most called low Korean, Uh, and we're gonna talk about it, and we're gonna play it, but no one's gonna get their head chopped off. Um, that's a long ago thing. Okay, so now that we know kind of how to find our modes a little bit about what they are and the history of them, let's jump into the Ionian mode and talked to you that one. 8. The Ionian Mode: Okay, so the first mode we're gonna look at is the Ionian mode. This is probably the easiest one to wrap your head around, so it's convenient. We're starting at first. The Ionian mode is just another name for what we already know of as the major scale. So Ionian is major. So here I have on the screen C major scale. This is also known as a C Ionian scale. Um, 99% of the time when we run into this series of notes, we're going to call it a C major scale. We don't really call it a C Ionian scale unless we're working specifically with a group of modes. So why do we have this other term for a major scale if May? If Major and Ionian mean the same thing, why do we bother? The reason is, remember that the modes came first. We had all of these modes. We had the seven modes and they were around and then kind of two of them kind of rose to prominence. The Ionian scale and the alien scale. The alien scale is another fancy word for minor. So those two kind of rose to be the two most used in all of music, and the rest of them kind of fell by the wayside a little bit. So we already had this term Ionian that was used for the modes. And then it kind of evolved into what we called the major scale, meaning it was used the most. It was the most powerful scale, I guess we said so. It's really just another term for major scale. But while we're here, let me explain to you one other property of modes, and that's that you're going to have a much easier time understanding modes if you remember the order of them. The order of them is important and doesn't mean we play them in any order there used musically and some order. It's just that for figuring out what notes go into each mode. If you can remember the order, you'll be able to figure out the notes much easier using that relative identification process that we just talked about. So the order is Ionian is first Dorian Fridge in Lydian Mix, a Lydian, a Olean Lo Korean. That's the order of the seven, So if you can keep that order in mind, you will be able to identify them much easier using the relative. That'll make more sense once we get into the next one, which is our 1st 1 That is not just to plain old major scale on that's the Dorian mode, so let's jump into that right now. 9. The Dorian Mode: okay, up next. Let's look at the Dorian mode. Now, remember, this is the second mode. So what that means is, if we use that relative way of finding the modes, all we need to do is take a C major scale, rotated by one note, uh, so that it starts on the second note, and that's gonna give us a Dorian scale. So all we have to do is get rid of this note, Add one more note on the top to compensate for what we just took away. And now we have d two D, and this is a Dorian mode. So let me explain that one more time. So if we were in C Major, what we did here is we took a c major scale, but we're starting on this second scale degree because this is the second mode, right? This is where the order of them is important. So just by doing that by taking see Major and going from D two d, we have found a Dorian scale. This is a D Dorian scale. So that means if we wanted to find, let's say a G Dorian scale, Okay. A G Dorian scale. What are we gonna need to do? We're going to need Teoh. Think of cases of a head scratcher. So we're going to need to think of what is g the second note of so that we can find that scale and then we'll find RG Dorian Scale. In other words, think of a scale in which G is the second scale degree, right? That scale is gonna be so here's g right. So I need to find what this is the second scale degree of So let's put a g there. And what's this one going to be? This one is gonna be f f natural. So now what we need to do is making f major scale. So let's go up. Not forgetting the key signature of F, which which has a B flat in it. Okay, so now I have an f major scale. Now, getting back to that G. Dorian, all I need to do is rotate this by one keeping the same notes. Now I have a G Dorian scale because I took that scale. I rotated it by one, kept the same key signature, the same notes, and that got me the Dorian scale. Okay, Let's go back to see Let's go a D Dorian Scale. Actually, I'm gonna go back to a C major scale or I only and I suppose, since we're talking about modes, Okay, so he's a c major scale. We know that we can find a d. Dorian scale using the relative method by just starting on the D. And that gets us a d Dorian scale. Now, let's do the parallel one, because this actually tells us what's in the scale is using the parallel mode. So let's make a see Dorian Scale. I'm gonna convert this scale by nudging things up and down to the Dorian scale. So the first thing I need to do when I'm trying to find the parallel scale is find out if that mode is closer to a major scale or a minor scale, so and that's just something you have to remember. So in this case, a Dorian Mode is closer to a minor scale. So let's first convert R C major to a seem minor, right? And remember how to do that. We've got to take our third down 1/2 step, our sixth down 1/2 step and our seventh down after. Now we have a C minor scale. Okay, so here's our minor scale. Okay, Now let's make it into a Dorian scale. So the thing about the Dorian scale is that it is you can define a Dorian scale this way. It is a minor scale with a raised sixth scale degree. So here we have a minor scale. We go to our sixth scale degree and we raise that 1/2 step. Takes it back to a natural. Right. So now we have a see Dorian scale. So we have a raised six scale degree. Let's hear. Okay, that is the Dorian scale. That's what it sounds like now, just to prove the relative way. Let's go back and make our c major scale one more time. I'm gonna go to major now. Okay, So now let's try the relative way one more time. I just want to show you how that lines up. So let's get rid of our C. And let's add a note at the end. There we go. So now, using the relative method, I have a d Dorian scale. So let's see if it matches that definition that I just told you which is a minor scale with a raised sixth. So for a minor scale, what we need is the pattern of a minor scale is whole step half step. It's right so far. Whole step cool, step half step. That should be 1/2 step, but it's a whole step. That means this one, which is the sixth, is raised. So that's correct. And then that gives us, ah half step here because that's raised and then, ah, whole stuff. So it works either way, Works this way. Produced a D. Dorian scale the other way produced a C. Dorian scale because we started with a C minor scale and we altered it to get to the Dorian scale. So what do you need to actually remember Two things. First, Dorian is this second in the Order of Bodes during the 2nd 1 Second thing you need to remember is that a Dorian scale is a minor scale with a flat six. Okay, let's move on and talk about the fridge. Ian scale 10. The Phrygian Mode: okay up next. We're gonna talk about fridge Ian mode. Um, Fridge in is the third mode in the sequence of modes, which means we can use our relative identification process to shift up to the third. Now for in C major, that's gonna produce an e fridge Ian scale. So let's do it. So let's get to see Scaredy. We're gonna get rid two notes we're gonna add to to the top. So we left off on Sea's Gonna Go d and e and now we hav e fridge Ian mode. Let's hear. Cool, Right, So we just rotate to the third note and then use the same notes is before and we end up with an E fridge. Ian. So now let's look at the parallel identification just so that we can learn what's inside this thing. Why does it sound the way it does? First thing we need to do is decide if it's closer to a major or a minor, and this one, like the Dorian, is closer to a minor. So let's first get us to a minor scale. So we need to lower our 3rd 6th and seventh that gets us to a C. minor scale thing. Okay, Now, what is the difference? What is the thing that defines the fridge, Ian scale. It is a minor scale with a flat to, So we're gonna take the second scale degree of the mowed down 1/2 step. So now we have a minor scale A c minor scale, with the second note lowered just a little bit, which offsets which changes are half step whole steps and turns it into a fridge. Ian scale. Let's hear. Kept. So see Fridge in. I remember this half step right here and let's go back to the other way that we did it. Okay, so here we have the C major scale that's just rotated to produce an E fridge in. And look at that. We have that half step right there. This is really the only scale or mode that we've looked at so far. That has that in it half step right at the beginning. So we can kind of tell that it's going to be a fridge in scale. Um, almost just from that. Now, let's point out one more thing while we're here, I'm gonna do something weird here. So what? What? We're seeing here now is a C major scale going all the way up to e right? So it's going from sea up to see, and then it keeps on going up to e. So check this out. Here we have the Ionian scale. Now I'm gonna draw a box around the Dorian Scale. So here's a D Dorian scale. Now I'm gonna draw a box around the E fridge Ian scale so you can kind of see how we're really just shifting up and by shifting up, were changing what is tonic in the scale. And we're also change or, in other words, the root of our scale. And that's also changing our alterations of half steps and whole steps by going up in death . Interesting. Right? Um okay, so that's the fridge Ian mode. Let's go out and talk to talk about the Lydian mode. Probably my favorite of all the modes, cause I'm a big enough nerd toe. Have a favorite mode. Um, but, you know, to be fair, I think my favorite mode depends on the day. But on a nice summer morning like today, it's It's a Lydian kind of morning, so it's my favorite mode today. Anyway, let's talk about Lady in the next video 11. The Lydian Mode: All right. So Lydian is the fourth in the series of modes. If we're going in order, it is the 4th 1 So what, we're gonna dio we're going to take our whatever major scale were working with right now it's C. We're gonna go right up to the fourth note. So if I just rotate everything this is gonna produce an f Lydian scale. So let's do it. Let's get rid of our 1st 3 notes so that we start on our fourth note. Let's add three more notes to the end. And now we have f f using all the notes of C, which produces an F Lydian scale. Let's hear it Interesting, right? Sounds nice and pretty. Take a guess. Does that sound like it's closer to a major scale or a minor scale? Because that's the next thing we got to do for our to figure out the parallel we need to. We're going to convert the C major scale into that lydian mode, and the first thing we need to do is figure out if it's closer to a major or a minor scale . So what do you think just from hearing it? Did it sound like a major? Or did it sound like a minor? Good guess. Uh, I'm gonna assume you said Major, because it is. I like to think of Lydian as, like, kind of like a super major scale that has, like, a real brightness to it. It's a major scale with one thing altered that turns it into this. Kind of like whenever I hear a Lydian scale, I always imagine someone with their eyes like super wide open. It's just like it's brighter, I guess, what I'm trying to say. So what it is is it's a major scale, which is what we have here, So I don't need toe convert it to a minor scale with one note altered and that is the fourth is 1/2 step higher. So it's a major scale with a raised fourth scale degree. So if we're converting, see Major Teoh See Lydian. It's going to have an f sharp in it, so that's that four scale degree is going to be one higher. Let's hear it. It's like when when we play it like this, we get to this note. I feel it's just like I It's like I just got pinched. It just makes it a little bit brighter sounding. Okay, so that's the Lydian scale. It's a major scale with a raised fourth scale degree. Okay, let's move on to talk about the mix O Lydian scale. 12. The Mixolydian Mode: Okay, here I am back on our good old C major scale. We'll talk about the mix O Lydian here. Um, Now, I know we're just kind of running through all of these modes right now, but don't worry. In the next section, I'm gonna talk about using these modes, and we're gonna look at some songs that use different modes. This one, ah, has a very cool use in modern music. And that is the blues. If you're playing the blues, uh, you very well may be in the mix led in mode. It's kind of what makes the blues sound like the blues. And there's a good reason for that, which we'll talk about later. But for now, let's just look at what are our notes in it. So it's the fifth. It's the fifth scale degree. Sorry. It's the fifth mode in the sequence. So we go up to our fifth note, and that's a G. So if we're using all the notes of C Major, we're going to make a G mixer Lydian scale. Let's get rid of all of those notes and let's add four more to the top. And now we have G two g using all the notes of C major, which makes a mix a lady in a G mix of Lydian scale. Here's what it sounds like. Okay, Now I want to play that for you one more time, and I want you to think I want you to think what sounds different about it. This takes, you might not hear anything because a lot of these when you're just hearing the scale out of context of music, these are all very subtle. So don't feel bad if you're not like latching on to a certain thing is like, Oh, that sounds really weird. Um, it's a very subtle difference, But just listen to this 11 more time and think about if there was one note that sticks out is like, kind of sounding funny. What is it? See if you can narrow it down. Here we go. Anything stick out to you is sounding weird. Hold on to that for just a second. Let's think of one more thing. If we were in the key of G major, what would what would our notes of G major B we would have? What is how do we read key signatures right, Like let's go back to key signatures and let's think about G major. That's gonna have one. Sharpen it, right? So it's gonna be an f sharp. So the key of let's look at our key signatures here, this having one sharp. This is the key of G major. Because, remember, we have one sharp. We go up 1/2 step and we call that G major. So that means G Major has enough. Sharpen it. This one does not have enough sharpen. It has an f natural. So if when you heard it and you're trying to latch onto what is the note? That sounds different. If you said the seventh, you would be right, Um, because we ought to If this was just a plain old major scale, this would be enough sharp, but it's not. So what is it? It is a major scale with a flat seven. So let's go back to our C major scale. Here we are on seeing Major now. If we wanted to convert this to a C mix o Lydian, we already know how to do it. It's a major scale, so it's closest to a major, and it's gonna have a flat seven. So we're gonna go to our seven scale degree. We're gonna lower it by 1/2 step whenever I use the phrase flat this or flat that or raised this or raised that it always means 1/2 step. So if I say it's got a flat seven, it means it's flat by ah half step. If it's flat by more than 1/2 step, I would say, You know, we're gonna lower this note by a whole step or something like that. But if I ever just say, Ah, flat, this or a flat that it means lowered by 1/2 step. And if I ever say just sharp this or sharp that it means raised by 1/2 step just in case I haven't explained that yet, So there we have a C mix O Lydian scale. It's a major scale with of lowered seventh scale degree thing. And there you have it. All right, two more in the sequence, and then we get to talk about using some of these things 13. The Aeolian Mode: Okay. Up next is a Olean Alien is our sixth mode, so that's right here. So if I delete the 1st 5 notes and start on the six scale degree and then I keep going back up, I have in a alien scale. Now, you know this one. You are You've seen this before? 100 times. What also do I have here? Not only do I have in a alien scale, but what I also just think I also just made the relative minor scale right. The relative minor of C major is a minor. So by going up to the sixth scale degree, I've both made in alien mode and the relative minor, that means that alien is just another word for minor, which is correct. That's true. Just like Ionian, as another word for Major a Olean is another word for minor. So if we go up to the sixth, that is kind of the definition of relative minor, right? So we've made the relative minor, so let's do it the other way. So if I take a c major scale and I want to convert it to a C alien scale, let's do the same process What do we got to do? Is it closer to a major scale or a minor scale? While the alien is very much closer to a minor scale? So let's convert this to a minor scale flat. The 3rd 6 and seven e Okay, now I have a C minor scale. Now from there. What's the altered thing? Because in all the other modes, we've seen that it's either a major scale on a reminder scale with one other alteration. This is an exception because this is, ah, minor scale with no alterations. It's just a plain old minor scale the alien. So remember that alien is just another word for minor scale for the exact same reason that Ionian is another word for major scale. 14. The Locrian Mode: All right. Last one. The 7th 1 in the sequence. The seventh mode in the sequence of modes is the low Korean. And this is the one that gets your head chopped off in the Middle Ages. If you played it and, uh, you know, I don't want to say for good reason, but it doesn't sound very good. So I think chopping someone's head off for using it is a little extreme, but it doesn't get used a lot because it doesn't really sound all that great. Um, but it does have some uses, so let's do it. Let's build a mode on the seventh scale degree. So let's get rid of our 1st 6 notes. Then let's just continue up, C major. Okay, that's it. Let's hear the B low Crean mode. Okay, So why is that one so painful? You might not feel it is painful. The reason is we really, really, really want that one to resolve to a c. Let's hear it again. And then I'm gonna put a c at the end of it. So what you really want to hear is that at the end and you don't get it. Um, there the end never comes. It feels like it's kind of C major, but it's not, um so it causes kind of a problem. So we figured out the relative identification by rotating to the seventh. Let's go back to our C major and see if we can create this thing using the parallel case. It was a closer to a major or a minor. It is closer to our minor. So let's go down to our A C minor scale. So now we have a minor scale. Let's do our alterations to turn it into a mode. This one is also an exception. Um, in that there are two notes that get altered. We have to lower our fifth and our second. So when I said earlier that Fridge in was the only one where we had our first half step, are our 1st 2 notes where 1/2 step apart? I was wrong. I was forgetting about low Crean locally and also has 1/2 step right at the beginning. So this one is a minor scale. What they lowered five and a lowered to right, so that just makes it even weirder. Here's again kept, uh, pretty funky. It's pretty weird, but that's low Korean. Now, let me do this thing again. That I did. I think when we're looking at Fridge Ian I'm gonna do is I'm going to zoom out a little bit here, and I'm gonna put a c scale going all the way up another octave. Okay, so now I just have two octaves of a C major scale written. Okay, now check this out. Uh, I'm gonna draw boxes around the modes as we go. So here we have the sea Ionian mode, the 2nd 1 a d Dorian mode, 3rd 1 and E Fridge Ian Mode. The 4th 1 an F Lydian mode 61 a. G MCs led in mode, the 6th 1 and a alien mode, the 7th 1 a b lo Crean mode that if we went up one more, we'd end up back on the major, um, scale or the Ionian scale. So that's all our modes, and that's how we find them. So you got to remember kind of the recipe for them. But also remembering the order of them can help you find the notes in them. Um, just by using this process of the relative identification off them. Okay, so that is all our modes up next. I'm gonna give you Ah, worksheet your first worksheet of this class. So, um, remember, if you took one other classes, you've seen these worksheets before. This is just a way to practice. You can do them if you like. I encourage you to do them. There'll be a couple practice questions and the answers will be on the last couple pages of them, depending on how long the worksheet is. So look at the first couple of pages. Try to answer them, correct your answers, using the answer key A to bottom. And if you had problems, post a question and I will jump in and help you out on. And then after that, we're going to talk about some uses of the modes and look at some songs that use them. Now that we understand how they work and what each one does. So onward to our first worksheet 15. From Old To New Again: okay up next. We're gonna look at how we use modes and, you know, the typical way we would teach this is we would look at Gregorian chant how they were used there, and we kind of move on through the centuries. But what I want to do, I want to look at a little more contemporary stuff. So we are going to look at a little bit of, um, chant. But mostly I want to show you how people are using them now because they've had a big resurgence in the last maybe 50 years. Um, and people like using him again because they have that kind of quirkiness to them. Or just a little more complex emotion, I think. And, um, a lot of composers have started using them. I've used them in my own stuff. Um, all the time. Actually, one thing to keep in mind as we look at how people use thes is that this is not a thing where you have to say, OK, I'm writing a piece of music. I am going. Teoh, use the Lydian mode for this piece of music for the whole thing. You don't actually have to do that Um, and a lot of composers didn't do that historically, in the chant stuff they did because the mod had a meaning. And if you went outside of that motor, your transition to a different mode in a single piece of music you just used didn't do that . But in the modern usage, you will find people who have a passage in a certain mode another passage in another mode. Ah, and combine them all together to make, um ah, more delicate narrative. Think of it like a book, you know, in a book if if it's if you're reading Ah, happy book. It's not all happy from beginning to end, right? There is a spectrum of emotions that happened, and that's what you can do with modes if you transition between them. So, uh, this is not like, you know, we're gonna pick a mode, and we're gonna do it for the whole thing. Um, that is the traditional kind of old old old way that it was done. But in modern uses Ah, you can weave in between modes on. You can be a little bit more experimental with them. You can have, uh, you could be in a mode and go out of that mode out of key for a Notre, too. And that's OK. Uh, remember, at the end of the day, we can do whatever we want as the composer. So let's start off with looking at a couple themes I thought instead of going historically , I'm gonna kind of jump around a little bit in this section. Um, and I want to start with one that I think most people have heard on. That is the theme song to The Simpsons, so let's dive right into that. 16. Analysis: The Simpsons TV Theme Song: Okay, let's dive in to something I know you've heard before. Probably, um this has been this is, I think, the longest running television show in the history of television. I believe, Let's just hear it really quick. And then we're gonna dissect it a little bit. Here. We have the sheet music for it now, First of all, um, the way I found the sheet music, that is an arrangement that someone did of it. I just went on the Muse score website and search for The Simpsons theme. Ah, and I pulled this up. So, uh, I'll give you this file, uh, in the next segment so you can pick through it if you like. Um, i'll give it to you both as a muse score and as a pdf, if you want to play with it. Okay. So when you've heard this theme, we have heard this music. Maybe you've heard it. And you've always kind of thought, you know, there's something about that that just feels off. There's something kind of eerie and not eerie. Eerie is the wrong word, but there's something weird about that. Like it's not just in C major, these air. Let's I'm trying to translate that. That feeling you've had you've had this feeling of Maybe it's been completely unconscious, But there's something kind of weird about that theme. And now the words we can use is it's not just in C major, it's actually using a mode. Let's figure out which one. So here's my arrangement. I really want to focus first, just on the main melody. So let's hear it from the beginning until we get that main melody. Okay, now this is this music was written by a composer named Danny Elfman. If you look up a lot of Danny Elfman's music, you'll find that he really likes modes. Um, he does a lot of this really kind of quirky feeling stuff. Ah, and he uses different modes, but a lot of the same few that get that kind of quirky sound. So it's like what we got. So here's our main melody. Okay, so how do we figure out what we're doing here? First of all, we can scan it really quick and see that there is an accidental here, so it's not completely in a key. He's outside of some major or minor key, so let's look at our key signature just right here. There is none. Which means we are either in c major or a minor. The first note of our melody is a C. So it's a good indication that were in a major key of C major. So let's run on that for a minute. So if we're in C major, this'll is gonna be the first scale degree. He is gonna be our third scale degree. F would be our fourth scale degree, but he's got enough sharp here. So he's raised the fourth scale degree. We have a which would be the six g, which would be the fifth. Now, this is another good point. Ah, that shows us that we're probably in C major. He has the first note of the melody on the tonic on the first scale degree and then our next major downbeat Ah, the beginning of the next bar is on the fifth. You kind of sometimes not always, but you kind of put the first in the fifth as like pillars of the melody. So in significant places. So that's another good, ah, indication that were in the key of C. So let's keep going, So that's the fifth. That's the third again. That's the tonic again, the one down to the sixth and then down to another f sharp. That's a raised for again. Same note, active lower and then back to the five. So easy enough. What mode is that? What mode is a major scale with a raised four scale degree? That would be the Lydian mode. So this is using a lot of Lydian mode now. Like I said before, um, he could go in and out of the Lydian mode. What I think he actually does here is go is mostly stay in Lydian, but he changes keys on us a few times. Eso, for example. So he's starting on different notes here. He's got it arranged a little bit differently here, but it's still probably Lydian. If we analyzed it, where this is going to be are raised for this is going to be our five. So if this is our five are tonic is probably f sharp, um, which would make sense so we could go all the way through this, and I think we'd find a lot of Lydian, but a couple of different key changes Let's hear just the arrangement that this person did this 1st 4 bars is kind of weird. Um, let's start Theo way. Okay, son. Right. I want to do one more experiment here. Just out of curiosity, What would happen if we took all the EFS in this first passage and made them natural, right? Like, let's take it out of Lydia and let's see how different it sounds. Let's put this in the key of just plain old C major. I think, um, I changed all of the efs Sharps to F naturals. Now where I think what's gonna happen is we're gonna lose a lot of that quirkiness, uh, in it. So let's check it out. All right, let's hear that melody over time thing. That's maybe here, just the melody. It's a lot more plain, kind of. It's still happy. It's like a kind of happy, energetic melody. But without those f sharps, you don't get that just real quirkiness in there. So, uh, interesting experiment. I guess we could do it was something like this. So when you hear music by Danny Elfman, uh, think about modes, think about that quirky thing that you're hearing that he does all the time. Um and, uh, think about if if it might fit into a mode that, you know, he writes the music for, um A lot of the movies by Tim Burton Eso If you look up that director pretty much most movies with Johnny Depp in it, The music is by Danny Elfman. Anything that's, like, really kind of quirky. Okay, let's move on. And let's talk about some Gregorian chant quickly, Uh, and, uh, see what we think. 17. Analysis: Choir Example: Okay. Uh, I lied a little bit. We're not gonna look at right now anyway. Very traditional Gregorian chant kind of thing. What I want to look at instead is something very similar to a champ. But this is more of a, uh this is a setting of a mass. It's very old. Eso It's around the time of a champ. But this has more politically too. It s so it's more of ah, vocal piece for multiple voices, a chant we expect kind of one line. And by politically, what I mean is more than one line at a time. You can kind of see it like this is a line. And then this is a line of that Another line enters here. That kind of politican. He didn't come in. Uh, chant. Strictly speaking until a bit later. This is a piece by Josh Quinn. Ah, very famous composer of this era. This is probably one of his most famous pieces. It's an excerpt of a mass he wrote probably the last mass he wrote in his life. This dates from around the year 15. 15. So before we listen to it, I just want to point out when you hit play on something like this, Uh, in something like Muse Score or any other program you're gonna hear these synthesized voices trying to sing it, and it's not gonna sound good. I I kind of hate the like, synthesized voice sound. This is what it sounds. Oh, it's not very elegant. So what I'm gonna do instead is I'm gonna put this on the screen that I'm gonna play an actual recording of human singing it what's let's hear the whole thing just to get it in our head. It's about three minutes long. Uh, and then we're gonna And while you're listening to it, see if you can take a guess on what mode it's using, Okay, Just think about the way it sounds. And if any mode comes to mind Okay, here we go. Way, way, way, way, - way , - way . Okay, on this file goes on to the Gloria Ah, and more of the mass. Oh, wow. This is like the whole thing. Well, but let's just look at the Curia. Okay, So any guesses what mode we might be in, this one's gonna work a little bit different than the them Simpsons theme When we look at the notation Because if you were scanning this for accidental right flats or sharps or even natural, if you were keeping that in mind while we looked through it, you didn't see any? I don't think none. Right. So does that mean they're just in a major minor key? Because there are no accident ALS. No, it doesn't, actually. Let's think about this. Let's look at just this first phrase. Oh, on. I'm gonna have to do the cheesy vocal thing. Now I want to hear just this first melody. Okay? Probably all the way up Teoh about here. Okay, so I'm gonna get rid of the stuff around it, so we can just focus on the Okay, Let's just listen to this melody. Okay? One time, Okay? No. What key are we in? Let's start there. Um what key signature are we in? So three flats. That means either e flat major or C minor. Those there are two options based on the key signature. Okay, so let's look at e flat major. Um, show me where we have e flats, because the more e flats we have, the more that's gonna tell us that that's the ah keeper in. Okay, so there's one another one on. There's once we have three. Um, they're not at any kind of significant point. This one is not on the downbeat to be right here. This one is on 1/16 note. A very fast note right at the end of the bar. This one is on the halfway point of the bar. Ah, so that's kind of a strong B, but not really strong. So let's see about C minor, where our seas thistles on a downbeat. This is our first see. It's on a downbeat, but it's not, but it's a very short note. Here's another lawn. Extremely short note. Just 1/16 note on That's it foresees, So neither of those are really great options. What it looks like they're doing is really emphasizing this G because we've got two of those right away. And if we looked through the whole piece, what we're going to see is a lot of emphasizing of G as the tonic. But remember, our key signature is telling a C minor or e flat major. Neither of those makes sense if we're gonna call gr tonic unless we are in a moat, Right? Check this out. So if we were in the key of E flat Major, remember the pattern of modes, right? Goes Ionian. Dorian Fridge in Lydian mix led in alien low Korean. Those are the seven in order. So if we were any flat major and we went up to ah g right, that would be e flat will be the 1st 1 That would be if we were showing a key signature of e flat. And we're using e flat as a tonic and we wanted to talk in modes. That would be the Ionian mode, right? If we were in the key of e flat but showed a key signature of F that would be too. We will be using a Dorian mode if we were in the key signature of e flat and were showing and using G as our tonic, which we are here. That means we are in the fridge. Ian mode. OK, so we did the opposite thing, right? Instead of looking for key signatures, we just put the key signature of the mode on it. Right. So we're showing the key censure of E. But we're using the third scale degree as our tonic, which shows us frigid. So this is all around bridge in Not a single accidental in here, which means we don't go out of fridge in doesn't mean we don't change chords and move around different chords within frigid. But this piece is all based on fridge in. We can tell by figuring out what the tonic is and what the key signature is and finding an intersection of those two things. Beautiful piece. Right? Um, a lot of this music is just so beautiful and you hear it in a big, uh, river be echoey church, and it's just beautiful. Okay, I'm gonna give you ah, this file in the next ah segment so you can play around with it and listen to the whole thing. If you just google the names of these pieces, use Google this you'll be able to find recordings of it, Um, in various beautiful to churches. Ah, that sounds really nice. So don't get bogged down by listening to the playback of muse. Score the midi, the computer playback, um, of these kinds of things, it can be okay on something like a piano. But when you get into like vocals. It just sounds like I don't know. It just doesn't sound Aziz. Good as it should. Okay, so I'm gonna give you these files, and then let's talk about talk about another fun one after that. 18. Analysis: The Beetles: Eleanor Rigby: Okay. One more example of how we use modes in different ways sometimes, especially in modern music, pop music, Modern or Castrol Chamber. Whatever. Uh, let's look at Pop song, um, Eleanor Rigby by the Beatles. You know this song? Hopefully you've heard this before. Um, let's just hear a little bit of it and we'll just hear the music or playback as this one is set to just piano way. Now, what we're hearing here is a mode on. I'll just tell you were playing around with the Dorian mode here, but we're not exclusively in the Dorian mode were kind of slipping in and out of it. Really. What we're doing here is using Dorian for the melody, but not for, uh, harmony, for example. Okay, so, uh, okay. Are we in this right here? This tells us it can either be g major or e minor. Let's look at what we've got right here. This is an e minor court. Um, so and it's just plunked away for a long time. So let's call this in the key of e minor. Now. If this was in the Dorian mode, we would have a raised six scale degree So let's figure out what note that is. E The second note is gonna be f sharp. The third note is gonna be G. The fourth note is going to be a The fifth note is gonna be be in the sixth note is gonna B C Now if we want o make this Dorian, we're going to change that to see sharp. But look right here. See, Natural not C sharp. Okay, throughout all of this we have some see naturals, but they're right there. But the melody starts here way have c sharps creeping in there to show that the melody has gone into Dorian. But even right after the melody, the accompaniment right here I still have a c natural so he's kind of weaving in and out of it. But using Dorian toe add that little hint of, like, mysteriousness into the melody, but it largely stays out of the accompaniment. Now, right here we do kind of a turnaround, and we do kind of a blues lick, which has kind of another mode that were hinting at in this one. But just remember that for this one, we're going in and out of the mode That's why I wanted to show you this one, but primarily using Dorian for the melody but not being all that concerned with keeping Dorian in the accompaniment. And you can do that as long as it sounds good. You could do what everyone. 19. Melodic and Harmonic Intervals: Okay, So in this next section, we're going Teoh kind of jump backwards what we did earlier, um, like, way earlier, like in a previous class. Ah, we talked a lot about intervals. And the importance of identifying intervals we're gonna do now is jump back and fill in some of those gaps. So we talked about what a perfect fifth is. What a minor third is what a major second is in all those things. But I want to spend this next section talking about intervals again. Ah, to fill in more details about intervals and the kind of stress, the importance of intervals. We're gonna talk a little bit about, um, intervals in this next section. Ah, little bit of it will be review. Um, but most of it will be new. Um, so in order to do this, I want to introduce in this first video in this section a new concept. It's not necessarily new concept, new vocabulary word. Um, the difference between melodic intervals and harmonic intervals. Okay, so this Ah, that sounds a lot fancier than it is. Pretty simple idea. I have two intervals to two intervals here. Really? This is one between F and A and this is one between F and A. Now we would call this a harmonic interval and this one a melodic interval. All I'm saying here is a harmonic interval are is when the interval is Both notes of the interval are played at the same time. A melodic interval. It is when they're played sequentially, one after the other, right? So you can think about that as like harmonic. Interval means like harmony, right? Like ah, harmony are notes that are played at the same time. So if something is harmonic, it is notes that are played at the same time. Melodic intervals are like a melody, right? Imagine a singer singing a melody Singer can't sing two notes at a time. Okay, mild disclaimer. Everyone. Always. Whenever I say that, they point out like, Oh, there are these, like monks. Second, sing multiple notes at a time. Yeah, that's true. But most people can't sing two notes at a time, so a melodic interval is an interval where the notes are separate, their played one after the other. They're still intervals, though. Okay, so melodic intervals and harmonic intervals are a concept that is going to be important to know Ah, going forward. And really what it means is that when we're looking four intervals, whether they are harmonic or melodic, they are still intervals. Right, Like this is still a major third between these two notes. And this is a major third between these two notes. Yes, one is a harmonic interval on one is a melodic interval, but they're still an interval of a major third. Get it? So, um, whether or not it's harmonic or melodic, the interval is still the interval, so keep that in mind. Okay, So up next, I want to talk about identifying intervals. We've done it with half steps and whole steps. We've done it by just counting whole steps. We've done it by looking at cords. But what I want to do now is get into how to identify intervals quickly, using a couple tricks just by looking at them. Um, there are a couple of kind of visual landmarks we can use to identify intervals, so let's do that next 20. Using Visual Landmarks: Okay, let's talk about identifying intervals just by sight, quick. Ah, the way we're gonna do that is visual landmarks. Now, this isn't going to tell us. Ah, in the case of, like, 1/3 if it's a major minor third, but it's gonna let us spot Ah, third. Ah, really fast. So I just want to point out a couple of these things is going to save you a lot of time in the future. Uh, let's do this in the key of f Okay, s I'm gonna put an F here. Now, here's a couple of things to remember for identifying intervals whenever you're looking at 1/3 If the first notice on a space and you're using the next space, you're looking at 1/3. No matter where you are, if you got to space is right next to each other. You're looking at 1/3 same deal with lines. If you're looking at a line and the next line on top of it, you're looking at 1/3. Okay, so whenever you see a line, ah, whenever you see a space in the space and their adjacent there, right next to each other or a line in a line and they're right next to each other. You are looking at 1/3 now. We can't tell if it's a major, a minor third, but we can tell that it is 1/3. So here we have going up a bunch of thirds. Right now, we're actually not in the key of f here because what I need to do is that that puts us in the key of F because they'll forget we have a key signature. Now, I can figure out if it's a major minor third, because I have the key signature of F. Um, I've just put one flat in here. I could just do the key signature itself to do that. Okay, so now the key signature is there. So this is a B flat. So if this is the one chord I know, it's only two notes. That's okay, then. That means that this is gonna be a major third. If this is the two chord, that means this is gonna be a minor third. Because just remember the diatonic chord progression, right? Major minor minor. This'll one's gonna be a minor. Third to the bottom third of that court is going to be minor so we can tell by thinking about the key a little bit more. But just by looking at the lines and spaces, we can identify the third's, uh, let's do another 1/5. Okay, If we take an F, we do the same kind of thing where we do. If this 1st 1 is on a space, the next space is going to be 1/3. The next space is gonna be 1/5. Okay, If we're on a line, next line is gonna be 1/3. The next line is gonna be 1/5 if it's on a space and then two spaces higher, it's also on a space. You are looking at 1/5. If it's on a line and then two lines higher, you're looking at 1/5. So these are all fifths. Oops. Those are fifths going up. So remember space in a space with with nothing in between line and a line, nothing in between. It's a quick way to identify 1/5 1/7 identify seventh, same deal. We just go up one more. This is going to be 1/7 because we have space, nothing, nothing. And space here we have line nothing, nothing in a line. It's another way to identify 1/7. Okay, so keep that in mind now for seconds. 4th 6th and octaves. It's always going to be the opposite of whatever the first notice. So if this one is on the line and you've got a note on a space, it's gonna be either a 2nd 4th 6th or active. So in this case, it's a second. Here's one on where we have one note on a lot are on a space. One note on a line that's 1/4 and we could count up notes so these ones are less useful but still kind of useful. Here's a note on a line or on a space. Here's a note on the line that's a six. Here's a note on a line. Here's around a space. Here's a note on a line that's inactive, so octaves are always gonna be a wide gap where one is on a space and one is on the line or opposite. So here's a line. Here's a space that the second here's a line is a space that's 1/4. Here's a line. Here's a space that's sixth Here's a line groups. Here's a space that's an active. So they're gonna be opposite for those four. Ah, that's it. So I just wanted to point those out. Um, quick visual ways to identify. Ah, some of the intervals that we're gonna be working with now. We have not talked yet about big intervals. We've only talked about intervals within an octave. But intervals can be bigger. That's an interval. Uh, so let's talk about those in the next video. 21. Compound Intervals: okay. It's time to talk about compound intervals. Um, that's fancy. Way to say intervals bigger than inactive. Um, what we do here s so this is a bit of terminology and a bit of like actual fact. So check it out. So here is an active right. Um, what interval is that? There's two ways we could think about this. One is we could reduce it and move this top note down, inactive to there. That would make it an interval of a major second after G. But that's not where it waas. It's right there. So, yes, it's kind of a major second. And yes, it has a similar feel to a major second because it's the same notes as a major second. But there's an octave in between. And that can matter. Um, most of the time, that can matter. So, um, what is it? Well, let's count up one. Well, it's Let's do this. Let's take it back down. Okay. If that's a second, that's 1/3. That's the fourth. That's 1/5. That's 1/6. That's 1/7. This is eight. This is nine. So we actually end up on here is 1/9 1/9 is a compound interval because we can think of 1/9 as an active plus a second. Okay, Now, where things could go wrong is if you think of a knock tive as an interval of an eighth and then an interval of a second and you add those together, you get 1/10 which doesn't work, right? Right. Let me explain that again. Let's go over here. So here's an active right. If this is 1/7 then this is probably an eighth, right? And if this is a second, then I add eight plus two and I get 1/10 which is wrong, right? Well, that's not the way we think about it. What we do is we actually count all the way up from the bottom note. So to 345678 nine we end up at ninth. The reason that it doesn't work when you literally added eight plus two is that in that case you're counting the octave twice. This note gets counted twice. So what you really do is you count. Okay, So this is our seven and then you count. This is eight. But it is also one and that's to. So we really count seven plus two because we can't count the octave twice in the same interval. And that's confusing. Never mind. Just remember, this is the interval of 1/9. ITT's an octave plus a second. So the ninth is a very cool sound, Let's hear. And it has a similar sound as a second, but it's a little bit different, right? It's just this kind of a fun sound. Uh, let's do another compound interval here. Let's do the interval of attempt. Now, this one is an active plus 1/3. And this is one of my all time favorite intervals. It's right there. So an active would be to here, and then we add 1/3. On top of that. That is the interval of 1/10. Now, I love this sound. Let me just play it for you first and then I'll show you why I love it. Okay, so here it is, right? It's fine. But check this out. I love this. Played in the piano really low. Yeah, I'm gonna transpose this. Like where we were a low. Okay, here's three octaves down from where I waas. Let me just do that as a whole now. Okay, so now I do the same thing with just a whole note. I listen to this. It's just a beautiful sound to me, and I can't get over that. I've written so many pieces where I just end with this big 10th interval of 1/10. It's just a major third with an octave in between, right? It's beautiful. Interval okay? And stop gushing about my love for the 10th. And let's talk about an 11th. So 11th is an active plus a force. It sounds like that now I should say about some of these intervals. Ah, Major and minor still apply. We can have a major 10th and a minor 10th because it's got a major third in it. You have a major ninth in a minor ninth because it's a second right is the added interval. We can't have a major reminder active, but in ninth or 1/10 we can Ah, in 11th is an active and 1/4 and remember our interval for 1/4. If we're staying in key, our interval for 1/4 is a perfect four, so we don't have major or minor 11th ah, nor do we have Major and a minor 12th which are active and 1/5 hoops. So here's 1/12 active and 1/5. Let's hear 11th and 12th. So this is an 11th. This is a 12. Remember? These are perfect intervals. Okay, so 1/9 is an octave plus a second, and that can be major reminder. 1/10 is an octave in 1/3 and that can be major minor. And 11th is an octave and 1/4 and that can't be major reminder that could be perfect. 12th is an active in 1/5 and that is a perfect interval as well. No, let's jump backwards and talk about this major minor, perfect thing. Um, one more time. I know we've spent a good amount of time on this and an earlier class. I want to do a quick review review of that because just came up again. And if you're scratching your head, let's touch base on the major minor perfect thing because we're about to make it a bit more complicated by the end of this section. So let's make sure we're on the same page with the main major minor perfect Cool. Let's do that next 22. Major, Minor, and Perfect Intervals: Okay. So, as you know, because I've explained it a couple times. Um, the 4th 5th and active we call perfect intervals. And the other ones are not perfect intervals. They can be major or minor. Let me explain this in a slightly different way. I'm still in the key of f here, so let me just right up here. I'm going to write an F major scale. Okay, Zoom in a little bit on that. Okay, Now, down here, I'm going to write an F minor scale. Okay, zoom out. Just a hair so f major and f minor. Now here's another way to look at our perfect intervals. Let's look at what notes are the same. So the root. This would be called a perfect unison. So And this is technically a perfect interval, by the way. Ah, unison is a perfect interval. The fourth is the same. It's b flat. Don't forget our key signature. The fifth is the same. And the octave is the same. So are perfect. Intervals are the same in major and minor. Now I know what you're thinking. If you are a student, I know you are. You're thinking What about this too. I thought the two could be major a minor, and that's kind of the exception. Um, the two can be major minor, and it is the same between the two major on minors. So that is an exception. Think of it in terms off. We do find lowered twos like that in some of the modes and things like that. So it does exist in a major minor with kind of the exception. But the other ones, our third is different, right? Our sixth is different, and our seventh is different, so those can be major minor, and that could be major minor. And so can the to the two is again the odd man out there. So the perfect intervals and we call them perfect intervals. Because if you go back to all the way back to you know, Gregorian chant and things like that, they've been around for the longest, and they were considered the simplest and best intervals. So we call them perfect. Um, they were unalterable, perfect, just as they are the other ones. They came along a little bit later, and they had multiple ah ways. You could do them. You could do them raised or lowered, and that made them changeable, so they had major or minor versions made. But the perfect intervals are still the perfect intervals. Technically, we have four perfect intervals in a scale. The unison, the fourth, the fifth and the octave cool, so perfect and major and minor intervals. 23. Rules of Inversion: Okay, let's talk about this a little bit more. But in terms of inversions now, I've looked at inversions a bunch with cords. And even before that, we've looked at inversions with intervals. But I want to talk about inversions one more time. Just talking about intervals. Kind of like what we did with the visual landmarks. I want to give you a couple quick tricks toe identify intervals, inversions of intervals. So four main points for this video. First, perfect intervals invert toe perfect intervals. They're always perfect. Invert this interval, Remember, inverting means taking, uh, one note and so in reverse. Changing the order is all it really means of the notes. So I'm either going to take this f and put it up an octave, or I'm gonna take this C and put it down and active. Either way Ah, perfect. Fifth is going to stay a perfect interval. So if this F goes up to a C, we're sorry if this f goes up in active now my interval is the fourth. The fifth inverts to 1/4. But it's still a perfect interval because a perfect fifth inverts to a perfect fourth perfect interval is a perfect interval. If I do that the other way and I take the sea down and active now again, I have a perfect fourth because a perfect fifth inverts to a perfect fourth stays perfect. What about inactive and active is a perfect interval, right? We just learned that what happens if I inverted active? I get a unison which is also perfect, by the way, right, Cause if I take one of these notes and I put it down and active, I get a unison. I take this one and put it up in active. I get a unison. So unison is also a perfect interval. Important to remember. OK, point number two Ah, major intervals invert to minor intervals. So here's a major third. If I invert this by taking this f and putting it up here, I now have a minor sixth. Okay, So if it was major and you inverted, it's now minor. Always always a major interval inverted becomes a minor interval. Let's look at, um men interval of 1/7. This is a major seventh. If I inverted, let's take this e down and active. I now have a minor second because an inversion of the seventh becomes a second and it was major. So now it's minor. Okay, so if if a major interval whenever you invert a major interval, it turns into a minor interval, that's 0.2 point three. Ah, the opposite is always true. Minor intervals invert two major intervals. Let's do something a little out of key here. Let's do a minor seventh, right? I lowered that. So now we have a minor seventh year. If I invert that groups, what we're gonna have is I take that e flat down and active. What we now have is a major second e flat toe f that's a whole step apart, which is a major second. So minor intervals invert two major intervals. Okay, the last trick. And this is an important one. This has to do with the numbers, right? So the way its seventh inverts to second of fifth inverts to 1/4 a six inverts to 1/3. Here's how you remember what inverts toe What? Take the two numbers they got at up to nine. Ah, it's just kind of a weird mathematical thing. Let's go down here. Ah, fifth, If I'm going to invert 1/5 and I just want to know what it's gonna end up on five. Plus what equals nine. The answer is four. So 1/5 inverts to a forced If I take 1/6 and I want to say If I invert that what's gonna be my Interval six plus what equals nine? The answer is three. So it's gonna end up being 1/3. The two intervals just mathematically, always, always add up to nine. Now don't get that confused with adding up to 1/9 the interval of 1/9. That's not true. Ah, it's just a numbers game here, not in intervals. Game five inverts before because that equals 96 and verse 23 because that equals nine. It's just a mathematical thing. Okay, so remember those things about about inversions and you will be in good shape 24. Summary of Intervals So Far: Okay, let's do a quick summary of what we know so far about intervals, because after this, I'm gonna add some new intervals to your plate, and they're gonna make you scratch your head. Kind of weird because they are kind of weird. So quick. Summary. Here's what we know. We know that it's a difference between melodic and harmonic intervals. Melodic intervals happen sequentially. Note after note. Harmonic intervals happened at the same time simple and compound intervals. I don't think I mentioned simple intervals, but that's what we've been working with. Simple Interval Is anything smaller than an active compound? Intervals Anything bigger than inactive? So 9th 10th 11th 12th you can get up to 13th so you don't really see usually anything bigger than 1/13. But jazz people like 13 is quite a bit Jimi Hendrix like 13th a bit, Things like that. And then my points for inversion, a major inverts to a minor, a minor inverts to a major. Ah, perfect inverts to a perfect And whenever you invert a number, ah, the old number and the new number have to equal nine. So ah, six inverts to 1/3. 1/5 inverts to a force 1/3 a fourth inverts to 1/5 3rd inverts to a six a second inverted to 1/7 and a active inverts to a unison which the number for unison is one. So eight plus one equals night. Okay, so that's just a quick summary of what we've kind of done with intervals so far. Next, we're gonna get into some non diatonic intervals. Remember, Diatonic means in key. Ah, we're gonna start looking at some intervals that can happen when we're outside of a key. Such as, like what happens if we make our perfect fifth in perfect? You know what? If we mess with it, we can Ah, it's possible. Ah, and it has a special name and some special properties. So let's start looking at some of those done diatonic intervals in the next section here. 25. Augmented and Diminished Intervals: okay, We have major intervals and minor intervals. We also have things called augmented intervals and diminished intervals. Um, you can think of an augmented interval as, like a super major interval. It's a little bit too big to be a major interval and a diminished interval as kind of like a super minor interval. It's a little too big are a little too small to be a minor interval. Now, in orderto fully explain these, I want to look at two new symbols that we've never seen before. We have them right up here. That's this symbol and this symbol. Let's do this one first, because it's a little easier to see. Don't put a note down here now. We know this symbol means flat, right, and that means we go 1/2 step down. This symbol means exactly what it looks like. It means double flat. That means to half steps down. Ah, whole step down, right? So a single flat means down 1/2 step. Two flats means down a whole step. Now, pitch wise, what is the difference between an a double flat and a G? Because in a double flat, let's look at our keyboard here. Okay, so here is here is our a right here. So a single flat puts it here. A double flat puts it here. Right on a G. So what's the difference between a double flattened Aggie? Nothing. They're going to sound the same. They're gonna sound exactly the same. They are both sonically meaning. The way we hear it, they are both a G. But sometimes we have a need to do. There's a double flat kind of thing, and there are reasons that we need to do it. It's fairly rare in modern music. It's extremely rare in pop music, but sometimes it does exist, but and we can go the other way as well. This symbol. Let me put another note down. Here's an A. This symbol means double sharp. Now, why do we have that symbol instead of just two sharps? I don't know. Somebody came up with this symbol. Maybe having to sharp side by side was uglier. Hard to read or something. I don't know. But we used this symbol to mean to sharps. That means it's up a whole step. Okay, so this is Where are we? Start scratching our head. Let me do 1/3. This is a major third. Okay? After a What if I did this after a sharp? It's not in the key of f the way I could also write. That is like that. These two things are going to sound exactly the same. We'll get back to double flats and sharps in a second. Just hold on. Trust me. So these were gonna sound same because a sharp and B flat are the same note. But what do we call these intervals? The technically correct thing to call these intervals is this one we would call an augmented third. And this one we would call a perfect fourth. I know, right? Why, That's just nuts. That's just the way it is. Sometimes there are reasons where you where you do this. Um but this is spelled as 1/3. So remember, it's two spaces topping, but you know, two spaces. So it's 1/3. There's no denying that That's 1/3. We put this accidental on it. And now the only thing that's up for debate is what kind of third is it? So it is an augmented third. This is the fourth because we have the interval of 1/4 year. The accidental on it, which is B flat because of our key signature, makes it a perfect fourth. But this is the fourth, and this is 1/3. The accidental makes us an augmented third. Let's look at this one B flat. Remember the key Signature and D. This is a major third OK, B flat two D is a major third. What would happen if I did that? Now one flat would make us a minor Third, two flats make it a diminished third. It's like a super ah, super flat, kind of. So what would be the difference between that and this B Flat and C is a major second. This is a diminished third. Nothing sonically, they're going to sound the same. Um, because a B double flat is ah, see or sorry, a D double flat is a see. Here's a D flat, double flat that's a C thes double Flats and Sharps are just kind of, you know, there's a part of me that wants to say they're just kind of dumb. But when you start to write really complex music and really weird keys, they do have a need to show up again. They're not used in Ma in pop music or anything like that. Very rarely will you have a need to write a double flatter a sharp, But they do exist. So here we have a diminished third because if we look at it, that is 1/3 right. That interval is 1/3. The accidental makes it a diminished third. All right. Those are augmented and diminished intervals. You will keep an eye out for him. It makes things a little trickier. But remember that in general when you encounter an interval, it's going to be major minor, perfect, like 90% of the time. 99% of the time, Every now and then you're gonna hit one of these augmented or diminished intervals. If you see a double flat or a double sharp, that's a good indicator that you're looking at it augmented or diminished. Interval. Ah, but sometimes you can do it without a double, flat or sharp, like this one. So we just got to keep our eyes out for those more on that in the near future, 26. The Tritone: Okay, We have one other kind of bizarre interval Teoh look at, actually, for now. And then in the next video, I'm going to show you some other bizarre intervals. But this one actually is fairly common. Ah, and this is called a tri tone. Here's what a tri tone is. Here's my perfect fifth. Let's take that perfect fifth down, 1/2 step to a C flat in this case. Now, here's another good example of a double flattened sharp. This is not a double flat, but this is a C flat. What? Why did I I swear, I told you, See, flats don't exist. If we look down here, see down 1/2 step gets us to a B, there is no see flat. Well, there kind of is because we can put a flat owning anything, and it just means lower it by 1/2 step. So a C flat is a be natural. And in this case, our key signature says B flat. So if I just wrote a B, it would be be flat, right? So see, flat means b flat, and this is a diminished fifth. It is also called a tri tone. Try tone is just a fancy name for a diminished fifth or augmented fourth. Here's a perfect fourth. Here is an augmented fourth. Same notes, See Flat and Be Natural are the same sounding notes, but this one is 1/5 and the accidental tells us it's a diminished fifth. This one is 1/4 and it tells us it is a augmented fourth. So those are this basically have the same sound in this case, but in both these cases, we call this a try tone. The reason we call it a try tone is because it splits The doctor well is because it's three whole steps. So ah, if we look down here so f to be natural F to G is a whole step toe A as a whole step to be is a whole step. So try tone three tones, three whole steps. But what this actually does is it splits the octave in half. This is halfway to here, so if we counted half steps, this one would be right in the middle, and it sounds bad. Um, the tri tone is not a pleasurable sound. It's a little rough on your ears. Let's just hear it. Okay, that's try tone. It's a diminished fifth. It's an augmented fourth, depending on how you spell it. Now one of these does exist in a natural key. If let's go back to see Major, just to make this nice and simple I'm gonna go down here. Oops. The interval from this f to this be is the same as this, right? It exists in a diatonic key in a major scale have to be exists. And so a tri tone does come up from time to time. And in fact, when we looked at modes, one of the reasons that we didn't like the low Korean mode it sounds so harsh is because there are try tones in it that really stick out. That's what makes it, ah, difficult scale to listen to, because the tri tone is so prominent in it. But the tri tone does exist, and what it is is a diminished fifth augment or an augmented fourth, depending on how you spell it. Um, this is when we make the perfect fifth and perfect fourth imperfect. When we alter them to be in perfect, we end up with a tri tone. But remember a tri tone only applies to this one specific interval of a diminished fifth or an augmented fourth. Ah, it doesn't apply to any other diminished or augmented intervals. Just the fifth and the fourth, um, so watch out for the tri tone and it pops up in cords. You'll see it pop up in cords all the time. Ah, and given if you surround it with the right notes that can be in okay sound. For example, a G seven chord has a B and an F in it, right Be natural f natural. And that's an okay sounding chord. It's got a little bit of grit to it, but ah, that grit comes probably from this. The tri tone that's in it. Any dominant seventh chord is gonna have a tri tone in it. So be aware of the tri tone 27. Enharmonic Equivalence : Okay, One more vocab word I want to give you, um and that is are actually the term, not a word. It's two words and harmonic equivalents. You're going to hear me say this from time to time. Ah, we've already learned what this is. In a case like this, a C flat and a B natural sound the same, but are written differently and kind of function differently. That idea of a note that sounds the same but has written differently. We call it in the harmonic equivalents and harmonic means. Ah, we can spell it multiple ways. Weaken. Spell it two different ways. Equivalents means the same. There they are. They are equal. So they sound the same but are written differently. So any two notes, for example, let's dio um f and g double flat R n harmonically equivalent those two notes because F is going to sound like F and G double flat is going to sound like F. Okay, I could do this. Also, watch this. Let's just get weird with this. E Sharp is an harmonically equivalent to F and G double flat, right? Because E sharp is going to sound like an F and that's going to sound like enough. Is there all and harmonically equivalent? Um, can I do any others that sound like F? I could do a D double Sharp is only going to get me to an E. You can do triple sharps. Sometimes there are extremely rare and not even one put that into your head. But let's do this. Another G double flat, another f other e sharp, another f another G. I just want to point out kind of silliness of this. Okay, so I'm gonna play these two bars and you're going to hear. And harmonic equivalents. That is an harmonic equivalent. All of these notes are and harmonically equivalent F sounds like f g flat, G double flat. Sounds like F E sharp. Sounds like F They're all and harmonically equivalent. So that's the fancy term we use for that. I want to be sure we got that. Will calculator word in there up next? I have another work sheet for you to go over all this interval stuff. Eso Let's check that out. Um, please use it to practice, and then we're gonna go on and talk about continents and dissonance. Very fun. Topic in the next segment. 28. Consonance and Dissonance : okay. It's time to talk about another aspect of intervals that we've touched on here and there. It's come up, but I want to focus on it specifically here. And that's the idea of continents and dissonance. This is an important role in music, and it comes with a couple new vocabulary words, I suppose. Modifications of vocabulary, word that we already know. So first, let's define continent and dissonant so constant continent. We can kind of say it has a pleasurable sound. Let's not even say pleasurable. Let's say it has a sound that we could walk away from like the sound happens and we're like , Okay, that's a nice sound and we walk away. Um, dissonant would be the opposite of that. And that's something that has a more stinging sound. Um, something that doesn't feel like it's finished is a good way to put it. Ah, it has somewhere else to go. Um, I like to think about dissonant intervals as incomplete. In other words, Ah, they they are on their way somewhere, but not quite there yet. And so they have this dissonant sound. So let's look at all our possible diatonic intervals. Uh, so that means all the intervals and key. Here's a super easy way to do that. Something Give us little more volume here. Yeah, I'm just gonna make a bunch of seas, and then I'm gonna put a major scale above it. So let's leave that one like it is, cause that's unison. Okay, here's all our diatonic intervals. Right, Because here we have essentially a unison here a second here. 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 a seventh and an active. Okay, we're going to talk about more than just diatonic intervals. And second, but let's start with those. Ah, so let's just here. This is for fun. You that kind of neat? No, Um, we have some intervals that we call a perfect constants. And we have some that we call on in perfect continents. Nearly all of these air continents, because they're diatonic, so perfect confidences are going to be more or less are perfect intervals. Right. So unison fifth and active. Now, what's the perfect interval that I skipped the fourth? The fourth gets treated kind of weird with this idea of a perfect continent. The fourth generally speaking, and this really changes by the century like composers of certain centuries treated the fourth as a perfect continents in some Ah, and then another century. They didn't treat it that way. Generally speaking, when we see the fourth as a melodic interval meeting, like so one note after the other, we consider it a confidence. When we see it as a harmonic interval, we hear it as a dissonance. Now, that's kind of that's super subjective, right? Like it's hard to call this a dissonance because it sounds pretty good. The reason that I am willing to call it a dissonance is because of this watch. I'm gonna hit a couple of these and then I'm gonna resolve it to their. So what it can feel like is that this harmony is on its way to this. One is when I play it, you're going to hear this, and then it's gonna This note is gonna fall down to this E, and you're going to say, Oh, yeah, So this was on its way to that. That felt like a resolution. So we're going to talk more about in a second. But let's just hear this, right, so it kind of feels like this is on its way to that. So that would make this a dissonance. And it's a constant. It's not a very sharp dissonance, right? It doesn't like sting or hurt or anything more on that shortly. Just remember that the fourth is kind of a special case. So are perfect. Constance is our unison. Fifth, inactive right are imperfect. Continence is are generally considered to be the third and the sixth. It's inversion. Okay, so those two are called imperfect consciences, meaning there continents is. Ah, but they're not as strong as the perfect ones, and ah, they they can turn into dissident ones. It's hard turning unison into a distant interval. It's hard to turn an octave into. It isn't interval. It's hard to turn 1/5 into a dissonant interval, and by turn into what I mean is put other things around it that make it sound dissonant, not alter it, because we all through it it's not 1/5 anymore. Um, but add more notes to this in which, in some context it sounds dissonant, very difficult to do that, Uh, not so hard with the third or the six. So that's why we call them in perfect confidences. Now let's talk about some dissonant intervals are to diatonic Dissonant intervals are this second and the seventh. So this one, let's just hit a couple seconds over here. Remember, this is a major second. Ah, minor second is even mawr dissonant. Let's do a couple of minor seconds here. Ah, half step. Basically a C to a D flat is a good one. Okay, As it like that, its theme from Psycho, if you remember that. So here's a major second. Here's a minor second, right? So those are dissonant. They they're listing e and then there inversion of 1/7 so a c and B of the major seventh hoops. Oops. And let's do a minor seventh. Also also considered a dissonant interval. Okay, let's hear those. So major seventh, minor seventh. Okay. Now, also consider dissonant are any augmented or diminished intervals. Things like the tri tone. Right? So remember, the tri tone is a diminished fifth. Let's make a couple of those so g is perfect. Fifth g flat is going to be try tone or a shark, depending on how we look at it. Okay, so these are the tri tone. They're also considered diminished our dissident. So these are our main dissonant intervals. Let's just hear a whole big string and dissidents stuff. Why not? If you have a headache, you might want to turn it down for a minute. There you go. Those are dissonant intervals. So remember that I said continent intervals are kind of intervals that can stay. They we could stop on them and be pretty happy. Dissonant intervals are still underway to somewhere else. Um, that's the way I think about it anyway. So let's talk about how we resolve dissident intervals and what that term resolution means in the next video. 29. Rules of Resolution: Okay, let's get rid of my continent stuff here or my scale there. And let's just look at these distant intervals that we talked about. Now, how can we resolve these? It's a couple different ways. Um no. Well, actually, let me remind a step. Let's talk about what resolution means. Resolution means that we get it to its constant state. Ah, in other words, we take this dissonant interval, and we let it go to where it feels like it needs to go right. It's not just that we put a continent interval. Ah, after a dissonant interval, it's certain dissonances want to go certain places. So it's their natural resolution. I think we've talked a little bit about this when we talked about, like the five Chord to the one chord that has a dissonance in it. The five court has a dissonance in it. Well, actually, you could say it doesn't. It's just a chord that wants to resolve down to the one court. That's how it some chords work, intervals work the same way. Um, they have places they want to go. The dissident ones have places they want to go. Some of them have multiple places they want to go. You've got some choices. So let's start with our major second here. I'm just gonna go out here and let's do whole note since temples kind of fast and let's do okay, so a major second, where does that want to go? There's two ways you could resolve this. You could resolve it to a unison just like that where essentially the D falls down. You always think about directions of notes here. So in this case, the sea stays the same and the D essentially falls down and becomes a unison. Another way we could resolve this is to a major third. So in that case, the sea stays the same and the D climbs up to an E. We think about these as multiple voices like each note is going to go its own path. And we're gonna talk about that more when we talk about counterpoint. But imagine singing this, though. Imagine you have two people singing this one person's gonna saying this and in this so they're going to stay. The same one is gonna go d up to e, and that's going to sound like it resolves, right? So this is not a good spot to end a piece of music on, but this is right. So it's a resolution. This is a resolution to this dissonance. Okay, let's look at the next one we had here, which I think was a minor second. Ok, A minor second really has only one easy place. It can go and that is down to a unison. Ah, a minor second. Resolving up to 1/3 doesn't really work. Ah, all that well, sometimes you could make it work if you're crafty, but, uh, typically a minor second wants to resolve down to a unison eso this No really wants to fall down to here. That's really the best place for that to g o. Does it have here a major seventh? Let's look at where that goes. So a major seventh Oops, uh, could go to places. Ah, the most obvious one would be for it to go to an active where the snow stays the same and the top note climbs up to an active to resolve it right. That feels, uh, like a resolution. But if we wanted to get crafty, another thing we could dio Here's our seventh again Let's resolve it down, Teoh. 1/6. Now, the sixth is not an extremely continent interval, Right. Um but if we did a little magic, we couldn't make this sound more constant. Let's hear it without some magic. And just here. Seventh, resolving to a six, right. It sounds pretty good that way, but if I re and this is getting kind of a little bit more advanced, but what I could do is reinforce this cord. Let me throw in a on the bottom also. So what this is gonna now feel like, is not like this? Note is the root. The sea is the root is gonna feel like it's an a minor chord, in which case it will be more pleasurable. So just by emphasizing that a at the bottom Ah, I made it feel like an a minor chord and not a c major chord. So more on that when we talk about counterpoint, I took it a minor seventh. A minor seventh could do kind of the same two things. It can go up to an active or down to 1/6. Um, I'd probably lean towards going down to 1/6 which means, um Let's try to resolve this to a six without doing this trick here. And one way we can do it is we can add another chord. So check this out. Let's hear it without 1/3 chord. So miners minor seventh. Resolving to a six. Okay, now, this isn't completely resolved to me. It's not bad. It's not. It's not a really sharp distance, but what if I added 1/3 chord and went down to 1/5? Now the seventh, the minor seventh, resolves to a six, which resolves to 1/5 right? So the resolution here takes two chords to get there. It's kind of an oddity of the minor. Seventh. It's a non diatonic interval, so it's a little trickier sometimes. Okay, and then our tri tone. Our tri tone is another non diatonic interval, so it can be a little tricky. Well, let's look at what we can do. This one can really go either direction by half step, and it will be okay if we go up to Ah, perfect Fifth. This is a natural. It's what I meant to dio. Okay, that works. We can also take it down to 1/4 if we wanted. And in this case, because that fourth is kind of that special case, it's not totally resolved to me. You might add another record and go down to 1/3 right, and this has kind of a conclusion. Feel to it. So there's a lot of different ways we can resolve dissonant intervals. Um, but the thing to remember is what makes a decent interval is a need to resolve it Sounds like it wants to resolve, which means it wants to go somewhere else to a continent. Interval. Ah, and there are a number of different ways we can get there now. For now, what I've walked you through here is kind of a free form. Weaken, Go. Here we go there. If we get into the strict rules, the really strict rules off this, then those rules kind of dictate what exactly can go where? Depending on the context, all the music around, it is going to say this note has to go to that note. This note has to go to that note. And there are a lot of rules about that, um, with intervals and that is called counterpoint. And that's what we're going to talk about next. It's a bunch of rules that say this note has to go there. This note has to go there and all this other stuff. So that's gonna be the next big section of this class. So hang on for that. Um, do a couple more things first, and then we'll get to that. 30. Interval Classes: Okay, Sometimes we come across these terms called interval classes. Um, this is not something I use a lot. But if you're reading a theory textbook or taking a theory class, you may come across these. So I just want Teoh kind of acknowledge their existence and point out what they are. This is just kind of a way of talking about the different intervals. And they're continents or dissonance properties. Ah, by categorized the categorizing them as six different types of ah qualities. So here they are. So we have a numbers one through six, Interval class one through six. So interval class one ah, we consider to be dissonance and that refers to that is our most dissident. Well, I shouldn't say are most dissonant cause that's kind of subjective, but interval classes are one is minor seconds and minor sevenths in major seventh. Sorry. So minor seconds in major seventh. So I'm not showing a minor second here, but I am showing a major seventh, so this would be our only interval class one. That's diatonic right here. If I inverted, this would be a being a C, which would be a minor second, the interval class two is major seconds and minor seventh. So here's a major second. So that falls into this kind of interval class to and if I inverted this, it would be a minor seventh, which would also be interval class too. So those are both considered dissonances. One and two are dissonances. Interval class three is our thirds is a minor third and a major sixth. So not that's that's a major third. But here's a minor Sorry, a major six which would invert to a minor third for this interval. Class three. This is considered a in perfect confidence interval Class three in the class, four major thirds and minor sixes. So here's a major third and if we inverted it, it's mine or six. This would be interval class four and it is also in imperfecta confidence. The interval Class five is our perfect fourths and fifths. Those are considered perfect confidences with an Asterix because we're talking about that fourth again, which is sometimes a constant, sometimes a dissonance. So usually in terms of this interval class concept, we were we think of the fourth ah, as falling into this interval Class five, which makes it a confidence and then the last one interval. Class six is our tri tones, augmented fourth or diminished fifth, which we don't have here on the screen. But they are dissonance, So those are the four interval classes. I don't use them a lot. I think they're kind of an unnecessary abstraction of the idea, kind of making things more complicated than it needs to be. But just in case you run across them, that's what those mean. 31. Analyzing Intervals: Okay. Ah, next. We want to talk about analyzing Interval. So I just want to talk about we look at a piece of music and we go through it looking for just intervals. What are we looking for? And how are we identifying them? There's a couple tricks to it. So I have here, um, one of the Bach two part inventions. These are great for analyzing intervals because it's really just to to, ah, lines all the way through. Um, this is number eight of the two part inventions. Now, the first thing I want to point out here is this is piano music. You see all these numbers here? If you're not a piano player, you're probably like, What are all these weird little numbers here? These air finger numbers. So these air finger rings, Um, from a music theory perspective, we can ignore them. They don't really mean anything to us. They tell us how to play it on the piano, so I'm gonna be ignoring those numbers. But if you sit down to play this, that will be a good help to you and what you should do to play it. Okay, let's hear this short little piece. And then I want to talk about how we would analyze some of the intervals here. Way, Theo. Way, Way. Okay, let's have a look here. So what I want to look at here is really just the vertical intervals. That's things like right here, right here and actually right here. You're like, No, there's no other note that goes along with this one. Yeah, but there is. Let's zoom way in here. Okay? So let me first take a peek at our key signature here. B Flat case. We're in the key of F. We have one flats. We gotta keep that in mind. Well, I'm zoomed way in here because I can't see it. Um, OK, so here's enough against nothing. So no interval there. I'm also gonna peek at my cliffs here. Trouble in base. OK, so here we have an e and n f. Okay, so that is the interval of what? You have an f on the bottom and an e on the top. That's a major seventh interval. Okay, so what should So our major seventh interval is a dissonant interval. Where should that go? Ah, In this case, the major seventh interval is going down to here and this is turned. So the high note is going down to a D. So it's turning into Ah, sixth. Now, if you're thinking this notice by itself, you're not quite right because this is 1/16. These air 16th notes This is an eighth note. So we have to consider that this note should still be ringing. Even though it's marked short. We think of there being an f from here all the way to the next note. So this note is being played against an F because the rhythm here tells it to be longer than that. So this is a major seventh resolving Teoh a minor sixth, and then we go to in A and A C, which is another sixth, which is a mostly constant and interval. So that's OK then we have here in a against a D, which is 1/4 so that could be okay. Let's see if he resolves it to 1/3. He does. Okay, so this is where ah, this gets interesting because he does resolve it to 1/3 a to see. However, the bass note has moved on by that point, so This is where a counterpoint gets really interesting and we're going to talk a lot about counterpoint in the next section. But so basically what we have here is 1/4 between this A and this D, and now we have in F and A C, which is 1/5 which resolves to an F and B. Now the fifth doesn't need to resolve. So that's OK. But up next to go to an effort to be flat, which is 1/4 and then from A C to an A, which is 1/6 and then from a C to a B flat, which is a minor seventh and then and F to an A, which is a major third and then enough to a G, which is a second. And then he resolves that to ah, unison. So this second resolves down to a us and and then it keeps going so we could go through here and figure out every single interval on where it's going and what it's doing. But the key that I want you to remember here is that in a passage like this, it's not that this note is an interval, and this note is not an interval because nothing's here. You have to consider that this is also here. And this continues on. This one continues on during this note. This one continues on during this. No. And etcetera. Right. See if I can find another example of that. Everything here is eighth notes or 16th notes. These obviously are. Note two note. Right. This is an interval. That's an interval. That's an interval. That's an interval. Yeah, pretty much. Everything is eighth notes, but so this f we would compare against this b flat here. So keep that in mind when you look at intervals. Okay? I'm gonna give you this. Ah, piece of music just for fun in the next section and then a worksheet to practice some of your interval naming stuff, and then we'll move on and talk about counterpoint. 32. What is Counterpoint?: okay, It's time to talk about counterpoint. Counterpoint is often taught as a whole separate class. It's a big topic. It gets a lot more into composition. Um, then I think, really than anything else we've done yet before. There are a lot of rules to counterpoint, but there's also room for creativity in counterpoint. In a way, counterpoint is a lot like the musical equivalent of playing chess. There are rules. There are ways to do it well in there are ways to do it poorly. There's no winning or losing in counterpoint. But ah, I think just kind of the the gymnastics that your brain has to do. Teoh really wrap your head around counterpoint eyes a lot like chest to me. So what is it? One way to think about? Counterpoint is we've been looking lately in this class at harmonies that are vertical. Let's change that something different. There we go. So this is a vertical harmony, right to notes on top of each other. And we've also looked at melodic harmonies, meaning notes that are like that. So this is a harmonic A to see, which is a minor third. Okay, this is a melodic C to D, which is a major second now. What counterpoint is there are one way to look at counterpoint is to say that it's thinking both melodically and harmonically. At the same time. We have to create an interesting line melodically and another interesting line melodically , and make sure that they make sense harmonically at the same time. So in order to do counterpoint, you need at least two lines, because what we're talking about is the intersections of those lines and how it works. So what we're talking about, in a way is having to melodic lines that create harmony as they go according to certain rules. And there you can do. You can write two lines that work that don't follow any of the rules of harm of counterpoint, and that's OK. The reason that we pay attention to Counterpoint is that first and foremost, it tells all the rules put together. Tell us what's going to sound good, good in a very traditional sense now, like all rules of music theory, and you've heard me say this 100 times that if we follow all the rules exactly then we end up with kind of boring sounding music. But it's really good to know all these rules so that when we're writing our own music, we can choose which ones to ignore and break. Ah, in order to make something. Ah, stunning, right? So knowing the rules is important. If you go back to the 18th and 19th century composers like Mozart, Brahms, Beethoven, they all considered the study of counterpoint to be as important, if not more important than the study of harmony. Counterpoint is was to them something completely fundamental to their music. They thought all composers should spend a great deal of time studying counterpoint. So let's talk about a couple of vocabulary words we're gonna encounter. Um, as we look at the basics of counterpoint, the 1st 1 I want to talk about is called voice leading voice leading We've kind of looked at before. Ah, when we talked about inversions, let me just go to some good old fashioned triads, cause this will make kind of more sense. Eso Here's that. Here's a five chord and here's ah, two chord. Okay, now these are all in route position, right, cause the root of the court is at the bottom. So remember when I did this. I took some notes down. Inactive. Let's take this D down inactive and let's take this beat out. Inactive. Now what we have here is better voice leading. Meaning? Imagine all three of these notes are sung by individual people. So you've got three people, one person singing that no one that note and one that note now, before we changed this, let's actually go back. Okay? Now what each of these people have to do to sing this line is a little tricky. This person has to sing a G and then jump all the way up to a d and then jump all the way down to an A. This person has to sing an E and then jump all the way up to a B and then all the way down to enough this person sings a C jumps all the way up to a G and all the way down to a D. That seems unnecessary, right? Because this person is on a G and they could just stay on a G, right? Why not? But if they did that, this person would have to jump all the way up to a be even higher. So what? We dio way rearrange the notes and now look at our voice. Leading this person sings a G, and then they sing another G. They don't have to move it all the very smooth transition. And then they have to go up a major second to an a nice and smooth good voice. Leading is what we would call that. This person now is on an E. They just have to go down a major second and then up a minor third, right? Not that bad. This person is on a C. They go down 1/2 step and they go up a minor third as well. So not that bad either. So good voice leading is what that is. Now we're going to talk about that more in terms of counterpoint. But voice leading is really simply put, if you think about each note being sung by individual person, the amount of jumping around that they have to do, the more jumping around they have to do. The less good it is, the more, uh the more streamlined their part, the better. So we like them to not have to jump around. Now there's other things we like to. There's other things we like That makes for good boy fleeting things, like contrary motion and other things like that that we'll talk about soon. So when we talk about those, just it's not all about the smoothness of the line. There are other things that are important to invoice leading, but we're gonna talk more about those shortly. Okay? Another term that I want you to know is this term of species because species comes into account. Ah, with counterpoint a lot. Um, there are multiple kinds of species of counterpoint. I know. That's kind of a weird term to use. So, um, let me explain this in more detail by jumping to a new video, and then we're gonna talk about the different species of counterpoint. 33. Different "Species": Okay, So the term species in this context just means ah, type of something. I think that's actually the technical definition of the word species. So Ah, when we say first species counterpoint, what we're talking about is, ah, the first type of counterpoint. There's second species counterpoint, the second type of counterpoint. Right? So the species word really just means, um, the rules air slightly different for first species than second species than third species than force fourth species. Um, they are typically four different kinds of counterpoint for different sets of rules. Um, and from a very, ah simplified perspective, it gets more complicated as you get into the higher intervals are into the higher species. So first species, um, has certain rules that get more complicated In second species, those get more complicated and third species that was get more complicated and forth species. Um, so what we're gonna look at primarily is first species counterpoint. Um, well, hopefully we'll dabble a little bit into second and third, But typically, when we learn counterpoint, we focus a lot of time on first species counterpoint, and then we start going into the rules of second and third, so we'll see if we get there in this class. Ah, probably break out a whole separate class on, um, 2nd 3rd species counterpoint shortly. But for the section of the class, I really just want to get us going on for species counterpoint. Because that's to me personally as a composer, uh, kind of the most important, actually, because it it shows you, you know, voice leading. Which we just talked about, um, things you could do with harmony. Ah, and leaps and steps and all these other things that we're gonna talk about shortly in really useful ways. So, um, I like to not get too bogged down with all of the rules of this and that, but, um, first species is a really great way to just kind of dive in. Okay. Ah, One other vocabulary word related to this is the contours, firmness, the contras firmest. Or sometimes we just call it Khan twos is kind of look, uh, let's just call it a teaching tool in counterpoint. What that's going to be is a line that you're not allowed to change. So in an example, um, I'm just going to write a line here. Okay, here's a three bar line. It's kind of weird, but that's OK. So if I was to give you this in some kind of assignment, this will be called the Contras Firm IHS or the con twos. Or sometimes you'll see it just written as C f the letters CNF. That means your job is to harmonize this line without changing it. Um, and make a counterpoint to this line. So what you would dio is you would take the second line and let's start it on a unison. So sidebar. One thing to point out here. This is not set up as a piano staff. I've set this up as to trouble clef staffs. OK, so these are the same. These air, both trouble class. Normally you would see trouble and then bass clef down here. But I've set this up as to trouble Clough staffs so that we can really just see what we're doing. Okay, so I'm gonna start in unison Now, what note am I gonna do next? This is where counterpoint comes into play. I don't want to do a unison. That would be boring. Uh, I would probably go to a B, and I will explain why Later. I'm just going to kind of eyeball this really fast here. Okay, let's do that. It's kind of hard to do this on the fly without, like, thinking really hard. Okay. Okay. I broke a couple rules there, but I made a counterpoint to this first line, the Contras. Firmest. Ah, I added my own line. That largely follows the rules of counterpoint that we're gonna go over in just a minute. Let's hear what I did and see what it sounds like. Okay. Thank hello. Funky at the end. Um, and this wasn't very This little cadence here wasn't very good, but that's OK. We'll talk more about these things in a minute, and I'll talk about that word cadence that I just used shortly as well. Okay, Next, let's move on to and talk about connecting melodic intervals on the kind of first step in learning counterpoint 34. Connecting Melodic Intervals: Okay, The first thing we want to talk about is creating a melodic line. So just a single line for now that is connected using one of three ways. Okay, so each note is connected to its next note using one of three different kinds of things. So those things are a step, a skip or a leap. Okay, So I have here. Ah, a little kind of contras for miss line. And all the notes are connected by a step, a skip or elite night. These three terms should not, like, knock you off your chair anything because every note, no matter what you're doing, is connected by a step. A skip or a leap. Ah, Once I define these for you, you're gonna be like, Oh, how could you write a note? That's not one of those, and you'll be right. Everything is a step of skipper leap. But, um, these are terms that we're gonna be paying attention to and kind of the way we categorize the three types of movement within a melody as were writing a counterpoint to this line. So bear with me for a minute. It'll be more relevant once we add our second line to it. So a step is 1/2 step or a whole step. Okay, so here we have a step between these two notes is a step between these two notes is a step between these two notes is not a step. This would be considered a skip. A skip is a major or minor third, so 1/3 is a skip. So here we have a skip and here we have a skip that's also 1/3 here. We have another step here. We have another step here. We do not have a step and we do not have a skip. This is not 1/3. This is an interval of 1/5. We're gonna call that elite, so anything the fourth or bigger is going to be considered a leap. So a step is a major reminder. Second, a skip is a major, a minor third and a leap is 1/4 or bigger. Anything bigger than 1/4 is a leap, including 1/4. So this is 1/5. So this is a leap. This is down 1/3. So this is a skip. This is down 1/3. This is a skip. This is up a second. So this is a step and this is down a second. So it's a step. Okay, so all of these are step, skips or leap. There's actually only one leap in it, but that's OK. So let's hear. My little Conte's firm is here. Okay, Now, in first species counterpoint for a melody like this, you can Onley have one leap. Only one leap is allowed. You can use it how you want. But Onley, one leap is allowed. Okay, let's look at this new line that I just created here. Okay, so here we have a step here we have Skip. That's 1/3 a step a skip That's 1/3 a step, a step Ah, step another step a skip and then a leap, Right, so that's 1/4. So that's a leap and then a step. So now I have two lines on what I want you to look at right now is just the steps in the leaps. Don't think about the vertical sonority here. Okay, so we have steps and leaves. We have one leap and that's cool. We're going to talk more about the rules. And just second, in fact, let's do that right now. So let's jump over into another video and talk about kind of the specific rules. A quick run down of the first species counterpoint rules. 35. Rules of First Species Counterpoint: rule number one eso We're only talking about melodic intervals here right now. We're gonna talk about harmonic intervals, vertical ones in a minute. So the rules are melodic intervals larger than steps. Must be continent. So, um, if we go a step, it can be one of our quote dissonant intervals. But if we go larger than a step, it has to be a constant interval, which means 1/3 a minor third. Um, that's kind of our only option, really, for a skip, but for a leap, we wouldn't want to leap to a major seventh, for example, that's a dissonant interval. We would want to leap to something like 1/5 or even 1/4 would be okay. Remember, I have a b flat in my key signature over here, so that's 1/4. If I didn't have a B flat, that would be a tri tone, and that would be a no no, that would be a definite no, no, no leaps of ah, um try tone. In fact, that's the next role. Intervals of minor sevenths major sevens. Ah, or try tones are prohibited, so we cannot go up by a tried we cannot leap by a tri tone. We cannot lead by 1/7 major or minor so that those are no nos okay, natural. We want the melody to have a good shape, so that is a very, very, very subjective rule. But what that means is that, well, let's go back here typically. What a good shape means is it's got a contour that we can see. It goes, for example, this one. It goes down and up and down and up. It's got a kind of, ah, rolling wave to it. And then also typically in a good shape. You have kind of one high point. Ah, and it's near the end, but not right at the end. So here's our high point. It's our highest note. It's the bar before the end. That's a good place for it. This is a very subjective thing. We'll talk more about that in the future. Uh, not too many repeated notes. You're supposed to only have at most one repeated note. So, like, you know, repeated no to be like a that if you had three days in a row, that's a no no. We had two days in a row that could be OK, but you couldn't really. You're only supposed to do that once. Another rule is everything should be steps and skips with one leap. At most eso no more than one leap is ideally what we want. And that's what we have in both of these Here we have a leap here and we have a leap here. So you're supposed to begin and end on tonic. Ah, this is, um, first species only kind of a thing, but, um, so we're going to start on enough here because we're in the key of F and we're gonna end on an F in both voices and everything. So both melodies. Well, I mean, we're really just talking about a single melody here so as to begin an end on on the tonic , which in this case, is F on the one the first scale degree. Okay. And then three things to avoid number one if you're in a minor key. If you're doing this in a minor key, you should raise your seventh to the melodic minor. So in the key of a minor, we would have a g sharp. We would raise that to make the strong leading tone, right? So we would use the melodic minor for that to make it, um, to give us that leading tone in a minor key. In a major key, we don't raise anything. And one more thing we want to avoid chromatic half steps. That would be like doing this. So chromatic means we're going out of key. Right? So and you can do that. But this would be a chromatic half step. Something like this. That is a chromatic half step where we go just up by half. Step through a chromatic note. Ah, that is not an appealing sound. And that is not okay. And first pieces counterpoint. Ah, if we want to get from G toe A, we would not want to use a g sharp. In that case, we want to use another note that would work both melodically and harmonically. So we look so we avoid those chromatic half step motions. Okay, so that is kind of the fundamental rules of the melodic writing. Now, let's switch to talking about harmonic writing. Here we go. 36. Connecting Harmonic Intervals: okay up next. We need to talk about connecting harmonic intervals. So harmonic is the vertical interval here. Now, this is what's tricky about counterpoint is that there are rules for the melodic line. There are rules for that. Both lines have to follow and vertical intersections as well. So this becomes like a jigsaw puzzle of making sure the rules work both ways. So I have here a simple two part counterpoint. So two new words for us. Home arrhythmic and polyrhythmic. Uh, this is just talking about the rhythms that we're gonna be working at. What we see here is a home arrhythmic piece meaning there There are two lines right there to melodic lines here on two different states. But there's only one rhythm. They are moving in a unison rhythm, right? Everything is half notes. So a piece that is home arrhythmic means that everything that's happening is moving in the exact same rhythm. The alternative to that would be polyrhythmic. That would be where one line has a different rhythm than the other. Okay, so, poly rhythmic music, you can do counterpoint in poly rhythmic music, and we'll look at that later. Um, but as we learn the rules, we're gonna just be looking at home over the make music for, um, the first little bit here. Ah, because it's just easier to see the intersections of them. Right? Cool. So two new words for you regarding with them. Okay, So here, when we look at something like this, here's how we analyze it. What we're gonna do is we're going to write the names of the intervals between the notes in this case will do it in between the two right in the center. Okay, So I'm just gonna because we're all diatonic here. There's nothing out of key. You don't really need to write. Whether it's a major or minor interval or a perfect interval. All we do have to write is the number here. Um, if there's no major or minor on it, we assume that it's in key. Okay, So typically, when you're doing this kind of analysis, you don't write like if when we get to ah Third, like here, here's the third. Um, let's do that. So what would we call this one? We would really just call it a three, because it's 1/3 and whether or not it's a major or minor third in this kind of analysis doesn't matter. It's a diatonic. Third, that's all we really care about for this kind of ah analysis. So if you encounter anything out of key, you do have to label it, um especially anything. It's augmented or diminished. Now, One of the rule about this, um is that any compound intervals we reduce to less than an active? So if we encounter 1/9 we're gonna write it as a to, um because we're going to get rid of the act octave. We're going to reduce it to the smaller interval that uses the same notes. And this is just how we and now analyze counterpoint. Typically, right. So this is what you're gonna encounter in your theory books. So let's keep going. Let's keep analyzing this case. So what do we have here? We have an A in an f. What is that? Interval. That's 1/6. We're gonna right a six there and a C in an E is 1/3 and a D and an F is 1/3 and A C and A G is 1/5 and an F in an A. This one is actually a compound interval, right? There's an octave in between here, but we're just going to write it as 1/3 because that's the rules for this kind of analysis . Here we have a G at slide over A G and A G. So there is an octave in between here for this one. We are going to write eight for Active because we want to separate actives in unison. So let's just write eight for active here. We have a G and E that's gonna be 1/6 and ah, b and a D that's 1/3 and we're back to a unison. So for unison, we usually just ready you, not a one. I don't know why. That's just the way the rules work. Okay, so here is our interval analysis. Are harmonic analysis so far? Okay, so that's step one. What we need to do next is learn how to write the counterpoint. If this top line is our contours firmas, what are the rules governing the direction that each note? Congar? Oh, right. What we know is we don't have any dissonant intervals here. That's what we've just learned, right? We have six is 3rd 5th and octaves. Nothing we don't. We don't have any fourths, Remember, Fourth can be allowed in the right context, but they're kind of the weird one. But we don't have any seconds. We don't have any seventh. None of our dissonant intervals have shown up here, so this is good. Um So next let's talk about Contra Pontell motion. Right. But, hey, first, let's hear this because I haven't let you hear it yet, and that's not fair. Okay, Before we hear this, let's point out one major error that I made and anyone notice it. Um, this is actually kind of humiliating error, because I can't believe I just did that. Um, so through the magic of editing, you didn't see me fix my air and correct it. But you know what? I'm just going to own it. And, um, admit it because, you know, everyone makes mistakes. What I did is when I set up my two staves here, I made to trouble class staves. And then I entered all the notes that I wanted in bass clef. So ah, how these notes were wrong. They looked right. But I had the wrong clef here. So What I did is I switch this to a base class and then I got the notes back to where they were so that it would be correct. So what I should have done from the get go was just put a bass clef here. Because normally when we see these things, we see them as bass clef in trouble. Cliff, I was going to do it as to trouble cuff things. And then I forgot what I was doing. So basically I entered all the notes in the wrong clef. It happens, so I'm going to edit out my discovering and correcting of that. But I thought, You know what? I'll just own it and admit to you that sometimes we make mistakes with cliffs, it happens. So now we are in bass clef were in the correct clefts. Ah, let's hear it 37. Types of Contrapuntal Motion: Okay. Next, we need to talk about motion, in particular. Contrary motion. This is another very crucial step of, uh, counterpoint. So there are four kinds of motion. So here's what we're gonna do we're gonna look at Let's take this top line. We're gonna assume that's the Contras firmest here. And the line we've written is the bottom line. Okay, so let's look at each of these intervals that we've added, um, as the counterpoint to the Contras for miss and analyze them by the four kinds of motion. So this 1st 1 that happens here is the most common type of motion between notes, and that is just simply called contrary motion. We label that with a C in between the two notes. So this is in between the two right on the bar. So let's put it right there. Contrary motion means one voice moves up and the other voice moves down. That's all. Now contrary motion is the most common and the most preferred. It is the best sounding one. It is the kind of motion that makes the whole thing sound the most unified. And this is something that I'd like to point out really quick that even though yes, we're talking about counterpoint. We're talking about a very specific kind of music of, you know, this kind of home, a phonic. Ah, simple harmony kind of music. But if even if you're writing a pop song, contrary motion sounds good. So this is something that you can think about in any kind of music, your writing that if you have the opportunity to do contrary motion, it's going to sound pretty good now, knowing that the result of the country emotion has to result in accord or harmony that we want. In this case, it it adds 1/3. So that's OK so we can do it. You can't always get away with contrary motion, which is why we have three other kinds of motion. But the preferred is contrary motion. So let's look at what our next one is. Our next one is also contrary motion. This one goes down, this one goes up. The country's firmest goes up by a skip because it's 1/3 and we go down by a second. But that's OK. Still contrary motion. So let's put a C in between those two to show that they are also contrary motion. Okay, let's go to the next note and look at this. Were also contrary motion. We've switched directions. Where? Here. We're going down by a step. And here we're going up by a skip. But that's okay. This is still contrary motion. This one's going down. This one's going up. That's another example of contrary motion. Okay, now let's go into the next one. Who interesting here. Not contrary motion. This one's going up and this one's going up. So that brings us to another type of motion. This one is called parallel emotion. Now this has this is allowed, but it has some additional rules behind it. Peril Emotion means we are going in the same direction, both going up here by the same interval. So we're going up a second and up a second. This one's going up a minor second. This one's going up a major second, but I would still call that parallel motion. It's essentially Ah, third going to another third, right? So that is parallel motion. We label that with a P and one ah additional rule about that one is that it is allowed on Lee between imperfecta, confidences and not between perfect continents is so we conduce do a parallel motion with thirds because that's an in perfect continents weaken do and by in perfect I mean, just not perfect, right? Weaken dio parallel motion with sixes. We can not do parallel motion with fifths, right? If these were both 5th 1/5 going to another fifth in the same direction. We've got problems. That is bad, Bad, bad, so we can do parallel motion. But on Lee between in perfect continents is thirds and six is right. Okay, let's look at our next one. Nice. Contrary motion there. Look at it again. We have another contrary motion example throwing up by a step down by a leap. But that's okay, slide over. So contrary motion gets us to Here. Here we have more contrary motion. Okay, now we have something a little different. We kind of have no motion, right, cause this one stays the same and this one goes down. So it's not contrary motion because this one would have to go up for it to be contrary motion. It stays still. We call this oblique motion. So this is another one. So this is allowed so bleak motion means one part is not moving. It's either repeating the note or sustaining the note, and another part is moving by. Step, skip or leap. All three are okay in this case. Now, the one thing about oblique motion is that it's allowed, but it's not great, so it should be avoided. But it can be done. So we're gonna call this OK, It's allowed, but ah, it's it's ah, kind of naughty. But that's okay. In other words, you should avoid oblique motion if you can, but if you can't, it's OK. It's still gonna sound okay, what we have next up and down, we have another contrary motion. And last we're going up to a unison and down to a unison. So that's another contrary motion. Okay, so we've hit three of the four in this little counterpoint. We've hit contrary motion. Lot of contrary motion. We've hit parallel motion and we've hit oblique motion. The one weeks haven't found in. This is called similar motion, and that's where things move. Let me just try to make one really quick here, so no. Okay. Here's a case of similar motion. We have the same direction of motion, but at a different interval. So this one is up by a leap, and this one is up by a skip. Okay, so this is up by 1/3. This one's up by 1/5. Um, that's called similar motion. Ah, it's allowed as long as you don't land on a perfect fifth here. So we have B and G. So we didn't land on 1/5. If we landed on 1/5 it's also allowed. It's just that they want you to approach it. That upper voice needs to be by step, so if it lands on 1/5 you need to be sure the upper voices a step either up or down. And if it's down, this one would need to be down. Aziz well, like something like that. So there are special rules regarding landing on perfect intervals, but that's similar motion. Basically, it's moving in in the same direction, but by different intervals. So of the four contrary motion counts for most situations because any time you're moving in opposite directions, it's contrary motion. If you're moving in the same direction, it's either parallel motion, similar motion or oblique motion, and just to review those really quick. Parallel motion means you're moving in the same direction and going from the same interval to the same interval. Right? So from 1/3 to 1/3 everything's moving up by 1/3. Ah, similar motion means you're moving in the same direction, but at different intervals. And oblique motion means that one voice is not moving and the other one is moving. Okay, so those are our four types of motion that we can have, and this is kind of how we label them like this. So you'll see that I put the type of motion labeled down here in between the two intervals . And obviously there's not one at the very beginning because this is not motion. It's got to go between two notes for there to be motion. Okay, up next. Let's talk a little bit more about this perfect interval business and what result in landing on perfect intervals 38. Parallel Fifths and Octaves: Okay, let's talk about bad things. Bad things are parallel, fifths and parallel octaves. Now one of the most common things people do wrong. In first species. Counterpoint is right parallel octaves in parallel fifths. So you gotta keep an eye out for him, and there's a couple different ways you can do it. So let me just walk through a couple things that are just wrong. First of all, parallel octaves, Let's say Let's say our countess firma says that and you write this and that's big. No, no, because these are octaves, right. There's actually two octaves here because there's a note in between. Um, there's an active in between. But remember, we reduce it, and we would just call this an active and we would call that an active. So the number we would put here is eight. And then we would put here is eight and that's parallel octaves. That's a major No, no, we don't like that. It just sounds very crude to do it. I don't know what it is. It's It's well, for one. It's a rule of this kind of counterpoint, so that's why we don't do it. But number two is it does have, like a really kind of flattening sound. It doesn't it really. Everything kind of Hollows out if you do that. Okay, Next thing. Let's look at parallel fifths, right? So if I was to write, if the country's firmness was to say that and you wrote that, so we have an efficacy that's 1/5. So we'd write a five here, and this is a G and A D. So we'd write a five here and we would have parallel octaves. Major. No, no, we don't like our Sorry parallel fifths. Still a major. No, no, we don't like parallel fits. Now there's a couple other ways. Uh, we can create these parallel octaves and fifths. You actually can end up with parallel octaves and parallel fifths by using contrary motion . It's a little goofy, but you it can happen, so you kind of need to keep an eye out for it. If you're trying to really strictly obey the rules, let's do something like that. And then let's do something like this. Okay, so let's look at that closely. What do we have here? And a in an A. So that's in that would get an eight here. That's an octave a d in a. D. So that would also get in eight. That's parallel octaves. It's parallel octaves, by contrary motion is what we would call it. But it's still that, um, two eights would show up here, and that is, uh, no good. So kind of a hidden parallel octaves. We knew the same thing with fifths in ways that we don't like to do. So let's say we had something like this in the country's firmness, and we harmonized it by going like that. Okay, here we have a D in an A. That's 1/5. Here we have a G and A D. That's 1/5. So we're using contrary motion here because we're going in opposite directions. But we ended up on a perfect or on a parallel fifth, no good, right? We don't like we don't like those, it's looking a couple other things we can do that are bad. There's a thing called a hidden, active, hidden parallels. Let's make some. So let's say our country's firm has had something like this, something like that, and we harmonized it this way. Okay, what did we do wrong here? Okay, this is a confusing one. This is called a hidden active, because this is gonna blow your mind in this leap right between these two notes. So we're all stepwise down here, so that's fine. But this one has a leap. And in that leap, there's an implication that we skipped over two notes. The missing two notes here are being see because we leapt over being see. But there's still kind of a sea there. The idea is that because you leaped over them doesn't mean that they don't exist. That's why they're hidden. This is a weird concept, but it exists. So if this is the case, if those notes were actually there, we have a parallel active between here and here, right? That's called a hidden active. So you have to watch out for leaps going into octaves because you can imply with a hidden note that there's a parallel active. Okay, so just watch out for leaps going into octaves by the same direction of movement. Here's one more example where we have a hidden fifth, right, So here we have 1/6 here we have 1/5 so we land on 1/5 year. So we land on 1/5 year, but what's the missing note? The missing note between this skip is an E and A T E is 1/5 and that would result in a perfect or a parallel fit. So that's a no no to those hitting ones are really hard to see, and they're hard to get used to. But just know that they exist. Keep an eye out for him. Ah, we'll see more of them once we start writing with for species counterpoint, which we're gonna do shortly. So up next, another worksheet for you and then we'll talk about writing, uh, some stuff in for a species counterpoint. 39. The Beginning and the End: Okay. What we're gonna do now is we are going Teoh, harmonize note by note to this country's firmest Um and we're gonna break it up into two different kinds of things. In this first video, we're gonna talk about the beginning in the end, special rules that applied to the beginning. In the end, particularly the end, and then the next video, we're going to go all the way through it and develop a counterpoint for the rest of it. So sometimes when we look at a Conte's firmest, what the easiest thing to do is to start with ah, not the beginning and go all the way through, but to kind of find the target of the end and kind of know where you have to end that way. As you write all the notes going through here, you'll be able to create nice voice leading getting to the end, and you won't have to do a big weird jumped to get to the end because you already know the notes that come at the end. So let's talk about the end really quick here. So in first species counterpoint, we want to end on in unison. So that note has to be that because thes air in unison, okay, Have a basic love here. I made double sure of that this time. Now, the second to last note, we can kind of figure that out, too. We sort of have some options here, but not a lot of options. So we can pretty much come to a pretty good ah solution for the second to last night as well. The second to last. No, we definitely want to Ah, use contrary motion on between the last note and the second to last note who want these have contrary motion. So our continous for Mrs going up. So we want this to go down. So my second to last note has to be higher than a C. So anything higher than a seat. So that's one thing that we want. Another thing we want is it to have a nice resolution. Now, let's think about our harmony here. So if we call this a one court right, which yes, you're right, it's kind of unfair to call it a one chord because it's just a single note. But what's going to be implied is tonic there. Um, so what we want to do just before tonic is do something that leads very nicely into tonic. So Ah, we have to think about harmony a little bit again. So we haven't talked about harmony in a little while. Ah, but what? What? What is Accord that goes right before tonic to make it just really feel like tonic. What's our our second to last chord? In a lot of cases, it's a five, right? So we want a five to go toe one all the time. So if I can get a five here, it would be great. Now, just looking at the Contras Firmest line, we have a leading tone going up to tonic. That is great. We love that. So what can we do up here? Well, what are the notes of my five chord? Okay, so we're four in the key of C Ah, see, Major Zehr one chord are five Chord is going to be a major and it's gonna be a G major. Okay, so the notes in G Major, let me just write him out Just way over here somewhere. TBD Those were the notes. It's not think about seventh for now. Those are the notes, so I'm only gonna have two of those notes here, so B is already one of them, and it's in my five chord. So if I could add another note that helped reinforce this as a five chord, it would be good. So if I put a G that I'm gonna have a leap down. Ah, and that could be okay. That could work. That could be my leap. Um, but I could also use a d. De is a nice step down while this is a step up so d could work really well, right there. So now I'm calling this kind of a G chord a five chord, right? And it's got nog in it. It's gotta be in a D. And that sometimes happens when you're doing a two part counterpoint like this. Um, sometimes you're making cords that well, always. You're making cords that don't have all three notes, but you have to decide which notes to leave out. You know, sometimes there's just kind of a ah hierarchy of what notes Ah are OK to leave out. And typically, if we're doing a triad and we have to leave out a note the best note to leave out is the fifth. Now, that's not what we've done here. We've used the fifth and we left out the route. But I think it will be okay. If that doesn't work, we could try it as using the route. But sometimes the route is okay. The one you don't want to leave out is the third right, because the third tells us if it's a major, my record. So this third is important. The third is also a leading tone back into tonic. So we really want that third in there. So let's try to stick on this d for now and see if that works. Let's get rid of our five chord. So here we have a 51 kind of implied cord. Now what needs to happen at the beginning? Well, we ought to start it on a unison and that's it. So that gets us off and running. We've got three of our notes down, right? So now we just have to fill in the other ones by using our rules of counterpoint. Okay, so let's jump to a new video and walk through. Ah, creating your counterpoint for this 40. The Middle: Okay, let's fill in all the rest of our notes. Now, let's simplify all the rules that we've learned down to just a few that will keep in mind while we work this. Because if you think about all the rules all the time, we're just gonna get bogged down. So the way I like to do this is just to keep a couple things in mind. And then after I finish it, I'll go back and make sure I haven't broken anything else. Weird. Um, so the things I'm gonna keep in mind is that number one I like contrary motion. I want to do contrary motion as much as possible. Number two. I don't need to think about harmony all that much as long as I stay in key. And I don't use any seconds or sevenths those air, the dissonances that we don't like. Ah, in this kind of counterpoint. So I'm going to stay away from seconds and seventh, otherwise something. I stay in key. I should be pretty good. And number three, we gotta watch out for those parallel fifths and octaves. We don't want to do that. And, you know, in general and this isn't a rule per se. This will just keep you out of trouble. Is just in general avoiding octaves or you Nissen's on anything other than the beginning. In the end, the very first and very last note octaves just don't sound all that great for this. So if you avoid them, you will also avoid parallel octaves. So let's work through it and see what we can find. Okay, so I started off on the unison. Now, what's my next don't? The first thing I want to try to do is use contrary emotions. I want to try to go up. So what would happen if I did a D here? Um, my interval would be 1/3 and that would be just fine. All right, let's do it and check it out. This harmony same is that one. Um, so we're already creating kind of a mirror, which is nice. That's a nice sound. That's not a rule or anything, but it's a it's nice. Okay, this one's going down. So my default is to try to go up to try to make contrary motion. If I can. What happens if I go to E I go to e m middle in on 1/5 and a t e. That could be okay, but ah, I don't love the sound of 1/5 for the same reason. I just said, I don't love the sound of an active Let's see if we can avoid it, We could do, Ah, skip here instead of a step, we could do a skip up, and that puts us on a six. Ah, which is still contrary motion. 1/6 is good. We like sixes, so let's try that. Okay, now, down here, we have a skip going up. So we want to go down on now. Check it out. Now I can go down by step, and I landed on 1/3. So by So let me go back here and see. What if I did that? Okay, so what if I just did a step here? I have contrary motion here, and I've landed on 1/5. Possibly. Okay, but let's see what would happen if I went up again and did this here. I'd lend on 1/4 and I'd be in this would be similar motion because this one is going up by a step or sorry, This one is going up by a skip, and this one's going up by a step. So it's similar motion. I'm going from 1/5 to 1/4 which is not good. Um, that's not exactly a parallel, but if we inverted this, it would be a parallel fifth, so that could get us into some trouble. So a much smoother sound is going to be to do that because now we have 1/6 and 1/3. They have 1/6 year, 1/3. Here we have parallel Muara contrary motion all the way through these 1st 4 notes. So that's a much better approach is to flip these two notes. Okay, now, here we go. See down T E. What can hurt? Sorry. See down to a What can we do here? Let's try to go up. So what would happen if I went up to an F just up a step? I always kind of start with thinking like, Okay, can I go up a step or down a step depending on what makes contrary motion thinking if I can and it's gonna work, that's gonna probably be the best sounding thing as long as it doesn't create any parallels or anything like that. So here. I think it works. That creates 1/6 8 F, and that's just fine. Okay, what about here? We go down a step. We could go up a step that results in an active I could be okay, because I have such a nice line here that's going down. This going up, I could survive on that. Active. I'm gonna leave it for now. Now, inactive by itself doesn't break any rules. I just don't love the sound of him, but it doesn't break any rules. So let's keep going. And as long as we don't have a parallel active here, then we're in. Okay. Shape. Okay, so the next note if I went down to an F here, what have we got? Big parallel octaves between those two notes. G t f g two f. Not good. So this note cannot be enough. We know that after is totally out of the picture. So can we step up to an A? Does that work? That makes the interval of 1/10 which we could reduce the calling it 1/3 which is good and active to 1/3. So that active kind of opens up. It's like, um, we have this active, but it goes up and down and contrary motion. So it's an active that opens out to 1/3 which isn't generally a nice sound. So we'll keep that for now and see if that gets is in any trouble later. I don't think it will, though. I think we're good. So I think we can survive with this. Actives is active. Okay, Now we're going down to an E. So the most logical thing to do would be to go up to ah, be. What does that do for me that makes 1/5? I don't love, but it might be OK. Amount of fifth here, make me a little nervous, but let's hold on to it for now. But now I've got a problem because check this out. I gotta go all from this Be all the way down to the D. In one move here, I could do to I could do a leap in a skip to do it, but that's a long distance to travel, and I'm not. No matter what I note I put here, it's not gonna be smooth. Voice leading between something. So what I ought to do is take a step backwards, see if I can get this note a little bit lower so that I can have a smoother voice leading line that gets me down to this. D. This is why putting this note here earlier was nice, because I can kind of see where I need to end up. So id rather, this note was a little bit lower. So what I could do? It's go down to a G here. That makes another interval of 1/10 here. So third, So we have 2/3 back to back. That's totally okay. Parallel thirds are allowed now. I do have I don't have contrary motion here. I do have parallel motion, but it's okay. I didn't break any rules, remember? Ah, you can have not contrary motion. Are those four types of motion, right? So this is a parallel emotion because it's 1/3 going to 1/3 or a tense going to attempt. But we think of it as 1/3 going to 1/3 but parallel motion and thirds is okay. And I would say as long as it's kind of rare. So this is the first note we've had for the first interval we've had. That is not contrary motion. So I think we're in totally fine shape with it. Um, we've just done it once. Um, so I can be pretty content with that. Let's look at our next note and see if that solves. This problem. Makes that gap a lot smaller. So do we have here? We have a G. So could I go stepwise down to an F? No. Why not? That's because of the interval it made it made one of our forbidden intervals. G to enough is a seven. Can't have sevens. Remember, we don't like seventh or seconds so that f isn't gonna work. What if I did a skip here? I went down to an e g to any That's a six. That's okay. It's contrary motion. That's actually that's quite great, because that makes contrary motion down and it makes it our interval of sixth. So everything is good here and check out what it did for our next chord. I made a step down to the next note. In contrary motion, everything is happy. So I think that solved it for us. Okay, so Let's hear it. A You okay? Not bad. I think that's pretty good, actually, Um, that active didn't bother me a smudge as I thought it was going to. So I think we can leave that active in. And I'm pretty content with this arrangement. So there you go. That's the process. That's how I would walk through any piece. You know, I would default to trying to go buy a step in contrary motion. If that doesn't work, I would try to go by a skip in contrary motion. That doesn't work. Then start thinking about your other options, you know, maybe doing similar emotion. Um, even that Ah, bleak motion. Which we haven't used here or similar motion we didn't use. We only use contrary motion and parallel motion. Okay. Um, I had a couple more videos on this topic. Ah, up next. Let me talk to you quick about, ah, book that I love of these called the Riemenschneider. Ah, in the next video 41. Riemenschneider: Okay. There's this book that exists called Ah, the Riemenschneider. We we just call it the Raymond Schneider. Um, for short. This is a book of 371 Bach corrals, um, corrals that Bach wrote. So what a corral is in this sense is he had a melody and he harmonized it. 371 different ones. This book is an awesome way to study this stuff and to practice it. Eso if you're If you're itching for a way to practice, what you can do is you get this book and you can just start going through it, label the intervals, label the kind of motion and label the harmony. Now, most of these are four part, and we've only been looking at two part, so they're gonna look like this, and that's OK for you, for now, Um, what you can do, if you want to, is you can just look at two lines at a time. And when you do that, you're gonna find rules that have been broken because the rules for four part, um are a little bit different, but we'll talk about those in the future. But I just wanted to make you aware of this book because ah, it's great for practicing. And it's great for just playing through. It's just really beautiful music, all of it. All of it is really beautiful music. So just look at two lines just picked to any to and say, Okay, what do we have here here? Right away. We have two of the same note, and then he cheats a note in between. Ah, and that counts that counts is motion. So then we look at what kind of motion what harmony is created and go through here. Um, story goes that you can find something like four parallel octaves in this book of 371 corrals. Um, that's not very many. So I love this book. This is a book that sits open on my piano 24 7 I always have this out. Um, just so that if I have two minutes, I can just some my way through one of these corrals. I mean, they're really short. Look, this is one from here to here. It's two lines. That's a corral. This is another one. Um, this is another one. You know, they go on or not. I'm on for a really long time. Eso you got this melody here? You can think of that as the country's from us and then his harmony. One thing to watch out for in a case like this is the cliffs. You've got some, uh, cliffs. We haven't really worked with much here, but this piece of sheet music we're looking at Ah, this is actually not from the Riemann style. Schneider. This is just example of corrals. This is actually not even the bok that we love. This is one of his kids. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. The actual Johann Sebastian Bach. Riemenschneider. Um, this book, this is the exact ah, addition I have. And it's actually all four corrals are laid out on a piano. So you it would look like this. Except you would see two notes per stave, something like that, and maybe that. So you would see two notes per staff. And, um, that's how it would look so that you don't worry about the cliffs. So if you're looking for a way to practice, grab this book. Looks like it's only 10 bucks. Ah, in paperback, which is what you need. Um, well, somewhere you need, but I have it in paperback. It's fine. So a great way to practice just thought I point that out. 42. All The Rules: Okay. Lets go through our list of rules for first species counterpoint. One more time. I'm just going to kind of wrap them all up here for us, okay? And yes, I'm reading this. So I'm not just doing this off top my head. I am reading the rules. Um, I know I like to give the impression that I'm always just kind of shooting from the hip and just talking. Ah, but, um, I am going to read through the rules. Okay? So there's a whole bunch of rules here, and I'm gonna read them, and then we'll maybe chat about each one as I go. Okay. Number one for the opening harmonic interval. Um, right and active Or unison. Or 1/5? The latter? Only with the contest in a lower voice. So what they're saying here, I guess that's something we didn't really talk about. Is that this is that this first interval could be 1/5. Okay. Okay. So this opening interval can be 1/5 as long as the tonic is in the lower voice. Still. Ah, you wouldn't do this opposite of this so that the G was in the base. That would be a No, No. But you could open with 1/5 if the tonic is in the bottom. Voice the lower voice, I should say, uh, let's go back. Okay. Okay. Number two for the closing Harmonic interval. Right. A 68 or three. You 10 8 So what they're saying here is on the closing harmonic interval make this either an interval of 1/6. And then at eight, so 1/6 and that inactive or alternatively, 1/3. And then a unison, which is what we have here. So we have 1/3 between these two notes and then down to a unison. So they want that third to kind of collapse inward to a unison. Or you could do a six opening out to inactive, Uh, in minor is still part of rule number two in minor. Raised the flat seven and raise the flat. Six. If it proceeds the flat seven to avoid an augmented second. But don't use razed six if it creates across relation. Okay, let me explain that one. So they're saying is if we're in a minor key, you're gonna have Ah, The flat seven is always in the minor key. They want you to raise that so that it's a leading tone. For example, if we were in a minor key here, this would be b flat if we were in C Minor. And so what they're saying is they want this to be a leading tone, and it's not if we do that, so they want you to raise it. If you're in a minor key, also from in a minor key and let's say we had in a here, this would be a flat, right? So let's assume we're in. Ah, see minor for these last three notes here. These last three chords, I should say What they're saying is raise the leading tone so we would do that. That makes an augmented second right here. Between these two right? A flat to be is would be and harmonically would be a minor third right, But we have it written as a second A to B, and the flat makes in an augmented second. We don't like those. So what they're saying is, if an Augmon and second happens, raise that a also in a minor key so that you avoid the augmented second. That's what they're saying. There so that's rule number two. Rule number three, right? Mostly contrary motion between the parts. I think we've covered that one sufficiently. Always use contrary motion if you can. But there are other things you can do sometimes as well. Number four Avoid parallel octaves or fifths by parallel or contrary motion. So avoid Parallax. Isn't this we talked about that one? Number five approach perfect intervals by contrary motion or in similar motion, The stepwise upward voice. Okay, so here's a perfect interval. They're saying is if you're gonna do a perfect interval, 1/5 or inactive approach it with contrary motion like we've done here. Okay, so we open out and we get there. That helps it work. Or you could do similar motion if one of them is going by a step. In other words, something like this might work between these two notes. It's similar motion, meaning they're moving in the same direction, but by two different intervals. But one of them is going by a step so that can help it to work. Okay. All right. The next one don't write more than three parallel imperfecta continents is in a row, so ah, in perfect continents is our, like, three's thirds and sixes. So don't write more than three of those in a row. That means, like, 3/3 in a row or three sixes in a row. I think you could go back and forth between thirds and sixes and get upto, you know, for if you have to um, just kind of what we've done here in our piece. But, um, in general, we avoid that. We need something different, and third and six is all the time. Okay. Next one include a mix of perfect and in perfect confidences with more imperfecta confidences than perfect. Okay, so what they're saying is, do do some perfect confidences, octaves and fits in unison. But ah, do mostly in perfect continents is like thirds and sixes. So another kind of arbitrary rule they're saying, Do some of those, but not too many do some perfect constitutive. But don't go nuts is kind of my translation of that. Okay, up next, avoid dissonant harmonic intervals, including perfect fourths and accidental other than at the cadence. So the cadence it is, I think a term we haven't really talked about the cadence. It means the end are the approach to the end more accurately. So the cadence is from here to here. Okay, so the 51 that's kind of happening here. What they're saying is avoid accidental is don't do anything out of key unless you have to . To get the best kids right? That would be a case of like raising this if we were in a minor key. Ah, next one. Avoid dissident melodic intervals. Um, Examples. Leaps of a minor seventh major. Seventh Diminished fifth augmented fourth or augmented second in minor, so don't use those intervals next. One right leaps sparingly. Approach and leave by stepping. Contrary motion of possible and set with a step in the other part, preferably in contrary motion. To leap. Don't set a leap in one voice against a leap in the other, so use leaps sparingly. Um, we don't like to see more than one leap per part in a piece like this. Next one. Give you a melodic line. An interesting contour should not be static. Repeating notes are circling around. One note. Keep the rangers of the lines distinct. Don't overlap or cross voices, so across voice would be something like That's a crossed voice or this note in the upper voice is actually lower. Thin this note. Right, cause this note, if I put it on this staff, would be this be underneath this note across voice. We don't like that. Um, there are other things called voice crossing that we'll talk more about later. And the other thing they're saying here is melodic line. Interesting, counselor. So don't circle around one note too much. So if, like, this e, we wouldn't want to go above the E and then below the e, then back to the e and just hover around the kind of want to move around and not give too much emphasis to a particular note for too long. Okay, Last one. Aim for primarily stepwise motion with no more than two melodic skips or leaps in a row. So we like stepwise motion. Don't do more than two skips or leaps in a row. Pretty easy one. Okay, so that's a summary of our main rules of first, um, species counterpoint. And that is where we're gonna leave it. So you know the rules of verse species counterpoint. Now, what's gonna come next is I'm gonna give you a worksheet toe work on. And then, um, that's it for this class, actually. So please practice this. It takes a lot of practice. Um, get that revenge. Steiner book. That's a good way to practice and have some fun with it. Okay, But I do have a hand for full more. I do have a couple more videos for you on this topic before the end, so stick around. We're not done yet. 43. What Next?: Okay, we have reached the end of my giant mega music theory class, part four. But it is not the end of music theory. I hope you having fun, I hope. I hope this is really interesting to you. Um and I hope you want to keep going because there is so, so, so much more. Um, I'm gonna keep making these as long as people keep watching him. So coming up next, I think what we're gonna be doing in the next class is going a little bit deeper in the counterpoint. Ah, working on our 2nd 3rd and fourth species of counterpoint, which gets us to actually making, like, four part harmonies and making music. Um, right now, what we're kind of making with these two part whole note things is more of like a theory practice, right? Once we get into even second species, counterpoint is when we start to get into, like, actually making music beautiful and powerful, like musical statements with this stuff. So that's going to be coming soon. Were also I think in the next time gonna be here in the next class, gonna be talking about delving war, Indo harmony, and Thomas ization. And Thomas Ionization is kind of a fancy way of saying modulation and changing keys. How can we get from one key to another key? So doing key change in a piece of music. Important stuff. Eso please stick with me. I hope ah, that you're getting something out of this. I I love reading the comments and seeing people that are like telling me that they've tried to do music theory before, but they never quite latched onto it, but they're really getting it from my classes, which is awesome to me that totally, like, helps me sleep at night. So thanks a bunch for hanging out. Um, one more video and then ah, we're done. 44. Thats it! (For now...): Okay, that's the end. That's Ah, officially the end. I know I said that in the last video, but I wanted to get that in. And then I wanted to take this one last video just to say thanks again and by so please check out some of my other courses. I hope you had fun. Um, leave some comments, leave a review if you had a good time and, um yeah, keep on. Keep on learning. Ah, you're you're If you've made it this far, you're in my fourth class. You're doing awesome. We are getting close, I think, to being done with what would be the first semester of college. Ah, theory. So after the next one, I think we'll pass it. Pass what would be included in the syllabus for the first semester of college theory? So, yeah, it's a lot of work. Um, I hope you have a fun and please check out more of my classes. I put a lot of work into him, and I really love doing it. Thanks a bunch. And we'll see you in music theory. Five 45. SkillshareFinalLectureV2: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.