Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 3 - Minor Keys and More | J. Anthony Allen | Skillshare

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Music Theory Comprehensive: Part 3 - Minor Keys and More

teacher avatar J. Anthony Allen, Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor

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Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Watch this class and thousands more

Get unlimited access to every class
Taught by industry leaders & working professionals
Topics include illustration, design, photography, and more

Lessons in This Class

    • 1.

      1 Part3 WelcomeOverview


    • 2.

      2 ToolsWeWillNeed


    • 3.

      4 KeySignaturesReview


    • 4.

      5 DiatonicChordProgressionReview


    • 5.

      6 TendencyChordsReview


    • 6.

      7 CircleOfFifthsOverview


    • 7.

      8 BorrowingFromRelatedKeys


    • 8.

      9 SongExample


    • 9.

      10 ScaleDegreeNamesOverview


    • 10.

      11 ScaleDegreeNames


    • 11.

      12 TendencyTones


    • 12.

      14 CompoundMeterDefinition


    • 13.

      15 CompoundMeterSignatures


    • 14.

      16 AnotherPerspective


    • 15.

      17 Example


    • 16.

      19 TripletsOverview


    • 17.

      20 Triplets


    • 18.

      21 OtherTuplets


    • 19.

      22 minorScaleOverview


    • 20.

      23 AlterationstoMinor


    • 21.

      24 WholeHalfPattern


    • 22.

      25 Relatives


    • 23.

      26 Parallel


    • 24.

      27 MacphailVideoIntro


    • 25.

      28 Music Theory Tutorial (3 of 5) Natural Minor Scale


    • 26.

      29 Music Theory Tutorial (5 of 5) Key Signatures and Scales


    • 27.

      31 NewWrinklesInCircleofFifths


    • 28.

      32 NewDiagrams


    • 29.

      33 MoreCloselyRelatedKeys


    • 30.

      34 DiatonicChordProgressionReiew


    • 31.

      35 ThePattern


    • 32.

      36 DCPwithRelatives


    • 33.

      37 TheVChordAndLeadingTones


    • 34.

      39 threeTypesofMinor


    • 35.

      40 HarmonicMinor


    • 36.

      41 MelodicMinor


    • 37.

      42 GreensleevesExample2


    • 38.

      43 Music Theory Tutorial (4 of 5) Harmonic and Melodic Minor Scales


    • 39.

      45 AnalysisOverview


    • 40.

      47 GreensleevesAnalysis


    • 41.

      50 TheScientist


    • 42.

      52 WhatNext


    • 43.

      53 ThanksBye


    • 44.



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About This Class

For years I've been teaching Music Theory in the college classroom. These classes I'm making for Skillshare use the same syllabus I've used in my college classes for years, at a fraction of the cost. I believe anyone can learn Music Theory - and cost shouldn't be a barrier.

Recently I was named as a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year award because of my in-person university classes. Now I'm taking those classes to Skillshare in an online format in order to reach more students and give them the joy of Music Theory.

My approach to music theory is to minimize memorization. Most of these concepts you can learn by just understanding why chords behave in certain ways. Once you understand those concepts, you can find any scale, key, or chord that exists. Even invent your own.

This class is a Comprehensive class - it will have many parts, going through my entire annual curriculum.

This class is Part 3: Minor Keys, The Circle of Fifths, and Compound Meters.

Throughout this class, I'll be providing you with many worksheets for you to practice the concepts on. If you get stuck, you can review the videos or post a question, and I'll back to it as fast as possible. Also in this class, I have several complete analysis projects that we will complete together - just like in my college classes.

In this class, we will cover:

  • My approach to Music Theory
  • Tools you will need to learn Music Theory quickly and efficiently
  • Key Signatures
  • Diatonic Chord Progressions
  • Tendency Chords
  • Using the Circle of Fifths for Songwriting and Composition
  • Borrowing from Closely Related Keys
  • Scale Degree Names
  • Tendency Tones
  • Compound Meters
  • Compound Meter Signatures
  • Reading and Writing Compound Meters
  • Triplets, duplets, and Quadruplets
  • Finding Minor keys by alternations to Major
  • Patterns in Minor keys
  • Relative Minor keys
  • Parallel Minor keys
  • Minor keys in the Circle of Fifths
  • Using Minor Keys for Songwriting and Composition
  • Diatonic Chord Progressions in Minor
  • The V Chord and Minor and the Leading Tone Problem
  • Harmonic Minor Scales
  • Melodic Minor Scales
  • ...and much, much more!

You will not have another opportunity to learn Music Theory in a more comprehensive way than this. Start here.

Dr. Jason Allen is an Ableton Certified Trainer and a Ph.D. in Music Composition and master of Electronic Sounds. His music has been heard internationally in film, radio, video games, and industrial sound, as well as the concert hall and theater. His 2015 album, Aniscorcia, reaching the CMJ Top200 Charts and radio broadcasts nationwide. In 2014 he was named a semi-finalist for the Grammy Music Educator Award.

He currently is a professor at Augsburg University and the CEO of Slam Academy in Minneapolis.

Praise for classes by Dr. Jason Allen:

  • "Without a doubt the best explanation and east of use that one can get. It leaves you enough room to go explore. The classes go by quickly, so you can be on your way to being proficient. What are you waiting for!"

  • "Amazing - Seriously Loved It! I took all his courses and have to say I'm so happy! Learned loads! Jason is an awesome teacher!"

  • "I have never had any formal training in music at all. Trying to learn all the notes and how everything translated was a serious challenge. After going through this class, Dr. J has totally brought down the barriers. The content was very useful and was easy to grasp for me."

  • "I like these courses because you can get up and running quickly without having to spend hours of time wading through TMI (too much information!). Jason hits the high points but shows you what you need to know. Thanks!"

  • "I've watched many other videos on scales and chords before, however, this one has been the best. I now understand minor scales and chords and even how to analyze songs. It really gave me the confidence to start producing music because I feel like I have some structure and guidelines to follow. AWESOME!"

  • "Clear and Informative - Jason has a clear uncluttered style (with the important dashes of humor) of presentation that is focused on the important key aspects of this course. Recommended for those starting out!"

  • "Dr. Allen does it again with his music theory series. This course really opened up everything I learned from the 1st section, and now I understand more about the composition side of things for music. I highly highly recommend this course to anyone!!! Really opened my eyes to many things I wasn't aware of."

  • "The Best Teacher Ever, who makes you understand the ins & outs of Music Theory by all means without giving what you don't want to know."

Meet Your Teacher

Teacher Profile Image

J. Anthony Allen

Music Producer, Composer, PhD, Professor


Dr. J. Anthony Allen has worn the hats of composer, producer, songwriter, engineer, sound designer, DJ, remix artist, multi-media artist, performer, inventor, and entrepreneur. Allen is a versatile creator whose diverse project experience ranges from works written for the Minnesota Orchestra to pieces developed for film, TV, and radio. An innovator in the field of electronic performance, Allen performs on a set of "glove" controllers, which he has designed, built, and programmed by himself. When he's not working as a solo artist, Allen is a serial collaborator. His primary collaborative vehicle is the group Ballet Mech, for which Allen is one of three producers.

In 2014, Allen was a semi-finalist for the Grammy Foundation's Music Educator of the Year.

J. Anthony Allen tea... See full profile

Level: Intermediate

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1. 1 Part3 WelcomeOverview: everyone. Welcome Teoh. Comprehensive music theory parked three minor key circle of fifths compound meters. In this class, we're going to be adding minor keys into what we already know from our other classes. So if you've taken these other classes, this'll will be just a natural flow. If you've taken part one and part two, you're gonna be in great shape. You haven't taken part one and part two and you think you're gonna be good looking over the content. Then by all means, go for it in the first segment here, I'm gonna do a quick little review and talk about a couple things that we picked up in the earlier classes that are gonna be exceptionally important as we transition into minor keys that you're gonna need to know we're going to a couple analyses in this class, including this piece we're looking at right now. The Scientists by Coldplay, great example of a pop song that takes advantage of minor keys and a couple of interesting things that happened in minor. So we'll see that as we get into all of this stuff. We're also talking about circle of fifths, particularly for song writing and how that could be a tool for writing music and creating music and then compound meters. We got to address how to read and work with more complicated rhythmic elements. Eso We're gonna do a short chunk on that, and then that will be it. So, um, I hope you decide to join into this class is gonna be a ton of fun. I just finished making the class, and now I'm jumping backwards to make this intro video. So I know everything that's covered in it. We had a great time. So please join us, and I will see you on the inside. Okay, let's say we're writing a song. Let's write a song in the key of G major. Okay, so we're working on her song. It's in the key of G major. I know all the cords I can use right in e minor Chord also inverted. That's a six. So Dominant wants to go up to dominant up here. Wants to fall down to time on a major scale. The minor scale has a couple different variations. The major scale is just. But what if we took the same exact thing and let's just start on the a minor. The relative minor of C major What we get in most cases, that's gonna be the first or last chord or probably the same. But let's just listen and let's think about that while we 2. 2 ToolsWeWillNeed: All right, everyone. If you've taken any of my other classes in music theory of my music theory classes, you know that I'm pretty big fan of this program called Muse Score for things that you need to be successful in this class, they can both be free to you. One is this program called Muse Score. It is a free download. Just go to amuse score dot org's and you can download it. It is a very impressive free program. Ah, it's open source. You can. It is a full notation editor. Now there are several notation programs on the market. There's one called Finale. There's one called Sebelius, Um, and those are great. They're expensive, though, So I'm using this one because it's free and you can all get your hands on it. You know, in my personal work, I tend to use Finale, actually, to be perfectly honest with you, but, um, it's expensive. It's a little complicated, and it's overkill for what we're gonna be doing in this class. I have students that use muse score for everything they dio, and they make some really beautiful scores. Um, it is a very impressive program, so please download and install this program. What we can do with it as you're going to see me using it throughout the whole course just is kind of a way to write stuff. But what we can do is we can put a bunch of notes, build some chords, let's make a little bit nice record here, okay? And then we can hear it. We can hear what we did. That was weird. What? I randomly just plunked in right there. But that's OK. So it's a great tool toe. Have for a while. You're learning this stuff because if you can't hear what you're working on, you're never really gonna understand it. I don't think I think you really have to hear it. So, um, this program is pretty easy to use. I keep saying that sooner or later I'm gonna make a course like a free course just on how to use this program just to get everyone up to speed. Haven't got time to do that yet, but, um, I will be doing that sooner or later. So poke around and look for that course because it might exist by the time you watched this course, but for now, um, you score dot orig download the program. You'll be glad that you have it and whether even if you don't want to do that, that's fine. You'll be fine without it. But just know that's the program I'm using throughout this whole course. When you see me clicking on stuff, um, that's what I'm using. The other thing that I would like you to have is just some good old fashioned staff paper. I find it really useful sometimes to have a couple sheets of staff paper and a pencil or a pen handy just so I could scribble out some notes and well, I'm thinking about something, and I can see if something's working or if it's not working. It's really useful to me just to have some actual paper with staff lines on it. You know, the five lines so that I could describe some stuff out, and that could be free to you, too, because in the next segment here, I'm gonna give you a pdf that is some good staff paper. Ah, this is just one blank sheet of staff paper. So it is so you can download this and print it, Um, you know, prints 10 sheets of it and just keep it by your computer while you're following along with this class, so you can just jot down some notes and you'll be glad you did. It can be very useful to have, So those are the two things you need. And, um, I'm happy to say they're both free, except for maybe printing out the staff paper. That might cost you a couple cents, depending on what your printing situation is. But it's very, very, very cheap. Okay, that's it. With that, let's dive in to the course and do. First, I want to do just a quick little bit of review just to get us up to speed, to make sure we're on the right foot, going into the rial content of this class. So quick. Little review. And then we'll be diving 3. 4 KeySignaturesReview: okay, Before we dive into the meat and potatoes of this installment of the big big music theory online class that I'm making here, I want to do a little bit of review just to make sure that we're all on the same page. So just a couple quick videos reviewing the kind of main points of what we need to know going forward to be successful in this class. Um, I'm not gonna review everything that we've covered in the 1st 2 versions of this class, but, um, the kind of most relevant things that I want to be sure that we're on the same page on before we go forward. So first things first, key signatures and keys, particularly just major keys, because we're gonna talk about minor keys shortly. So I want to be sure that we're on the same page with how to determine what key we are in. Let's just look at a couple key signatures and particularly what I want to remind you of here is the rule to figure it out. So let's throw this key signature on here, and I want you to tell me what key we are in. Do you remember the rule, The rule for Sharps. When you see Sharps, the rule is you take the last sharp and you go up 1/2 step. So this is a C sharp. So we're gonna go up 1/2 step and that makes a D natural A D and D is the name of this key . So no matter how many Sharps we have, you always take the last one. Let's look at a crazy key signature this one crazy key signature. If you were playing a piece in this key, you would be mad at the composer. What do we call this? Key signature? We're gonna take that last sharp. That last sharp is a B B sharp. They can happen, they can exist. We're gonna take that and we're going to go up 1/2 step to see. But this is not the key of C because if we look through the key, signature sea is already sharp. So that means this is the key of C sharp K f c sharp major. Let's look at another one. Here we go. The favorite key of any guitar player. Take the last sharp. It's a d. We're gonna go up 1/2 step and that's E. So this is the key signature for the key of eat. So the rule is you take that last sharp, you go up 1/2 step. Now if we're looking at flats, slightly different rule. The rule on flat is we take the second to last flat and that is it. That is the name of our key. So here we have three flats B flat, e flat and a flat. So we're gonna take our second toe last flat. That's e flat. And that's the name of the key. So e flat major is the name of this key. Let's look at it. It's like a big, crazy one. Here we go. Another really ugly key. But let's take our second to last flat and it is a C flat. You're like, Why? Why would anyone do that? Because because you can If you get into really weird key signatures, you can do that. So this is the key of C flat is what we're looking at here. Let's do you Maybe this one. What's this key? This is a flat right second to last a flat, just two flats. The key is gonna be B flat because second to last one now there's one exception to Actually , there are two exceptions to these rules that have told you the 1st 1 is when we have one flat because we can't take the second to last. Ah, accidental in the key signature because there's only one. So in this case, you just have to remember one flat is the key of f f is one flat. The other exception to all rules is if there are no sharps or flats, and in that case it is the key of C major. So, see, Major is no flats or sharps, just nothing. One flat is F, and all the rest of them follow those rules. If its sharp, you take the last one go up 1/2 step. If its flats, you take the second to last one, and that's the name of it. That's how we figure out the name of the key. We are in based on the key signature 4. 5 DiatonicChordProgressionReview: Okay. Next thing we need to review is that big, crazy diatonic core progression thing that we looked at. Now, if you remember what that tells us is it tells us all the cords in a given key. Okay, so here's how we make it first week, we're just gonna take let's just start with the scale and we'll do this in the key of C major. So we're just gonna make a C major scale for an active, okay? And now we don't actually even need to draw in the rest of the notes. What if we did draw on the rest of the notes? We would take every other note, so it's kept e we go to e. We put that above sea, and then for on E would skip f and go to G. And we put that there. Next one, we go, d we'd skip E we, dad f we'd skip G and we had a and we just keep going up like that and build triads out of everything. But we don't even really need to do that. Here's our major scale. The other thing we need to finish. And no, the diatonic chord progressions is just the pattern. We don't need to draw out all of the notes we can, and sometimes that's useful. But all we really need to remember is the pattern. And remember, the pattern is major, minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished and then major again because this one is the same as that one. So how do we use those If we're in the key of C Major? And I said, Make me an f chord and see Major or accord built on F and C major, you should be able to tell me if that's gonna be a major or a minor chord. So all you have to do is think F is the fourth scale degree and see Major 1234 And if we count up the pattern, ah, it is major minor. Minor Major is the 4th 1 So the fourth chord quality in our diatonic chord progression is major. The fourth note of our scale is major, therefore are is F. Therefore, F major is the four in the key of seats. Let's try it a different key. Let's just zoom ahead here a little bit and let's do it in the key of D. Okay, so let's just write out a D major scale. Okay, so same pattern applies If we make chords in this key in the key of D major, our 1st 1 is going to be a major chord. Our second one's gonna be a minor chord. Our 3rd 1 is going to be a minor chord. 4th 1 is going to be a major chord. 5th 1 is going to be a major chord. 6th 1 is gonna be a minor chord. 7th 1 is going to be that weird, diminished chord and then back to the tonic, which is going to be a major chord. So that's the diatonic core progression that's gonna be important to know in this class going forward, because once we get into minor keys, it starts switching up a little bit. We got to do, but not really. You'll see what I mean. But just remember, that's how it works. And we will ah introduced minor keys and the minor diatonic chord progression shortly 5. 6 TendencyChordsReview: Okay. Last thing in our quick review is that I just want to refresh your memory on how that 57 cord pulls us back to tonic. We're gonna talk about tendency tone that we've talked a little bit about in some of the other classes. But we're really gonna talk about in this time. Um and, ah, weird thing when we get to minor keys, there's a really weird thing that happens with that 57 chord. So I just want to do a quick reminder, Um, of how that works so that when we get to it in minor keys, it will be a lot more clear. You'll really understand what I'm talking about there. So let's look at it. Let's go. Let's really quick. Just look at our diatonic chord progression Will stick to see Major. I know we just looked at it. Oops, but this will be a little bit different. Okay, so we're gonna go to our five now. If we remember, the five is the one that really pushes back toe one, okay. Or upto one. This is gonna be a big topic we're going to talk about in this class. Is how each note pushes to another spot. So when we build Accord on five, it is a major chord. Okay, as is one thes air both major chords. When we make this a seven, it becomes a dominant court. It's that weird seventh chord that's a dominant seventh. And what happens? Let me just put it out over here is that these notes really want to fall down into a C major chord and actually fairly specific ways. So the notes we need for a tonic chord is C, E and G. So it wants to happen. Is this f wants to fall down to an E. This be wants to lead up to a C and this G can stay on G. Now that is an inverted tonic chord. But what we can do after it is something like actually we can just put a c on the bottom and now it will really be filled out. Let's take a listen to that right. So this note falls down to their this one goes up and this one could say the same, and then we had to see at the bottom just to lock it in and make it feel really happy. So this is 571 the dominant to the tonic. That is a very strong pull, primarily because of this F falling down to E and the B, especially the B is the seventh know of our scale pushing up to C B C just like that seven up to tonic. It's gonna be a really important move that we're gonna talk a lot about in this class when we get to minor keys. Um, because the minor keys don't give us that pole. And we got to do some tricks to get it so more on that shortly. OK, that's it for review. Let's dive in and let's start talking about first the circle of fifths and how that could be more than a fun thing to hang on your wall and can be actually useful to writing music and thinking about music. 6. 7 CircleOfFifthsOverview: So by now we know how to find the name of the key that were in based on the key signature. We know how to find all the notes in that scale once we know the name of it. And we know how to build some courts using it. Seven of them, actually. Ah, and then actually no more than seven. Because we know how to build the seven chords that air in the diatonic chord progression. And then we can build seven more that are sevenths. And then I guess that's it for now. But we're gonna learn how to do some more later in this class. So let's start with something relatively simple. The circle of fifths. Now, you may I have seen this before. This is kind of a cliche, right? Like you you've made. If you've been in, like, a music classroom before, you've seen this thing called the Circle of Fifths on the wall and you're like, Yeah, okay, that's neat. But I want to try to convince you here of the value of this thing, particularly if you are a songwriter. I'm gonna show you how to use this to get over any mental hurdle you have, in other words, writer's block. If you're stuck, if you're writing a song and you're stuck, go to the circle of Fifths. It's a great place to be to give you Ah, whole bunch of new ideas. So first, let's just talk about what this thing is. Ah, simply put it is all of our keys laid out in a circle of fifth related keys. In other words, a circle of fifths. Right? So we put see at the top. And if we go to the right, it's gonna be 1/5 higher. So G right? So if we count up C d E f G, that's five, so that's 1/5 higher. So then we're on G. If we count up five notes, we get to D and here's the key of D right. We kind of five notes. We get to a and this is a key of a We get e. And that's the key of E counting up five notes around the circle. Now let's look at before we go any further. Let's look at some of the the kind of interesting things that pop up when we do this. What happens is When we go to the right and we go around the circle, we always add one accidental right zero accidental one sharp to Sharp's three Sharps four Sharps That tells us something kind of interesting about how keys are laid out. If we're in the key of C, there are zero sharps. If we go to the key of G, there is only one sharp. That means that the key of G is kind of close to the key of C. There's only one note that's different and see you would have an F natural and see Erin G. You would have enough sharp so these two keys are closely related. We call them closely related keys is the actual term we use. Similarly, G and D are closely related keys so you can go either direction in this and find a closely related key. Okay, now let's keep going. So we're on E right. If we go up 1/5 of e we and on B and that is the key signature for B. Now, this particular drawing of the circle office is showing us see flat because at some point, usually at the bottom here, we've got to switch over to flats. Right? So typically very bottom is where we do it. This one is doing it on C flat, and it's going to give us a C sharp down here, too. So what that means is, let's jump to here for a minute. F sharp and G flat are the same, right? Um, they're gonna have all the same notes, but they're going to be spelled very differently. So at some point, we got to switch over to flats to make this thing work. So this is the key signature for F Sharp. This is the key signature of her G flat. They're all the same notes, but they're spelled completely differently, but the way they sound will be the same. So we overlap here just so that we can kind of transition to flats going forward, and you'll see a bunch of different ways of drawing the circle of Fifth. This one shows the key of C flat down here. It's kind of weird. Um, they don't all do that. Some of them look different. That's okay. They all basically show the same thing. Let's keep going, Be up. 1/5 gets us to F sharp or G flat whatever. Ah, let's go G flat to transition to flats up 1/5 gets us to d flat and there's a queue signature for D flat and C sharp if you like D flat up 1/5 is the a flat of a 50 flat up 1/5 to be flat up 1/5 toe f up 1/5 from F gets us back to see so it makes a complete circle . Okay, so let's look again at how our accidental is Behave when we go around in that circle. So we add a sharp. We had two sharps while from here to here we had a sharp from C to d we add another sharp. So we're always adding one sharp right here We're down to five Sharps f sharp six Sharps If we stay in Do see Sharp were at seven Sharps but let's jump backing switch to G flat here. So we're at six flats and now organ. So now that we're in flats were gonna lose one at every turn. So G flat two D flat, five flats a flat four, 321 and then back to zero, Right? So every neighbor is a closely related key. For example, if you're in the key of B flat and you want to find the closely related key, this is telling you two options F or e flat. Both of them are on Lee. One accidental different, then B flat, right? So those are closely related keys. I'm gonna talk about how that factors into song writing and things in a minute. I want to point out one more thing here. Remember in the previous class when we talked about inversions, right? So what's the inversion? Or, in other words, what's the opposite of 1/5? It's 1/4 right? A perfect fifth. Inverted is a perfect fourth, which means we might call this the circle of fourths if we start here and go to the left, see up 1/4 is gonna be f up. 1/4 is going to be B flat up. 1/4 is gonna b e flat that'll work all the way around. So it's a circle of fourths. If you go to the left around it and a circle of fifths, if you go to the right, okay, shows us all our key signatures and all are closely related keys. That is the value of the circle of fifths. And that is what it is. Now let's break to a new video, and I'm gonna show you how to use this thing. Ah, as more than just a wall decoration, but as something that will actually help you to create more interesting music if you are a songwriter. 7. 8 BorrowingFromRelatedKeys: Okay, let's say we're writing a song. Let's write a song in the key of G major. Okay, so we're working on her song. It's in the key of G. Major. I know all the cords I can use right, Because I use my diatonic chord progression and it shows me all my possible cords that air in the key of G major. Right? So I'm playing around for those cords and have, you know, something comes into my head and I just think I just need something different here. None of these cords air working. What else can I do rather than just use all the cords in my diatonic chord progression, right. Gotta have a new idea, something a little different, something that is gonna sound a little out of place. But not a lot. It's still gonna be a nice sound. Here's what you're gonna do. You're gonna consult your friendly circle of fifths. You say I'm in the key of G. Um, what are my closely related keys? They are C or D. They are one accidental away, right? G has one sharp C has none. So it's only one accidental away and D has two Let's say we decide to go to D. Okay, now there's two things I could do here. I could do a key change, but we're not really talking about key changes right now. What we're talking about is just borrowing borrowing from a closely related key, and you can do this. So what we're gonna do is we're gonna look at all the chords in the key of D and see if any of those will work right. We're just gonna borrow one from a closely related key. So let's have a look at that. Okay, so here's my diatonic or progression in the key of G major, let's review it really quick and look at what my chords are. So these are the courts I've been using in my son, right? G major, That's our one chord are to cord is gonna be an a minor chord. And remember, I know this because I know that pattern of my diatonic chord progression. If you forgot that review the previous class, it's super duper important. Um, so the pattern is major minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished, major. So my third chord is gonna be minor and it's built on a B so it's gonna be a B minor chord . I have a C major. I have a d major e minor F sharp diminished and then another g major. So I'm working with these cords and they're sounding kind of cool, but, uh, nothing's really working, you know, like, I need something a little out of the box for this thing I'm thinking about doing so Let's look at a closely related key. Let's try de. So what I'm gonna do is I'm just gonna write out my diatonic chord progression and D and I'm going to do it dangerously without adding a key signature just for fun. So remember this one has to sharps And if something if a key has two sharps, they must be f sharp and c sharp. So all my f sharps and see all my f's and C's are gonna be sharp. So e g b no sharp there f sharp, a c sharp G b D no Sharps a c sharp e b d f sharp c sharp e g and D f sharp. Okay, okay, so here is my diatonic chord progression in d So here doesn't g here it is indeed. So let's look at what's different, right? Let's just know, Tate, what chords we have here. Okay, so my possible cords are g major A minor. I'm looking at my McGee here. I'm just gonna write down the names of the cords. Uh, be minor. I guess I gotta move this box. B minor, C major D major e minor and F Sharp diminished. Put space there and then g major again. I don't need to write that one down. I've already got it. Now let's do it for D major. Right? So I have d major e minor F sharp minor G major, a major B minor hoops C sharp diminished on d major again, Kate. Now let's just put these back to back and let's reorder them a little bit for the order. Isn't gonna matter too much. So here's I'm going to do in a copy of these three and put him at the bottom of the list. So now we're lined up with G major G major, A minor. A major. Right, because this is what I want to do. I want to see what chords are different. So if I want to remember the scenario here is that I'm in G major and want to do something just a little bit different, a little bit more colorful I could throw and a major in right that's borrowing from the other key. And that's OK. It is out of key. It isn't a major, is not in the key of G major, and we're still in the key of G major here, but it will add a little bit of color. Don't be afraid to go out of key. Um, it's gonna sound kinda cool. B Minor is the same C major. Now remember, See, Major is one that gets see is the sharp That's added. So there is no see major or minor in the key of D. It's C sharp, and it's gonna be diminished so that one would probably want to avoid, because we always avoid the diminished chord in most kinds of songwriting type applications , D major is gonna be the same e minors. The same an f sharp was diminished. Now minor. That could be a good one to use to because our F sharp diminished in the key of G, we may have avoided because of what I just said. It's a diminished chord, but in the key of G d. Sorry, F sharp minor is a perfectly good cord. So what if we added an F sharp minor into our G major chord or a key? That's totally possible. We could just by borrowing from the key of D major. My favorite one so far here is to grab the two chord a major and make it a major to cord. So this is called borrowing from related keys. Sometimes we call it motile. Borrowing were not exactly doing motile borrowing quite yet. We'll talk about that shortly. Let's jump to a new video and let me, um, I'm just going to write a little song and I'll show you how this can work. 8. 9 SongExample: Here's a little example I just threw together for us, but I have Here is two different core progressions I'm thinking of. This is like a verse and a chorus kind of thing to kind of more of a pop song. But it applies in really all music, this concept of borrowing. So I have a core progression. That's two bars long here and then I've done it twice. So this these two bars are just a repeat of these two bars because I just wanted to get it in your head a little bit better. Let's look at what we've got here. We're in the key of G major eso. Here's our possible cords here, so we have a one chord G major right here. We have a C chord. It's inverted, but that's OK to C major chord. So it's a four. Here we have an e minor chord. It's also inverted. That's a six, and then we have a D major chord That's a five and then again, one ah, for 65 Okay, so 1465 Now we go over here in this little section. What I've added here is an a major chord So that is not in the key. That is in de, though. So it's in the key of D. It works so closely related key. I've borrowed from and added this a major chord. Then I go to a D major chord. So back to G Major and to the five. However, that's also in the key of D. So it could be in either and now again, but with a slightly different inversion. But the same chord a major. And then here I threw in a a d seven chord, so this is inverted. But if we want to see it a little more clearer, it's put a D at the bottom. So here's our d seven chord. For that, we need this scene natural again, and that's gonna push us back to this G cause. Remember, we would learn last time that 57 chord has a pullback. Teoh the tonic, which is G in this case. Hopefully it still feels like tonic. So I gave us the core progression one more time and then resolved to G major. Okay, let's hear this and then we'll take this sharp off and hear it again as if we stayed in key . Okay, here we go. Okay. So something a little strange happens here, right? There's a little bit of of like, oh, what kind of sensation that happens right there. Because this c sharp is not in the key. Right? But we've borrowed it and thats okay, let's hear what happens when we take that down to a C natural Here is Well, okay, so now nothing is out of key. Everything is completely in key. Let's hear what we've got. Uh, right. So to me, it sounds fine that way it sounds perfectly fine. But sometimes you want something that sounds a little out of the ordinary, right? And that's where this borrowing situation comes into play. Composers have been doing this for centuries. Just borrow from a different key when you need something a little more. Ah, just a little bit more colorful in your core progression than just what we expect with diatonic. And that's how we can use the circle of fifth four writing music. We you can't find that cord you're looking for. Jump over to the circle of fifth, find your closely related keys, grab one, and then look at your possible keys. your possible chords within that key. See, if anything, they're works, right? This got us two good options by doing this. It got us. This a major and a goddess is f sharp minor, which I didn't use, but I could have Let's do this one more time back with the C Sharps in it. 9. 10 ScaleDegreeNamesOverview: when one of the earlier music theory classes I made we talked about soul fish. Selfish was away. Teoh have a name for every scale degree. But there's another way to do that same thing, and it is important to know. So let's just go back to our friendly C major scale here. Okay, here I have a good old C major scale. Now, if you remember the sole fish, those were words that we use to help us sing the notes in a way where so that the words were doh Ray me. Ah, sole la t doth now we don't always use sole fish for that. Um, the main difference between Seoul fish and the names of the scale degrees, which is the thing I'm about to tell you about is that soul friends can get confusing because in different parts of the world, sole fish is used as the names of the notes themselves. So instead of C, this is called dough. So depending on where you are in the world, this might be called dough. And this might be called Ray where I am, which is in the United States. We call this C and we call this D. So So if I could get a little confusing that way, when we're working in music theory, we talk about notes of a scale in three possible ways. One is the names of the notes C D E f g, etcetera. Another is the scale degree. So 1234 etcetera. And we just used numbers for that. We use numbers with a little like we like a carrot over the top. So if you see a number with little, care it over the top, remember that that means the scale degree number. Um, and in the third way is the names of the scale degrees themselves. And the reason this is important to you, is that Well, for one, if you're looking at a music theory textbook, you're going to encounter these words, and I want you to know what they mean. Number two is that the names are not arbitrary. They actually tell us some important qualities of each note of this scale. So they're important to at least be familiar with and consider why they're called what they're called. So these air just like ah, words that some of them we've seen before um, for example, tonic is one right, So in Seoul, fetch this is dough. But in the naming of the scale degrees, this is called tonic and tonic means kind of a lot of things. It means home. It means the grounding of the scale of the key. It means the route. It can mean a lot of different things. So that's why we care about this scaled agreeing names issue. I've didn't go into it earlier because I didn't want to confuse you with more stuff in the previous classes. But now it's time we get to know these scale degree names so that we can use them as they come up. Let's break to a new video, and then we'll go into what they actually are. 10. 11 ScaleDegreeNames: Okay, here we go. Tonic already Told you tonic the first note of the scale. The root of the scale, which could be different. So let's just clarify that this has to do with the root of the scale. So if this is a C major scale, the root of the scale is see and tonic is C. If, uh, we did something like this, I'm just gonna kind of skew our scale a little bit. Okay, here we have a scale. Tonic is still see Why is tonic? See, there are no accidental is here. So if we counted up all our whole steps in half steps, we would find out that this is a C major scale, even though it's not starting on C. C is still tonic. And it is, um, the root of the scale. So my scale is out of order, basically, is what I'm saying in this case. But tonic is still see because it is a c major skin. Undo that. So it's less confusing. There we go. OK, so C is tonic. The second scale degree is called Super Tonic. It sounds awesome, right? Super tonic. But all that really means is super think of super as meaning like elevated like um, like Superman is like a man that is, like better, not better. Better is the wrong word. Ah, Super Tonic is not better than tonic. Really. What it's literally saying is it's above tonic. It's one higher than tonic. There's actually nothing particularly super About 22 is not an extremely powerful note, Um, but we call it Super Tonic. The 3rd 1 we call the median it and you might think median sounds like it's in the middle, right? Wouldn't that be somewhere around here? Either are fourth or fifth? No, because Median. The reason we call it Median is because it's half way to one of our most powerful notes the fifth. So the median is halfway between tonic and the fifth, which is called the dominant. We'll get to that in a second. So median is the third note. Actually, let's go to the dominant. No, I'm gonna come back to four in just a second. So the dominant you've heard me say this before. When we talked about in the previous class, when we talked about tendency tones, right, the five the cord built on five has a lot of special powers, right? It really wants to lead down to tonic. So we call this one the dominant because it supposedly dominates so much of music. The five is what kind of makes the tonic feel like tonic. So it dominates a lot of stuff. So we call that the dominant. So the median is halfway between the dominant and the tonic. Another way to think about that is how do we make a cord right? Our most basic triad. We make our most basic triad with tonic, median and dominant. That makes a C major triad in the key of C. Right? Um, how about four? We skip right over for sub dominant. We call it just under dominant in the same way that two was Super tonic, one above Tonic four is sub dominant, one underneath dominant. And it's kind of like to in that it's not a particularly powerful tone. It does have some power, though. All the notes have different tendencies, places they want to go and things like that. We'll talk about that more when we talk about counterpoint. But for now, I think of that as a sub dominant and we get to dominant. What you already know sub immediate is six. So sub median. It doesn't make a lot of sense. It kind of does, if you think about it. So three is our immediate right. This median is three scale degrees below tonic in the same way that the media it was three scale degrees above tonic sub median. It is three below tonic. Remember, this is tonic. And this is Tomic. These are both seeds. So there. So this is tonic also. So this is three above. We call it the median three below we call the sub medium. Right? So it's kind of like the under immediate and this is the over median. But don't ever use those words in any kind of music theory class because they're not. They would not. Ah, you would fail. Um, sub median is what we call that. Okay, this one is another one with a bunch of extra powers. We call this leading tone. This is the leading tone, and it does exactly what it says. It leads up to tonic. So the leading tone always not mild. Not always, but almost all the time pushes towards tonic. If you hear that note? You want to hear tonic the same way that when you hear five, you want to hear tonic So these two together would really push towards tonic right? And when you think about what notes go into a five chord, it will be g be and D right and there is our be. So this one wants to push up. Teutonic are five wants to go down to tonic and actually are too wants to go down to tonic quite a bit as well. And those notes are what make a five chord. So the five chord always really wants to push Teutonic to review that one more time from low to high tonic, super tonic median sub dominant, dominant sub median leading tone and then tonic again. Now let's talk a little bit more about the tendency of these notes, where they feel like they want to lead. When we're in a major key 11. 12 TendencyTones: this particular example to think about how all of these want to lead together sometimes is actually easier to view like this by putting the tonic in the middle like I did a minute ago. Okay, let's think about it like this. So here's our tonic, right? Put a big bull's eye on that one for a minute. In fact, maybe I'll just do it through some fancy animation here. Okay, What we want to do here is talk about how all the different degrees of the scale either influence or are influenced by tonic. Because all of this has a lot of bearing on something like writing a melody. Think about writing a melody if you stay on one note. Every note that you hit has a feeling it wants to go to a certain place, and you can either do that or you cannot do that. And if you not do that, you ought to know that you're not doing what's expected, which can be a very valuable musical device, right for writing music. But you got to know what you're. If you're breaking the rules, you need to know what rules have been broken, right? So let's talk about direction that they want to go. So here's our tonic, Right? Let's start at the bottom. Here is what one is this. This is dominant, right? This is five. So dominant wants to go up to tonic. Dominant up here. Wants to fall down to tonic. Dominant. Wants to go to tonic either up or down in most cases. Okay, 66 tends to want to go up to tonic, but it doesn't have a really strong pole. It doesn't have the poll of five or the leading tone sixes kind of neutral, but in general it would want to go up to tonic. The leading tone goes up to tonic. It always feels very strongly like it wants to go up to tonic. The Super Tonic wants to fall down due tonic. In most cases, this will sound good. Resolving backwards and going down to tonic because think about this going up to tonic. It would be jumping up 1/7 to get up to tonic, so that wouldn't work very well. It wants to fall down. It has This one has a sensation of like falling sometimes. So when you hit that note, you can feel like you're kind of suspended in the air and you want to fall down to tonic. The immediate falls down to tonic. In most cases, the sub dominant, like the dominant, could go up or down Teutonic. But in most cases it wants to go up, actually, Teutonic. So if F was down here, it would be a better picture for us, so F up to see is a little bit stronger. Pull in f down to see, although it can go either way, depending on the context that's happening, F can also have a poll to down to the median it sometimes if you do it in certain ways, and this all depends on the context, F can fall down to the median, which will then want to fall down to the tonic. That's a thing that you see in a lot of core progressions sometimes and in a lot of counterpoint. Ah f can also push up to G sometimes, or I shouldn't say f N G. That's not a very fair thing to say. The sub dominant can push up to the dominant. Sometimes so F is a pretty flexible note. It's a lot like the sub median it in that good. It always wants to go to tonic, but there are a couple different ways it can get there, and it doesn't have a real strong pull. The strongest pull is always dominant and leading tone. Those two will always feel good going to tonic afterwards. So those are our main tendency tones. And again, I can't stress enough. There's a lot of this depends on the context, Um, especially for our sub median it and sub dominant and to some extent, the median. Even the context can change everything. This is just if we're hearing a solo unaccompanied line perfectly in a key, those are the tendency tones you want to hear. But once we start adding cords and things like that, everything gets even more complicated. But, uh, this is a good place to start. So, uh, keep this in mind. As we move through different scales and we look at different pieces of music, you'll see how tendency tones work together to make music feel a certain way. This has a lot to do with the feeling, but again, context matters more than anything. Go up groupie 12. 14 CompoundMeterDefinition: so not always when we talk about music theory, are we focused on pitches we think about pitch for the most part when we're talking about music theory and we think about analyzing chords and harmonies and finding what notes work together. But a very large part of music theory is also understanding rhythms and reading more complex rhythms. So I want to take a section here and go back to rhythms. We talked a bit about rhythms in the first class. We definitely did. I don't think we did in the second class, because we're mostly focusing on the major scale. But here in this class, I want to just do this next section on rhythms. Ah, and particularly compound meters and how we know Tate those and how we read those and how we play those. So let's start by just playing something. So I want you listen to this piece. You've probably heard this before. This is green sleeves. It also has five other names. Um, and let's just listen to it. And then I'm gonna talk about it a little bit way. - Okay , so let's do this. Let's play this song again. But this time I'll just play like the first line or so. What I want you to do is is clap along. So just clap or tap or hit something or, you know, do some kind of make some kind of sound. Um, surprised me. I won't be able to hear it. So do it, everyone but make some kind of sound and do it on the beat. Okay, Something's going places. First line again and decide what you think is the beat and clap along. Okay, here we go. Okay. So I'm guessing that you probably picked one of two things. Probably most of you are clapping on the eighth note like so 31 like that, right? If you did not do that, you may have also found a a bigger to in this which you can dio like this. Right? So you probably clapped one of those two. Now, what makes something compound is if we take that big rhythm the big to that I found right, which was clapping basically here and here. The halfway point of the beat. We took the big two and then let's divide that in half and go down to the smaller subdivision. If you remember from the first class. What we do is we took quarter notes, right? Let's find one. Here's 1/4 note and we can split that in half into eighth. Notes right to eighth. Notes. Make up 1/4 note with me to eight. Notes. Make up 1/4 note. So if we took that that big beat that I was hearing what I called the Big two and we slice that in half, what we end up with by going down to the faster beat that I think most of you probably clapped on. That adds up to three of those for every one of the big beat, right? So three of those for every one of the big beat like this. Here's the quick beat. Here's the big beats, right? So there are three of the faster pulse for every one of the slower pulse. So it's a 3 to 1 relationship. Thus gives us compound meter. Know how many of in this case were in the meter of 68? We're going talk about meters in just a minute, but we're in the meter of 68 which means there are 6th 8th notes, right and typically we can feel that in to if we want, which might blow your mind. Why? The reason is, in compound meter, we group things by threes and there are two sets of three, and that equals 6/8 notes. But it also equals two big sets, right? What if we were in 98 we would feel three big sets of three or 98 notes now jumping back to our little clapping or banging your hitting experiment. Which of you was right? Right. Um, I suppose I should give you a correct answer. Um, those of you that clapped the 6/8 notes the faster one or those of you that clap the too big beats. Which of you is right? The answer is you're both right. Um because I didn't say class the eighth note. In which case, if I would have said that than those of you that clap, the faster one would have been right. And if I would have said clap the dotted quarter note than the ones of you that clapped, the slower one would have been right. But I said, Clap the beat, which in this case is a bit subjective. It's whatever you feel the beat is so you're both right. Um, OK, so that's basically what compound meter is. It's when we take the the big pulse and we divide it in half. We get groups of three, and there's a couple different ways we can do that. And let's get into talking about how this works. Ah, right now. 13. 15 CompoundMeterSignatures: Okay, let's talk about the meter signatures first. So, um, here are our most common compound meter signatures 6898 and 12 8 So all of them have the lower number of eight, which means we're going to be looking at eight notes as the division of the beat. Now, these three can be called 68 can also be called Do pull meter 98 triple and 12 8 quadruple . For the exact reason that I just explained Let's put some eighth notes in these things just so we can see what's happening here. Okay. Okay. Now you see why we can call 68 Do pull meter because there are two big groups of three, right? We're in a compound meter, so we know things are gonna be grouped by three instead of two. Which they are in simple meter. So simple meter things are grouped in groups of two and compa meter there in groups of three. And we can furthermore call this a do pull meter because we can feel that big to we could feel one. Did, uh, do that one that to that? If we wanted to, we could also feel 123456123456 Typically, when you're performing this, you're gonna put an accent on that four. So you would feel 123456123456 Right. So do pull meter 98 We sometimes call triple meter. And that's why, because there are three big groups of three, but there are also 9/8 notes, so we call it 98 and 12 8 We sometimes call quadruple meter. And you can probably guess what's gonna happen when I fill this with eight notes now, boom. Four big groups of three. Right now, In the previous video, I mentioned something about this dotted quarter note that I want to clear up here. Remember, from when we talked about how to read rhythms, what would be a single note or single rhythm that we could write that would encapsulate three eighth notes. Ah, it's a dotted quarter note. So let me do this. Let me get rid of these. See if I can put one of these down. Okay. Here we go. Okay. Now, this is a dotted quarter. Note dotted. Quarter note equals 3/8 notes because remember the rule for adding a dot to a to ah, rhythmic thought. The rule is you take the number of the amount of time that that beat normally gets on, then you add half of it to it. So this normally is to eighth notes. Half of that would be 1/8 note and you add that to it makes 3/8 notes. So 1231 Right, So this thes three and this equals the same. The reason I'm pointing that out is because when when we're in compound meter, you see a lot of dotted rhythms. Um, particularly a lot of data, quarter notes and things like that, because those take up one of those bigger beats. One of those, um, if we're in double meter triple meter, they're gonna take up one now back to, ah, meters more on that in a minute. But I want to talk about meters now. Are bottom note is almost always ate when we were in do pull meters, but there are or when we're in compound meters. But there are some oddities that can happen now. Muse, score. This program I'm using doesn't easily give me access to some of those. I'm sure they're here somewhere, but most of the time and we're in compound meter were focusing on eighth notes, but you could have a 6494 or 12 4 time. Where the amount. Ah, but basically every Let's look at 98 here. This was 94 These would all be quarter notes, Right? There will be 9/4 notes in the bar. That's weird. Um, it's not the most common thing you see every day. It's a little strange, but it does happen. Another thing you can see is 9 16 or 6 16 or 12 16 where these would all be 16th notes. Right? Um, that can happen as well. You see that typically at a slower tempo. It gives almost the same feel as this, um, and it happens sometimes it's relatively rare, but in some piece of music, you might see that. And you just have to remember that if it's 12 16 time, for example, it's going to be quadruple meter. So you're gonna have groups of three. They're gonna be groups of 3/16 notes in that case, and then if you want to do this and write a rhythm that shows the full duration of one of the bigger groups. In that case, in a 12 16 it's going to be a dotted eighth note, not a dotted quarter note. So you just increase everything by one rhythmic value. That's kind of confusing, but we'll see this in context shortly. 14. 16 AnotherPerspective: I have a couple graphs here that are images I should say. Not really. Graphs that kind of outline this a little bit clearer. Maybe, Um, just another way to see it. So when 68 we can have 6/8 notes or two dotted quarter notes. Right, Because each one of these is three eighth notes, right? And 64 also a compound meter. We would have 6/4 notes because for that the bottoms with 6/4 notes or two dotted half notes because each one of these is gonna equal 3/4 notes. So this equals six corners. 98 You would have 9/8 notes or three dotted quarter notes. Um, hence this would be called a triple meter because of that, and this would be called a Duplo meter. Because of that, this would also be called a do pull meter. 64 12 8 We have 12 8th notes or four dotted quarter notes. Right. So this would be called a quadruple meter, so quadruple meter because of that triple meter because of that do pull meter. Because of that, here's another graph. Ah, our charts. That that lays this out kind of nicely so in 68 beats per measure. Now what they're calling the beat is this big dotted quarter note. Right on division of the beat is the A snow. So 642 beats per measure. The beat here is dotted. Half note and quarter notes are the division of the beat. 3/4 notes are the division of the beat. 9 16 three dotted eighth notes is the is what gets the pulse and then the division of the beat is 3/16 Notes. 983 dotted quarter notes and eighth note. Get 3/8 notes gets the is the division of the Beat. 12 8 There's going to be four dotted quarter notes because there will be 12 of these because here's another way you can think about this this 3/8 notes times this three times four equals this top number, right, So 12 8th notes. Same deal here, 12 4 would be four groups of 3/4 notes or four dotted half notes because each one of these equals three of those, so a couple different ways to look at it. Hopefully that helps it sink in a little bit more. Now. The next video. Let's go back to our Greensleeves example and see if we can pick that apart a little bit 15. 17 Example: Okay, let's pick these rhythms apart, Um, a little bit. So we start with a single eighth note. Pick up right. So let's just kind of leave that off for the moment, this is Remember, in the very first class we looked at pick up notes, they're kind of like a ah, you can think of it is like a breath, you know, like almost like a note that starts before the song actually start. So that can kind of happen at a time for us, and we're not gonna worry about that for now. So let's just look at this first line and let's separate the left hand in the right hand and let's look at the left hand first. That's the bottom staff here because it's a lot easier to see, So we're in 68 so we expect to see either 6/8 notes per bar for two groups of eighth notes that equal up three. Actually, we expect to see both of those things, and we see that very clearly down here. So 6/8 notes in two groups, right? So even if you couldn't see this, if if this was totally gone, you didn't know what meter we were in. If you saw this, you should very easily be able to say we are in 68 right, Because that's just the way that goes. That is 68 right there. If someone came up to me on the street and said, Draw me a picture of 68 and it was totally out of context, I draw basically exactly this, right? So that is 68. Same thing here. Same thing here. Now we go here. We only have half a bar but were filled with rests. And that's OK. So here's our first group of three. That's fine. 1/4 note. Rest equals 2/8 notes and then an eighth note. Rest equals 1/8 note. Now, one thing we could also do here. Delete that and put a dot on that rest. You can put a doubt on arrest. Don't forget about that. So you also see these quite a bit. This is a dotted quarter Note rest that equals 38 notes of rests. Right, so that works totally fine. Now let's go up here. So first, let me just draw a box here around our bigger divisions of the beat Okay. So because in this case, they're not extremely clear, because on Lee on the second half of the beat like this one, do we have our second half of the measure? I should say, Are they bracketed together with a rhythmic brace? Right this first half? They're not. Um Okay, so let's look at the first half of this bar. 3/8 notes, right. This totally works. It's not right away. Extremely obvious, but 1/4 note gets to eighth notes, and then we have one more note. So, uh, if we want to count this in six So remember, accounting is just a way that we can basically kind of sing the rhythm. So down here we would count. 123456 Up here, we work out 134 up to here. So this gets to eighth notes and then 34 So let's look at this rhythm now. So this rhythm, if we divide this our eighth notes down into 16th notes, we would have 6/16 notes for one of these. And that's okay. We can do that. Right? Because remember, just because we have everything is kind of laid out in these groups of 3/8 notes doesn't mean we still can't play with that rhythm, right? We still have to do something rhythmically interesting with it, so we can go down to 16th notes and we can do whatever we want. So what we have here is so if we have 16th notes, we need six of them to fill out the rest of this bar because 6/16 notes equals 3/8 notes. So a dotted eighth note equals 3/16 notes, right? Plus 1/16 note is what that is. And then plus 1/8 note could certainly got one stem coming off it. An eighth note is to 16th notes, So this is three one equals four plus two equals six. So this is 6/16 notes. So this note happens slightly after the 2nd 8th note, which is not played here. So this is four. And then this is six and this happens right after where five would happen, right? So look at below it. This is five. If we draw lines straight up, that's where five should be. And the 16th note comes right after it. So then, ah, lot of time for 16th notes and compound meter. If we're counting and singing, we might just say ta or tea for 1/16 note. So let's do this really slow. 134 tire. 61 Right. So, four, I'm not going to say five, cause that's right there. And that note is not does not exist right there. So it's a ta six because we skipped right over five, cause it's no got held. So 134 ta. 6134 for her ties. 61 3461 34 six. Right. We don't have a tie here, So six. So this bar is just one, 34 six, and then it goes out. Okay, so it's kind of a tricky rhythm to read. You have to dissect it. Um, and here you always what you're gonna have to do here is break this down to 16th notes until you learn just a spot, that rhythm. Um, but after a while of doing this, you really do want to spot these rhythms and just be like, Oh, that's the that, uh, that Ah, uh uh um, you get used to seeing that, um, it's a lot like words in a way. Like when you're reading a book. Uh, when you're learning to read, you sound out the words. Right. Um, once you get good at reading, you don't even think about the individual letters in the word anymore. You just see the word and and you know what that says, right? You just say that word. Um, rhythms are a lot like that. Cords are like that, too, once you get good at court but rhythms even more So I think where once you get good at reading rhythms, you just kind of spot the group of rhythms. And then when you get really good at it, you you learn to just spot the whole measure and be like, Oh, that rhythm is Dada Dada Dada. And you just recognize that rhythm just like you recognize a word in a book. Kind of right. So compound meter 16. 19 TripletsOverview: Okay, One more section on rhythms for this class in the sexual, we're gonna talk about triplets and other two plates. So what that means in a nutshell, is we've looked at rhythms that conform to the meter pretty strictly so far. For example, what we're seeing here on the screen back to 44 So standard normal old 44 And we have 123 and four. And right, So what we're doing is when ran for four, we can Onley do quarter notes and then divisions of quarter notes. We can cut it in half. We can cut, enforce, or we could go the other way. We could double it, weaken, triple it. But what if we wanted something in between these two things? What if we wanted something that didn't quite conform but fit in and kind of other weird way? Another way to think what that is, Uh, you know, with music weaken, do whatever we want. Um, weaken, sing whatever rhythm we can think of, whether it conforms to this kind of notation or not, right? The job of the notation is to figure out how best to write down whatever we can think of So not everything falls into these nice little categories of quarter notes and eighth notes. There are some stuff that's just in between those two, and that's what we're going to talk about. Here we talk about that is called a triplet. Ah, case where something would be in between these two. Now, don't get confused. Has nothing really to do with with, ah, do pull meter or triple meter or anything like that? This is kind of something completely separate. So put, um, do pull and triple ah out of your head. For now, we're kind of putting ah into that. I'm talking about something new. Some of the terms can get confusing putting these back to back, which I tried not to do. But it's just kind of the way it flows together best. So try not to get confused between those two things as we go forward in this section. We will, however, be returning in this section to triple meter and talking about how we can do some fun stuff with those with them. So let's just leave it at that for now. So first, let's talk about triplets 17. 20 Triplets: Okay, So, triplets, remember, if we take 1/4 note, we divide that in half. We have eighth notes, right? And it looks like that. So this rhythm is gonna be very metrical, right? It's going to be exactly on the beat. So I'm gonna clap and sing it. I'm gonna clapping, counted. Let's say I should never refer to what I do as singing, like ever. Um, I'm just gonna make a mental note about that. Okay, here we go. 123 and four. End. Okay, that's this rhythm. 123 and four. And so this is three. And this is for right. Okay, now, what if let's say in one of these places, let's say I'm beat for what? If I'm beat four, I want to just smash three notes in the place of these two notes. I couldn't do that. It would be kind of like for that one beat switching over to compound meter. Right. Um and that's how we do it. We use a triplet. Okay, so I've put two of them here, so we have 1/4 note and a triplet, So this is not gonna perfectly line up with the ace note. Um, because this is oddly smashing three beats in the space of our 3/8 notes in the space of 2/8 notes in this case. So the way we notated is, we beam them together. In this case, we can, and then we put a little number three under it. When we say there are three of these here, figure it out. How it goes is Ah ah, clap and count not sing. Um, okay, here we go. One to talk t three four Todd Teoh. Right. So these get a little kind of hop of a feel to them, it gets even more obvious if I was to do this. Let's take that. Let's get rid of that. And let's go. Just eighth notes here. Okay? Okay. What we have now is one, and then just eight notes two and three and and then a triplet for Todd T. Right? So, in contacts, it's going to sound like this. One, two, and three and four. Ta t one, right. I'm gonna go. I'll do it like three times in a row. So you can kind of feel that triplet. One, two, and three and four. Totti, one two and three and four. Ta t. One, two and three and four. Ta t one. Okay, that's a triplet Where we just kind of smash these three notes together. 18. 21 OtherTuplets: now we can do more with this. Um, there's more than just triplets when I spend a ton of time on this right now, um, we'll encounter these rhythms in music soon. Um, but I want you to know that thing to keep your eye out for Is this little number of floating down here sometimes that's not gonna be a three. That's OK. You know, if we're in ah, do pull meter. It might be or were in a compound meter. You might see a two down there where they're saying stretch lease out to be 2/8 notes in the space of what normally would be three. Um, you might see a six in that space. What we've done here is we've made a six template. We could change this number 26 which would be a little more accurate than what we're seeing here now. But ah, six top plate is basically just a triplet in this meter. It's going to be a triplet of, um, 16th notes. So it's basically six notes in the space of what normally would be four. So here we have 6/16 notes in the space of what normally would be 4/16 notes. Right, So he smashed six into four on a six doublet. And then soon we'll see even weirder ones. Or see sevens and nines and fives and things like that where they say, Smash these five notes in the space of these four notes, which is kind of a head scratcher when you have to play something fast, um, smash these seven notes in the space of five notes. Things could get really weird, um, with some of those more complex rhythms, But we'll encounter those in music as it comes. Trust me. Um, the thing to remember about triplets and any kind of to Plett is we use them to more accurately, no Tate music. Not all music falls perfectly in these metronomic things that were, um, working within these divisions of the be like of quarter notes and eighth notes. Um, music doesn't work like that. So we have things called triplets, which kind of just bend the rules a little bit of the quarter notes and eighth notes and 16th notes and stuff. So when you see a triplet, what it's trying to do is trying to get you to play it more accurately if you were to know Tate like a jazz solo? Um, absolutely, Perfectly. You would see all kinds of crazy triplets and things because you try to know Tate like the feel of it, and it would be all over the place. It would not fit very well into quarter notes and eighth notes. Right? There's all these extra things. Um, so we'll encounter that bridge when we get to it. Don't be freaked out by it for now, but I just wanted you to know that it's there because we're going to see it. Not too long. Um, and I don't think we've addressed triplets and two plates and how they work yet. So now we have Let's move on. 19. 22 minorScaleOverview: Okay, at long last, it's time to talk about minor keys. So we know enough about major keys. Now, I think to start focusing on minor. So in this section, we're going to focus on minor keys, scales and chords. Kind of we're gonna do the diatonic chord progression. We already know what minor chords are, right? We saw that in the last class. We saw that if we're in a major key and we look at all our possible cords in a major key, we know that there's a couple of mine records in there, right? But as we learn a minor scale and then we apply that scale to a key and we apply that key to all the possible chords in that key, Um, meaning, in other words, the diatonic chord progression for a minor key. We have a different pattern that emerges, right? So in a major key, it was, you know, major minor, minor, Major, major, minor, diminished Major was our diatonic corporate Gresham. The pattern is going to be different in a minor key factor is gonna be a lot of things different, But the reason I've waited this long to give you minor keys as I want you to get comfortable with major keys because there's ah lot about minor keys that we can learn easier by relating it to the minor error. The major key, right? So, for example, the notes in a minor key, we can count half steps in whole steps. But it's easier to think about the major key. And then what? Notes Need to get altered, right. We're gonna go through that in just a minute. First, before we do that. Um, I thought I play you a little example of what kind of effect a minor key can have on a song . So check this out. Uh, you probably know this song. This is Hey, Jude by the Beatles Let me just play a to don't make it by Take a side song and make it better Remember to let her into your home Then you can start to make it OK, so that doesn't have an overly happy sound to it. But it is in a major key. Okay, so this is in. I believe it's in C major and that doesn't mean it's like super happy. And the minor core version of it would be super sad by any means. When you're in a major key, you can make kind of sad sounding stuff. But just as an interesting example. What if we could hear this song in a minor key? Well, through modern technology, we could do that pretty easily, so let's check it out. Now. What this is going to do is basically sounds just kind of creepy, but it's worth hearing. So all the notes are the same, except we've kind of remap them into a minor key. Paige don't make it by take way. Remember Thio Thio home. Then you can stop to make it. Hey do Okay, So what happened there? What happened was a song that starts off, you know, kind of a sad sounding song in terms of the cords, even in a major key. And then we push it onto a minor key. It gets just kind of creepy, right, because the minor key just makes it sound darker, right? Like it's got a little bit more dissonance in it. And dissonance means to notes are clashing. They don't sound good next to each other, and that gives it that kind of darker, creepier sound. Now not everything. Using a minor key is ah, dark and creepy. So don't get that in your head. But I wanted to play you this example to show you the kind of dramatic effect it can have on switching to a minor key. So keep that in mind. You can find these all over the internet if you, um search around. I was just doing it. You confined, um, people that have made minor key versions of stuff. Ah, like I've just found a whole bunch of like, Ah, I intend old. Like Nintendo. Like Super Mario brothers theme songs that have been put in like, minor keys. Really fascinating to listen to, um, so search around the Internet. For that, you'll find him. Okay, so moving on, let's talk about how to find the notes in our minor scale. Now there's four ways we can do it. We could find the notes of the minor scale by either looking at the major scale and then altering it a little bit to turn it into a minor scale. We're gonna look at that one first, Then we can look at just counting up half steps in whole steps to get up to build the scale . Then we can look at something called a relative minor, which is again using the major scale to figure out our relative minor. And then 1/4 way is we can use something called ah, parallel scale, which is a way of another way of using a major scale to figure out the minor scale. Now, to be honest with you, the easiest of those four, the one where if you were in a key and someone just jumped in your face and said, Figure out the minor key, Um, the easiest one is relative using the relative scale, which we're gonna dio. But I want to go through all four of these ways because I really want you to understand how we make the minor scale and what the minor scale is made up of. So first, let's talk about altering a major scale to find yourselves a minor scale 20. 23 AlterationstoMinor: Okay, So the big question that we want to solve in this video is what notes are different between the major scale and the minor scale. And how are they different? So let's put our good old C major scale on the screen here. That's C major scale. All right, how do we turn this into a minor scale? There are three notes that have to change only three. Um, not everything is different. So three notes have to change. You might be able to guess the 1st 1 because remember back to try ads. Right. When we learn triads, we found that a major triad was taking the first, third and fifth note of the scale that would make a cord built on the route of the scale. The tonic. Right. So that would make a C major chord if we took those three notes. And then in another section, we learned how to make a major triad into a minor triad, which, if you remember, from the second class, I said the third is what holds the power to determine if it's major or minor. So from that you might be able to deduce this one probably has to change and by changing it needs to go down 1/2 step. So that is, in fact, our first note that has to change its the third and it goes down 1/2 step. Okay, let's move on the next note that has to change our fourth and our fists day the same are six has to change and it is also going to go down after and then our third note is our seventh, which is going to go down 1/2 step also. So our third are sixth in our seventh. Are the notes that change and they all change by going down 1/2 step. So here is our minor scale. Okay, Now, one more thing about this there are unlike the major scale, the minor scale has a couple different variations. The major scale is just the major scale. The minor scale could be one of three kinds of minor scales. This one here that we're looking at is called the natural minor scale. It's the If there was just a normal old minor scale, this would be it. It's the kind of most common one. But in certain situations, we have to use these other minor scales. Don't worry about that for now. Um, I'm only saying this in case you've heard of these other minor scales and you're like, which one is that? So this is the natural minor scale, and we're gonna talk about those other kinds of minor scales shortly in the next couple sections, we'll talk about variations of the minor scale, but I want us toe nail in on the natural minor scale. So let's start calling this the natural minor scale in your head. Okay? All right. So that's how we figure out a minor scale by taking a major scale. Let's do it again. Let's do it with a different key. Let's throw a key signature in here. How bout how to eat? Okay, so we know this is the key signature of E Major. Because if we take our last sharp because that's the rule with Sharps and we go up 1/2 step , it's an E. If you remember that rule, if you remember that rule review the second class. Okay, so now we have the key signature for E. So let's take Let's make an e major scale. Oops. Okay. There's my e major scale. Now, this is going to get a little This is gonna look a little different, but everything is gonna be the same. I'm gonna take this, G and I got to take it down 1/2 step. But what is this note, actually this? No, actually, because of that key signature is a G sharp. So in order to take it down 1/2 step, it's actually gonna become a g natural is what it's gonna be okay, I can take my 60 down again. My sixth is C sharp. So by taking it down, it's gonna be a c natural on the same thing with my seventh is gonna be a D natural. So this is now my scale, right? So the only actual accidental in it still is an F sharp. Everything else is natural. Let's do one more. But let's not use a key signature on Let's do Let's do a B flat major scale. And I'm not going to use a key signature. I'm just going to write the notes with the accidental in them so we can see how we change him. Okay, lets go out here, so we'll go to B flat. I see d e flat. So if you remember, the key of B flat has two flats. Um, the key of B flat has two flats. So, um, there are B flat and e flat. So there we go. Here's another B flat. So Okay, so let's alter this. So now to make a B flat, minor scale, what we need to do is take our third go down 1/2 step D flat, our sixth, down 1/2 step or seventh down 1/2 step. That's it. So now we can see all these flats we have in here. This is kind of a gnarly key to play in, but that's OK. All right, So what we need to remember is, if we have a major scale and we want to turn it into a minor scale, we take the third, sixth and seventh down 1/2 step, and that turns a major scale into a minor scale. Now, now that we've done that, let's walk through the half step whole step pattern for a minor scale and learned how to build a minor scale that way 21. 24 WholeHalfPattern: all right. When we first learned the major scale, the first way we learned it was by counting whole steps in half steps. Now, with these other ways that we're learning to figure out the minor scale, you won't need to do this all that often. But it's still important to know because it kind of tells us the makeup of what's in the minor scale. And then there are some situations where you're just kind of like, uh and you just have to calculate it out. So here is the pattern. Let's let's do our C minor scale again can. So here's the sea, so it is whole step. So our first hole step, half step pattern our first interval is a whole step. Our second interval is 1/2 step, so whole half that needs a flat. There we go whole half and then two whole steps. So whole staff now remember that if this was a flat to get to a whole step, sometimes you might be going to another half or another flat, right? Or accidental or whatever. In our case, we're not e flat to F is the whole step eso another whole step so whole half hole hole and then 1/2 step. Hey, flat. And then a whole step. It's going to be flat. And then another host up, which gets me back to see so whole half whole whole half hole hole. Right? And that makes our minor scale. Now, if you remember the previous one, we just did. If we took a major scale and lowered the 3rd 6th and seventh, we would get to the same place. Okay, so whole half whole whole half whole home is our alterations of half subset whole steps. Let's look at that on a piano. OK, here's our piano keyboard. Okay, so if we step through the pattern so let's start on C whole step, half step. Whole step. Whole step half step. Full step whole stump. Okay, so full stop here. Half step here. Full step Here. Whole step here. Half step, half step, whole step. Oops, that's hard to hit. Some of these accidental is with the little tiny mouse. Um, OK, so that's our pattern. Let's dio um, let's do another one. Oh, what's a key that we should try? Let's do, um, it's a g minor, okay? And let's do it with no key signature. Let's just plop it in and see where we land. So here's a G. So if we're trying to make a G minor scale, we know the first note is gonna be G right. Let's do our whole steps in half steps so we can go. So our first note is gonna be in a because that's a whole step. And then we need to go to a B flat because that's 1/2 step. Let's look down here. So here's G toe A is a whole step to be flat is our half step so there's be flat that gets us to hear So now we need a whole step to see okay And another whole step two d Okay, And then, ah, half step to e flat flat. Where were we e flat and then a whole step toe f and then another whole step gets us back to G. Now this one looks a little interesting because if you're paying attention, you may notice that in previous scales let's jump back. We have lowered our third, sixth and seventh right, But here it appears that our third and six, but not seventh is lowered, right? Can you guess? Why? Can you remember why that might be happening? Think about it for just second. I'll give you a clue. Think about the G major. What the G major scale. Looks like this is where I need the Jeopardy theme song playing. Okay, I'm gonna tell you, um number in the G major scale. This is an f sharp. So we did lower it. We lowered it by having just a Neff natural here. Right. So this is an f sharp in a major scale, so it is lowered by 1/2 step because it is now in f natural. So while it doesn't look like it's lowered just by the axe dentals, that look can be deceiving. Sometimes you have to actually count out the half steps to really see if it's lowered or not one last time. Our pattern to just pick any note. So let's say you pick a c sharp and you want to build a minor scale on C sharp. All you have to do is count intervals going whole step, half step, whole step, whole step, half step, whole step, whole step. And you've just built yourself a minor scale. Cool. Let's do one more. And this one Ah, is going to kind of be my Segway to the next section. Let's do on a minor scale. Okay, Okay, so here's in a So let's find ourselves in a right here. So whole step gets us to be half stop. Gets us to see whole step. Gets us to D. Another whole step gets us to e another half hour or 1/2 step gets us toe f whole step gets us to G, and then a whole step gets us back to a no accidental is here. Weird, right? Well, remember what the key is for a major. It's that that's the key for a major, right, because G. Sharp is our last sharp. If we go up 1/2 step, that's a That's the key for a major, and it has an F sharp, C sharp and a G sharp in it, which happens to be our third, our sixth and our seventh. So an a minor scale is all white notes. There's no key signature in the key of a minor. No, hold the phone a little bit here because we know that all white notes is C major. How can all the white notes, in other words, no key signature be both See Major and a minor Ha. The answer to that will be revealed in next video, because that is what a relative key means. Let's go check that out. 22. 25 Relatives: Okay, relative minor keys and relative major keys. Actually, what this means is that every major key has a cousin, and that cousin is a minor key. So for every major key, there is a minor key that has Theo exact same key signature. Okay, so another way to think about that for a minute is that we know all our major key signatures, right? If we look over here, here's our major key signatures, right? These are the ones that we we know how to deal with right now, right? There are no separate minor key signatures because the major key signatures get used again for the minor keys. They're just different, right? So, for example, what we just learned here is that the key signature for C major is the exact same key signature that we would use for a minor. Because they are relatives. C major and a minor are relative keys. They share all the same notes. They have a different tonic, but they have the same notes. Weird, right? Check this out. Let's take our Here's our a minor. And let's make a c major scale right after it poops. Okay, So what, we're gonna hear, hear is an a minor scale going up, and then we're gonna hear a C major scale going up. Clearly, I skipped something here. McGee. Missing a note. Here we go. Okay, so we're gonna hear a minor scale and then a C major scale kind. Now, think about this. It's all the same notes. One of them is just going to use a as a tonic, and the other one's gonna you see as a tonic. That means this one the one that's using a is a tonic is a minor scale woman. Susan C is a major. Let's just hear how that works out. Okay? All the same notes, just different tonics, right? And that is where some of that, um, names for the scale degrees that we talked about in a previous section of this class, uh, starts to matter a lot because the pull of the tonic is a little bit different in a minor key, right? Because let's take, for example, the dominant right in this case, we want the dominant to pull towards a which is an E. So the e pulled towards a over here, it's a G and the G. We want to pull towards C. If the G pull tor pulls towards E A, then we've got a confusing key thing happening because that feels like an a minor scale all of a sudden, so we'll talk more about that later. But for now, remember that this is a relative key. So how do we find what the relative is of a key? Okay, here's the trick. There's always a trick. There's always a pattern to find to start with a major key and find the minor the relative minor. Remember, Relative means uses the same key signature where we're gonna dio we're gonna take the sixth six note is the relative. So if I'm in a C major and I go up to the sixth, that's an A. If I now rewrite this scale using a as the tonic and I just keep going up here all the way to A I now have an a minor scale. So if you go up to the sixth, that is your relative minor, it could also sometimes, like when I'm trying to think fast on this, I go down. So this is my tonic. You go down three and that gets you to your relative minor. If you're in a minor scale and you want to find the relative major, you go up three. So here we have a minor. What is the relative major of a minor? It is gonna be C major the third. So I like to think of to find the minor. I like to think of going down three and to find the major. You go up three. Um so let's try that. Let's do this just by key signature, shall we? Okay, here is the key of a major, right? So this is the key of a major. So this is not the same as what we just did, right? Because this was the key of a minor. And we found the relative major, but now we're gonna go the other way. It's not gonna be C major. So a major, the relative minor. What are we gonna do? We have a major scale or major key. We got to find the relative minor. So what we're gonna do is we're gonna let's let's put, we're not gonna write out the whole scale here, but let's do just the notes. So here's our tonic and we need to do is find the six. So we need to go down. Three notes f sharp. Don't forget half sharp. So that means the relative minor of a major is f sharp minor. So the key signature of F Sharp Minor is the exact same key signature as a major. Wild, huh? Let's do another one. Let's do F Case is a key signature of F. So how do we figure out the relative minor of F? We're going to make an F and then we're gonna go down 32 defeat. So De Miner has the same key signature as F major. They are relatives. Another way to say that would be the relative minor of F major is de finer. Let's try going the other way. Here is the key signature of B minor. Okay, be minor. What is the relative major? Oops. So what we're gonna do here? It's like a B. And we're going from minor to major now, so we're going to go up three. It's gonna be d d Major. You may have been able to figure that out faster than I just did it by just reading this key signature. Since we know how to read key signatures. Um, which is an interesting point when you see a key signature. All you can really tell now is two possible keys that it could be in. Like we could look at any song. You could look the key signature. And let's say the key signature looks like this. Okay, You started. You pick up a piece of music and you look at that and you say, Well, I know for sure. Probably that this is in one of two different keys. It could be an e major because that is the key signature for E Major. Or it could also be in the key of C sharp minor. Because this is also the key for C sharp minor. How did I figure that out? I just thought e Here's Anne. I went down 32 a. C sharp because Sharp is in the key signature Sharp is in the key signature, and I thought c sharp minor. So if you see a song with this key signature in one of those two keys and if you want to figure out which is correct, you start looking at the cords, you start looking at the melody. You start kind of analyzing the peace, and then you can determine usually pretty fast if it's in E major or C sharp minor. Sometimes, though, it can be kind of ambiguous as to which one it's in, but it's usually pretty easy to tell once you get looking at the individual notes. But this key signature is really only telling us. Ah, it's narrowing it down to two possible keys. A major key in a minor key. Okay, so that is the relative key. That's how that works. So finding a the relative minor from a major key, we're gonna go down three to the sixth of the major scale is gonna tell us what the tonic of the minor Scala's going the other way. If we have a minor scale and we want to find the major scale, we're going to go up three to figure out what the tonic of the relative major is. Okay, Once you start doing this a lot, this is to me the easiest way to remember our all of our minor keys because, um, I know my major keys pretty well, so I can pretty easily do that quick calculation and find, Ah, what the key of the minor, the relative minor is right, so get good at this process. Practice finding relative majors and relative miners. It's a really valuable skill toe have, and it keeps you from having to memorize the key signature of every minor key. Um, which, as you probably know by now in this class, I'm not a huge fan of just huge amounts of rote memorization. So we want to avoid that if we can. But if you memorize this one principle, you'll be able to find the minor key for any major key. Cool. There's one more trick that we have. Ah, and let's jump to a new video. Talk about that. 23. 26 Parallel: Okay, The last term that we want to know in terms of converting major and minor scales and finding minor scales is parallel the parallel minor scale. And this is kind of what we looked at in the first thing when we talked about altering a major scale to find the minor scale. But I want to be I want to kind of separate this word. Parallel. So what a parallel means is that it? The two scales share the same tonic. In other words, let's make a C major scale. Okay. Okay. Now let's make a C minor scale cough flat. Okay, so now I have a C major scale in a C minor scale. These are parallel scales. So the parallel minor scale to see Major is C minor, right? So you can think of this is kind of the opposite of relative, right? So there's relative, which means there's a different tonic for the correlating minor or major scale. Parallel means they use the same tonic, right? So, to find the minor scale, the parallel minor scale from a major scale, we already know the trick for that. It is too flat. The 3rd 36 on the seventh. So it's kind of something we've already learned. But I wanted to just reinforce a little bit. Let's do a G major scale. No key signature, because we're gonna get wild. Okay, have sharp. Okay, here's a G major scale. And we know that if we want to find the parallel minor scale meaning a g minor scale, that's gonna that's what parallel means. So we're on a G major. So to find the parallel so still, G, we just have to flat are third, sixth and seventh. That gives us that f natural, and that gets us the parallel minor scale. So relative scales mean that they don't share a tonic, but they share all the same notes. Parallel scales mean that they do share the same tonic, but do not share all the same notes. Okay, so get comfortable. Those two words, we use them a lot. Music theory. There are cases where composers will switch between the parallel major and minor. Um, just Teoh, you know, keep because it asked, actually makes really interesting sound to go between the parallel majors and minor court. So check that out. Um, we'll see that come up a lot more. So remember that term parallel major and minor scale 24. 27 MacphailVideoIntro: okay up next. What I thought I'd include here is, um I made some of these videos for, um, this other school that I used to teach at, um called MacPhail. It's ah, really cool school in Minneapolis. They do kind of all ages education. And we made these videos for younger kids toe learn some of the basic concepts of music theory. And I thought the ah relative and parallel explanations were were turned out really well. And we did some fun, like animation stuff with him. So just for another perspective, another way to learn this stuff. I thought I'd include those here. So the next few videos air that they're, you know, they're a little camp either designed for younger listeners, but I think you'll really get something out of them, Especially if you're feeling like, kind of barely understand this. Watch these other videos and see if that helps 25. 28 Music Theory Tutorial (3 of 5) Natural Minor Scale: This is the sound of the A natural minor scale. Ah three. And here's a melody that uses the A natural minor scale. There are three ways to learn the natural minor scales. The first way is to use Ah, whole step half step sequence. The second way Use a relative major scale and the third way issues a parallel major scale. The natural minor scale has the following sequence whole half whole whole half hole hole. So just like the major, you can start on any pitch on your instrument and fall this special pattern of whole half whole whole half whole whole, and you'll get a natural, minor scale. Thinking This way is a little clunky and not super practical when we're playing our instruments. So I want to show you two other ideas that I think are a bit more practical. They use the relative major and parallel major scales, so you might have noticed that a natural minor and see major used the exact same pitches and have the same key signature of no Sharps and no flats. We would say that C Major is the relative major of a natural minor, so relative major means that they have the same pitches, but they're organized slightly differently. The difference is that a natural minor has a tonic of A and C major has a tonic of C. So remember that the tonic is the pitch that our ears recognized as being home base. This gives the two scales of very different sound, even if they use the exact same pitches. Let's listen to a melody that uses a natural minor. And here's a melody that uses C major so you can hear that even though they use the same pitches, the each have their own unique sound. Here's how to use the relative major scale toe. Learn a natural minor scale. First count up 3/2 steps, will call a minor third from the tonic of the minor scale you want and then to play in that major key. But start on the tonic of the minor scale. So, for example, if I wanted to learn D natural minor, I'd count up 3/2 steps from D so e flat than e natural. And then I land on F, some thinking f major and then to I'd start Lundy because that's the tonic and play in the key of F major, and we can remember that F. Major just has one flat and then I'd play all the way up to the next D. This works because F. Major is the relative major of D Natural Minor. This trick works for all natural minor scales. The third way toe learn a natural minor scale is to use the parallel major scale. C major is the parallel major scale. To see minor F major is the parallel major toe F minor G majors, the parallel major to G minor, and you kind of get the idea here. Parallel scales have this same tonic. If you take the parallel major scale and then lower, the 3rd 6th and seventh scale agrees, you get the natural minor scale. So, for example, let's say you want to figure out G natural minor. Take G major and lower the 3rd 6th and seventh scale degrees each by 1/2 step. That means the B turns into B flat. The e natural turns into E flat, and F sharp is now f natural. And voila! You have your G natural minor scale. So to wrap up, there are three ways to learn natural minor scales. The first used the whole step half step sequence that's unique to the natural minor scale to use the relative major. Three used the parallel major relative majors have the same pitches, and parallel majors have the same tonic. If I were you, I would probably go back and review this video a couple times just to make sure you get all that information in her next video. We're gonna talk about the harmonic minor in the melodic minor. 26. 29 Music Theory Tutorial (5 of 5) Key Signatures and Scales: key signatures tell us which pitches are sharp or flat in a piece of music. So there are three Sharps in the key signature. We know that we need to play all the EFS, C's and G's as f sharp C sharp and G sharp. If there are three flats in the key signature, then we play E A and B as e flat, a flat and B flat. When looking at a keys nurture, there's a trick to knowing the tonic name. The trick with flat signatures is to find the second to last flat, and that is the name of the key signature. So with four flats in the key signature, the second to last flight is a flat. So this is a flat major with three flats. The second last flat is E flat, so that is E flat major. The only flat censure this doesn't work with is F major, but you just have to remember that F Major has one flat in a sharp key signature. Find the last sharp and then go up 1/2 step, and that will give you the tonic name. So if you have one sharp in the key signature we go up 1/2 step from F sharp and get G. And indeed, G Major has one sharp with four sharps. The last sharp is D sharp and half step up from D sharp is e and we get e major. Key signatures can help us learn the major and minor scales quickly by using the tonic in the key signature. So, for instance, if you ask me to play a d major scale, I'd start on the tonic in this case D and then play all the way up to the next D, making sure to play F is F sharp and C A c sharp. Since that is what the key signature told me to do. We can use the same technique for natural minor scales by using the relative major key signature. If you ask me to play e Natural minor, I'd start on the tonic of e and play all way up to the next e, making sure to play F f sharp. Since that is what the key signature told me to dio, you should memorize your major and minor scales by both the tonic and the number of sharps or flats. If you see a key signature with two flats, you should immediately know that it's the key signature of B flat major. Or if somebody asked you to play a D flat major scale, you should know it has five flats. You should also memorize the key signature for all 12 relative minor scales. For example, C minor uses the key signature of E flat. Major B Minor uses the key signature of D Major and F minor uses the key signature of a flat major. One word of warning about key signatures. They don't always tell you the true key of a song. If you see two flats, the piece might be in B flat major or might be in G minor, since G Minor is the relative minor of B flat major, if there are four Sharps, it might b e major or could also be C sharp minor. You have to listen to the peace and analyze it a little bit further before deciding what the tonal centre is for that song, which you had to analyze music in depth a lot more in later tutorials 27. 31 NewWrinklesInCircleofFifths: So now let's jump back to our circle of fifths. Discussion, right? We've already learned how this thing works and how we can use it for closely related keys for borrowing cords, things like that. But adding, All are minor keys adds a whole kind of new wrinkle to this thing because now we have a lot more things we can do. So this particular graphic I have here is not showing us the minor keys, but a lot of them do. And I'm gonna pull up one in just a minute. But I wanted to take another quick look at this one, because before we look at that, there's kind of another interesting little a kind of mystical thing inside this circle of fifths that I wanted to point out because it just shows how, How kind of complex, this simple idea of a circle, if it's is, um, this is just kind of a neat little factoid, I guess. Um, but in the old days, in like medieval times and after that, in the Renaissance and things like that, people taught music by using these circles all the time, not just for fifths, but for other stuff. There was a lot of different circles of this and that and circles were a very common way to teach music. We don't use them anymore. Really, Except for the circle of Fifths. I don't I can't really think of any other time. And we use circles, but they used to use them all the time. Anyway, check this out. So C major Ah, the relative minor of C Major is a war Inc. Right? So we slide like this a major, the relative minor of a major f sharp. So we slide like that F sharp major, the relative minor D sharp. Ah, here. Let's call it e flat and then e flat major the relative minor c. And so you get these kind of star patterns in here. That's not really like a thing you want to be thinking about all the time. But I think it's really fascinating how this circle of fifths shows you all these different things anyway. Now, like I said, some graphics don't show you the miners, but a lot of them do. So let's jump over to a graphic that shows us how the miners, the relative miners, lay on to this graphic 28. 32 NewDiagrams: Okay, check this one out. This one has everything we need in it now. Like I said before, I mean, you confined like hundreds of different versions of the Circle of Fifth. But this one gives us the minor keys. So here's what we see for every little slice of the pie. Here we have the key signature, the major key associated with that, the minor key associated with that and then obviously the closely related keys on either side. The one thing I wish they would have done in this graphic is put the minor keys as a lower case letter. That's more common to see. Usually when you see a lower case letter like this, it would mean minor key. They haven't labeled as minor keys, so it's not ambiguous in any way. But I would rather that see it as a lower case letter. But anyway, it doesn't matter. So with this graph, we can not only see closely related keys, but we can also just go anywhere and see like a flat major is f minor. E flat major is C minor, etcetera. So ah, B flat major is G minor, and we can get all the way across. Now it looks like we have some color scheme that showing us parallel keys. Right? G is an orange G major is an orange G minor is in orange is well Ah, a major is in yellow. A minor is in yellow, so they're doing something with colors to show us the relatives are the parallels. I'm sorry and the relatives are stacked on top of each other. So as you search around for a circle of fifths diagram that maybe you'll hang on your wall or not try to find one with minor keys. When we looked at it earlier, I intentionally avoided showing you one with minor keys, Um, with the relative miners on it, because I just didn't want to be confusing yet. But going forward, we should always be trying to see one with the my relative miners on their because it gives us a lot more options for closely related keys, which I want to talk about next. Let's talk about that right now. 29. 33 MoreCloselyRelatedKeys: okay. Before, when we talked about closely related keys, we talked about going to either side of the key on the circle of fifths. So we're in the key of C major. We could go to G Major cause it's only one accidental away. Or we could go to F Major cause it's only one accident away. But now we have a couple more options, right? We could also go to a minor. It's no accident. ALS away. It's the exact same, and we could also go to D Minor or E minor. All of those are only one accidental away, right? A is no accident was away. So maybe we may be a better way to say that would be. All of these are one or less accidental is away. So you have five options of places you could go Very interesting. Um, so let's say we're in the key of a major and we're writing a song and things are coming along well and you're like, I need something different, something that sounds a little outside of the box here. You could figure out all the cords for E major C. Sharp minor F sharp minor B minor or D major. And all of those things would be good options, because all five of those are closely related keys. So we went from two closely related keys of the surrounding major keys. Teoh. Five Possible closely related keys. Pretty cool, right? So that's what I love. The circle office for the most is giving us, um, options for songwriting and composition. Right, Because sometimes you just need to stare at a graphic like this to give you in a fresh new idea. So check it out. Print one of these out. Put on your wall. You'll love it. I found this one just by googling. Um, if you Google Circle of Fifths, you'll find, like, hundreds of different diagrams. But this is a particularly nice one. Okay, let's move on. 30. 34 DiatonicChordProgressionReiew: So now that we're getting comfortable with minor scales, it's time to look at what that does to our diatonic chord progression. So first, let's do a quick run through of what this diatonic chord progression is and why we care about it. So a reminder of what it is is it's all the cords that exist in that key without doing anything out of the key. So it's just really quick Go back to our C Major example. So what I'm gonna do here, actually, let me just write the scale, because in a minute we're gonna do this in minor. But for now, I'm gonna do it, Major. So here's their c major scale. Now remember, what I'm gonna do for each court is the first, the third and the fifth. In other words, every other note of the scale. So see, E is the skip d go to E skip f and go to G Okay, D I'm gonna Skippy and Goto f some taken every other note, skip G and go to a e. I'm gonna skip F and go to G on. Then I'm going to skip a and go to be f. I'm gonna skip G and go to a ah Then I'm gonna skip, be and go to see G I'm gonna skip, be her skip a and go to be Then I'm going to skip, See And I got a circle around There's the same See that I'm skipping It's an octave lower And then I got to go to D Okay, a I'm gonna skip, be and go to see And then I'm gonna go Let's go down here. Here's the C I just did a skip d and go to e. Then be I'm gonna skip, see and go to D de and then Skip E and Goto f And then I'm back to see and we'll see. It's gonna be the same as this one. But in active hires of C, E and G Great. So there is my diatonic chord progression. Let's just hear it really quick. Now, if you remember, the key to this is there's a pattern to these chords. Is there not even though we're using a major key? These were not all major chords. There are some minor chords in some major chords. And then one funky cord. One weird court. Um so remember the pattern is major chord. Minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished. That's the weird one. And then we're back to major again. Failed on tonic. So what that means is, without figuring out all these notes, all we really need is the scale. So we could go to the scale and we can figure out our cords just using the pattern, because we know that if we're in the key of C and we want to play an F chord, it has to be a major chord. If we wanted to stay within the key, right, because of the pattern. Major, minor, minor major. So f is a major court. That's the f chord that's in key, right? Uh, if we wanted to add an accord in the key of C, it would have to be minor because the pattern puts the sixth, which is here on a minor court. So we don't need to figure out all the notes of a record. We just need to remember No, we just need to know what key were in and the pattern of the diatonic chord progression. Now it would sure be convenient if the pattern was the same in a minor key because then we wouldn't have to learn a new pattern. And we wouldn't have to memorize a new pattern, right? Wouldn't that be just great? Um, it's not true. The patterns totally different. Kinda. The pattern is different, but there are some tricks to remembering it. So you might not really have to memorize. Ah, whole new pattern. Ah, and the clue I'm going to give you on that for now is remember the relative key issue that can really help us out to remember this because it works for diatonic chord progressions to We're gonna talk about that in a minute. But first, let's just look at the pattern as it is. So let's go to a new video and we'll dive right into the pattern. If a minor diatonic chord progression 31. 35 ThePattern: Okay, let's figure this out in the key of a minor. Now, one thing you'll notice is that when we're talking about major keys, we tend to jump right to see Major because it's got no accidental. That's kind of the easiest one to wrap our head around because we don't have to worry about any accidental, any accidental or a key signature when we're in minor keys. The same thing kind of applies toe a minor. Because if you remember what we just learned in the previous section, a minor also doesn't have any accidental or any key signature. So it's kind of the easiest to just understand without dealing with any accidental. So that tends to be our go to to explain things. So you'll see me working in a minor. Ah, little bit here. So let's draw on a minor scale, okay? There is a minor. Now let's figure out our diatonic chord progression. So let's walk through with the long way just to prove the point that it works the same. The concept is still the exactly the same. I've got a I'm gonna skip, be go to see I'm gonna skip F and I'm gonna go to e. I'm gonna do that all the way up. Every other note. It's going to kind of do it fast forward to save us some time. Oops. Okay, there we go. Goes up pretty high. Um, Cook. So let's have a look at what we ended up with by doing this, because that's really what the diatonic chord progression is. It's figuring out what cords these are, what major and minor court they are. Now. Remember how we learn if the cord is major or minor. We did this in the last class. I don't think we talked about it in this class yet. I don't want to spend a ton of time on it, but just as a quick refresher, um, we can count half steps to get to our third and remember the third. The middle note is what determines if it's a major or minor chord. Um, all of the fifths, which are the outside notes, are going to be perfect fifths, except for the one that is a diminished, which we'll get to in just a second. So let's figure out our pattern. So are one chord is a minor court right? That shouldn't be too surprising were in the key of a minor, so the cord built on a is going to be minor. So here we go a minor. Now the two chord, If you remember in a major key, the seventh chord is what gave us our diminished chord. And that was the ugly one, the one we kind of avoid in a minor key. It's the to court. This is our diminished chord. Kind of has that funky sound to it. So the two core it is diminished and minor. It's kind of weird, but 2/4 diminished in minor three. Chord is a major, so so far we have minor, diminished major. The four Accord is minor. The five chord is minor. The six court is major. The seventh chord is major, and then we're back to the one chord up an octave, which is minor. So what does that give us that gives us a pattern of minor, diminished major minor, minor major major Minor. Okay, so that is the pattern for our diatonic chord progression in a minor key. So it's different than major right? It's it's kind of scrambled around, but it's not completely scrambled around there is something else to it that I'm going to show you in a minute. But, um, I want talk about one other thing really quick, just as a quick refresher, because I don't think I made this clear just a second ago. Let me pull up our keyboard. How do we know if these are major or minor chords? If you're wondering cause I just kind of shot him out and told you, but I want you to know how to know. Remember that the way, The simplest way we can figure out if these are major remind records if we don't know anything, if we're just looking at, according we don't know what key or anything we're in, what we do is we say we take the route of the cord. This case is a and then the next note of the cord, they figure out what interval that is. So here's an A, and here's a see the second note, and if it's a minor third, it's going to be a whole step and 1/2 step away. So here's a whole step and here's 1/2 step. So that is the whole step and 1/2 step away. That's a minor third. So that makes that a minor chord. Let's go to a major chord. Here's a major chord after a Here's an F. Here's an A. So this one is a full step. That's a whole step. And then this is a whole step that's two whole steps away, and that's a major third. So if those 1st 2 notes are ah, whole step in 1/2 step away, it's a minor court. If it's if they are to whole steps away, it's a major chord. The diminished one is a minor third here. So these air to that, these are, ah, half step. Ah, whole step and 1/2 step away and these are a whole step and 1/2 step away. So this is like a double minor record. Where is the rest of them? Won't have that. Okay, so that's how we do that. All right, up next. Let's talk about another. A little trick that I've been kind of alluding to to memorize this a little bit better, using relative keys 32. 36 DCPwithRelatives: All right, let's put this back to back with the relative major of a minor. So what that means is a c major scale. Let's just have a look at what happens when we do that. So I'm gonna make the diatonic chord progression in C major one more time. Okay? Okay. Okay. Let's take a quick look at this even though we just did. But trust me, you're gonna thank me for this. So the pattern here is major, minor, minor, major, major, minor, diminished Major. Let's think about this for a second. Let's just use the diminished core because there's only one of these diminished chords. Let's just kind of pinpoint on that. This is a be diminished chord, and it's the seven chord. OK, it's the seventh chord in the sequence. It's the court built on the seventh in the key of seat because B is the seventh in the key of C. Jump back to a are diminished chord and a is also be right. But it's only the two chord. Let's think about that for a second. The two chord, the diminished chord. The diminished court is still the diminished court. It's still be in the relative key, which means everything else. Lines up there just shifted. Let me explain a little bit better. Let me. I think this will make the most be the most clear. I'm going to keep this going. I'm gonna keep going and see Major all the way up to a So I'm still in C major, See diatonic chord progression. I'm just gonna repeat a d chord inactive higher e chord and f chord G chord. And then we're gonna end it on a Okay, so zoom out a little bit here. Big long diatonic chord progression in c all the way up quite high. Now look at this. So here's our pattern from sea to sea right here. These eight cords. Okay. And that gives us our major minor minor major, major minor. Ah, diminished major pattern. But what if we took the same exact thing? And let's just start on the A minor the relative minor of C major what we get. Then we get minor, diminished major, minor, minor, Major, major minor. We get the right pattern. All we did was shift. We just started here. So if we just looked at these 1st 8 what we could Dio is do the same major pattern that we already know but just started right here. Minor diminished major cycle back. Skip that one because it's the same as that one. Right? And then minor, Minor, major, major. Minor. It's the same pattern. It's the exact same pattern. It just starts here instead of here. Let's do it the other way. Let's go to a minor and let's go up to see Okay, here's our C major chord. If we started counting our diatonic chord progression from right here, it would be a major, minor, minor, major, major, minor cycle back diminished major. It would be the same pattern just shifted by three courts. Right? Start up here. Counted up, cycle back. It's the same pattern. So when we look at the minor diatonic core progression, it looks like a whole new pattern. But it's actually not. It is the major pattern that we already know, but we're just starting at a different spot, and that works in any key in any key. If you can figure out the diatonic chord progression of the relative major, then you'll have the right names for all the cords. Does that make sense. Let me think it. Let me just try to say that one more time. So if we're in, let's do it. Just a whole new key here for in the key of let's do the key of, um e Major. Okay, I'm not even gonna write all the notes. Just gonna walk us through this with our with words. We're in the key of E major. Now we can figure out all of the cords that work in E Major by thinking about the scale and the pattern so it would be e major. We have to apply the key signature so the next notes gonna be f sharp. And it's the second chord in a major key. So it's going to be a minor chord and then g sharp, and that's going to be a minor chord. So we just walked through the scale and we put the appropriate court on it. Now, if we want to do that in minor, if we want to find all the correct cords that exist in the relative minor, what we need to do is first figure out the relative minor. Remember, our trick for that was to go down two, and that's gonna be a C sharp because of the key signature of E that ends up being a C sharp. So it's C Sharp Minor is the relative minor of E. Major. Now, what are all the cords that are gonna work in C sharp minor? They're gonna be the same chords that work any major. They're gonna be exact same. If you want to lay them out, all in order, you're going to start the order a different spot. But in the end of the day, the names of all the cords C sharp, minor de sharp, diminished E major etcetera going through the whole scale, they're all gonna be the same courts. The cords will be the same. Um, the order of them will be a little bit different. But if you're just trying to find what chords work in that key, all the cords and the relative major and minor are the same. The patterns. You can figure out the patterns if you want. You just have to start him a little bit different, started here and go through the major diatonic chord progression and you'll have all the right court, or you could memorize the pattern all the way up from in the minor key. That could be useful depending on what your, um, how your brain works. Maybe you want to think that way. Now, there is another little wrinkle to this. Um, sometimes this version of the minor scale doesn't quite cut it, and we have to alter it a little bit. So let's let's talk about that a little bit in the next video. 33. 37 TheVChordAndLeadingTones: Let's look at the major diatonic chord progression real quick one more time. Remember when just a couple of lessons ago, when we talked about the names of the notes of our scale, one of the super important ones was the dominant. Another one of the super important ones was the leading tone. Okay, those are biggest tendency notes, So the leading tone pushes very forcefully towards the tonic Leading tone. Always feel like it's pushing towards the tonic because it's only 1/2 step away. Okay, it's that if we look at it down here, it's right here. And then Tomic is right there, just 1/2 step away, and it pushes there really hard. The dominant has a major chord on it in a major key, because the second note is the leading tone right, and the third note is the super atomic and all of those help this cord, the five chord really pushed back to tonic. So in both cases, this leading tone is really important to making the music feel like there is a strong tonic . If we didn't have a leading tone, a lot of that pull would be missing. Ah, lot of that tendency to go to tonic would be missing. So now let's look at a minor key. What have we got? We have a five chord that is minor, which means the reason that this is minor. It's because there's no leading tone in minor. This is a major chord. That's a minor court. This G is ah, whole step away from that a right. If we look down here, hoops doing reductive, there's that G and there's that a that's a whole step away because there's a note in between, right? So it doesn't have neither the leading tone or the dominant have the same kind of pull that they do in a major key, and sometimes that causes some problems for us. Sometimes we just really need that pull toe happen. Uh, so we cheat, and we alter this by raising that we can raise the leading tone. Why not? Uh, sometimes we do that because when we dio that gives, that makes this a really funky cord, which we'll talk about in a minute. But it really pushes towards a tonic and makes it feel like we have established the key a lot better than we would if it was just a minor scale. Similarly, this five leads us back to one when it's a major five, because it has that leading tone in it. Now it makes it. It helps push. It has that tendency to eat us back toe one in ways that when this is minor, it doesn't let me play it for you both ways. So here's without altering the leading tone. Okay, let me just get rid of this bars. We don't get confused here. Okay, So here is our minor diatonic chord progression. Just normal. You could almost feel like it could keep going up, right? This doesn't feel like the place it stops and it just lives right there. Right now. Let's raise the leading tone and make it a proper leading tone. Now let's hear it now. These two chords feel a little bit uglier, but this feels like a true tonic. Now it feels like home. Like we could end the peace on that chord because of these leading tones, they just helped push it there. So what I'm doing here is is ah, setting up a Segway to talk about the other versions of the minor scale. I think I mentioned these a little while ago. We've been working with the natural minor scale, which means kind of the out of the box. Normal minor scale. But there are two more versions of the minor scale that we're gonna encounter in the next section. Ah, and they kind of mess up our diatonic chord progression a little bit. Um, for the better. Of course. That's why we we go through the hassle of learning these other things. So in the next section, we're gonna talk about the melodic and harmonic minor record minor scales. 34. 39 threeTypesofMinor: when it comes to minor scales. This is when things start to get a little bit weird. Most of the time when we're working just with building cords and things using minor scales , we're using the natural minor scale that we've been looking at. So the one we've been looking at so far is the natural minor scale. If someone just says the minor scale, they're probably talking about the natural minor scale. In some cases, we take the natural minor scale and we banging around a little bit to fit our needs. Um, for example, the thing we were just talking about about having a leading tone. So there exists three different types of the minor scale I like to think of them is kind of like three different flavors. There's still all the minor scale. We just kind of make a couple little adjustments to suit our needs a little bit better. Um, so the three types are the natural minor scale, the one we already know, the harmonic minor scale and the melodic minor scale. Now the harmonic minor scale is think about what it's called. It's called the harmonic minor scale, because it helps with harmonies a little bit. That is the one that so here I have a a minor scale. The harmonic minor scale just has a leading tone in it, and that's it. Pretty cut and dry. We just raise that g sharp a little bit. Which does make for an interesting interval here, because this is now neither ah, half step or a whole step. This is a case where, in a scale we have a minor Third doesn't look like it, But let's count our half steps f to G sharp. If we go down here, f g g sharp, it's Ah, whole step and 1/2 step right? So there's a big leap between these two that doesn't normally exist in any kind of scale. But it will. As we look at more scales, you'll see that ah, leaps of bigger than a whole step can't happen in skills. Um, it's not terribly out of the ordinary. So the three scales natural, minor harmonic minor and then the melodic minor. The melodic minor is kind of the weirdest of the three, so let's kind of leave that for a separate ah topic. We're gonna get to that in just a couple of videos, but let's focus in on the harmonic minor and look closely at how that plays out 35. 40 HarmonicMinor: so we used the harmonic minor scale to build harmonies. It's a very common way to make sure that our five chord turns out to be a major five chord , which gives it that extra tendency that we want and also gives us a leading tone up to the tonic. Let's listen to them to the harmonic minor scale real quick here, right? You hear that big interval right there? It almost gives it, like a kind of a typical like, um, I don't want to say like a eastern sound, but it kind of is that, like when we want to use right things that have that kind of eastern sound to it? Um, we we like to use that because of that big interval right there. So let's make our diatonic or progression using the harmonic minor real quick. Here, Let's just see how it all lines up. So a C s. So everything's gonna be natural except for G. Okay, right here. I need a sharp. It's the one we didn't look at. Will come back to that in a second. Let me just write all this out sharp. There's are five chord. She sharp on a Okay, so let's look at what that did to our diatonic chord progression. First chord still minor. A minor unaffected second chord still diminished. Be diminished. Unaffected. Okay, are three chord is affected. See, e g Sharp is now accord. We haven't looked at yet in this class, but we didn't the previous class. This is an augmented chord. Now, when we looked at augmented chords in the previous class, what I told you was an augmented chord does not naturally occur in the diatonic chord progression but with some extra little banging around it does. And this is one of those cases. So this is our first instance of a naturally occurring diatonic chord progression augmented court. Just a quick refresher. An augmented chord is when you have a major, try it on the bottom and a major triad at the top, right? So in most cases we have either a minor triad at the bottom in a minor chord and also in a minor chord will have a major Try it at the top or in a major chord, you'll have a major. Try it at the bottom and a minor triad at the top. But in a dog and a diminished chord. Remember, we have a minor tried at the bottom and a minor. Try it at the top and an augmented chord. We have a major. Try it at the bottom between these two and ah, major triad at the top. So when we're using the harmonic minor, we get an augmented Triad on the three chord, which is interesting. The four chord is minor, unaffected. The five chord is now a major. It was normally minor in a minor key, but now it's major. The six chord, unaffected, still major. The seventh chord is now a diminished chord. So what we have here is two diminished chords, one here on the to court and on the seventh chord and an augmented court on the three chord . So our harmonies get a lot more colorful from doing this now in all practicality. Ah, and remember Dix, I didn't say, but here we have our again. So that's a minor chord. Seeing is this one now in all practicality. When we do this, sometimes we leave this G as natural. Um although it does serve a good purpose because what this does is push us up to here up to the four chord, which can be valuable sometimes because the four chord is also one of our tendency cords. But it's not nearly as strong as our five chord, so sometimes that G Sharp does help. But sometimes we just leave that one natural that could be OK. And now, if we did that, we're back to a major chord here. But let's leave it and let's hear this whole thing of using the harmonic minor scale. It's a little more What's the right word? It's a little more phantom of the Opera to me, I guess. Um, I I wish I could think of a better, more musical thing to say about it in that, but it just has a little more like, you know, Renaissance kind of sound to it to me. But that is using the harmonic minor scale. That's what we get when we put those all together into the diatonic chord progression. Now let's shift gears and talk about the melodic minor scale. It is a little bit weirder, so let's jump to a new video and talk about melodic minor 36. 41 MelodicMinor: from the melodic minor scale. What we're thinking about here is we use this more for melodies than we do for building harmonies. Building harmonies with the melodic minor scale causes some even weirder problems than like that augmented chord that we just saw. So we mostly pull from the melodic minor scale to make a melody that flows a little bit better. Ah, and really emphasizes the leading tone, the dominant five chord and the tonic. So what we dio is we raised the leading tone, so it just like the harmonic minor. It has a leading tone, but the melodic minor also has a raised sixth. What does that do for us? What it kind of does is it keeps you can kind of think of it like the first half of it is minor, and the second half of it is major. That's kind of what it is. The reason that we've we would do this is that this leading this leading tone pushes Teutonic a whole bunch. But this gets rid of that big, weird gap that that minor third interval, remember, if this is just natural, what we have is this minor third gap here and it gives us that kind of phantom of the opera sound. I call it it. So let's by raising the sixth, we get rid of that that interval and it sounds a bit more smooth because the interval here is a whole step because it was 1/2 step. So all we did was raise it to a whole step. We didn't raise it to a minor third, which would be a big race. So this kind of smoothed out that big gap. Let's hear it. Yeah, so you don't get that big gap this way. Now there's another little trick to the melodic miners scale that is just even weirder. Let me write this going down. So I'm gonna go down the A minor scale is gonna write a natural minor scale. Oops. Okay, Now, here's what's weird about the melodic minor scale when we use the melodic minor scale Typically well, we raised the sixth and seventh when we're going up when we're ascending when we're descending and having the scale go down, we keep those suckers natural and we do with them as the natural minor scale going down. Typically, Onley raise the six and seven when we're in an US ending line, a melody that goes up. If we're not going up, we do them as natural. It's so weird, right? It's just the weirdest thing. Like, why does the direction of the scale matter, too? Um, what notes are in it? It's like quantum theory, in a way, um, but it does because these leading tone properties leading to this a don't have the same effect. When we're going down, we want them to still feel like a minor scale. Right? When we go up, we use these rays notes to push us to hear when we're going down. We don't need a push to here. These notes push us down Teutonic just fine on the room. Let's hear the whole thing going up and down. Okay, so in a melody you might have a section of music where there's a little run up to tonic, and you would raise these and you would. If you're going down in some pattern, you would not raise them. And it's not about the using the whole scale. It you know, when we write melodies, it goes all over the place. So, um, you don't need to write the whole scale in order to get this raised and these not raised. If you're doing some melody that starts on E and goes up to a, you might raise them. And if it's going down to F, for example, you might not raise them. But it's a choice. You don't have to do that. It doesn't mean your melodies that you write have to use the melodic minor when you're writing a melody, not by any means. You can use whichever scale you want. What we're explaining with the melodic minor scale here is what composers tend to do. What they tend to do is in these runs when they're going up, they raise the six and seven, and when they're going down, they use them as natural. 37. 42 GreensleevesExample2: so earlier in this class we used this song Greensleeves Teoh Look at compound Meter, but it is also a perfect example of harmonic and melodic minor. Let's take a look. So what is this key signature telling us It's key? Signature is telling us G Major maybe, or the relative minor. Ah, which would be e e minor. So we start here E g b. That's a big old e minor triad. So my guess is that we are in e minor. Let's listen to this a little bit and see if this feels like the tonic. Oh, let's slow it down. Just a touch. Here we go. I think so. I think E minor is a pretty good candidate. But how do we explain this D sharp? We can explain it perfectly great by saying it's part of the harmonic or melodic in this case, because if we're in the key of e minor, this d sharp is our leading tone, right? And it uses, and we we raise that d two d sharp so that we can push back to this e really nicely right? Look down here. Here's a d sharp. This is a B D F and it's an f sharp, Remember? So this is a five chord, and it's a major five chord because we're using the harmonic minor and it's giving us that d sharp right now. If we were using the melodic minor, we would also see a raised six somewhere right, which would be C sharp. So we would find a C sharp somewhere and let's scroll down just a touch and look right about there. But here is a C sharp in context in E minor. So now we know that there's some melodic minor happening here. But you might be saying to yourself, I see a line going down a descending line and didn't you just say we only raised these when we're going up? I did say that, but I also said composers could do whatever they bloody well want to do. Um, and in this melody they raise it going down. But not really, because think of it this way. This is our destination tonic, right? So what this is doing is it's going down. But from here, forward C sharp D sharp e. It's raised because remember, this d sharp is raised also, so it's raised going up to e right. So the d sharp we could attribute to harmonic minor. And then the C sharp is going up to e. So that gets us landing on tonic, which is what we used to get to tonic that c sharp d sharp e so but again that you know, is saying that this c sharp is only there because we're kind of on an upswing. That's a little subjective. We could always just say the composer decided to use it going going down also, that's perfectly fine. So is a good example of using harmonic and melodic minor. Um, how do you know the difference in a piece like this? How do we know we're using harmonic or melodic? If you're using melodic, you're kind of also using harmonic, right, because melodic has a raised six and seven and harmonic only has a raised seven. So if you see the raised six, then you're using melodic Um, if you don't see the Rays six than using harmonic so we could say this whole piece is using melodic minor. But these kinds of scales don't really work like that. We don't really say the whole pieces using melodic minor. Very often, we don't say that. What we normally say is this is an A minor or sorry e minor. And it goes between the different available minor scales, some of its unnatural minor. Some of it has the raised six and seven. Some of it just has a raise. Seven. Um, the harmonica melodic miners don't function the same as their own key, necessarily. So it's a little bit different than that. He would still say this is in e minor. Okay, so I hope that helps What I want to give you next is another one of those kind of fun little MacPhail videos that I made with the fund animations That helps to explain some of this. So let's just check that out. It's really short. And I thought I would include it. So let me throw that it 38. 43 Music Theory Tutorial (4 of 5) Harmonic and Melodic Minor Scales: the harmonic minor scales is identical to the natural minor scale, with one exception in the harmonic minor scale, we raised the seventh scale degree by 1/2 step. So if we take are a natural minor scale and then raise the G two g sharp, we get the A harmonic minor scale. We take D natural minor and raise the sea by 1/2 step to see sharp. We get d harmonic minor. So if you know your natural minor scales, it should be fairly simple. Toe. Learn the harmonic minor scales. Here are a couple examples of the harmonic minor being used in melodies. Theo. Yeah, the last minor scale is the melodic minor. This one is the strangest of the minor scales because it uses different pitches ascending than it does descending on the way down. It's exactly the same as the natural minor, but on the way up, it is just like the parallel major scale, with a lowered third scale degree. So remember, parallel scales share the same tonic. For example, G Major is the parallel major of G minor, so all we have to do is lower the third scale degree when ascending so the third scale degree in G is be natural. We lowered 1/2 step to be flat and then we use the rest of the scale as normal and we have the A sending melodic minor. Next, we'll take a look at key signatures and we'll see how they can help us learn our scales. 39. 45 AnalysisOverview: okay, It's time to do some analyses. We're going to this little different than we did in the previous class in the previous class. I did. Ah. One big analysis and I walk through every gory detail. I didn't. After I did that, I thought maybe I could do that better. So what I'm gonna do this time is I'm gonna do this in three steps. So the next three videos, they're gonna be the three steps, the 1st 1 or not three videos, but the next three sections. The 1st 1 is going to be a pdf of this piece exactly as I'm looking at it here. So it's not gonna have the analysis on it. What I want you to do is download that pdf may be printed out and try to do the analysis yourself. Okay, so do that. First, I really think this will be useful. Do that. And then step two of the analysis process is going to be ah, watched the next video. And in that I'm gonna walk through the peace now. I'm not going to go through every chord. I'm going to skip parts that repeat Ah, and not put in all of that stuff because I don't want it to be like an hour long analysis, because nobody wants to watch that. So But I will go through, um, all the significant and what I think is confusing things. Most of the piece, in the case of this green sleeves piece, it'll probably be most of the peace. And then after that, there will be a pdf of my full analysis so you can compare yours to mine. After watching the video and anything that you did that I did differently. Compare it and see if you can understand why I did mine differently. Like what I did, um, compared to what you did. And then if you have questions about that, if there's something that I did that you don't see why I did that or you don't understand it, that's totally okay. Post a question, Um, and we will get to it as quick as possible, or I will get to it as quick as possible. And, um, we'll get an answer for you. So I think the best way to really use this stuff as for you just to try it. I think you know enough now to try it. Ah, and compare it to mine and see what I did different. You know? And I'm hesitant to say where you went wrong and I was right, because maybe I went wrong. Um, but see where we differ and then compare the two. Okay, so that's the kind of three step process that we're going to do with this analysis. So here we go. In the next thing, you'll get a pdf of Greensleeves. And then after that, we'll be back here, toe walk through the analysis together. See you then. 40. 47 GreensleevesAnalysis: Okay, we're back. And presumably you have downloaded that. Pdf and you've tried analyzing this piece yourself. So let's dive in and take a look at it now the first thing we want to do, like always. When we're analyzing the pieces, let's just take a listen to it. And when I listen to it this time through, I'm gonna be thinking from, like, kind of a music theory perspective. As I listen, the first thing I want to decide while I'm listening here is what is what key are we in? So I want to find Accord. That sounds like the key that were in no most cases. That's gonna be the first or last chord. Or probably they're the same. Um, but let's just listen and let's think about that while we listen. Let's just get the peace in our head. Here we go Way . Okay, So, looking at our key signature, our key signature tells us where are possibly in the key of G because it's one sharp, and we know that one sharp is the key of G major. However, when we listen to it and we find those chords that feel like they could be tonic like this first chord. We don't necessarily see a G major accord, right? Here's a G pitch which might throw us off and think, Oh, that could be a G major. But let's look at this. The 1st 3 notes E g b. If we stack those right on top of each other, we would see an e minor chord So pretty safe assumption that were in E minor here, which, if you do your relative majors and minors, you would find that E Minor has the same key signature as G major. So that is a pretty good bet. So let's call it E Minor. Now it's cool about this arrangement of this piece and makes it fairly easy to analyze. Is that a lot of these of the the left hand and the piano? The lower staff here is really laid out and fairly simple chords for us, and that will tell us pretty much everything we need. So let's just look through this E g B. That is an e minor chord. So that's gonna be one. And in a minor key, we would do a lower case one, because it's minor. So lower case one e g b Another lower case. One now when were now analyzing something. We only really need to put a Roman numeral when changes. So if we don't put anything here, it means it's still one. So normally we would not put anything right here. Ah, we would just say one. And then we'd stay on one so we wouldn't put anything right there. Here the court changes. So let's have a look at that D f and A Now what is a d f sharp? Sorry D f sharp in a. That is a root position d major chord, which in the key of e is seven. Let's really quick. Just go to do a new file here. Let's just really quickly lay out our e minor diatonic chord progression. Okay? There's no shame in doing that. If you say OK, I'm an e minor. I want to just write out all my possible chords. That's totally okay. Don't be afraid to do that And just use this as a reference when we're looking at the piece . So we're right here. D f A. Now let's look at our core progression. Here's D F sharp, A d F. Sharp a and that is seven. That's a major seven. And that's OK in the minor. He that's perfectly allowed. So we're gonna call that seven Capital seven. Uh, right here. D f a a still capital seven. That's totally okay. Back to hear. See, E g. Okay, so see, E G. Let's look at our chart here. Here's A C E G. What is that? That is a major six, and that is also totally OK, so we're going to call that a major six. But we have a little wrinkle here because we have a note out of key right there. So let's make sure this cord is still a major six, which it is. That's still a C major D Sharp does not occur in C major, nor does it occur in E minor. So how do we explain that d sharp? Well, we kind of just talked about this in the previous section, right? Um, we can easily explain that by saying it's drawn from the harmonic minor scale because in e minor, the harmonic minor is going to have a raised seventh, which would be D sharp. De Sharp is gonna be the seventh scale degree and I remember we're not talking about cords here. We're talking about scale degrees. So a raised leading tone is what's gonna happen S O That would be just the pitch d and we're going to raise it to a D sharp heading towards that e. So we can explain that with the harmonic minor. We don't need to really do anything different with our analysis here because we're going to call that a non cord tone non chord tones. If you remember, we looked at those in some detail in the last class. We're gonna look at those again in an upcoming class Ah, in more detail. But ah, we introduced those in the last class and they just mean a note in the melody that is not in the cord. And they happen a lot. They haven't all over the place. We've seen a few of them already. Ah, let's look it right here. Here's our our one chord E, g and B. And this note C is not in that court. And that's okay. It's a non cord tone, so we don't need to worry about it too much. Okay, so we're gonna attribute this D sharp to the harmonic minor. That's totally okay. Now let's go. Here we have a B D Sharp and F sharp. We have another out of key note B D Sharp and F sharp. So let's go Look at our are key here Tears B, D and F sharp. But they've raised the d. And once again, we know how to explain this because we just looked at it. We would explain this with the melodic minor. Okay, so what we would do in the analysis? So, first of all, the melodic minor quick refresher means were raising the sixth and seventh tone scale degree of the scale. And that is going to be C sharp and D sharp thes two notes because they're right here also , 67 and and tonic. So if we raise those that gives us that, um, major five chord, right? That's one of the main reasons that we like using the harmonic and melodic minor. Now, we may or may not be using the melodic minor at this point because that is the six and seventh. I'm kind of jumping ahead, but right now all we know for sure is that we're using the harmonic minor because we have these D Sharps, right? We've got here. Got one here. We've got one here. So harmonic minor is kind of the thing we're doing right now, so that gives us a major five chord. Now, normally, in the key of E minor, we have a minor five chord, but this one is a major five court because we borrowed that harmonic minor. So all we're gonna really do different here is the Roman numeral we're gonna put on here is going to be a major five. It's gonna be a capital five. Everything else is the same over this spot right here. We would just leave a blank because it's really still the major five chord. Um, we don't need to add anything here and now we repeat pretty much everything again. Everything kind of lines up the same. Here's our one chord. Here is our seven chord. Here is our six chord See e g. And then they go to the five chord 1/2 bar earlier this time and then back to the one chord . So it's slightly different. All right, let's look at the next section. The B section. We would call this because the harmony changes quite a bit. So this first chord G b de so g B and D. Let's look at our cords here. It's a major three. Totally. Okay, we're gonna call that three now. Interesting to note that this that major three is also one in the relative major, right? If we were in the key of G major, this would be one. So what we want to keep our eye out for here is if we're in the process of transitioning or modulating to the key of G major, if we're leaving a minor, I don't think we are. But that would be kind of ah, symbol to look out for when we see a big G major chord. It's the big relative major. And that might be, ah, symbol that we're heading over to G Major. But we're not in this case. We'll talk more about module aging shortly. So we have a big three chord here. D f sharp A So what's DF in a That's our seven court again. Totally Okay. D f in a again, C, e and G. There's are six court again. So we're really back to this. Ah, 76 progression and then r b d sharp f sharp that we saw above, which is our major five, right? So all we really done is it's this Almost the same core progression is the first section, except we put a big G major here. Instead of the e minors, we put ah, major three instead of the minor one, which is cool. That's a cool trick. I get it same thing down here, I think. G b D. So there's our major three. Here's our d f A. So that's our seven. Here's our six and then to the five a bar early so that we can end on one. And then a big low note of one. Eamon Cool. Right. And along the way we have a couple of the Sharps and C sharps, which we're gonna tribute as non chord tones. But they are in the scale that we're using because now that we see that see sharp, we can comfortably call this a melodic minor. Ah, melody A melody built around the melodic minor. So there you go relatively simple, but a nice song in a minor key takes advantage of the melodic minor Ah, the relative major over here and a nice core progression to boot 41. 50 TheScientist: okay up next. Um, I thought this would be a fun one to analyze because Pop song And who doesn't like a good pop song? And this is actually just kind of a beautiful song. It's a sad song, so we can kind of guess that it's probably gonna be in a minor key. This is on called The Scientist by Coldplay. Um, OK, so let's dive in and listen to it. And should we listen to this piano arrangement I found of it or the actual song? Let's listen to the actual song like the full song. Why not? Um OK, so let's just listen to it. And then we will, um ah, walk through the cords of it. Tell me questions. Let's go back to the way No body it was. It's a shame for us. Take back Teoh Way questions back. Shane Forest. Go back. Okay. Really beautiful song. Um, fairly simple when it comes to looking at how it's actually constructed, Um, which means nothing bad. You'll find some of your favorite songs are actually really simple, and there is nothing wrong with that. Sometimes the simplest songs are the the most powerful. Just because of the simplicity that they use to convey what they want to do. Okay, so let's look at what we've got here. So what key are we in right? Our first biggest fundamental question. Our key signature shows remember one of two things that shows either F major or D minor. So because D Minor is the relative minor to F major and this is the key signature for F Major and D minor, let's look at what our first court is D F and A. That is a big fat D minor chord, and he just plays that over and over. Ah, right, so pretty safe to say that we're in d minor because we just get a whole bunch of D minor right away. So let's call it D minor. With that, let's jump over and just write out our possible chords in the key of D minor. So let me put the right keys gonna tour around here. There we go. And our courts years on one chord or two. Chord 34 67 There's our one court again. So 12345671 Okay, now back to Coldplay. So we have this first chord. Big D minor chord. So we're gonna call that a one for that whole bar. Second chord are notes R D, F and B number B flat, actually, so D. F and B so it's inverted. It's not en route position, so it's going Look at what it could be. Do we have any cords that are just D F and B? Um, well, let's see here D f in a. So it's not that. Here's a d, but no other ones. Here's an F in in A That's not what we want. Ah, d f and B right there. So it's our six chord. It's a B flat major chord, so D F and B flats are actually has been saying B flat this whole time. So it's our six chord B flat major. So sit major. Six. Now we're going to go to another inverted court, and I know it's inverted because it's not stacked like a triad like this one is got a space in there, So we are on a C F. An A. So let's look at what we have. Do we have a CF and an A. So right here f a seat, right? This is what it looks like in route position. So it's a three chord. So so far we have won 63 is our core progression is gonna be a major record because the third cordoned miners major. So there's an F major chord. Now, this one, this one gives us a little bit of pause, and it's interesting. And frankly, this is why I chose this song is to deal with this one particular court. So our notes here are C F N G. Now we have a second in that cord between the F and the G a second now we What we know mostly so far is that cords are built on thirds and there ought not to be a second in there . An effigy don't belong in the chord at the same time. Um so this cord, the C f N g. That's not a triad, and there's no way to get that into a triad. Even using 1/7 chord, we can't do it. Here's the notes C, F and G. If I treat so what I want to do is be able to see a triad here. So if I treat the F as the root e. I just write a triad. Even as 1/7 chord. I get an F A, C and E, so I don't get that G anywhere. If I try to make G the route even using 1/7 chord, I get a G in an F, but I don't get that see, So there's no and we know If we you see as a route, it looks just like that. So there's no way to get that into a predictable triad, right? So what we could Dio is leave off a note. Let's just leave off a note for a second will come back to the left off note. I can come close to getting into it into a triad by calling it a C major chord without 1/3 E can use the C in the G, and there's no e in it, right? Or I could call it and f in a C with no third in it. That gets me the F in the sea. Ah, G calling G. The route doesn't really get me anything except 1/7 which I don't think is it doesn't sound like 1/7 so we're not gonna call it that. So at this point, we get into something called suspended chords, which is what I think are real. Answer is here. So what's happening here is that it is, in my opinion, this cord a C chord. But instead of an E, that would be predicted to make it a C major chord. We've raised that by 1/2 step up to make an F where we ought tohave an e. So we call that a suspended court. It's a whole new kind of court that we haven't looked at yet. Um, it's got a cool sound stick with me on that one. We're gonna encounter these cords soon, but what it basically means is a suspended chord means that you have either, Ah, force the interval of 1/4 which is what we have here. Or sometimes it could be done with the interval of a six like that. Um, so you would call that a suspended six is what you call this and you call this one a suspended four and you abbreviate That s us. So a suspended four, meaning the third of the triad is raised to be 1/4 and it makes this cool sound like that. Um, give that to you over time. Right? It's kind of a cool sound. So that's what we've got going here is a C suss. So suss sus is short for suspended. See suss four. We could also have sussed two chords, Actually, sometimes to where we would raise, we would add a major second to the court who see Suss four is what I'm gonna call that. How do I do that in Roman numerals? Um, we're in the key of D minor. So C is the seven, So I'm gonna call it seven and then in parentheses. I'm just going to say suss four. So that's what we have there. Okay? And then the core progression starts over, so we're gonna repeat this core progression over and over and over and over and over until he goes up higher right here. Nobody said it was ease a that part. Let's look at what changes here. So here we go. Right to So we're on that suss four chord right before and now we jump. We skip the d minor, we jump right to the B flat, major. So right to our six chord and we stay on that for two bars and then we go. So it's not a new court. It's just a different order, right? So we stay on that for two bars, and then we go to our f A c r F Chord in the key of D minor is three. Then we go back to our suss scored and then we do that pattern of four bars again. So two bars on the sixth, one bar on the three and then are suss scored and then we go to a new chord. Here would be this hard right there they have a C e g. So it's like the seskoo ord because it's a seven. But it's just gonna be a normal seven chord major seven here because it's just a C major chord and then the same thing. But without the route here. And then he sings this and then we get to the chorus all the same chords moving forward all the same chords, all the same courts. Here we start arpeggio hating the courts, meaning playing one note at a time. Uh, thats is the nobody said it would was easy, part pretty simple and we keep going and I don't think I see anything new. We're just kind of playing around with those same chords. Okay, so that's pretty much the whole song. It's really just those couple of chords played around with Ah and that weird Suss court. Now, those suss scores I should mention, are not very weird in pop music. We use them a lot in pop music. We like the sound of them. They show up a lot, so keep an eye out for those. Okay, So up next, I'll give you a pdf of my analysis of the complete peace. Compare it with yours and see how you did. 42. 52 WhatNext: Okay, we have reached Ah, the end or we are reaching, I should say, the end of this installment of the music theory class. I'm glad you stuck around what I wanted to do real quick. Here is talk about what's coming up next in the next class. Like I said in the previous class were about 3/4 of the way now through the first semester of what would be a college music theory class. Um, typically, it's four semesters long, and we are about 3/4 of the way. So I think after the next one, we should be through what would normally be the first semester. So what comes next? The next big topic, I believe, is modes. And I wanted to point that out because so many people, no about modes. I get asked about it more than any other music theory topic. The funny thing is, when people ask me about modes, they typically don't really understand what they are and how they're used at all. They are very interesting, actually, and they go back. The history of them is one of the most interesting things in the world. I mean, they go back to their as old as music is and modes I know I'm intentionally kind of not saying what they are because I want you to take the next class and continue going with me. But, um, they're basically other kinds of scales, sort of. So they're like we had We know, major. We know minor. Now there are, you know, ah, five or six other ones, they and we call those the modes on and they go back to medieval times. But they're still used very often in ah, in jazz and classical. Even in a lot of pop songs, they're using some of them so very important to learn those. And that is our big topic of the next course. And in addition to that, just like all of these, um, well, do kind of one big topic and then a couple of smaller topics in there as well. So we will get to that in the next class 43. 53 ThanksBye: All right, everyone. That's it. For this installment of the Comprehensive Music Theory online class that I am making. I'm gonna keep making these. As long as you all keep watching them. There's plenty more to go. We're only just getting started. I'm hoping to eventually get through all four semesters of a whole curriculum. A song people keep signing up for him and taking him. Then I'll keep making until we're out of stuff. Then maybe we'll get into grad school content. Why not? So thanks for watching. Thanks for signing up on hope. You learned something. Remember that if you're stumped on anything, please rewatch. Part of the benefit of doing this and online setting is that you can rewatch classes all day long. So we watch post questions. I answer those every day, and, um, we'll see you in the next class. 44. SkillshareFinalLectureV2: Hey, everyone want to learn more about what I'm up to? You can sign up for my email list here, and if you do that, I'll let you know about when new courses are released and when I make additions or changes to courses you're already enrolled in. Also check out on this site. I post a lot of stuff there and I check into it every day. So please come hang out with me and one of those two places or both, and we'll see you there.